Vim Cheat Sheet (PDF) by hjkuiw354

VIEWS: 707 PAGES: 7

									                                                                                                                                  NB: usually ‘^’ means ‘Ctrl+’, and
                                                                                                                                              ‘#’ means ‘some number’.
                                                                      Vim Cheat Sheet
Useful VIM commands:                                                                                     :split +/<searchstring> <filename> opens <file>in new Window and
dd            Delete a line. (#,#dd will delete the range of lines)                                                  searches to the first occurance of <searchstring>.
p             Put dd'd line on line following cursor                                                                 No doubt there is a Tag option too, but I haven't found it yet.
u             Undo                                                                            :new       Is almost the same as :split - except it begins a new file
^w w          Jump to other window. (Useful to retain help screen and type)                              :new <filename> would perhaps be more sensible most times.
r             replace char under cursor (useful for binary editing?)                          ^ww        Jumps to the next Window, but, given 3 Windows, they will be numbered:
x             delete under cursor. So, ...                                                               1. Top
xp            Given Teh, cursor on 'e', xp will swap eh rendering 'The'                                  2. Middle
                (this doesn't have to be in Insert mood.)                                                3. Bottom
R             Go into overtype mode. typing over the chars under the cursor.                             Then, ^w3w jumps to Window 3., ^w1w jumps to Window 1. - this is even
cw            replace word fom cursor onwards, (and it remains in insert mode).                          easier than the Windows eqiv. (Alt+W,2...etc.)
a             Append - Add characters to the end of the line.                                 :sview     <file> Opens <file to a new window in Readonly mode - for referencing.
c$            replace from cursor to the EOL. This is very useful.                                       Nae doot y'can yy lines from it, or 1,10y (i.e.Copy Lines from it)
                           (p will yank the deleted back to the cursor ).                     ^w#+
^g            current position (Status)                                                       ^w#-          Increase(+) or decrease(-) Window Size by #lines.
#G            Jump to line '#'.                                                               ^w=           Equalise Window Sizes as far as possible.
G             Jump to END.                                                                    :buffers      List all the buffers (files) currently open. '#' means Not in view(hidden).
gg            Jump to start of file.                                                          :ls           Also lists all buffers
]]            Next Linefeed character. ([[ = previous LF) See them as Sections.               :b4           (or <file>) Displays that buffer in the current Window for Editing.
/             Search for ( thereafter 'n' will search for 'Next' occurance.)                  :sb4          Split with Buffer. Opens a new Window for the buffer.
              :set ic = ignoreCase                                                                          You can close all but a single Window, and the other files will still
              :set hlsearch = Highlights found words.                                                       be available in their buffers.
              :set incsearch = incremental search.                                            :hide         Also closes the current Window, but recalls that the file is modified
Should you want to switch an option OFF prefix it with 'no' e.g.                              :unhide [#]
                           :set noincsearch                                                   :bad          Add a file to the buffer list.
%             Find matching parenthesis.                                                      :set all Displays all the options you can learn about in the manual.
SEARCH & REPLACE                                                                              :#~           Change case for # characters.
 :s/find/repl/g                        Current line only (g means globally,(All instances))   :qa           Record keypresses to buffer 'a'. Subsequent 'q' ends recording.
 :#,#s/find/repl/g         Replace bewteen range #-#.                                         :#@a          Play macro # times.
 :%s/find/repl/g           Replace throughout the file.                                       :^kxx         Will print a digraph into the text (e.g.'±')
 N                                     Reverse direction of search.                           VISUAL MODE
                           adding a 'c' after the g requests Confirmation before replace.     V             Select complete lines
                           Finally, search has a history, so /<up_arrow><return> works.       v             Select partial lines
*             Searches for an exact match under <curs>, g* matches 'containing'               ^v            Select blocks of characters
£             Like * but backwards.                                                                         Having selected a block..
/pat/#        Matches pat, then advances # lines                                              I<text>Esc will insert text in front of the selection on each.
/pat/b# Matches pat, <curs>at word start, then advances # characters.                         A<txt>Esc will append text after the selection.
              Useful for removing underscore from BUF_SZ (/BUF/b4)                            r<char> Fills the block with Characters.
/pat/e# Same as above but from end of word.                                                                 Two concepts to be clear about - set shiftwidth & set tabstop
:!            Shell command, - Shell out for a spell <return> re-enters VIM.                                They may contain different values. One affects Tabbing (there is also
 An interesting use for this is to find out what to call your current file                                  a softtab setting too- Useful for database columns.
 before you save it. Thus:                                                                    ^v>           Uses shiftwidth to move the selected text right by <shiftwidth>
              1. :! ls <return>                                                               ^A            Incremental numbering. ^A Not understood in Windows.
              2. :w test.txt <-- Writes a copy of the file.                                   :help v_b_r VISUAL MODE HELP should be prefixed with v_b_...
              3. :! rm test.txt <-- delete it.                                                ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
You could save just a range of the file. First use c-g to get the start and                   PROGRAMMING AIDS
end lines, the use the command:-                                                              :set tabstops=# sets the tab amount to # (default 8)
:#,#w <filename>           Writes the range to <filename>                                     #>> or #>           Shifts # lines a Tabstop.
:r <file> Pull in the contents of <file>at the cursor.                                        :set cindent
o             Open a line below the current line and go to insert mode.                       :set smartindent
O             Open a line Above the cursor line and go to insert Mode.                        :set autoindent                          These are 3 different styles of auto indent. Smart
MOVING BACKWARDS & FORWARDS                                                                                               indent is the one I am most famiiar with. You can use the Vimrc
w             moves forward a word. (NOTE ':help w ' is always available.)                                                settings file to ensure that c,cpp, and headers all
#w            moves forward '#' words. Throughout '#' is optional (default 0)                                             automatically switch on the setting by something like:-
b             move back a word                                                                :filetype on
#b            move back '#' words.                                                            :autocmd FileType c,cpp :set cindent. ..This will also know about Header files.
#^b           move # screens back                                                             =%            Indent beween matching braces.
#^f           move # #screens forward.                                                        >i{           'i' is different here, it means Shift innerBlock (the interbrace lines)
#H            Move #lines from top of screen.                                                 K             Runs man with the word under the cursor. i.e. C Standard Lib., etc.
M             Move to the middle of the screen                                                ^]            Jumps to the Tag under the cursor. (You must make a Tags file by
#L            Move # lines from the bottom of the screen.                                                   running ctags for this to work) - but then after that you have a means
#^y           Scroll screen up # lines                                                                      of jumping around your source code. (It should also undestand PHP these
#^e           Scroll screen down # lines                                                                    days.)
<cur>z<enter>              Redraw screen with cusor line at top of screen.                    ^T            Jumps back from the tagged position.
#z<enter> Position Line # at top of screen. '#zt' will try to retain the                      :stag         Will split the Window for displaying the Tag file.
                           cursor column position during the move.                            ^w]           Will also open a new Window to display the Tag.
-z            Like z above except <curs> ends at screen bottom.                               :tselect <name> Will list all the functions containing <name>, and selecting a
zz            Positions <curs> mid-screen.                                                                                menu number jumps to that function.
help user-manual is a uesful command to know, but you will also have to                       g]            Is perhaps better - It jumps to the Tag under the cursor.
        know how to follow tags. First position the cursor on the tag then:-                  [[ & ]] Move backwards and forwards per function respectively.
^]            Jumps to the tag.                                                               :set list Is a very neccessary command - especially when dealing with the
^T            Jumps back.                                                                                   Makefile. Makefiles produce ***Error*** if the tabs have been changed
At this stage it is probably worth reading about Internal and Global mark                                   to spaces. 'list' Displays Tabs and spaces in a file so you can check
setting Read "Getting Started", Section 'Editing more than 1 file'.                                         these things. :set nolist switches torftagain.
COPYING TEXT FROM ONE FILE TO ANOTHER                                                             ('expandtab' causes Tabs to be expanded to spaces - ordinarily undesirable)
1. Go to the Source file, postion the cursor at the start of the area you                     :make [args]                Runs the Makefile with optional arguments. You will be placed
   want to copy.                                                                                            back in the Source Code where the first error occurred.
2. Press 'v' (for visual mode). Then, cursor to the end of the section                                      Note that in one's Makefile, you should invoke g++ rather than GCC or
   you wish to copy.                                                                                        You will get all sorts of Errors like "What's 'new'??!", and other
3. Press 'y' for yank. That is the text copied.                                                             rude comments.
4. Move to the destination file, and position the cursor where you want                       :cnext        This will move you to the next error line needing fixed. There's also
   to paste.                                                                                                :cprevious :clast :crewind :cnfile (in the case of multi-files.
5. Press 'p'. ..and you're done.                                                              :cc           Will display the current error when you forget.
Kuel!                                                                                         :clist List all the errors. :clist 3,5 lists the range of errors.
MULTI-Type a Character (Repeating).                                                                                       clist! Lists everything.
1. Start in normal mode (EscEsc ensures this)                                                 :grep         Use grep from withing the editor. Jumps to the found line in the file.
2. type # the number of repeats desired. (say 70).                                                          e.g. grep include *.cpp
3. 'i' for insert mode, where whatever you type will be repeated.                                           :cnext :cprevious :cc :crewind are then used to traverse the result set.
4. Press 'Esc' to Exit insert mode, and the repeats will be performed                         modeline This can be put in individual files so that when they open, individualised
:ha           Hardcopy, ha! Skips the Choose printer dialogue.                                settings are switched in. This would be handy for Tab delimited DB files, where each
              Note that with this one I have to output it as postscript nd then convert       one tends to require a different set of Tab settings. Read about it
              it to PDF using Adobe, and finally print it out.                                in :help modelne.
WINDOWS & BUFFERS                                                                             KEY MAPPING
:split        Splits the Window equally, same file in each                                    Warning Key Mapping can overwrite the Key-mappings you have become used to in
              :split <filename> opens the second Window at <filename>                         Vim, so take care that you choose Key sequences which are not already taken.
To find out what's mapped to what, use :map with no args.
For experimentation you can assume that F5 is not mapped to anything yet. Thus:
:map <F5> i{<Esc>ea}<Esc> This keypress will surround a word with
                                        Curly Brackets. 'F5' Can be the Key F5, ar you can
                                        type the characters <,F,5,> either way's good, but,
            <Esc> MUST be entered as the character sequence, because pressing the
            real Esc key willl break out of the whole creation process. And then
            where would we be?!
            Persevere with this one, it's useful. Note that there is a space between
            the first <F5> and the rest of the expression. Also, the result should
            be tested from 'normal' mode, not Insert mode.
:unmap <key>             Will delete the mapping you no longer want.
TEXT FORMATTING
set textwidth=78 Set Automatic Linebreaks at 78th character. Alternatively..
set wrapmargin=10 wraps at 10 characters before the right margin.
v<move>gq Will reflow a wrapped paragraph.
gqip        Will reformat the current paragraph (ip means 'inner paragraph')
            A simlar result is obtained by gq{ though { is a cursor movement
            command.
:#,#center#2 Centres the lines # to # between the width #2. If #2 is not given
                then it defaults to 'textwidth'.
:#,#right#2 Right Justify.
:#,#left#2 Left Justify, but #2 is not the line length, it's indent amount.
            There is an add-on for justifying text. Type the following command to
            load it into the environment..
                            :source $VIMRUNTIME/macros/justify.vim
            thereafter, you will have the added command _j which should be used
            against a visual selection, and will Justify the type.
{&}         (Troff movements) Move Back and Forward a para. respectively.
(&)         (Troff) Move Bacj & Forwards a Sentence.
[[ & ]]     You can divide a File into Sections (New Pages) by typing a ^L in the
            text. Thereafter, you can jump Back ('[[') and forwards ']]' through
            the sections.
COMPLETION
The Book was badly broken with this one, but in insert mode try
^X^L and at the prompt either ^n(ext) or ^p(rev) It scrolls through the lines
of text, and which ever one you stop at is the one that gets left.
^x^f        Is quite handy, in insert type a character which you know is the
            common first letter to several files in your directory. Then, press
            ^x^f. It scans for that pattern match in your directory. ^n(ext) and
            ^p(rev) scroll through the available options it has found.
            This would be quite handy for HTML links?
USING REGISTERS
:registers Displays the contents of all registers.
"a                       Register 'a' (Can be a to z)
"ayy                     Copy <cur> line to register 'a'
"ap                      Put register 'a' Contents at <cur>.
"Ayy                     Append line to Register 'a' (note capitalisation)
                         Special Registers..
                         "%           Current filename
                         0            Last yank
                         -            Last small delete
                         .            Last insert
                         #            The alternate file.
                         /            Last search
                         :            Last command
                         =            An expression
                         *            Windows clipboard.
                         _            The Black Hole (i.e. Don't place in registers)
EDIT GROUPS OF FILES & SESSIONS
:arg `grep -l 'pattern' *.html *.shtml`
            Because of the -l, only the filenames are returned by grep, these are
            placed in the arg list (The buffers list for Vim), and can be accessed
            by :argument 2 - for the second file, for instance.
viminfo '20,"50,h
set viminfo              Define what session details are persisted. However, perhaps
                         more useful in this regard is the SESSION commands.
:mks <file>              Makes a session file for this session with the filename <file>
                         If you use :mks!, it will overwrite the prevous session with
                         the same filename. Handy for project files. Needs testing
                         however, to see how well it handles a whole website's worth.
See also: Quickreference in the PDF Vim Book.

EXPRESSIONS & FUNCTIONS
 It is possible to script for Vim, either as a Filter in a pipe (Ex mode),
or in order to add in your own functions to its capabilities. One that jumos immediately to mind
 is incremental numbering down a selected column, to add array suffixes into a selected set of
array[] boxes. However it requires more information than can be put in a cheat sheet. You can
get the details from The VIM book (PDF), or Following the :h user_manual

NB: A lot of the commands have preset abbreviations, such as the help one just shown. Find out
by trying.
                                                                         Page 1 of 5



 Tip #305: Best of VIM Tips (VIM's best Features)

 tip karma   Rating 894/283, Viewed by 13827

created: August 10, 2002 6:05   complexity: intermediate
author: zzapper                 as of Vim: 5.7
Here's a necessarily cryptic list of "MY" Best Vim Tips that I've gleaned
from http://vim.sf.net/ ;& comp.editors
http://groups.google.com/groups?safe=off&group=comp.editors

updated version at http://www.rayninfo.co.uk/vimtips.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Absolutely essential
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

vim.sf.net         : Visit frequently
comp.editors    : "VIM" dominated newsgroup
* # g* g#          : find word under cursor (forwards/backwards)
%                   : match brackets {}[]()
matchit.vim      : % now matches tags <tr><td><script> etc
<C-N> <C-P>   : word completion in insert mode
<C-X><C-L>    : Line complete SUPER USEFUL
/<C-R><C-W>   : Pull <cword> onto search/command line
:set ignorecase # you nearly always want this
:syntax on    : colour syntax in Perl,HTML,PHP etc
:h slash<C-D> : type control-D and get a list all help topics containing
                   slash (plus use TAB for Help completion)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

# MAKE IT EASY TO UPDATE/RELOAD_vimrc
:nmap ,s :source $VIM/_vimrc
:nmap ,v :e $VIM/_vimrc
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

#VISUAL MODE Mappings
:vmap sb "zdi<b><C-R>z</b><ESC> : wrap <b></b> around VISUALLY selected
Text
:vmap st "zdi<?= <C-R>z ?><ESC> : wrap <?=    ?> around VISUALLY selected
Text
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Exploring
:Ex                             : file explorer note capital Ex
\be                             : builtin buffer explorer
:ls                             : list of buffers(eg following)
:cd ..                          : move to parent directory
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Great
guu                                 :   lowercase line
gUU                                 :   uppercase line
gf                                  :   open file name under cursor (SUPER)
ga                                  :   display hex,ascii value of character
under cursor
ggVGg?                              : rot13 whole file
CTRL-A,CTRL-X                       : increment,decerement number under cursor

                                  win32 users must remap CNTRL-A
CTRL-R=5*5                      : insert 25 into text
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Makes all other tips superfluous
:h 42
:h holy-grail
:help!
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Markers & moving about
'.                : jump to last modification line (SUPER)
`.                : jump to exact spot in last modification line
<C-O>             : retrace your movements in file (old)
<C-I>             : retrace your movements in file (new)
:ju(mps)
:help jump-motions
:history           : list of all your commands
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Abbreviations & maps
:map    <f7>   :'a,'bw! c:/aaa/x
:map    <f8>   :r c:/aaa/x
:map    <f9>   :w<CR>:!c:/php/php.exe %<CR>
:map    <f11> :.w! c:/aaa/xr<CR>
:map    <f12> :r c:/aaa/xr<CR>
:ab php            : list of abbreviations beginning php
:map ,             : list of maps beginning ,
# For use in Maps
<CR>              : carriage Return for maps
<ESC>             : Escape
<LEADER>          : normally \
<BAR>             : | pipe
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# List your Registers
:reg              : display contents of all registers
"1p....           : retrieve numeric buffers
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Useful trick
"ayy@a             : execute "Vim command" in a text file
yy@"               : same thing using unnamed register
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Get output from other commands
:r!ls.exe         : reads in output of ls
!!date            : same thing
:%!sort -u        : use an external program to filter content
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Multiple Files Management
:wn               : write file and move to next (SUPER)
:bd               : remove file from buffer list (SUPER)
:sav php.html     : Save current file as php.html and "move" to php.html
:sp fred.txt      : open fred.txt into a split
:e!               : return to unmodified file
:w c:/aaa/%       : save file elsewhere
:e #                  : edit alternative file
:e %
:rew                 : rewwind to first file in ARGS
:bn                  : next file
:bp                  : next file
:brew
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Recording (BEST TIP of ALL)
qq # record to q
your commands
q
@q to execute
@@ to Repeat
# editing a register/recording
"ap
<you can now see register contents, edit as required>
"add
@a
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# _vimrc essentials
:set incsearch : jumps to search word as you type (annoying but excellent)

:set wildignore=*.o,*.obj,*.bak,*.exe
:set shiftwidth=3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# launching Win IE
:nmap ,f :update<CR>:silent !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe
file://%:p<CR>
:nmap ,i :update<CR>: !start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe <cWORD><CR>

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# FTPing from VIM
cmap ,r :Nread ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
cmap ,w :Nwrite ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
gvim ftp://209.51.134.122/public_html/index.html
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# appending to registers (use CAPITAL)
# yank 5 lines into "a" then add a further 5
"a5yy
10j
"A5yy
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
[I     : show lines matching word under cursor <cword>
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
#Conventional Shifting
:'a,'b>>
# visual shifting (builtin-repeat)
:vnoremap < <gv
:vnoremap > >gv
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# searching
/^joe.*fred.*bill/ : normal
/^[A-J]\+/          : search for lines beginning A-J followed by at leat 1
A-J
/forum\(\_.\)*pent    search over possible multiple lines
/fred\_s*joe/i     : any whitespace including newline
/fred\|joe         : Search for FRED OR JOE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
#substitution
:%s/fred/joe/igc             : general substitute command
:%s/\r//g                    : Delete DOS returns ^M
:'a,'bg/fred/s/dick/joe/gc : VERY USEFUL
:s/\(.*\):\(.*\)/\2 : \1/ : reverse fields separated by :
:%s/^.\{-}pdf/new.pdf/ non greedy matching (ie to first pdf)
:s/fred/<c-r>a/g substitute "fred" with contents of register "a"
:%s/^\(.*\)\n\1/\1$/ delete duplicate lines
# non-greedy matching \{-}
:%s/^.\{-}pdf/new.pdf/
:help /\{-}
:s/fred/<c-r>a/g substitute "fred" with contents of register "a"
# multiple commands
:%s/\f\+\.gif\>/\r&\r/g | v/\.gif$/d | %s/gif/jpg/
:%s/suck\|buck/loopy/gc : ORing
:s/__date__/\=strftime("%c")/ : insert datestring
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# global command
:g/^\s*$/d        :delete all blank lines
:g!/^dd/d         : delete lines not containing string
:v/^dd/d          : delete lines not containing string
:g/fred/,/joe/d : not line based
:v/./.,/./-1join : compress empty lines
:'a,'b g/^Error/ . w >> errors.txt
:g/cmap\|form/p : ORing
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Paste register *
:redir @*   : redirect commands to paste
:redir END
"*yy        : yank to paste
"*p         : insert paste buffer
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Formatting text
gq<CR>
gqap (a is motion p paragraph (visual mode))
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Operate command over multiple files
:argdo %s/foo/bar/
:bufdo %s/foo/bar/
:windo %s/foo/bar/
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
# Command line tricks
vim -h
ls | vim -   : edit a PIPE!!
# vg.ksh (shell script)
# vi all files in directory containing keyword $1 and jump to $1
vim.exe -c "/$1" $(grep -isl "$1" *) &
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
                                               rate

 Additional Notes




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http://www.vim.org/tips/tip.php?tip_id=305                                                                                   31/05/03

								
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