Final Report by dfsiopmhy6

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									                    Final Report
Organisation Name   The Wales Environment Trust / Sustainable Energy

Project name        Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO)

Reference Number    B/1649 (934032.053)
1 Summary

This document reports on the work undertaken during the course of this project
to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). A production plant was
designed and built to produce sufficient biodiesel to fuel eight vehicles in the
C&D Oil fleet.

The fuel production process was constantly monitored and assessed in order to
make modifications to improve energy efficiency of the process and the
resultant fuel quality.

A fleet of vehicles was used to trial the biodiesel fuel and the fuel usage and
vehicle mileages were recorded so that fuel economy could be calculated.

Approximately 30 tonnes of WCO was diverted from the waste stream and
converted into a high value transport fuel.
2 Introduction

Diesel fuels have an essential function in the post-industrial economy of our
daily life. They are used as transport fuels in almost all transport vehicles,
during start-up of large coal power stations or for flame stabilisation and
supporting fuel purposes in high temperature incinerators. Consumption of
diesel fuels increases year on year worldwide and this trend is set to proceed
into the future. However, as with all other fossil fuels diesel fuel reserves are
only available in a finite quantity with estimated R/P-ratio1 of about 40 years.
Mining crude mineral oil and refining it enables us to get kerosene, petrol,
diesel and other refinery derivatives from mineral oil, which is currently the
most important primary energy carrier.

Renewable substitutes or alternatives for mineral oil and its derivates must be
found ensuring the ability to satisfy the increasing demand for diesel fuel and
thereby reducing the environmental pressure through a short and closed
carbon cycle, less harmful exhaust gases and particulates. Therefore,
alongside other possible alternatives vegetable oil has become the subject of
intensive research.

As far back as 1900 Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of compression ignition
engines, used vegetable oil used during a presentation of his engines.
Vegetable oils are easily biodegradable, have very low sulphur contents and
emit less PM102, CO, HC and SO2 during combustion. The carbon savings
biodiesel is about 75–85% when derived from neat vegetable oil. It would be
energetically favourable to use vegetable oils instead of fossil diesel fuel,
however it is too viscous and its volatility too low for it to be a reliable fuel in
modern light-duty diesel engines. Problems such as incomplete combustion
followed by carbon deposits at injectors, coking of nozzle and piston ring
sticking and fuel build up in lubrication oil of the crankcases have been
reported. The EU-aim of achieving the objective for replacing 2% of the
consumed motor fuels in 2005 by biofuels supports the research of looking into
possibilities for reducing the viscosity and increasing the volatility of the
vegetable oil. Micro emulsions with short chain alcohol, dilution with traditional
diesel or transesterification with a monohydric alcohol into fatty acid alkyl esters
(biodiesel) of the corresponding alcohol and fatty acids involved are potential
methods. Transesterification of triglycerides like vegetable oils and fats may be
done by different process layouts like acid, lipase or alkaline catalysed. This
study refers to the last process, as it is the ease of this process, which makes it
more favourable and commonly used. The overall transesterification reaction
can be written as




1
    Reserve/Production rate
2
    10 micron equivalent diameter
The total reaction consists of a sequence of three reversible reactions to
diglyceride (DG), monoglyceride (MG) and finally to glycerol. Each step
produces one ester chain and the reaction shows that stoichiometric 3 mole
alcohol is used to transesterify 1 mole triglycerides into the esters. However,
under the current market conditions it is only in certain circumstances
economically feasible to produce biodiesel from food-grade and neat oils where
climate, agricultural policy, geography and infrastructure play together in a
synergic manner.

Presently in the UK, when compared directly on a cost basis, biodiesel made
using new vegetable oil cannot compete without substantial fiscal support
measures. Sourcing cheaper feedstock materials is necessary in order to
compete with diesel fuel. As alternatives, used vegetable oil and tallow are
promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. These arise in the main from
restaurants, fast food outlets, food industry, heavy steel working industry3,
slaughterhouses or cull-actions. The current market outlet for waste cooking oil
(WCO) is as an animal feed product. However, the European Union (EU) has
completed an Animal By-Products Regulation, which bans the use of WCO in
animal feedstuffs. The UK government, through DEFRA, applied for and was
granted a two year derogation period to allow time for the simultaneous
phasing out of WCO in animal feed and emergence of alternative markets. The
derogation period expires in November 2004. Hence, the EU’s move to ban
WCO in animal feed provides a suitable and cost effective alternative to new
vegetable oil for biodiesel producers.

Without the emergence of a biodiesel industry that uses WCO, there is the
danger that once banned in animal feed, the material may be landfilled. The
competitiveness of biodiesel to fossil diesel will ultimately depend on its price:
the costs of biodiesel production mainly comprising capital investment, input
raw materials, labour, consumables and energy consumption during
production. This study aims to quantify the energy consumption of a small-
scale biodiesel production facility and consequently implement and assess the
impacts of energy-efficiency measures.




3
    Used as a machinery lubricant
3 Plant design and installation

The plant was designed to be suitably sized for the fuel required by the C&D Oil
fleet (details of the fleet are given in section 6). The total fuel consumption of
the vehicles within the fleet taking part in the trials was approximately 1,500
litres per week. This equates to about 75 tonnes per annum.

The plant was designed and built with the following specification:

All electrical items to be E-Exd for flameproof operation (required due to the
handling of methanol).

Sodium methoxide production
1 off 160 litre stainless steel mixing tank with single speed agitator;
1 off 720 litre stainless steel mixing tank with single speed agitator;
1 off 2,200 litre stainless steel settling tank.

The tanks are interconnected by a series of 25mm steel piping with associated
valves for retaining and transferring fluids. Transfer of liquids from storage
containers (such as IBCs for the WCO and 205 litre drums for methanol) was
made via flexible plastic pipework. Gear pumps (E-Exd) were used to transfer
fluids between the various tanks.

The outlet of the settling tank used a three-way valve provide separate
pipework through which the glycerine and the esters (biodiesel) were drained.
Glycerine was drained into a 205 litre drum directly below the settling tank
outlet, and the esters were piped into IBCs. Figure 1 is a representation of the
physical set-up of the biodiesel plant; and Figure 2 is a photograph of the
completed plant.

Heater
An electric oil immersion heater was fitted into the side of the reactor tank. The
heater had thermostatic control to ensure that the esterification reaction could
take place at the optimum temperature.

Pumps
The gear pumps were sized to transfer between 50 and 100 lpm of liquid
between tanks (depending on the viscosity and density of the liquid). For
example, it would take around 10 minutes to transfer 500 litres of relatively high
viscosity WCO from an IBC into the reactor tank.

Agitators
Both the sodium methoxide mixing tank and the main reactor tank are fitted
with electrically driven, single speed, E-Exd agitators.

Electrics
All of the electrical connections were E-Exd compliant. The installation
consisted of 3-phase connections of the pumps, mixers and heater. Each
appliance was operated by its own switch mounted on the switch panel on the
front of the main reactor tank unit.
                                                                      Settling
                                                                       tank




                                                             Main
                                              NaOH          reactor
                                                             tank



                                           Sodium
                                          methoxide
                                            tank
                                                                                  Biodiesel
              WCO                                                     Glycerine
                            Me-OH




Figure 1: Diagram showing the biodiesel plant arrangement
Figure 2: Photograph of the biodiesel production plant

The plant was installed at the premises of C&D Oil Ltd within an industrial unit
of floor size 10 x 9 m. It is supplied with 240V 1-phase a.c. and 415V 3-phase
a.c. electricity. The unit has a personnel door and a manually operated loading
door along the front wall and a fire exit on the rear wall.
4 Small-scale biodiesel experimentation

Laboratory-scale experimentation of biodiesel production required specialist
equipment. A list of the main items is given below:

Hotplate
Hotplate stirrer
High-speed mixer/blender
Measuring cylinders
Glass beakers
Electronic scales
Electronic pH meter
Electronic thermometer
Storage beakers


The chemicals that were used are listed below:
Biodiesel raw materials                 Other chemical
New vegetable oil                       Distilled/deionised water
Waste cooking oil                       Sulphuric acid
Methanol                                pH probe storage solution
Sodium hydroxide                        pH probe calibration solution


The experimentation followed procedures for biodiesel production found by
researching the ‘worldwide web’ and publications such as From the Fryer to the
Fuel Tank by J & K Tickell. The experimentation researched a number of
parameters such as:

   1.   Methanol quantity;
   2.   Catalyst quantity;
   3.   Temperature;
   4.   Mixing duration;
   5.   Settling duration.

The results from the experiments were used as a guide for the production of
biodiesel using the large-scale equipment.
5 Large-scale test batches

The results of the small-scale experimentation were used to develop a
procedure to use on the large-scale rig. The procedure can be found in full in
Appendix A.

Plant operators were trained in the health and safety aspects of handling the
materials used in the production process.
6 Fleet fuelling and consumption analysis

After the glycerine was removed from the settling tank, the biodiesel was
transferred under gravity into IBCs. When full, each IBC was transported by
forklift truck to the two outside fuel storage tanks. By raising the tanks above
the inlet height of the fuel tanks, the IBCs could also be emptied by gravity.

Biodiesel storage tanks and metering
Each of the two biodiesel fuel storage tanks has a capacity of 2,600 litres.
There is a shared connection pipe to the metered fuel delivery pump. Sight
tubes alongside each tank indicated the fuel level. Calibration tests of the
analogue fuel meter showed that the meter reading was consistently 2% higher
than the actual fuel delivered.

Biodiesel blend
At the beginning of the project, biodiesel was added to the vehicles as a blend
with diesel fuel and ramped up to biodiesel-only over the first few weeks to
check for any problems. The blends were successively 25%, 50% and then
100%.

Fuel and mileage recording method
All of the vehicles were fuelled at the start of the day, and a record of the fuel
added (uncorrected for the 2% error) was kept on a log sheet by each driver.
The vehicle mileages were recorded from the drivers’ tachographs, thereby
allowing the fuel consumption to be calculated for each vehicle during the
course of the project.

Glycerol residue
Every two weeks the fuel filter of each vehicle was checked for evidence of
contamination caused by the running on biodiesel. On one of these checks a
fine build-up of glycerol was discovered lining the filter mesh on one particular
vehicle. The cause of glycerol remaining within the biodiesel was determined to
be an insufficient ester/glycerol separation period inside the settling tank. Up
until this time, the biodiesel was drawn out of the tank after 24 hours settling –
and subsequent to the discovery of the glycerol in the fuel filter, the separation
period was extended to 72 hours. The vehicle checks continued until the end of
the project and the no further noticeable glycerol residue was discovered.

Total fuel consumption
Two ‘total’ amounts of biodiesel fuel are presented. The first is the Fuel total 1
which is the amount of biodiesel consumed by the ‘fleet’ and K811 tractor unit
from the start of April until the end of the project (seven months). From the
figures given in Appendix B, it is calculated as:

Fuel total 1   = (0.98 x 1011) + (0.98 x 3935) + 25,749 + 3048 = 33,644 litres
Therefore, during the project 30 tonnes of WCO was converted from a waste
material into a high value transport fuel, replacing an equivalent amount of
fossil derived diesel fuel.

The second is Fuel total 2, which is the amount that was used to calculate the
fuel economy figures. It comprises the fuel consumed by the ‘fleet’ only over
the period 1st June to 30th October (end of project), and is given in Appendix B
as:

Fuel total 2     = 25,749 litres.

Fleet mileage
There are three total mileages relating to the project, each defined below:
Mileage total 1 –    total mileage of the ‘fleet’ from June to October that is used
                     to calculate fuel economy;
Mileage total 2 –    total mileage of the ‘fleet’ from April to October (including
                     the period during April and May when vehicles were using
                     25 and 50% biodiesel blends);
Mileage total 3 –    total mileage of the ‘fleet’ and tractor unit K811 from April
                     to October (i.e. total mileage with at least a 25% biodiesel
                     content in the fuel).

Mileage total 1         = 122,258 km (76,411 miles);

Mileage total 2         = 122,258 + 15,817 + 10845 = 148,920 km (93,075 miles);

Mileage total 3         = 148,920 + 9,955 = 158,875 km (99,297 miles).


Fuel consumption/economy
Average fuel economy (F.E.ave) for the fleet over the period from June to the
end of October was calculated using the following:

       F.E.ave          =      Mileage total 1 / Fuel total 2
                        =      122,258 / 25,749 = 4.75 km/l (13.3mpg).

A comparison was made between the fuel economy achieved on biodiesel and
diesel fuel. Vehicle T312 was taken off biodiesel for one week and the mileage
and diesel fuel used during this period was recorded. Table 1 compares the
respective fuel economy figures returned by T312 for both biodiesel and diesel
fuel. These figures indicate a 3.7% reduction in fuel economy when using
biodiesel.

                             Average fuel economy (km/l)
     Vehicle                                                        Difference
                            Diesel fuel        Biodiesel
       T312                    5.17              4.98                 -3.7%
Table 1: Fuel economy comparison for biodiesel vs diesel fuel
However, although this exercise gives a useful indication of the effects of
running on biodiesel, the figures need to be evaluated whilst considering the
following variables:
    1. Vehicle loads vary. The amounts of collected oil transported by T312
       would not have been consistent during the exercise;
    2. Vehicle routes vary. The collection points for T312 would have varied on
       a daily basis, therefore some days may have seen more motorway
       driving whilst others may have seen more city centre driving;
    3. Driver styles vary. T312 would have been driven to a number of drivers,
       each of whom could have had a different driving style (early/late gear
       changes, passive vs aggressive driving, leaving engine idling for
       prolonged periods etc);
    4. The duration of the test was unequal. The diesel fuel test was conducted
       over one week, whilst the biodiesel test was conducted over a 21 week
       period.

The significance of number 4 is that the biodiesel test would have ‘smoothed
out’ the extremes of variables 1 to 3 described above within its average,
whereas the diesel fuel test may have been skewed towards one of the
extremes of one or more of these variables, i.e. the biodiesel fuel economy
range was between 4.36 and 5.81 km/l on a monthly basis (accounting for the
2% metering error). Between June and October it is realistic to assume that
T312 would have encountered a full range of vehicle loads, routes and driving
styles which accounted for the variation in returned fuel economy figures.
However, the same assumption cannot be made over a short period of just one
week, as conducted for the diesel fuel test. Hence, the figures returned may
reflect an extreme condition of one or more particular variable.
7 Process energy assessment

The energy expenditure during the production process was all through the use
of electrical equipment for heating, mixing and fluid transfer. Where possible
gravity was used to transfer liquids such as in the case of the glycerine and
esters removal transfer from the settling tank to storage vessels.

Pumps
The specification of the 4 identical pumps is as follows:

Type: rotary gear pump
Size: 1.1 kW (1.5hp)
RPM: 1420
Construction:       Body and covers: Cast iron
                    Rotors: Carbon steel
                    Shafts: Nitrided steel
Motor: EEXD, totally enclosed fan cooled, IP55
Supply: AC 415V, 3 phase, 50 Hz

Agitator A
This agitator is used to mix the methanol and catalyst inside the premixer tank.
Specification as follows:

Size: 0.37kW (0.5hp)
RPM: Via reduction gearbox gives 206 rpm shaft speed
Motor: EEXD, totally enclosed fan cooled, IP55
Supply: AC 415V, 3 phase, 50 Hz

Agitator B
This agitator is used to mix the WCO and sodium methoxide inside the main
reaction tank.
Specification as follows:

Size: 0.75kW (1 hp)
RPM: 1400 rpm via reduction gearbox to 206 rpm shaft speed
Motor: EEXD, totally enclosed fan cooled, IP55
Supply: AC 415V, 3 phase, 50 Hz

Heater
Type: Industrial incoloy 825 sheathed immersion heater
Size: 406 mm
Rating: 6 kW
Control: Thermostat from 20 to 80°C
Supply: AC 415V, 3 phase, 50 Hz
Production process operating times
The duration for which each of the four pumps operates during the production
of a 450 litre batch of biodiesel is given below:

Pump 1         methanol in:               2 mins
Pump 2         WCO in:                    18 mins
Pump 3         sodium methoxide in:       2 mins
Pump 4         settling tank in:          10 mins

Agitator A     sodium methoxide           20 mins
Agitator B     esterification             60 mins

Heater:        15 to 60°C:                100 mins

Energy usage
Energy costs are determined by calculating the kWh consumption of the
equipment. The pumps on average operate at 80% of their rated capacity, and
the agitators operate on average at 75% of their capacity.

Pumping costs        = ((2+18+2+10)/60) hours x 1.1 kW x 80%          =0.47 kWh;

Mixer A costs        = (20/60) hours x 0.37 kW x 75%                  =0.09 kWh;

Mixer B costs        = (60/60) hours x 0.75 kW x 75%                  =0.56 kWh;

Heater costs         = (110/60) hours x 6 kW x 100%                   =11 kWh;

Total                = 12.1 kWh

Energy cost
The cost of electricity is approximately 7p/kWh. Therefore:
   the total energy cost of producing a 450 litre batch of biodiesel 84.7p.
   equating to 0.19p per litre of biodiesel.

Energy efficiency
The relative proportion of the energy expenditure of each electrical item used in
the production process is shown in Figure 3. It shows that the heater accounts
for almost 91% of the energy usage, with the pumps and mixers accounting for
only 9.2% combined.

The most effective way to reduce energy costs was to improve the efficiency of
the heater. The main reaction vessel into which the heater was fitted is a single
skin stainless steel tank. There would have been significant heat losses
through the vessel walls, therefore it was decided to insulate the tank with
‘Rockwool’ 50mm duct wrap insulation in order to retain as much heat as
possible and reduce the heating time. The insulation was wrapped around the
circumference of the tank and the bottom cone, with the top of the tank left
uninsulated to allow access to the viewing hatch.
The heating times of 450 litre batches inside the main reaction tank were
logged with the insulation in place and it was found that the heating time to 60°
had reduced from 110 minutes to 63 minutes. The percentage reduction
provided by the insulation was 42.7%.

New heater costs     = (63/60) hours x 6 kW x 100%                      =6.3 kWh;

The effect on the energy expenditure pie chart can be seen in Figure 4, which
shows the total energy costs reduced by 36.3%.

The new energy costs with the insulated reaction tank are therefore:
   the total energy cost of producing a 450 litre batch of biodiesel 53.9p;
   equating to 0.12p per litre of biodiesel.



                                               Pump 1
                                               0.2%   Pump 2
                                                      2.2%
                                                           Pump 3
                                                           0.2%
                   Heater                                   Pump 4
                   90.8%                                    1.2%
                                                           Agitator A
                                                           0.7%
                                                   Agitator B
                                                   4.6%




Figure 3: Breakdown of energy expenditure during biodiesel production



                                     Savings
                                     36.3%     Pump 1
                                               0.2%   Pump 2
                                                      2.2%
                                                           Pump 3
                                                           0.2%

                                                           Pump 4
                                                           1.2%
                                                          Agitator A
                                                          0.7%
                                                  Agitator B
                            Heater                4.6%
                            54.5%




Figure 4: Breakdown of energy expenditure after energy efficiency measures
8 Vehicle emissions results

During the course of the project, two of the vehicles had to undergo an MOT
test. The opportunity was taken to test the particulate emissions (the only
emission tested on diesel in an MOT). Copies of the emission results can be
found in Appendix C.

The first emission test was conducted using biodiesel, then after the test the
fuel tank was drained and the tank part-filled with ULSD. The vehicle was then
driven for about 20 miles to ensure that all of the biodiesel was purged through
the fuel system and engine. It was then resubmitted to the same testing station
and tested under the same condition with the same equipment.

The results are summarised in Table 2 and show that both of these vehicles
passed the emission test with considerable ease – indicating that they are well-
maintained vehicles. However, it is evident that they both emitted less
particulates (expressed as parts per million – ppm) when fuelled with biodiesel
rather than ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel.


   Vehicle       Pass limit     ULSD         Biodiesel   Reduction   Reduction
Identification    (ppm)         (ppm)         (ppm)        (ppm)        (%)
    T312           3.00          0.39          0.32         0.07       17.9%
    N649           3.00          0.28          0.20         0.08       28.6%
Table 2: Particulate emission test results
9 Conclusions

This project was carried out to investigate the cost effectiveness of biodiesel
production by a batch process using the esterification reaction. A breakdown of
the costs (expressed as per litre of biodiesel produced) is as follows:

             Input                      Cost / litre biodiesel
             WCO                        15p
             Methanol                   7.6p
             Sodium hydroxide           0.52p
             Energy                     0.12p
             Total                      23.24p

It can be seen that energy costs are insignificant compared to the material
costs of the main feedstocks of WCO and methanol. However, even during the
course of this project measures were conducted that reduced the total energy
consumption by 36%.

The biodiesel that was produced in the project performed well in the fleet of
vehicles in which it was trialled.

Over 33,000 litres of biodiesel was produced and consumed, displacing
approximately the equivalent amount of fossil derived diesel fuel.

The carbon dioxide saving was approximately 90 tonnes over the course of the
project.

More than 30 tonnes of WCO was converted into biodiesel, diverting it from a
potential waste stream (once its banning as an animal feed is comes into force
in November 2004).

The particulate emissions of two fleet vehicles tested as part of their MOT
showed significant reductions (28 and 18% respectively).

A slight decrease in fuel economy was found for vehicle T312 when run on
biodiesel compared to ULSD. The calculated reduction of 1.7% is within the
range of errors caused by variables such as driving style, vehicle routes and
vehicle loads during the trials.
10 Appendix A

                   The biodiesel production procedure


This section contains the production procedures for making biodiesel on the
large-scale rig.
                      BIODIESEL


• Protective clothing


• Production procedures:
    1. UCO transfer
    2. Preparing Sodium Methoxide
    3. Mixing the Reactants
    4. Transferring the Mixture to the Settling Tank
    5. Removing the Glycerine and Biodiesel from the Settling Tank



• Note 1: Calculating the Quantity of Methanol and
  Sodium Hydroxide Required.
            WEARING OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

The chemicals used in the manufacture of biodiesel are extremely hazardous
and must be treated accordingly. Before handling any of the methanol or
sodium hydroxide YOU MUST READ THE HEALTH AND SAFETY NOTES
FOR BOTH CHEMICALS.


You are supplied with the following protective clothing to ensure that you are
safe when handling these chemicals:
   •   Safety goggles
   •   Respirator and carbon filters
   •   Rubber apron
   •   Nitrile gloves.


When handling the sodium hydroxide YOU MUST WEAR THE GLOVES AND
THE GOGGLES AT ALL TIMES.


When handling the methanol or sodium methoxide YOU MUST WEAR THE
RESPIRATOR, APRON AND GLOVES AT ALL TIMES.


If you inspect the UCO and sodium methoxide mixture inside the Reactor
tank YOU MUST WEAR THE RESPIRATOR, APRON AND GLOVES AT ALL
TIMES.
Biodiesel Production Procedure: 1

                                            UCO transfer


  1. Weigh the IBC containing the UCO.

  2. Ensure all valves are in the closed positions.

  3. Connect camlock of UCO inlet pipe to UCO container OR position hose

     into the top layer of UCO through the top opening of the IBC.

  4. Open valve in UCO container (if connected via this).

  5. Zero the UCO flow meter.

  6. Open valve in UCO inlet pipe.

  7. Switch on Pump 1.

  8. Switch off Pump 1 when required quantity of UCO is in the reactor.

  9. Record the value on the UCO flow meter.

  10. Close valve in UCO inlet pipe.

  11. Close valve in UCO container (if connected via this).

  12. Disconnect camlock from UCO container (if connected via this).

  13. Reweigh the IBC containing the UCO to determine the exact quantity of

     UCO transferred to the reactor tank.

  14. Measure and record the temperature of UCO in the reactor.

  15. Switch on Heater 1.

  16. Monitor UCO temperature at intervals and switch on Mixer 2

     intermittently as required.

  17. The UCO is ready when its temperature is at least 40°C.
                 Biodiesel Production Procedure: 2



                                Preparing Sodium Methoxide
1. Calculate the quantity of methanol required by referring to Note 1.

2. Ensure all valves are in the closed positions.

3. Ensure the lid of the Methoxide tank is closed tight.

4. Wear the appropriate protective clothing (see Safety Notes).

5. Insert methanol probe into methanol drum.

6. Zero the Methanol flow meter.

7. If unsure of the Methanol flow meter calibration, use the dipstick to

   measure the methanol level.
8. Switch on Pump 2.

9. Switch off Pump 2 when the required quantity of methanol has been

   transferred into the Tank.

10. Remove the Methanol probe from the drum and replace the cap.

11. Open the plug in the top of the Methoxide tank and insert the funnel.

12. Switch on Mixer 1.

13. Gradually pour the sodium hydroxide granules into the funnel. Do not

   pour too quickly (the granules must have time to dissolve into the

   methanol).
14. When all of the sodium hydroxide granules have been poured into the

   tank continue mixing for a further 10 minutes then switch off Mixer 1.
Biodiesel Production Procedure: 3


                                       Mixing the Reactants


If Procedures 1 & 2 have been completed successfully:
   1. Open the valve below the Methoxide tank.

   2. Open the valve in the line to the Reactor tank.

   3. Ensure the Reactor tank lid is securely fastened.

   4. Switch on Mixer 2 for the Reactor tank.

   5. Switch off Heater 1.
   6. Switch on Pump 3. The flowrate is very high (50 l/min). Therefore

      operate Pump 3 intermittently to allow the Sodium Methoxide to fully mix

      with the UCO.
   7. When the Methoxide tank is empty, switch off Pump 3 and close the

      valve below the Methoxide tank.

   8. Close the valve in the line to the Reactor tank.

   9. Continue mixing for 50 minutes, then switch off Mixer 2.
Biodiesel Production Procedure: 4

                         Transferring the Mixture to the Settling Tank



  1. Switch on the Settling tank heating elements at least 2 hours before

     transferring the mixture.

  2. Open the valve below the Reactor tank.

  3. Open the valve in the line downstream of Pump 4.

  4. Switch on Pump 4.

  5. When the Reactor tank has emptied Switch off Pump 4.

  6. Close the valve in the line downstream of Pump 4.

  7. Close the valve below the Reactor tank.
Biodiesel Production Procedure: 5


                        Removing the Glycerine and Biodiesel from the

                                       Settling Tank



  1. Allow the glycerine to settle out of the biodiesel for about 18 hours.

  2. Take a sample of biodiesel by lower a sample vessel into the Settling

     tank via the top hatch OR via the sample tap on the side of the tank.

  3. Open the Settling tank outlet valve to drain off the glycerine into a

     glycerine tank.

  4. Close the valve when biodiesel appears.

  5. Remove the glycerine tank.

  6. Open the Settling tank outlet valve to drain off the biodiesel into a

     biodiesel IBC tank.

  7. When the Settling tank is empty close the outlet valve.

  8. Switch off the Settling tank heating elements.

  9. Measure and record how much biodiesel was transferred into the

     biodiesel IBC tank.
Note 1:         Calculating the Quantity of Methanol and

                Sodium Hydroxide Required.



A.       Calculating the quantity of methanol
The quantity of methanol required for a reaction is 20% of quantity of UCO that
is used. For example, if 400kg of UCO was pumped into the Reactor tank, the
volume can be calculated by:


                Volume of UCO (litres)      = Mass of UCO (kg) ÷ 0.915
                                            = 400 ÷ 0.915 = 437.2 litres
Therefore,
         Volume of methanol (litres)        = 0.2 x 437.2 = 87.4 litres.




B.       Calculating the quantity of sodium hydroxide
The amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) needed is directly related to the
quantity of UCO. Take the quantity of sodium hydroxide needed per litre
of UCO (calculated in the Titration) and multiply by the number of litres
of UCO used in the reaction by:


     Mass of NaOH (g) = Volume of UCO (litres) x Mass of NaOH per litre of UCO (g)
11 Appendix B

                   Fleet mileage and fuel consumption

  The fleet mileage and biodiesel fuel usage data were tabulated for each
  fleet vehicle over the course of the project;
  Fuel consumption was calculated on a daily, weekly, monthly and project
  duration basis;
  It was during April and May that the fuel blend was ramped up from 25%
  biodiesel, through 50%, to 100%. Although the figures for April and May
  were recorded they have been summarised to totals in the table since fuel
  consumption figures are not valid for inclusion or comparison with those for
  100% biodiesel which started for the whole fleet from June;
  Fleet totals are given for the period 1st June to 31st October 2002 (when all
  vehicles were running on 100% biodiesel;
  The ‘fleet’ is defined as the seven 7-tonne trucks used for collection of WCO
  by C&D Oil. A tractor unit (registration K811) belonging to C&D Oil was also
  run on biodiesel during the project, and its figures are presented alongside
  the ‘fleet’ figures, though not included ‘fleet’ totals;
  All figures for fuel usage are the unadjusted figures as recorded by the
  drivers throughout. Correction of the 2% meter error is made in the ‘June to
  October’ totals at the end of each column. Adjusted fuel economy figures
  (km/litre) were then calculated using the corrected fuel usage values.
12 Appendix C

Comparison of particulate emissions: copies of MOT test data sheets for N649
and T312).

								
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