Exclusive Actor Agreement by dsh90311


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									                                                                                                                                           Burwash - Sept 2008
                                                           Literary Terms - Grade 11

                                                 Terms marked with an asterisk (*) are "examinable"






         10   11    12 Accent            The stress placed on the pronunciation of syllables. Also called stress       (el) EL-e-phant

        10*   11    12 Acrostic          A poem in which the first letters of each line make a word when read
         10   11 12* Allegory            A story whose characters, settings, events, etc. are all meant to represent   Lord of the Flies; Lord of the Rings
                                         general truths about human existence
8   9 10*     11 12* Alliteration        The repetition of beginning consonant sounds in words                         (f) Five fragrantly flowering fuchsias
      10*     11 12* Allusion            A reference to a work, person, place or event outside of the story. It is     "The face that launched a thousand
                                         assumed the reader is familiar with it and therefore understands its          ships" = Helen of Troy
              11    12 Ambiguity         The use of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage with two or more separate
                                         meanings, so that the sense of the statement remains in doubt
         10   11    12 Anachronism       Something that is out of its historical time                                  An actor in a prehistoric drama
                                                                                                                       wearing a digital watch
         10   11 12* Analogy             Agreement or resemblance in certain aspects between otherwise dissimilar      The analogy between a pump and a
                                         things                                                                        human heart
              11 12 Anapest              Foot: unstressed/unstressed/stressed                                          "With a leap/and a bound"
8   9 10*     11 12* Antagonist          The person or force that opposes the protagonist                              Shrek's Lord Farquad; tornados in
         10   11 12* Anticlimax          A sudden drop from the important to the unimportant, often for humourous
         10   11    12 Archetype         A character who appears often in literature. There are many kinds             Protagonist; Antagonist; Reason;
                                                                                                                       Emotion; Sidekick; Skeptic; Guardian;
                                                                                                                       Contagonist; etc.
    9 10*     11 12* Aside               A brief, often sarcastic or revealing comment made by a character to the
                                         audience and not meant to be heard by other characters
       10     11   12*   Assonance       The repetition of vowel sounds                                                (i) Cry side nine
      10*     11   12*   Atmosphere      The mood and feeling evoked by a work of art
8   9 10*     11   12*   Audience        The person or people for whom a work is created
8   9 10      11   12*   Autobiography   The story of a person's life, written by that person                          The Autobiography of Malcolm X
8   9 10*     11   12*   Ballad          A narrative poem, usually having short stanzas                                "The Devil Went Down to Georgia"
        10*   11 12* Bias               An opinion or tendency to be in support of, or against, a person or thing

8   9    10   11 12* Biography          Non-fiction prose narrative describing the events and experiences of a            Life of Johnson
                                        particular person's life
        10*   11 12* Blank verse        Lines of iambic pentametre, without rhyme
        10*   11 12* Caricature         Deliberately distorted imitation of a person or literary style by exaggerating    Politicians in editorial cartoons
                                        certain characteristics
8   9 10*     11 12* Character          A person in a story                                                               Cinderella
      10*     11 12* Character foil     A character who contrasts with another, thus emphasizing their characteristics    Luke Skywalker and Han Solo

        10*   11 12* Characterization How an author reveals a character. This can be done through direct or indirect
8   9 10*     11 12* Chronological    In order so that the things go in the order in which they occurred
                 12* Classical        Work with Greek or Roman origin or characteristics                             Myth of Hercules
        10*   11 12* Cliché           An overused expression or action that has often lost its strength of meaning   He has "a heart of gold"
8   9 10*     11 12* Climax             The final, culminating event in a series of actions                               The prince finds Cinderella
       10     11 12 Closed form         Poetry with set patterns of lines, metre, rhythm, and stanza                      Sonnets; limericks; etc.
        10*   11 12* Colloquial         Casual conversation; informal or regional writing. Often includes slang           By the bye, have you seen Nelly?
        10*   11 12* Comedy             Any work whose ending is not tragic                                               A Midsummer Night's Dream
              11 12* Comic relief       Any episode in a serious work introduced to relieve the tension for a few         Jar Jar Binks's scenes in Star Wars
                                        moments through comedy
8   9 10*     11 12* Compare            To show the similarity between things
                  12 Conceit            In poetry, an elaborate metaphor. Also called an "extended metaphor"
8   9    10   11 12 Conclusion          The last opportunity in a story for the author to emphasize the main theme;       Cinderella lives happily ever after
                                        loose ends are tied up
8   9 10*     11 12* Conflict           The struggle between two forces in a plot                                         Person vs. nature, etc.
    9 10*     11 12* Connotation        Ideas or feelings evoked by a word, other than its denotation (literal meaning)   House=shelter BUT home=place of
                                                                                                                          warmth and family
         10   11 12* Consonance         The repetition of consonant sounds. Alliteration is a type of consonance          (th) Weather father think
         10   11 12 Contagonist         An archetype; places obstacles in the protagonist's path; can be a henchman       Fezzik and Inigo Montoya in The
                                        of the antagonist, or on the protagonist's side but acts as a bad influence       Princess Bride

8   9 10*     11 12* Contrast           The dissimilarity between two or more objects or situations, pointed out
                                        through direct comparison or implication
         10   11 12* Couplet            A two-line stanza, rhyming aa
              11 12 Dactyl              Foot: stressed/unstressed/unstressed                                              "Just for a/handful of…"
    9    10   11 12* Denotation         The most literal and direct meaning of a word; the dictionary meaning             House=shelter / home=shelter
        10*   11 12* Denouement     A conclusion where the final issues of the plot are worked out, or the solution        Prince Charming finds Cinderella, and
                                    to the mystery is revealed                                                             she is rescued from slavery
         10   11 12 Deus ex machina Latin for "god from the machine". Any character, event, or device suddenly             Having a character wake up so that
                                    introduced to resolve the conflict. It can be so unlikely as to make suspension        the story is only as dream; the bacteria
                                    of disbelief difficult                                                                 in War of the Worlds
    9    10   11 12* Dialect        A regional variety of language, distinguished by its pronunciation, vocabulary,        "Newfie" English
                                    and sometimes grammar
8   9 10*     11 12* Dialogue       Spoken exchange between characters
8   9 10      11 12* Diary          A written personal reflection upon the events in one's life, usually kept on a         Anne Frank's The Diary of A Young
                                    regular basis (e.g. daily)                                                             Girl
         10   11 12* Diction        The choice of words used
              11 12* Dilemma        A situation requiring a choice between options that are equally unfavorable or         "Between a rock and a hard place" is a
                                    mutually exclusive                                                                     clichéd dilemma
              11 12 Dimetre         A line composed of two feet
        10*   11 12* Direct         Characterization through description
     10*      11 12* Drama          Any work played out on stage                                                           A Midsummer Night's Dream
8   9 10      11 12* Dramatic irony When the true meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not           When Shrek overhears Fiona talking
                                    by the characters                                                                      about the hideousness of ogres, he
                                                                                                                           assumes she's talking about him, but
                                                                                                                           the audience knows she's talking
                                                                                                                           about herself
        10*   11 12* Dynamic             A character who changes from the beginning to the end of the story                Simba in The Lion King
         10   11 12 Emotion              An archetype; wears heart on sleeve; is quick to anger, but also quick to         Donkey in Shrek
                                         empathize. Because of this frenetic disorganization, though, most energy is
         10   11   12 Essay              A piece of writing on a single subject, usually presenting the personal view of   Cause and effect essays; descriptive
                                         the author                                                                        essays; etc.
              11 12* Euphemism           The use of a word or phrase less offensive or harsh than another                  He passed away
        10*   11 12* Exposition          Something that explains ideas
        10*   11 12* Extended            A metaphor that carries on over the course of a poem, long passage, or whole
                     metaphor            work. In poetry, it's also called a "conceit"
8   9 10*     11 12* External conflict   When a character is engaged in conflict with something outside of himself--       Person vs. nature; Person vs. person;
                                         another person or thing                                                           etc.
8   9 10*     11 12* Falling action      The letdown stage following a dramatic crisis; it shows how the characters are    Cinderella marries Prince Charming
                                         affected by the climax
8   9 10*     11 12* Figurative          Nonliteral language that helps create imagery. Also called "figurative devices"   Metaphors; similes; etc.
                     language            or "figures of speech"
        10*   11 12* First Person        When the narrator is a character, and tells the story using first person
                     (point of view)     pronouns ("I", "we", etc.)
        10*   11 12* First person         A story told by a character in first person                                         To Kill A Mockingbird
8   9 10*     11 12* Flashback            A break in the continuity of the story to present a scene occurring earlier
      10*     11 12* Flat Character       A character who is one-dimensional, having few traits                               Mr. Collins in Pride and Prejudice
       10     11 12* Foot                 A metrical unit that measures syllables. Each foot has a pattern of stressed        Iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl,
                                          and unstressed syllables                                                            spondee
8   9 10*     11 12* Foreshadowing        Literary device in which an author drops subtle hints about plot developments
                                          to come later in the story. Each of these hints widens the range of possible
                                          consequences and maintains tension throughout the narrative as these
                                          possibilities narrow
8   9 10*     11 12* Free verse           Verse without obvious patterns in meter, rhyme, line length, or stanza form         "th tomato conspiracy"

8   9 10*     11 12* Genre                A literary type                                                                     Poetry; novel; etc.
       10     11 12 Guardian              An archetype; acts as a teacher/helper who represents the conscience; a             Harry Potter's Dumbledore
8   9    10   11   12 Haiku               A Japanese form of poetry having three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five
                                          syllables respectively. Its focus is an intense emotion or vivid image of nature,
                                          designed to lead to spiritual insight
8   9    10   11   12 Homonym             A word identical in sound but different in meaning and spelling from another        See sea
8   9    10   11 12* Hyperbole            Exaggeration for effect                                                             I could sleep for a hundred years!
         10   11 12* Iamb                 Foot: unstressed/stressed                                                           "I waked/she fled"
         10   11 12* Iambic               A line of verse having five iambic feet
         10   11 12* Idiom                  A word or phrase that is used by a group of people in a specific way, and         To keep tabs on your dog
                                            means something different than the individual meanings of the words
         10   11   12   Imperfect rhyme Words that have the same (or similar) endings but sound different. Also called        Come home; day gaze
                                            "eye rhyme"
8   9    10   11 12     Inciting incident See Initial incident
        10*   11 12*    Indirect            Characterization through showing a character's words, thoughts, action, or
                        presentation        what other characters say about him/her
8   9    10   11   12   Initial incident    A moment early in a story that sets the conflict in motion. This may serve as a   Nemo is captured and taken to Sydney
                                            hook to draw the reader into the story                                            in Finding Nemo
8   9    10   11   12   Initiating incident See Initial incident

8   9 10*     11 12* Internal conflict    When a character is engaged in conflict with him/herself                            Princess Fiona's struggle to accept
                                                                                                                              being an ogre
         10   11 12* Internal rhyme       Rhyme found within a single line                                                    The sight gave me a fright
8   9    10   11   12 Introduction        The opening of the story where four things are usually dealt with: setting,         Everything up to Nemo's capture in
                                          conflict, mood or tone, and characters                                              Finding Nemo
8   9 10*     11 12* Irony               A combination of circumstances, or a result, which is opposite of what might
                                         be expected or considered appropriate. Includes dramatic irony, verbal irony,
                                         and situational irony
         10   11 12* Jargon              The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group. Do you prefer a CCD or a CMOS?
                                         Or, nonsensical, incoherent, or meaningless talk
              11 12* Juxtaposition       The placement of normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases next to each
                                         other to create an effect
8   9 10      11 12 Limerick             A light piece of verse usually having five lines, rhyming aabba
    9 10*     11 12* Limited             When the narrator knows/reports some, but not all, of the characters' thoughts
                     omniscience         and emotions
                     (point of view)
8   9 10*     11 12* Lyric               A poem that expresses, in rhythmic language, personal emotion. Includes
                                         odes, elegies, and sonnets
8   9 10*     11 12* Metaphor            A figure of speech in which two things are compared directly (not using the    She is a willow in the wind
                                         words "like" or "as")
        10*   11 12* Metre               The number and pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines of poetry Iambic pentametre

        10*   11 12* Monologue           A long speech, in prose or verse, spoken by one person; it can also be a short Mercutio's "Queen Mab" speech in
                                         play for one person                                                            Romeo and Juliet
        10*   11 12* Mood                The overall attitude of a work, conveyed through description, rhythm of
                                         language, etc.
              11   12 Moral              The lesson or principle contained in or taught by a fable, story, or event     "Little Red Riding Hood": Don't talk to
8   9 10*     11 12* Mystery             A work dealing with a puzzle                                                   Nancy Drew
8   9 10      11 12* Myth                A traditional story of unknown authorship that explains some central idea or   Myth of Hercules
                                         belief, such as the origin of people
8   9 10*     11 12* Narrative           Something that tells a story                                                   All short stories; ballads; etc.
8   9 10*     11 12* Narrator            The person or voice telling a story                                            Gulliver's Travels' Gulliver
8   9 10      11 12 Novel                A relatively long fiction with a plot or pattern of events                     Harry Potter and the Philosopher's
        10*   11 12* Objective (point    The narrator doesn't know the characters' thoughts or feelings, but instead
                     of view)            reports their actions and words only
         10   11   12 Objective method Showing, rather than telling, information. Also called "indirect presentation"

    9 10*     11 12* Omniscient (point   The narrator knows/reports all the characters' thoughts and feelings
                     of view)
8   9 10*     11 12* Onomatopoeia        The use of words that sound like what they are describing                       Buzz; drip; clunk; etc.
8   9 10*     11 12* Oxymoron            A paradox that combines two terms normally seen as opposite                     Clear as mud
      10*     11 12* Paradox             Something which, while seemingly contradictory or absurd, is actually well-     "The more you know, the more you
                                         founded or true                                                                 don’t know"
8   9    10   11   12 Paraphrase         A rewording of the thought or meaning expressed
        10*   11 12* Parody             A work imitating or exaggerating the characteristic style or substance of a work   Don Quixote; Scary Movie
                                        or author in order to ridicule or make fun of it in some way
        10*   11 12* Passive voice      Writing so that the sentence focuses on who or what the verb happened to,          The car was hit (instead of "The boy
                                        rather than who or what did the verb                                               hit the car")
         10   11   12 Pentametre        A line composed of five feet
         10   11   12 Person vs.        Conflict: involving struggle to survive nature or man-made environments          Chuck Noland vs. the island in
                      environment                                                                                        Castaway
         10   11   12 Person vs.        Conflict: involving struggle to survive nature. A type of Person vs. Environment Chuck Noland vs. the island in
                      nature            conflict                                                                         Castaway
         10   11   12 Person vs.        Conflict: a struggle between two characters. Sometimes is symbolic               Superman vs. Lex Luther
         10   11   12 Person vs. self   Conflict: an internal struggle about a situation. Often is symbolic. The conflict is Princess Fiona's struggle to accept
                                        sometimes mirrored in external conflicts, also                                       being an ogre
         10   11  12 Person vs.         Conflict: a struggle between the ideals of one and the other                         Montag vs. society in Fahrenheit 451
8   9 10*     11 12* Personification    Giving animals, ideas, or inanimate objects human form, character, or traits       The clouds ran away

      10*     11 12* Persuasive         Describing something that tries to convince others of an idea or argument
8   9 10      11 12 Plagiarism          Stealing ideas or words from an author and claiming it as your own
8   9 10*     11 12* Plot               The pattern of events in a narrative
8   9 10*     11 12* Point of View      The voice through which the story is told                                        First person; second person; third
         10   11 12* Prologue           A beginning statement to a work                                                  Prologue to Romeo and Juliet
        10*   11 12* Propaganda         A systematic effort to persuade people to support or adopt a particular opinion, Any ad campaign
                                        attitude, or course of action
8   9 10      11 12 Prose               Ordinary speech or writing, without metrical structure
8   9 10*     11 12* Protagonist        The central character of a story. His/her main adversary is the antagonist       Shrek
    9 10*     11 12* Pun                A play on words having similar sounds but different meanings. Usually done       England doesn't have a kidney bank,
                                        for comic effect                                                                 but it does have a Liverpool
     10*      11 12 Purpose             What someone hopes to achieve; the reason for doing something
      10      11 12 Reason              An archetype; the organized, logical type who holds it all together            Harry Potter's Hermione
8   9 10      11 12* Repetition         A rhetorical device of repeating sounds, words, phrases, or lines to emphasize "Row, row, row your boat"
                                        their importance
8   9    10   11 12* Resolution         The answering of the main questions established by the story's conflict        Cinderella marries Prince Charming
                                                                                                                       and lives happily ever after, while her
                                                                                                                       stepmother and stepsisters are
       10     11 12 Review              An article or essay containing a critical examination or discussion of a work      Movie reviews
8   9 10*     11 12* Rhyme              Regular occurrence of corresponding sounds, usually at the ends of words.          Throttle bottle
                                        Used to gain melody
    9 10*     11 12* Rhyme scheme       The pattern of rhyme in verse                                                      aaba; aabb; etc.
        10*   11 12* Rhythm                Regular occurrence of grouped accented and unaccented syllables in a
                                           specific pattern
8   9 10*     11 12* Rising action         The part of the plot between the inciting incident and the climax                Marlin's quest to find Nemo in Finding
      10*     11 12* Round character A character with many traits                                                           Simba in The Lion King
    9 10*     11 12* Sarcasm           Biting speech, usually intended to hurt someone's feelings
    9 10*     11 12* Satire            A literary work in which the vices, follies, abuses, etc. of people, ideas, or       This Hour Has 22 Minutes; political
                                       institutions are held up to ridicule and contempt. Has serious moral intent          editorial cartoons
8   9 10*     11 12* Setting           The physical and emotional background of a narrative--geographic details,            The Lion King's setting is Africa's pride
                                       placement of physical objects, time period, time of year/day/etc. Often is           lands and jungles
8   9    10   11 12 Short story        A relatively short piece of fiction, focusing on a specific character, emotion,      "The Tell-Tale Heart"
                                       point, or effect
         10   11 12 Sidekick           An archetype; a character attached to the protagonist who shows faithful             Shrek's Donkey
    9 10*     11 12* Simile            A figure of speech in which two things are compared using the word "like" or         My cat is as fluffy as a cloud
8   9 10*     11 12* Situational Irony When an event is the opposite of what is reasonably expected                         Princess Fiona's true form is as an
         10   11    12 Skeptic             An archetype; a character who wants his/her side to win, but doubts it will.     Star War's Han Solo
                                           He/she also may believe their side is going about it the wrong way
8   9 10*     11 12* Slang                 Very informal language, usually used by a group of people                        "That's so sick!" in "teen speak"
      10*     11 12* Soliloquy             A speech--usually longer than an aside--made by a character alone on stage       Hamlet: "To be, or not to be…"

        10*   11 12* Sonnet               A fourteen-line lyric poem, in iambic pentametre, that expresses two phases of    Shakespeare's "My Mistress' Eyes…"
                                          a single thought or idea
8   9 10*     11   12*   Speaker          A person who speaks
              11    12   Spondee          Foot: Stressed/unstressed
8   9 10*     11   12*   Stanza           A group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem           Couplet; quatrain; etc.
      10*     11   12*   Static character A character who doesn't change over the course of the story                       Bob Ewell in To Kill A Mockingbird
      10*     11   12*   Stereotype       A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified idea, opinion, or image. Is the     A "dumb blonde"
                                          basis of a stereotypical or "stock" character
        10*   11 12*     Stock Characters Characters whose type and role have occurred frequently in fiction. Stock         "The Chosen One": Luke Skywalker;
                                          situations are the typical situations in which they find themselves               Harry Potter; etc.
        10*   11 12* Style                 How an author expresses what he or she has to say. This includes the use of
                                           techniques such as setting, subject matter, tone, imagery, rhythm, sound, and
                                           figurative language
         10   11    12 Subject             The content of a work; the topic that leads you to see the overall theme      Green Eggs and Ham: green eggs and
                                                                                                                         ham are well worth eating, no matter
                                                                                                                         the location
         10   11    12 Subplot             A minor plot in a story related to the major plot and often developing parallel to Nala and Simba's relationship in The
                                           it                                                                                 Lion King
8   9 10*     11 12* Suspense          The tension and anxiety felt by the audience towards a character whose fate is
                                       uncertain. The audience usually feels an intense emotional identification with
                                       this character
8   9 10*     11 12* Symbol            A concrete entity that represents a general idea                                  Rose=love
8   9 10*     11 12* Symbolism         The use of an object, person, action, or item to suggest a larger, perhaps more
                                       universal, meaning
8   9    10   11 12 Synonym            A word having the same meaning as another word                                    Life existence
              11 12 Tetrametre         A line composed of four feet
8   9 10*     11 12* Theme             The underlying central idea, or the generalization it communicates about life. It Green Eggs and Ham: Have an open
                                       expresses the author's opinion or raises a question about human nature or the mind
                                       meaning of human existence
        10*   11 12* Thesis            A proposition to be maintained or defended in an argument. When it is worded
                                       in one sentence, it's called a "thesis statement". Thesis statements typically
                                       appear as the last sentence in an introduction
        10*   11 12* Third Person      When the narrator is not a character, and so uses third person pronouns ("he", Da Vinci Code
                     (point of view)   "they", etc.)
        10*   11 12* Tone              The manner of speaking that an author uses, which controls spirit and attitude
                                       for the work
        10*   11 12* Tragedy           A serious drama usually concluding with the downfall or death of the              Romeo and Juliet
              11 12 Trochee            Foot: stressed/unstressed                                                         peo/ple
        10*   11 12* Understatement    Saying less than one might, or saying something less forcefully than one might- (Said to a friend who got 100% on a
                                       -often used as a "reverse emphasis"                                               test): "You did okay"
8   9 10*     11 12* Verbal Irony      When a character says one thing, but means another                                (Said to a friend who got 100% on a
                                                                                                                         test): "You did terrible!"
8   9    10   11   12 Villain          An obviously wicked, evil, or ill-wishing character, often in opposition to the   Cruella deVille
                                       hero or heroine

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