# Excel Graphs Xls Format - PowerPoint by eqr17250

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```									           Excel Graphs

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Open and save a new Excel workbook
• Open a new Excel
workbook
• Save the workbook on
file name hw2.xls

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Enter coefficients for power law calculations
• Enter labels for the
coefficients a and b in
column A
• Enter values for the
coefficients in column B

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Create the column of X values
X in cell D2.
• Type the values 0.2 and
0.4 in D3 and D4. These
will set the pattern for
generation of the
remaining X values.
• “Drag select” cells D3 and
D4 by “left clicking” on D3
and moving the cursor to
D4 while holding the
button down. Release the
mouse button.
• Left click on the fill tab at
the lower right corner of
the selected area. Drag
the tab down the column
to cell D17 and release.
• The pattern set in D3 and
D4 is replicated through
the selected cells.

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Format the X column
• Drag select cells D2-D17
• Right click in the selected
area to bring up the pop-
• Select Format Cells

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Format the X column
• Select the Format
Cells/Number dialog pane
• Select the Number
category
• Set the number format to
one decimal place

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Format the X column
• Click the Alignment tab
• Set the horizontal
alignment to Center.

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Enter first X and a formula for Y
• Enter the Y column
• Click on cell E3 to select it
• You will be entering the
formula

y  a xb

• Start the entry of the
formula for the cell by
typing the equal key
• Complete the formula by
clicking the respective
cells for the values of a, b,
and X.
• Raising X to a power uses
the exponent operator ^
• Clicking on the cells is
more convenient than
typing the cell names
• Press the Enter key to
complete the formula entry

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Use absolute references for the coefficients
• The formula in E3 will be
replicated to complete the
column of Y values
• A relative reference is
appropriate for the X value
since replication of the
formula yields the value in
the adjacent cell of the X
column.
• An absolute reference is
needed for the a and b
coefficients in B3 and B4
• Click E3 and then click
before, after, or in the
middle of B3 in the formula
bar
• Pressing special function
key F4 causes the \$ signs
to be inserted in the cell
reference
• Repeat the procedure for
the reference to B4
• Press Enter

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Replicate the formula in the Y column
• Select E3
• Left click on the replication
tab and drag to the bottom
of the Y column
• Note that each of the
replicated cells is
generated with a relative
X value and absolute
references to the a and b
coefficients
• Select the Y column, right
click on the selected area
and click Format Cells
• Set the number format for
the cells to 2 decimal
places and the horizontal
alignment to Center

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Start the Chart Wizard
• Drag select the cells
containing the X and Y
values to be plotted
• Click on the Insert Chart
toolbar button

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Step 1 – Select Chart Type
• In Step 1 of the Chart
Wizard, select the XY
(Scatter) chart type
• Set the sub-type to plot the
points with no connecting
line segments
• Note the button at the
lower right that allows a
preview of the plot
• Click on the Next button to
proceed to the next step

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Step 2 – Chart Source Data
• The selection of data to be
Step 2
be added to the plot on the
Series dialog pane
• We will come back to this
later
• No action is needed on
this step
• Click on the Next button to
proceed

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Step 3 – Chart Options / Titles
• Chart options are selected
in Step 3
• Click on the Titles tab
• Set the Chart Title to
“Power Law”
• Set the label for the X axis
to “X”
• Set the label for the Y axis
to “Y”

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Step 3 – Chart Options / Axes
• Axes can be turned on or
off on the Axes dialog
pane.
• Its very rare that we would
not want both axes shown.

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Step 3 – Chart Options / Gridlines
• Major and minor gridlines
in the X and Y direction
are selected on the
Gridlines dialog pane.
• Its not uncommon to not
show gridlines for plots
that are intended to
convey qualitative
trends.
• However, if gridlines are
used, they should be
shown in both the X and Y
directions
• Minor gridlines are only
shown when it its
necessary to accurately
coordinates.
• Otherwise, showing minor

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Step 3 – Chart Options / Legend
• The plot legend is
controlled from the Legend
dialog pane.
• If there is only one data
set, it is not necessary to
show the legend. The plot
title should be sufficient to
describe the data.
• If two or more data sets
are shown, there must be
a legend.

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Step 3 – Chart Options / Data Labels
• Labels for individual data
points are controlled from
the Data Labels dialog
pane.
• This feature is rarely used
for plots included in
reports and other
publications.

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Step 4 – Chart Location
• We will create the chart as
an element of the
worksheet
• Click on Finish

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The basic plot is done. Now format it.
The Chart Wizard yields the
basic plot but several more
formatting operations are
needed before an
acceptable plot is achieved.
– relocate the chart area
– resize the chart area
and the plot area
– set plot background to
white with a heavy
border
– set fonts for the axes,
tic mark labels and the
plot title
– set the axis scales and
tic mark intervals
– control the number of
decimal digits in the tic
mark labels to remove
trailing zeros
– set the axis and tic
mark styles

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Relocate and resize the chart area
• click and drag the chart
area so that it can be seen
on the worksheet without
obscuring other data
• click and drag on the chart
area grab points (small
black squares on the
border) to resize and
reshape the chart.

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Relocate and resize the plot area
• Left click on the axis labels
and the plot title to move
them to the plot edges.
• Relocate and resize the
plot area to fit on the chart
area.
• Note that the font sizes are
changed by resizing the
chart. The font sizes must
be set manually.

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Format the Plot Area
• Right click on the plot area
and select Format Plot
• Note that the four steps
from the Plot Wizard are
• Any decision that was
Chart Wizard can be
reversed here.
• It should never be
necessary to start a plot
again from the beginning.

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Format the Plot Area
• Set the area color to white
• Select a black, medium
heavy border

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Set the plot fonts
• Use a 10 pt regular font for
the tic mark labels, a 12 pt
bold font for the axis
labels, and a 14 pt bold
font for the plot title.
• Turn the “Auto scaling” off
for all fonts – this provides
direct control of the font
sizes and prevents the
fonts from being resized
when the plot is resized

• Right click on the Y axis
and select Format Axis

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Set the plot fonts / tic mark labels
• The font for the tic mark
labels is set on the Format
Axis / Font dialog pane.
• Set the font to 10 pt
regular
• Turn off the Auto Scale
option at the lower left of
the dialog pane.

• Repeat this operation for
the X axis.

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Set the plot fonts / axis labels
• Right click on the Y axis
label and select “Format
Axis Title” from the popup
• Set the font to 12 pt bold
• Turn the Auto Scale option
off
• Left clicking on the axis
label allows the label text
to be edited without
returning to the Title pane
of the Chart Options dialog

• Repeat this operation for
the X axis

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Set the plot fonts / title
• Set the font for the plot title
to 14 pt bold
• Turn the Auto Scale option
off
• The title text can be edited
by left clicking on the title

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Format the axes / Patterns
• Right click on the X axis
and select Format Axis
• Set the tic mark type to
none. By default, they
were set to outside as can
be seen in the figure.
• If grid lines are included on
the plot, tic marks are not
necessary.
• The minor tic mark type
defaults to none
• Set the location for the tic
mark labels to low. This is
the default for an axis at
the bottom or left edge of a
plot but it is also what we
want if the axis is in the
middle of the plot, i.e., a
plot with positive and
negative Y coordinates
• Set the axis color and
weight to match the border

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Format the axes / Scales
Rules for axis scales:
• tic mark intervals or major
scale units must be
powers of 10 times 1, 2, or
5, e.g., 1,2,3 or 200, 400,
600 or 0.05, 0.10, 0.15
• the axis limits should be
on an even tic mark
interval
• there should be no fewer
than 3 and no more than 5
major unit divisions along
an axis
• set minimum and
maximum to minimize
empty plot area

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Format the axes / Number
• Set the number of decimal
places to eliminate trailing
zeros

• Repeat the format
selections for the Y axis

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Format data series
• To set the format for the
data points, right click on
any point and select
Format Data Series from

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Format data series
Rules for use of lines and
markers:
• if data consists of
individual points such as
measured data, use data
point markers with no line
• if data is generated from a
calculation which could be
used to generate as many
points as desired, use a
line with no markers
• generally, never use a line
and marker combination
for a single data set

• Set the data point marker
to none
• Set the line to a black,
medium light line

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• Resize and relocate the
chart area to make room
for a second data set
• Enter the second data
values shown
• Use the Merge and Center
toolbar button to create
“Calculated” and
the two data sets

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Create table borders
• Drag select the table of
calculated values.
• Right click on the selected
area and select Format
Cells from the popup
• Create a heavy border
around each table with a
light line separating the
columns

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The formatted data table

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Add second data set to the plot
• Left click and drag select
the two columns of data
• Right click on the selected
area
• Select Copy from the

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Add second data set to the plot
• Left click on the plot to
indicate that it is where the
data will be pasted
• Pull down the Edit menu
and select Paste Special

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Add second data set to the plot
Select:
• Add cells as New Series
• Values (Y) in Columns
• Categories (X Values) in
First Column

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Format the new data series
• Right click on one of the
new data points
• Select Format Data Series
• Set the marker foreground
color to black and the
background to no color
• set the marker size to 7 pt
• set the line type to none

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• With two data sets on the
plot, a legend is required
• Right click on the plot and
select Chart Options from

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• Select Show Legend

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Format the legend
• Click and drag the legend
to an open area of the plot
• Resize the plot area to fill
the chart area
• Right click on the legend
• Select Format Legend

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Format the legend
• Set the legend area to
white
• Set the legend border to a
black medium light line
• Set the font to 10 pt
regular

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Change the data series names in the legend
• Right click on the plot
• Select source data from

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Change the data series names in the legend
• Select the name Series1
from the list at bottom left
• Type the new name
Calculated in the Name
block
• Select the name Series 2
from the list at bottom left
• Type the new name
Measured in the Name
block

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Done!

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