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					Presented By :
          Ghanshyam Gupta

          Ghanshyam Gupta
       A consciously coordinated social
unit, composed of two or more people,
that functions on a relatively continuous
basis to achieve a common goal or set of
As per the Illustrated Oxford Dictionary and Concise
Oxford Dictionary:

“The way one conducts oneself or behaves, the
treatment of others or moral conduct. The way in
which an animal or person responds to a situation or
stimulus is known as behavior.”
As per concise Oxford Dictionary:

“The methods and principles of the scientific
study of human behavior, advocacy of, or
adherence to a behavioral approach to social
 Managers   need three levels of expertise:

  • They must understand the pasta and
    current behavior.
  • Be able to predict behavior
  • Learn to direct, change and control
Definition of OB:-

       “A field of study that investigates the impact
that individuals, groups and structure have on
behavior within organizations, for the purpose of
applying such knowledge towards improving an
organization's effectiveness.”
   Explain individual behavior.

   Predict certain behavior response to change.

   Control behavior.
   Inconsistent Economy
But at organizational level:
  Advanced Information Technology
  Globalization
  Diversity
  Managing the people – the human resources of the
 organization have been, are and will continue to be the
 major challenge and of critical competitive advantage.
     (Eg. HHRPK, Lagaan Team Work)
   Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart once said:
        “People are the Key !”
   Technology can be purchased or copied; it levels the
    playing field. The people on the other hand, cannot be
    copied. Their ideas, personalities, motivation and
    organization culture, values cannot be copied.
   The human resources of an organization and how they
    are managed represent the competitive advantage of
    today‟s and tomorrow‟s organizations and are widely
    recognized as : Human Capital, Social Capital and
    Positive Psychological Capital.
   Human Capital:        What   you   know-   Education,
    experience, skills.

   Social Capital: Who you know – networks, connections,

   Positive Psychological Capital: Who        you   are-
    Confidence, hope, optimism and Who         you   can
    become- one‟s possible authentic self.
   Bill Gates once said: “The inventory, the value of my
    company, walks out of the door every evening.”

   Andrew Carnegie said: “Take away my people but leave
    my factories, and soon grass will grow on factory floors.
    Take away my factories and leave my people, and soon we
    will have a new and better factory. ”
   It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations:
    ◦ Individuals
    ◦ Groups
    ◦ Structure

   OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups
    and effect of structure on behavior in order to make
    organizations work more effectively.
                                                           Contd. ...
   Therefore, OB is concerned with the study of what
    people do in an organization and how the behaviors
    affect the performance of the organizations.

   OB basically deals with behavior related to:
        Jobs
        Absenteeism
        Employment Turnover
        Productivity
        Human performance
        Management
OB is an applied behavioral science that is built on
number of behavioral disciplines.
Predominant areas are :-
     Psychology
     Social Psychology
     Sociology
     Anthropology
     Political Science
   Psychology:
        The science that seeks to measure, explain, and
    sometimes change the behavior of humans and other

   Sociology:
        The study of people in relation to their social
    environment or culture . Sociologist have made their
    greatest contribution to OB through their study of
    group behavior in organization, particularly in formal &
    complex organizations.
   Social Psychology:
       Social psychology is a branch of psychology which borrow
    concept from both psychology and sociology. It focuses on the
    influence of people on one another.

   Anthropology:
       The study of societies to learn about human beings
     and their activities.

   Political Science:
        The study of the behavior of individuals and
    groups within a political environment.
   Managers: Individuals     who    achieve   goals
    through other people.

   Managers get things done through other people.
    They make decisions, allocate resources, and
    direct the activities of others to attain goals.
   In the early part of the twentieth century, a French
    industrialist, Henry Fayol wrote that all managers
    perform five management functions such as Planning,
    Organizing, Command, Control and Coordinate.

   Today they have been condensed into four: Planning,
    Organizing, Leading, Controlling.
 Planning                  Organizing


Controlling                 Leading
   Planning:-
         A process that includes defining goals, establishing
    strategy and developing plans to integrate and
    coordinate activities.
   Organizing:-
        Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to
    do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports
    to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
   Leading:-
         A function that includes motivating employees,
    directing others, selecting the most effective
    communication channels and resolving conflicts.

   Controlling:-
         Monitoring activities to ensure they are being
    accomplished as planned and correcting any significant
   Henry Mintzberg, after a careful study of five
    executives to determine what these managers do on
    their jobs, concluded that they perform ten different,
    highly interrelated roles-or set of behaviors. These are
    grouped together as being primarily three major jobs, as
   Interpersonal Roles
   Informational Roles
   Decisional Roles.
   Figurehead:-
        Symbolic head; required to perform a number of
    routine duties of a legal or social nature.
   Leader:-
         Responsible for the motivation and direction of
   Liaison:-
        maintains a network of outside contacts who
    provide favors and information.
   Monitor:-Receives wide variety of information, serves
    as a nerve center of internal and external information
    of the organization.
   Disseminator:- Transmits information received from
    outsiders or from other employees to members of the
   Spokesperson:- Transmits information to outsiders on
    organization‟s plans, policies, actions and results; serves
    as expert on organization‟s industry.
   Entrepreneur:- Searches organization and its
    environment for opportunities and initiates projects to
    bring about change.
   Disturbance handler: Responsible for corrective
    action when organization faces important, unexpected
    Resources Allocator: makes or approves significant
    organizational decisions.
    Negotiator: Responsible for representing the
    organization at major negotiations.
Robert Katz has defined three essential management
   Technical
   Human
   Conceptual
   Technical skill:-
        The ability to apply specialized knowledge or

   Human skill:-
        The ability to work with, understand and motivate
    other people, both individually and in groups.

   Conceptual skill:-
        The ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.

      you are increasingly likely to find yourself in a
       foreign assignment.
      you are going to find yourself working with bosses,
       peers, and subordinates who were born and raised
       in different countries.

      Organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in
       terms of gender, race, and ethnicity, encompasses
       anyone who varies from the „norm‟.
      Managers need to recognize differences and
       respond them.
      If positively managed diversity can increase
       creativity and innovation in organization.

      By using self-directed work teams, streamlining
       processes    and      implementing  continuous
       improvement programs must be a model of
       manufacturing efficiency.

      By implementing programs such as TQM and Re-
       engineering    Programs that require extensive
       employee involvement
       The reshaping of the relationship between
    managers and employees.
      Decision making is being pushed down to the
       operating level.
      Managers give up control, employees control their
       work themselves, make appropriate decisions.
      Using of self managed teams.

      Must foster innovation and master the art of
      Maintain the flexibility, improve quality.
      To stimulate employee creativity and tolerance to

      Workers need to continually update their knowledge
       and skills
      Workers are in a state of flux.
      Organizations are in state of flux too.
      Managers and employees must learn to live with
       flexibility ,spontaneity, and unpredictability.

      Writing and distributing codes of ethic to guide
      Offering seminars, workshops, and training
       programs on improvement OB
      Providing in-house advisors (anonymously) in
       dealing with ethical issues
   The field of OB is highly related to several economic,
    social and cultural trends in today‟s society. These
      • Globalization of Economy.
      • Diversification of the workforce.
      • Development of          flexible new working
      • Technological       advances      creating    new
        organizational forms.
      • The quality revolution.

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