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					Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04




                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


 I express my gratitude to my guide Mrs.Renuka .T.K and Mr. Gylson Thomas with out

 whose inspiration this would paper would not have materialized.



 I am very much indebted to the Head of the Dept, Dr. P.M.S. Nambisan for his support

 and encouragement.



 I am also grateful to the faculty and staff members of EEE Dept for their relentless

 support.

 Above all I thank the almighty God for making this report real .Not to forget my friends

 and family members, without them I would have reached nowhere.




Dept of EEE                                    1                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                    Seminar Report’04




                                       ABSTRACT


      In an era where energy conservation has become the latest topic of discussion not

 only among the erudite but also among the ordinary responsible denizens, fuel efficiency

 along with minimum pollution has become the benchmark for any new automobile.



     And in the same context “Hybrid Electric Vehicle” come as the latest addition. By the

 name itself it can be inferred that a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is an improvisation to the

 traditional gasoline engine run car combined with the power of an electric motor.



      The seminar on the above topic intends to bring to notice the concepts associated

 with the hybrid technology through the following topics – components and constituents,

 need, efficiency, performance, etc.




Dept of EEE                                    2                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                 Seminar Report’04




                           CONTENTS

    CHAPTERS

    INTRODUCTION

    WHAT IS A HYBRID VEHICLE?

    HYBRID STRUCTURE

    HYBRID COMPONENT.

    INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.

    ELECTRIC MOTOR

    ALTERNATOR

    EVOLUTION OF HYBRID

    HYBRID PERFORMANCE

    HYBRID EFFICIENCY

    WHATS AVILABLE NOW?

    HYBRID MILEAGE TIPS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES



Dept of EEE                   3       MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04




                                  INTRODUCTION


         Have you pulled your car up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high

 price of gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought about trading

 in that SUV for something that gets better mileage. Or maybe you are worried that your

 car is contributing to the greenhouse effect. Or maybe you just want to have the coolest

 car on the block.

          Currently, there is a solution for all this problems; it‟s the hybrid electric

 vehicle. The vehicle is lighter and roomier than a purely electric vehicle, because there is

 less need to carry as many heavy batteries. The internal combustion engine in hybrid-

 electric is much smaller and lighter and more efficient than the engine in a conventional

 vehicle. In fact, most automobile manufacturers have announced plans to manufacture

 their own hybrid versions.

          How does a hybrid car work? What goes on under the hood to give you 20 or 30

 more miles per gallon than the standard automobile? And does it pollute less just because

 it gets better gas mileage. In this seminar we will study how this amazing technology

 works and also discuss about TOYOTA & HONDA hybrid cars.




Dept of EEE                                    4                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                        Seminar Report’04




            WHAT IS A “HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE"?


       Any vehicle is hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. In fact, many

 people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a mo-ped (a

 motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline

 engine with the pedal power of its rider.

      Hybrid electric vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling

 trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these

 can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from

 the wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are also

 hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle

 that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide

 propulsion power is a hybrid.

       The most commonly used hybrid is gasoline-electric hybrid car which is just a

 cross between a gasoline-powered car and an electric car. A „gasoline-electric hybrid car‟

 or „hybrid electric vehicle‟ is a vehicle which relies not only on batteries but also on an

 internal combustion engine which drives a generator to provide the electricity and may

 also drive a wheel. In hybrid electric vehicle the engine is the final source of the energy




Dept of EEE                                      5                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04

 used to power the car. All electric cars use batteries charged by an external source, leading

 to the problem of range which is being solved in hybrid electric vehicle.




                              HYBRID STRUCTURE


        You can combine the two power sources found in a hybrid car in different ways.

 One way, known as a parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the

 engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the

 engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the

 transmission then turns the wheels.




Dept of EEE                                     6                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                    Seminar Report’04




                            Figure 1. Parallel hybrid car

       Figure 1 shows a typical parallel hybrid. We'll notice that the fuel tank and gas

 engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to the

 transmission independently. As a result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and

 the gas engine can provide propulsion power.




Dept of EEE                                     7                       MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04




                               Figure 2. Series hybrid car



          Another way of combining the power sources found in a hybrid car is by series

 hybrid. In a series hybrid (Figure 2 above) the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the

 generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the

 transmission. Thus, the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle. Take a look at

 the diagram of the series hybrid, starting with the fuel tank, and you'll see that all of the

 components form a line that eventually connects with the transmission.




Dept of EEE                                     8                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04




                                   HYBRID COMPONENTS



        Components used in hybrid electric vehicles are given below:

          Gasoline engine - The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will

     find on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and lighter, and is

     more efficient than the engine in a conventional vehicle, because the engine runs at a

     relatively constant speed, and does not need to provide direct power for acceleration,

     which is the biggest reason for large engines. Use advanced technologies to reduce

     emissions.

          Fuel tank - The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline

     engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes

     about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of

     gasoline.

          Electric motor - The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Electric

     motor used in hybrid cars are usually dc series motor since it‟s versatile and ease with

     which a variety of speed-torque characteristics can be obtained, and wide range of speed

     control is also possible in this. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a

     generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to

     accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to

     the batteries.




    Dept of EEE                                     9                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04

          Generator - The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce

     electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids. Generator used in hybrid electric

     vehicle is alternator since cooling is easy and hence maximum output and also the

     output/weight ratio is higher than that of the DC generator.

          Power split device –The power split device is a clever gearbox that hooks the

     internal combustion engine and D.C.motor together. The power split device helps the

     vehicle to accelerate to a speed of about 15km/hr before switching on the gasoline engine.

     The engine starts only after the vehicle attains a certain speed. Once the engine starts it

     operates on a narrow speed band. The power split device allows the engine to stay in its

     most efficient load and speed range most of the time.






          Batteries - The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric

     motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the

     electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy

     from them. The batteries used in HEV is Ni-Cd cells since its lighter than the lead acid

     cells and its also mechanically strong and can stand very rough use.

          Transmission - The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function

     as the transmission on a conventional car. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have

     conventional transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones,

     which we‟ll talk about later.






    Dept of EEE                                     10                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                 Seminar Report’04




                   INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE




 The figure give‟s the internal view of IC

 engine. The different components in the IC

 engine are given below.

 Cylinder

 The core of the engine is the cylinder. The

 piston moves up and down inside the

 cylinder. The engine described here has one
                                                                    Figure 3
 cylinder. That is typical of most lawn

 mowers, but most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are

 common). In a multi-cylinder engine the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three


Dept of EEE                                   11                     MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04

     ways: inline, V or flat.         Different configurations have different smoothness,

     manufacturing-cost and shape characteristics that make them more suitable in some

     vehicles.

     Sparkplug

     The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can

     occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.

     Valves

     The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out

     exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the

     combustion chamber is sealed.

     Piston

     A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.

     Pistonrings

     Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge

     of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:

          They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from

     leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.

          They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be

     burned and lost.

     Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it

     because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.

     Combustionchamber

     The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As

     the piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the combustion chamber



    Dept of EEE                                    12                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                         Seminar Report’04

 changes. It has some maximum volume as well as a minimum volume. The difference

 between the maximum and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in liters

 or CCs (Cubic Centimeters, where 1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). So if you have

 a 4-cylinder engine and each cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0

 liter engine." If each cylinder displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a

 V configuration, you have a "3.0 liter V-6." s. A cylinder that displaces half a liter can

 hold twice as much fuel/air mixture as a cylinder that displaces a quarter of a liter, and

 therefore you would expect about twice as much power from the larger cylinder (if

 everything else is equal). So a 2.0 liter engine is roughly half as powerful as a 4.0 liter

 engine. You can get more displacement either by increasing the number of cylinders or by

 making the combustion chambers of all the cylinders bigger (or both).

 Connectingrod

 Connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that

 angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.

 Crankshaft

 The crank shaft turns the pistons up and down motion into circular motion just like a

 crank on a jack-in-the-box does.

 Sump

 The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the

 bottom of the sump (the oil pan).

 SMALLER ENGINES ARE MORE EFFICIENT

              Most cars require a relatively big engine to produce enough power to

 accelerate the car quickly. In a small engine, however, the efficiency can be improved by




Dept of EEE                                      13                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                         Seminar Report’04

     using smaller, lighter parts, by reducing the number of cylinders and by operating the

     engine closer to its maximum load.

     There are several reasons why smaller engine are more efficient than big ones:

          The big engine is heavier than the small engine, so the car uses extra energy every

     time it accelerates or drives up a hill.

          The pistons and other internal components are heavier, requiring more energy each

     time they go up and down in the cylinder.

          The displacement of the cylinders is larger, so more fuel is required by each

     cylinder.

          Bigger engines usually have more cylinders, and each cylinder uses fuel every time

     the engine fires, even if the car isn't moving.





          This explains why two of the same model cars with different engines can get

     different mileage. If both cars are driving along the freeway at the same speed, the one

     with the smaller engine uses less energy. Both engines have to output the same amount of

     power to drive the car, but the small engine uses less power to drive itself




    Dept of EEE                                        14                      MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04




                                ELECTRIC MOTOR

                      An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses

 magnets to create motion. We know the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites

 attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and

 "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the

 other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and

 similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling

 forces create rotational motion.

           DC series motor used in hybrid electric vehicle is a versatile and flexible

 machine. It can satisfy the demands of load recurring high starting, accelerating and

 retarding torques. A DC machine is also easily adaptable for drives with a wide range of


Dept of EEE                                    15                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                   Seminar Report’04

 speed control and fast reversals. In the diagram shown below we can see two magnets in

 the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a

 permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small

 motors it isn't in order to save power). Different parts used in a simple DC motor are as

 shown in the diagram below:




   Parts of an electric motor

Dept of EEE                                  16                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04


            Armature or rotor

            Stator

            Commutator

            Brushes

            Field magnet

                      The magnetic circuit of a DC consists of the armature magnetic material

     (core), the air-gap, field poles and yoke. The yoke of a DC machine is a annular ring to

     the middle of which is bolted field poles and the interlopes. The interlopes or

     commutation poles are narrow poles fixed to the yoke, midway between the main field

     poles. The use of an electric field winding, which supplies electric energy to establish a

     magnetic field in the magnetic circuit , result in the great diversity and a variety of

     performance characteristics. The armature winding is connected to the external power



     source through a commutator brush system, which is a mechanical rectifying (switching)

     device for converting the alternating currents and induced emf of the armature to the DC

     form.

     The cylindrical-rotor or armature of a machine is mounted on a shaft, which is supported

     on the bearing. One or both ends of the shaft act as input or output terminal of the

     machine and would be coupled mechanically to a load (motoring machine) or to a prime-

     mover (generating machine).Usually parallel-sided axial slots (evenly spaced normally)

     are used on the rotor (armature winding) surface. The magnetic material between the slots

     is the teeth. The slot cross-section influences significantly the performance characteristics

     of the machines and parameters such as armature coil inductance, magnetic saturation in




    Dept of EEE                                    17                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04

 the teeth, eddy-current loss in the stator poles and the cost and complexity of laying

 armature winding.

   BRAKING OF DC SERIES MOTOR:

       Controlled slowing or stopping of a motor and its driven load is as important as

 starting in many applications. Braking methods based on friction , electromechanical

 action, eddy current, etc are independent of the motor but sometimes electric braking is

 better justified owing to its greater economy and absence of brake wears. The DC motor is

 still widely used for traction purpose. One of the main reasons for this is its excellent

 braking characteristics and ability of smooth transition from the motor to the generator

 mode and vice versa. During the braking period, the motor is operated as a generator and

 the kinetic or gravitational potential energy is dissipated in resistors or returned to the

 supply.




                                    ALTERNATOR

  An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy .it

 produce alternating currents. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction which

 states that “when a coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the direction of uniform

 magnetic field, an induced emf is produced across it”. Alternator        requires a magnetic

 field as well as a rotating coil. The coil is wound in a special manner know as armature.

 To produce current either this armature or magnetic field can be rotated. The only thing is

 that it should cut the magnetic field. Usually the armature winding is stationary (called

 stator) and the field winding is rotating (know as rotor). An alternator consist of


Dept of EEE                                     18                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                         Seminar Report’04

          Frame or housing

          Stator

          Rotor

          Slip ring and brushes

 Frame or housing: Frame is an important part of alternator. This encloses the entire

 alternator assembly and is made of aluminum. Frame is made up of two parts. The front

 part of the frame has ball bearing, and the rear part contains roller bearing for supporting

 the rotor. The front part usually known as drive end housing and rear part is known as

 brush end housing.

 Stator: The armature is an iron ring framed of laminated special magnetic iron or steel

 alloy having slots on its inner periphery to accommodate armature conductors and is

 known as stator. Stator is the stationary part of the alternator. Field rotates between the

 stator so that the fluxing of the rotating field cuts the core of the stator, which includes the

 required emf.



 Rotor: It consists of an iron core around the rotor shaft. Many turns of the copper wire

 coated with varnish are wound around the core. On both sides of the rotor winding are the

 thick metal plates bent over the winding with triangular fingers called poles. These metal

 plates are called pole pieces. The pole pieces are placed interfacing each other so that

 when the current flows through the winding, these poles pieces acquire opposite polarity.

 This will result in alternating north and south magnetic poles on the pole fingers. This

 creates magnetic fields between the alternating pole fingers.

 Slip rings and brushes: Due to the cutting of the magnetic field, an emf and hence a

 current is produced in the rotor winding. Since the coil is rotating, it‟s not possible to take



Dept of EEE                                      19                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04

 current from the coil using wires. But special arrangements are necessary for carrying

 current to outside. The current from the rotor winding is usually carried through the

 copper slip rings and the carbon brushes. As these brushes carry only the field current

 (2.5A), it has longer life.

 Why an alternator in used in a hybrid electric vehicle?

 In conventional cars, the kinetic energy developed during running is wasted as heat

 energy while braking which waste a lot of energy as heat. Here the alternator converts the

 kinetic energy into useful electric energy, which can be stored in the batteries. The

 alternator is connected to the propeller shaft and rotates all the time. When braking is

 needed the field of the generator is charged using a rheostat. This produces a flux in the

 coils and the electricity is produced. The rheostat can be avoided by using electronic

 circuit, which can provide excellent variation in braking as needed. The alternator can also

 be employed at light loads when traveling at high speeds when the battery charge is low.

 The electric energy thus produced is sufficient to run the motor. This eliminates the need

 of external recharging. This contributes to the overall efficiency of the vehicle.




                         EVOLUTION OF THE HYBRID

                 The first hybrid electric car was engineered by Ferdinand Porsche in

 1928.since then, hobbyists have built such cars but no such cars can put into production

 until the waning year of the 20th century .However hybrid technology has been in use on

 railroad ever since 1930s, when the locomotives on early streamliners ran on gasoline-



Dept of EEE                                     20                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04

     electric and diesel-electric systems at greater efficiencies than the stream engines of the

     days.

     Automotive hybrid technology became commercially successful in the 1990‟s when the

     Honda Insight and Toyota Prius became available these vehicles have a direct linkage

     from the internal combustion engine to the drive, so that the engine can provide

     acceleration power. Prototypes of plug-in hybrid cars, with large battery packs that can be

     recharged from the power grid ,have been built in the U.S.,and one production PHEV, the

     Renault Kangoo,went on sale in France in 2003 ,and Daimler Chrysleris currently

     building a small number of PHEVs based on the Mercedes Sprinter

     The hybrid is a compromise. It attempts to significantly increase the mileage and reduce

     the emissions of a gas-powered car while overcoming the shortcomings of an electric car.

     The Problem with Gas-powered Cars

                         To be useful for all, a car must meet certain minimum requirements. The

     car should be able to:

            Drive at least 300 miles (482 km) between re-fueling

            Be refueled quickly and easily

            Keep up with the other traffic on the road

     A gasoline car meets these requirements but produces a relatively large amount of



     pollution and generally gets poor gas mileage. An electric car, on the other hand, produces

     almost no pollution, but it can only go 50 to 100 miles (80 to 161 km) between charges.

     And the problem has been that it is very slow and inconvenient to recharge.

     A driver's desire for quick acceleration causes our cars to be much less efficient than

     they could be. You may have noticed that a car with a less powerful engine gets better gas



    Dept of EEE                                      21                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04

     mileage than an identical car with a more powerful engine. Just look at the window

     stickers on new cars at a dealership for a city and highway mpg comparison.

     The amazing thing is that most of what we require a car to do uses only a small

     percentage of its horsepower! When you are driving along the freeway at 60 mph (96.6

     kph), your car engine has to provide the power to do three things:

          Overcome the aerodynamic drag caused by pushing the car through the air

          Overcome all of the friction in the car's components such as the tires, transmission,

     axles and brakes

          Provide power for accessories like air conditioning, power steering and headlights

     For most cars, doing all this requires less than 20 horsepower! So, why do you need a car

     with 200 horsepower? So you can "floor it," which is the only time you use all that power.

     The rest of the time, you use considerably less power than you have available.




                               HYBRID PERFORMANCE




    Dept of EEE                                    22                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                     Seminar Report’04

 The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a

 conventional car and therefore more efficient. But how can this smaller engine provide the

 power your car needs to keep up with the more powerful cars on the road?

 Let's compare a car like the Chevy Camaro, with its big V-8 engine, to our hybrid car with

 its small gas engine and electric motor. The engine in the Camaro has more than enough

 power to handle any driving situation. The engine in the hybrid car is powerful enough to

 move the car along on the freeway, but when it needs to get the car moving in a hurry, or

 go up a steep hill, it needs help. That "help" comes from the electric motor and battery --

 this system steps in to provide the necessary extra power.

 The gas engine on a conventional car is sized for the peak power requirement (those few

 times when you floor the accelerator pedal). In fact, most drivers use the peak power of

 their engines less than one percent of the time. The hybrid car uses a much smaller engine,

 one that is sized closer to the average power requirement than to the peak power.




                             HYBRID EFFICIENCY



Dept of EEE                                    23                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04

                     Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, today's hybrids use many other

     tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help any type of car get better

     mileage, and some only apply to a hybrid. To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of

     gasoline, a hybrid car can:

          Recover energy and store it in the battery - Whenever you step on the brake pedal

     in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more

     kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car remove this energy and dissipate it in the form

     of heat. A hybrid car can capture some of this energy and store it in the battery to use

     later. It does this by using "regenerative braking." That is, instead of just using the brakes

     to stop the car, the electric motor that drives the hybrid can also slow the car. In this

     mode, the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the batteries while the car is

     slowing down.

          Sometimes shut off the engine - A hybrid car does not need to rely on the gasoline

     engine all of the time because it has an alternate power source -- the electric motor and

     batteries. So the hybrid car can sometimes turn off the gasoline engine, for example when

     the vehicle is stopped at a red light.

          Use low-rolling resistance tires - The tires on most cars are optimized to give a

     smooth ride, minimize noise, and provide good traction in a variety of weather conditions.

     But they are rarely optimized for efficiency. In fact, the tires cause a surprising amount of

     drag while you are driving. Hybrid cars use special tires that are both stiffer and inflated

     to a higher pressure than conventional tires. The result is that they cause about half the

     drag of regular tires.




    Dept of EEE                                     24                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                    Seminar Report’04




          Use advanced aerodynamics to reduce

     drag - When you are driving on the freeway,

     most of the work your engine does goes into

     pushing the car through the air. This force is            Figure 4. The frontal area
     known as aerodynamic drag. This drag force                profile of a small and large
     can be reduced in a variety of ways. One sure             car
     way is to reduce the frontal area of the car

     (Figure 5). Think of how a big SUV has to push a much greater area through the air than

     a tiny sports car.

     Reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the car or eliminating them

     altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. For example, covers over the wheel

     housings smooth the airflow and reduce drag. And sometimes, mirrors are replaced with

     small cameras. This site provides more information on car aerodynamics.

          Use lightweight materials - Reducing the overall weight of a car is one easy way to

     increase the mileage. A lighter vehicle uses less energy each time you accelerate or drive

     up a hill. Composite materials like carbon fiber or lightweight metals like aluminum and

     magnesium can be used to reduce weight.








    Dept of EEE                                   25                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                       Seminar Report’04




                          WHAT'S AVAILABLE NOW?

          Two hybrid cars are now available in the world market -- the Honda Insight and

 the Toyota Prius Although both of these cars are hybrids, they are actually quite different

 in character. The Honda is about $18,000, and the Toyota about $20,000. Both cars have

 a gasoline engine, an electric motor and batteries, but that is where the similarities end.

 The Honda Insight, which was introduced in early 2000 in the United States, is designed

 to get the best possible mileage. Honda used every trick in the book to make the car as

 efficient as it can be. The Insight is a small, lightweight two-seater with a tiny, high-

 efficiency gas engine.

               The Toyota Prius, which came out in Japan at the end of 1997, is designed

 to reduce emissions in urban areas. It meets California's super ultra low emissions vehicle

 (SULEV) standard. It is a four-door sedan that seats five, and the power train is capable of

 accelerating the vehicle to speeds up to 15 mph (24 kph) on electric power alone.

 Hybrid maintenance:

 Both the Honda and the Toyota have long warranties on the hybrid systems. The Insight

 has an eight-year/80,000-mile warranty on most of the power train, including batteries,

 and a three-year/36,000-mile warranty on the rest of the car. The Prius has an eight-

 year/100,000-mile warranty on the battery and hybrid systems and a three-year/36,000-

 mile warranty on everything else. The motors and batteries in these cars don't require any

 maintenance over the life of the vehicle. And the engine doesn't require any more

 maintenance than the one in any other car. And because both hybrids have regenerative

 braking, the brake pads may even last a little longer than those in most cars.

Dept of EEE                                    26                          MESCE, Kuttippuram
    Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                      Seminar Report’04




                                HYBRID MILEAGE TIPS


     You can get the best mileage from a hybrid car by using the same kind of driving habits

     that give you better mileage in your gasoline-engine car:

          Drive slower - The aerodynamic drag on the car increases dramatically the faster

     you drive. For example, the drag force at 70 mph (113 kph) is about double that at 50 mph

     (81 kph). So, keeping your speed down can increase your mileage significantly.

          Maintain a constant speed - Each time you speed up the car you use energy, some

     of which is wasted when you slow the car down again. By maintaining a constant speed,

     you will make the most efficient use of your fuel.

          Avoid abrupt stops - When you stop your car, the electric motor in the hybrid acts

     like a generator and take some of the energy out of the car while slowing it down. If you

     give the electric motor more time to slow the vehicle, it can recover more of the energy. If

     you stop quickly, the brakes on the car will do most of the work of slowing the car down,

     and that energy will be wasted.




    Dept of EEE                                    27                         MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                                    Seminar Report’04




                                   CONCLUSION



 Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better efficiency and also

 saves a lot of fuel in today‟s fuel deficit world. Though at present the concept has

 been put in to maximum utilization by Honda & Toyota, it is indeed an important research

 avenue for other car manufacturing units as well. A hybrid gives a solution to all the

 problems to some extent. If proper research and development is done in this field,

 hybrid vehicle promises a practical, efficient, low pollution vehicle for the coming

 era. One can surely conclude that this concept and the similar ones to follow with even

 better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in today‟s energy deficit

 world.




Dept of EEE                                   28                        MESCE, Kuttippuram
Hybrid Electric Vehicle                                 Seminar Report’04




                                  REFERENCE


      IEEE spectrum July 1995

      IEEE spectrum March 2001

      IEEE spectrum May 2001

      IEEE power & energy magazine May 2004

      Automotive technology by JACK ERJAVEC

      Automotive electrical equipments byP.L.KOHLI

      WWW.HOWSTUFFWORKS.COM

      WWW.HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE. COM




Dept of EEE                               29          MESCE, Kuttippuram

				
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