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A consciously coordinated social
unit, composed of two or more people,
that functions on a relatively continuous
basis to achieve a common goal or set of
As per the Illustrated Oxford Dictionary and Concise
“The way one conducts oneself or behaves, the
treatment of others or moral conduct. The way in
which an animal or person responds to a situation or
stimulus is known as behavior.”
As per concise Oxford Dictionary:
“The methods and principles of the scientific
study of human behavior, advocacy of, or
adherence to a behavioral approach to social
Managers need three levels of expertise:
• They must understand the pasta and
• Be able to predict behavior
• Learn to direct, change and control
Definition of OB:-
“A field of study that investigates the impact
that individuals, groups and structure have on
behavior within organizations, for the purpose of
applying such knowledge towards improving an
Explain individual behavior.
Predict certain behavior response to change.
But at organizational level:
Advanced Information Technology
Managing the people – the human resources of the
organization have been, are and will continue to be the
major challenge and of critical competitive advantage.
(Eg. HHRPK, Lagaan Team Work)
Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart once said:
“People are the Key !”
Technology can be purchased or copied; it levels the
playing field. The people on the other hand, cannot be
copied. Their ideas, personalities, motivation and
organization culture, values cannot be copied.
The human resources of an organization and how they
are managed represent the competitive advantage of
today‟s and tomorrow‟s organizations and are widely
recognized as : Human Capital, Social Capital and
Positive Psychological Capital.
Human Capital: What you know- Education,
Social Capital: Who you know – networks, connections,
Positive Psychological Capital: Who you are-
Confidence, hope, optimism and Who you can
become- one‟s possible authentic self.
Bill Gates once said: “The inventory, the value of my
company, walks out of the door every evening.”
Andrew Carnegie said: “Take away my people but leave
my factories, and soon grass will grow on factory floors.
Take away my factories and leave my people, and soon we
will have a new and better factory. ”
It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations:
OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups
and effect of structure on behavior in order to make
organizations work more effectively.
Therefore, OB is concerned with the study of what
people do in an organization and how the behaviors
affect the performance of the organizations.
OB basically deals with behavior related to:
OB is an applied behavioral science that is built on
number of behavioral disciplines.
Predominant areas are :-
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and
sometimes change the behavior of humans and other
The study of people in relation to their social
environment or culture . Sociologist have made their
greatest contribution to OB through their study of
group behavior in organization, particularly in formal &
Social psychology is a branch of psychology which borrow
concept from both psychology and sociology. It focuses on the
influence of people on one another.
The study of societies to learn about human beings
and their activities.
The study of the behavior of individuals and
groups within a political environment.
Managers: Individuals who achieve goals
through other people.
Managers get things done through other people.
They make decisions, allocate resources, and
direct the activities of others to attain goals.
In the early part of the twentieth century, a French
industrialist, Henry Fayol wrote that all managers
perform five management functions such as Planning,
Organizing, Command, Control and Coordinate.
Today they have been condensed into four: Planning,
Organizing, Leading, Controlling.
A process that includes defining goals, establishing
strategy and developing plans to integrate and
Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to
do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports
to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
A function that includes motivating employees,
directing others, selecting the most effective
communication channels and resolving conflicts.
Monitoring activities to ensure they are being
accomplished as planned and correcting any significant
Henry Mintzberg, after a careful study of five
executives to determine what these managers do on
their jobs, concluded that they perform ten different,
highly interrelated roles-or set of behaviors. These are
grouped together as being primarily three major jobs, as
Symbolic head; required to perform a number of
routine duties of a legal or social nature.
Responsible for the motivation and direction of
maintains a network of outside contacts who
provide favors and information.
Monitor:-Receives wide variety of information, serves
as a nerve center of internal and external information
of the organization.
Disseminator:- Transmits information received from
outsiders or from other employees to members of the
Spokesperson:- Transmits information to outsiders on
organization‟s plans, policies, actions and results; serves
as expert on organization‟s industry.
Entrepreneur:- Searches organization and its
environment for opportunities and initiates projects to
bring about change.
Disturbance handler: Responsible for corrective
action when organization faces important, unexpected
Resources Allocator: makes or approves significant
Negotiator: Responsible for representing the
organization at major negotiations.
Robert Katz has defined three essential management
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or
The ability to work with, understand and motivate
other people, both individually and in groups.
The ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
RESPONDING TO GLOBALIZATION.
you are increasingly likely to find yourself in a
you are going to find yourself working with bosses,
peers, and subordinates who were born and raised
in different countries.
MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
Organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in
terms of gender, race, and ethnicity, encompasses
anyone who varies from the „norm‟.
Managers need to recognize differences and
If positively managed diversity can increase
creativity and innovation in organization.
IMPROVING QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY:-
By using self-directed work teams, streamlining
processes and implementing continuous
improvement programs must be a model of
By implementing programs such as TQM and Re-
engineering Programs that require extensive
The reshaping of the relationship between
managers and employees.
Decision making is being pushed down to the
Managers give up control, employees control their
work themselves, make appropriate decisions.
Using of self managed teams.
STIMULATING INNOVATION AND CHANGE:-
Must foster innovation and master the art of
Maintain the flexibility, improve quality.
To stimulate employee creativity and tolerance to
COPING WITH TEMPORARIES:-
Workers need to continually update their knowledge
Workers are in a state of flux.
Organizations are in state of flux too.
Managers and employees must learn to live with
flexibility ,spontaneity, and unpredictability.
IMPROVING ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR:-
Writing and distributing codes of ethic to guide
Offering seminars, workshops, and training
programs on improvement OB
Providing in-house advisors (anonymously) in
dealing with ethical issues
The field of OB is highly related to several economic,
social and cultural trends in today‟s society. These
• Globalization of Economy.
• Diversification of the workforce.
• Development of flexible new working
• Technological advances creating new
• The quality revolution.