Excel Graphs Xls Format - PowerPoint by eqr17250

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									           Excel Graphs




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Open and save a new Excel workbook
                                 • Open a new Excel
                                   workbook
                                 • Save the workbook on
                                   your TechDrive with the
                                   file name hw2.xls




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Enter coefficients for power law calculations
                                     • Enter labels for the
                                       coefficients a and b in
                                       column A
                                     • Enter values for the
                                       coefficients in column B




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Create the column of X values
                                   • Enter the column heading
                                     X in cell D2.
                                   • Type the values 0.2 and
                                     0.4 in D3 and D4. These
                                     will set the pattern for
                                     generation of the
                                     remaining X values.
                                   • “Drag select” cells D3 and
                                     D4 by “left clicking” on D3
                                     and moving the cursor to
                                     D4 while holding the
                                     button down. Release the
                                     mouse button.
                                   • Left click on the fill tab at
                                     the lower right corner of
                                     the selected area. Drag
                                     the tab down the column
                                     to cell D17 and release.
                                   • The pattern set in D3 and
                                     D4 is replicated through
                                     the selected cells.




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Format the X column
                                     • Drag select cells D2-D17
                                     • Right click in the selected
                                       area to bring up the pop-
                                       up menu
                                     • Select Format Cells




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Format the X column
                                     • Select the Format
                                       Cells/Number dialog pane
                                     • Select the Number
                                       category
                                     • Set the number format to
                                       one decimal place




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Format the X column
                                     • Click the Alignment tab
                                     • Set the horizontal
                                       alignment to Center.




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Save your work frequently




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Enter first X and a formula for Y
                                     • Enter the Y column
                                       heading
                                     • Click on cell E3 to select it
                                     • You will be entering the
                                       formula

                                             y  a xb

                                     • Start the entry of the
                                       formula for the cell by
                                       typing the equal key
                                     • Complete the formula by
                                       clicking the respective
                                       cells for the values of a, b,
                                       and X.
                                     • Raising X to a power uses
                                       the exponent operator ^
                                     • Clicking on the cells is
                                       more convenient than
                                       typing the cell names
                                     • Press the Enter key to
                                       complete the formula entry


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Use absolute references for the coefficients
                                    • The formula in E3 will be
                                      replicated to complete the
                                      column of Y values
                                    • A relative reference is
                                      appropriate for the X value
                                      since replication of the
                                      formula yields the value in
                                      the adjacent cell of the X
                                      column.
                                    • An absolute reference is
                                      needed for the a and b
                                      coefficients in B3 and B4
                                    • Click E3 and then click
                                      before, after, or in the
                                      middle of B3 in the formula
                                      bar
                                    • Pressing special function
                                      key F4 causes the $ signs
                                      to be inserted in the cell
                                      reference
                                    • Repeat the procedure for
                                      the reference to B4
                                    • Press Enter

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Replicate the formula in the Y column
                                   • Select E3
                                   • Left click on the replication
                                     tab and drag to the bottom
                                     of the Y column
                                   • Note that each of the
                                     replicated cells is
                                     generated with a relative
                                     reference to the adjacent
                                     X value and absolute
                                     references to the a and b
                                     coefficients
                                   • Select the Y column, right
                                     click on the selected area
                                     and click Format Cells
                                     from the popup menu
                                   • Set the number format for
                                     the cells to 2 decimal
                                     places and the horizontal
                                     alignment to Center




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Start the Chart Wizard
                                   • Drag select the cells
                                     containing the X and Y
                                     values to be plotted
                                   • Click on the Insert Chart
                                     toolbar button




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Step 1 – Select Chart Type
                                   • In Step 1 of the Chart
                                     Wizard, select the XY
                                     (Scatter) chart type
                                   • Set the sub-type to plot the
                                     points with no connecting
                                     line segments
                                   • Note the button at the
                                     lower right that allows a
                                     preview of the plot
                                   • Click on the Next button to
                                     proceed to the next step




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Step 2 – Chart Source Data
                                  • The selection of data to be
                                    plotted can be adjusted in
                                    Step 2
                                  • Additional data sets can
                                    be added to the plot on the
                                    Series dialog pane
                                  • We will come back to this
                                    later
                                  • No action is needed on
                                    this step
                                  • Click on the Next button to
                                    proceed




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Step 3 – Chart Options / Titles
                                    • Chart options are selected
                                      in Step 3
                                    • Click on the Titles tab
                                    • Set the Chart Title to
                                      “Power Law”
                                    • Set the label for the X axis
                                      to “X”
                                    • Set the label for the Y axis
                                      to “Y”




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Step 3 – Chart Options / Axes
                                   • Axes can be turned on or
                                     off on the Axes dialog
                                     pane.
                                   • Its very rare that we would
                                     not want both axes shown.




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Step 3 – Chart Options / Gridlines
                                     • Major and minor gridlines
                                       in the X and Y direction
                                       are selected on the
                                       Gridlines dialog pane.
                                     • Its not uncommon to not
                                       show gridlines for plots
                                       that are intended to
                                       convey qualitative
                                       information about the data
                                       trends.
                                     • However, if gridlines are
                                       used, they should be
                                       shown in both the X and Y
                                       directions
                                     • Minor gridlines are only
                                       shown when it its
                                       necessary to accurately
                                       read data point
                                       coordinates.
                                     • Otherwise, showing minor
                                       gridlines only adds clutter.




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Step 3 – Chart Options / Legend
                                   • The plot legend is
                                     controlled from the Legend
                                     dialog pane.
                                   • If there is only one data
                                     set, it is not necessary to
                                     show the legend. The plot
                                     title should be sufficient to
                                     describe the data.
                                   • If two or more data sets
                                     are shown, there must be
                                     a legend.




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Step 3 – Chart Options / Data Labels
                                   • Labels for individual data
                                     points are controlled from
                                     the Data Labels dialog
                                     pane.
                                   • This feature is rarely used
                                     for plots included in
                                     reports and other
                                     publications.




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Step 4 – Chart Location
                                   • We will create the chart as
                                     an element of the
                                     worksheet
                                   • Click on Finish




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The basic plot is done. Now format it.
                                    The Chart Wizard yields the
                                    basic plot but several more
                                    formatting operations are
                                    needed before an
                                    acceptable plot is achieved.
                                      – relocate the chart area
                                      – resize the chart area
                                        and the plot area
                                      – set plot background to
                                        white with a heavy
                                        border
                                      – set fonts for the axes,
                                        tic mark labels and the
                                        plot title
                                      – set the axis scales and
                                        tic mark intervals
                                      – control the number of
                                        decimal digits in the tic
                                        mark labels to remove
                                        trailing zeros
                                      – set the axis and tic
                                        mark styles


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Relocate and resize the chart area
                                     • click and drag the chart
                                       area so that it can be seen
                                       on the worksheet without
                                       obscuring other data
                                     • click and drag on the chart
                                       area grab points (small
                                       black squares on the
                                       border) to resize and
                                       reshape the chart.




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Relocate and resize the plot area
                                    • Left click on the axis labels
                                      and the plot title to move
                                      them to the plot edges.
                                    • Relocate and resize the
                                      plot area to fit on the chart
                                      area.
                                    • Note that the font sizes are
                                      changed by resizing the
                                      chart. The font sizes must
                                      be set manually.




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Format the Plot Area
                                      • Right click on the plot area
                                        and select Format Plot
                                        Area from the popup menu
                                      • Note that the four steps
                                        from the Plot Wizard are
                                        also shown on the menu.
                                      • Any decision that was
                                        made while configuring the
                                        Chart Wizard can be
                                        reversed here.
                                      • It should never be
                                        necessary to start a plot
                                        again from the beginning.




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Format the Plot Area
                                      • Set the area color to white
                                      • Select a black, medium
                                        heavy border




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Set the plot fonts
                                    • Use a 10 pt regular font for
                                      the tic mark labels, a 12 pt
                                      bold font for the axis
                                      labels, and a 14 pt bold
                                      font for the plot title.
                                    • Turn the “Auto scaling” off
                                      for all fonts – this provides
                                      direct control of the font
                                      sizes and prevents the
                                      fonts from being resized
                                      when the plot is resized


                                    • Right click on the Y axis
                                      and select Format Axis
                                      from the popup menu.




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Set the plot fonts / tic mark labels
                                       • The font for the tic mark
                                         labels is set on the Format
                                         Axis / Font dialog pane.
                                       • Set the font to 10 pt
                                         regular
                                       • Turn off the Auto Scale
                                         option at the lower left of
                                         the dialog pane.


                                       • Repeat this operation for
                                         the X axis.




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Set the plot fonts / axis labels
                                      • Right click on the Y axis
                                        label and select “Format
                                        Axis Title” from the popup
                                        menu.
                                      • Set the font to 12 pt bold
                                      • Turn the Auto Scale option
                                        off
                                      • Left clicking on the axis
                                        label allows the label text
                                        to be edited without
                                        returning to the Title pane
                                        of the Chart Options dialog


                                      • Repeat this operation for
                                        the X axis




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Set the plot fonts / title
                                       • Set the font for the plot title
                                         to 14 pt bold
                                       • Turn the Auto Scale option
                                         off
                                       • The title text can be edited
                                         by left clicking on the title




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Format the axes / Patterns
                                   • Right click on the X axis
                                     and select Format Axis
                                     from the popup menu
                                   • Set the tic mark type to
                                     none. By default, they
                                     were set to outside as can
                                     be seen in the figure.
                                   • If grid lines are included on
                                     the plot, tic marks are not
                                     necessary.
                                   • The minor tic mark type
                                     defaults to none
                                   • Set the location for the tic
                                     mark labels to low. This is
                                     the default for an axis at
                                     the bottom or left edge of a
                                     plot but it is also what we
                                     want if the axis is in the
                                     middle of the plot, i.e., a
                                     plot with positive and
                                     negative Y coordinates
                                   • Set the axis color and
                                     weight to match the border


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Format the axes / Scales
                                   Rules for axis scales:
                                   • tic mark intervals or major
                                     scale units must be
                                     powers of 10 times 1, 2, or
                                     5, e.g., 1,2,3 or 200, 400,
                                     600 or 0.05, 0.10, 0.15
                                   • the axis limits should be
                                     on an even tic mark
                                     interval
                                   • there should be no fewer
                                     than 3 and no more than 5
                                     major unit divisions along
                                     an axis
                                   • set minimum and
                                     maximum to minimize
                                     empty plot area




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Format the axes / Number
                                  • Set the number of decimal
                                    places to eliminate trailing
                                    zeros



                                  • Repeat the format
                                    selections for the Y axis




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Format data series
                                    • To set the format for the
                                      data points, right click on
                                      any point and select
                                      Format Data Series from
                                      the popup menu




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Format data series
                                    Rules for use of lines and
                                      markers:
                                    • if data consists of
                                      individual points such as
                                      measured data, use data
                                      point markers with no line
                                    • if data is generated from a
                                      calculation which could be
                                      used to generate as many
                                      points as desired, use a
                                      line with no markers
                                    • generally, never use a line
                                      and marker combination
                                      for a single data set




                                    • Set the data point marker
                                      to none
                                    • Set the line to a black,
                                      medium light line




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Add a second data table
                                   • Resize and relocate the
                                     chart area to make room
                                     for a second data set
                                   • Enter the second data
                                     values shown
                                   • Use the Merge and Center
                                     toolbar button to create
                                     “Calculated” and
                                     “Measured” headings for
                                     the two data sets




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Create table borders
                                      • Drag select the table of
                                        calculated values.
                                      • Right click on the selected
                                        area and select Format
                                        Cells from the popup
                                        menu
                                      • Create a heavy border
                                        around each table with a
                                        light line separating the
                                        columns




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The formatted data table




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Add second data set to the plot
                                    • Left click and drag select
                                      the two columns of data
                                    • Right click on the selected
                                      area
                                    • Select Copy from the
                                      popup menu




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Add second data set to the plot
                                    • Left click on the plot to
                                      indicate that it is where the
                                      data will be pasted
                                    • Pull down the Edit menu
                                      and select Paste Special




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Add second data set to the plot
                                    Select:
                                    • Add cells as New Series
                                    • Values (Y) in Columns
                                    • Categories (X Values) in
                                      First Column




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Format the new data series
                                   • Right click on one of the
                                     new data points
                                   • Select Format Data Series
                                     from the popup menu
                                   • Set the marker foreground
                                     color to black and the
                                     background to no color
                                   • set the marker size to 7 pt
                                   • set the line type to none




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Add a legend
                              • With two data sets on the
                                plot, a legend is required
                              • Right click on the plot and
                                select Chart Options from
                                the popup menu




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Add a legend
                              • Select Show Legend




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Format the legend
                                   • Click and drag the legend
                                     to an open area of the plot
                                   • Resize the plot area to fill
                                     the chart area
                                   • Right click on the legend
                                   • Select Format Legend
                                     from the popup menu




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Format the legend
                                   • Set the legend area to
                                     white
                                   • Set the legend border to a
                                     black medium light line
                                   • Set the font to 10 pt
                                     regular




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Change the data series names in the legend
                                   • Right click on the plot
                                   • Select source data from
                                     the popup menu




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Change the data series names in the legend
                                   • Select the name Series1
                                     from the list at bottom left
                                   • Type the new name
                                     Calculated in the Name
                                     block
                                   • Select the name Series 2
                                     from the list at bottom left
                                   • Type the new name
                                     Measured in the Name
                                     block




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Done!




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