When the Tire Hits the Glasphalt by suchenfz

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									                               When the tire
                               hits the glasphalt
                                The asphalt you ride on every day usually          Many in the asphalt industry are skep-
                                consists of about 94 percent sand and           tical of glasphalt, but Watson believes it
                                stone. Twenty years ago, researchers re-         has potential. New York’s asphalt labora-
by Tom Watson                   placed part of that aggregate with crushed      tory, which Watson supervises, has run
Resource Recycling             waste glass containers. The result -             extensive tests on glasphalt for stability
                                “glasphalt” - was heavily tested in the         and other properties. These lab tests
                               early 1970s and was generally found to           show that the addition of cullet “isn’t doing
                                be acceptable for some paving uses.             any harm to our asphalt,” he says, as long
                               Then it faded into obscurity, mainly be-         as the percentage of cullet stays below
                               cause the cost of obtaining the container        30 percent of the total weight of the mix.
                               scrap (cullet) was too high.                        The Brooklyn glasphalt field test will
                                   Now we have the Second Coming of             cover three consecutive blocks of a single
                               glasphalt. Field testing is on the rise again,   street. One block will have an asphalt mix
                               and by the early 1990s glasphalt could           containing 20 percent cullet, the second
                               become a significant market for recycled         block will have 20 percent cullet and 20
                               glass bottles, especially in some East           recycled asphalt, and the third block will
                               Coast areas, where high disposal costs           just have regular asphalt, as a control for
                               and other factors might make it econom-          the test. Specifications call for crushed
                               ically practical. Today, the biggest hurdle      glass containers in 3/8” or smaller pieces.
                               facing glasphalt may be one of attitudes            For the test, the city obtained a few
                               rather than costs. Glasphalt advocates           hundred tons of reject cullet from a local
                               must solve this dilemma: How do you get          glass processor, says Ivan Braun, deputy
                               the asphalt industry, not to mention local,      director of the New York City Office of
                               state and federal officials, to take glas-       Recycling. This includes glass containers
                               phalt seriously?                                 recovered under the state deposit system
                                                                                that have been contaminated or mixed,
                                Experiments in the Big Apple                    as well as windowpane glass. A major
                               This question may be answered first in           attraction of glasphalt is that it can use
                               the nation’s largest municipality. New           such glass materials.
                               York City is the most likely candidate right        New York City’s asphalt plant produces
                                now to use substantial quantities of cullet     about 300,000 tons of asphalt a year (the
                                in asphalt, for several reasons. It has a       city uses about 600,000 tons a year, but
                               pressing disposal problem; it has a huge         buys the rest). Braun says the city recy-
                               population that generates massive                cling office has no firm estimate of how
                               amounts of waste glass containers; it has        much cullet might be available for glas-
                               a curbside recycling program to help col-        phalt.
                               lect this cullet; and New York even has
                               its own asphalt plant, which would allow         Glasphalt’s benefits
                               the city to be its own market.                   The Office of Recycling sought the Brook-
                                  Though conditions seem right, city offi-      lyn field test because, “We’re looking at
                               cials are proceeding cautiously. The first       it as a disposal option,” says Braun. The
                               glasphalt test strip was scheduled to be         feeling among city recycling officials is
                               laid in late May, on a well-traveled resi-       that a significant portion of the glass con-
                               dential street in Brooklyn. If results are       tainers to be collected under New York’s
                               good after a year, glasphalt will probably       expanding curbside program may be un-
                               be tested on a street with heavier truck         suitable for the more lucrative glass con-
                               traffic, says Harry Watson, manager of           tainer recycling market, and that glasphalt
                               the city’s asphalt plant.                        could be an ideal secondary market.

Resource Recycling July 1988
                                                  1 Machinery at Ecosphere’s Hicksville, New
                                                    York facility originally crushed recovered
                                                    asphalt but has been modified to crush
                                                    glass containers also.

                                                  2 Glasphalt pavement test strip recently in-
                                                    stalled in the Town of Oyster Bay on Long

   A primary objective of the test is to de-
termine what cost the use of cullet will
add to making asphalt, Braun says. Any
possible savings to the city would depend
on the avoided cost of disposing of the
glass containers, he adds, but he ac-
knowledges that avoided cost “is kind of
an arbitrary figure.”
   Another reason for the New York in-
terest in glasphalt is that city officials want
to keep glass materials out of garbage
incinerators. Braun says incinerator ash
could prove very costly to dispose of, and
glass containers often make up a large
portion of the ash. Also, glass materials
could be abrasive in the furnace and may
add to the maintenance cost. New York
City currently has three small incinerators,
but a 3,000-ton-per-day plant is in the per-
mitting process, and four additional in-
cinerators are proposed.

Long island looks as glasphalt
The New York area definitely leads the

                                                                    Resource Recycling July 1988
 rest of the country in serious consideration
 of glasphalt as a disposal method for glass
 containers. In addition to New York City
 being the best prospect for using large
 amounts of cullet in asphalt, the most ar-
 dent advocates of glasphalt are right next
 door, on Long Island.
    Ecosphere Recycling Systems, Inc., of
 Hicksville, New York, has promoted glas-
 phalt aggressively as a partial solution to
 Long Island’s disposal problem as well as
 a valuable paving material. The company
was founded in 1986 by two civil en-
gineers, Dick Petrarca and Warren
Chesner. Ecosphere’s basic concept is to
take mixed cans and glass bottles from
communities with curbside programs (for
a fee), separate the materials, sell the
cans and then crush the glass containers
for use in glasphalt. So far, the company
has only one contract, with the Town of
North Hempstead on Long Island. Eco-
sphere originally charged the town $78 a
ton to take its glass bottles and cans, but
recently lowered the fee to $68 a ton be-        Gullet is loaded onto the processing equipment at the Ecosphere facility. In 1987, Ecosphere
cause of better markets and reduced              used cullet for 3,000 to 4,000 tons of g/asphalt.
transportation costs, Petrarca says.
   The company uses a converted asphalt
crusher that processes recycled asphalt
when it is not being used for glass contain-
ers. Petrarca says their research has            researching properties and possible uses       “The Block,” which Baker describes as
shown that glass materials 5/16” or smaller      of incinerator ash (including mixing it in     Baltimore’s “porno strip.”
work best. Last year, Ecosphere’s cullet         asphalt). Funding for the project comes           Baltimore currently uses 30 to 40 per-
was used for 3,000 to 4,000 tons of glas-        from the State of New York and a Long          cent cullet in its glasphalt mix, and
phalt, much of which went on local drive-        Island regional planning agency.               specifies a size of 3/4” or smaller. The per-
ways, he says. About 500 tons went to                                                           centage and size are both substantially
pave driveways and parking lots at a             A third example                                larger than those being used in the New
Browning Ferris Industries transfer station       New Yorkers searching for proof that glas-    York City and Long Island test strips.
on Long Island.                                   phalt works as a paving medium could             Paving in Baltimore is contracted out.
   Early this spring, Ecosphere provided         simply head south to Baltimore. That city      The waste cullet for glasphalt is usually
the cullet for a glasphalt test strip in the      has used glasphalt successfully for 17        donated to the city by a local bottle man-
Town of Oyster Bay on Long Island. About         years. But in Baltimore, the goal is not       ufacturer that recycles clear glass con-
80 percent of the one-mile strip was laid        recycling or the avoided cost of disposal      tainers but not colored glass bottles,
with a mix containing 15 percent cullet,         - it’s beauty. Glasphalt sparkles under        Baker says. The city gives the cullet to
while the remainder was paved with reg-          streetlights or in the sun. That’s why Bal-    the contractor, who must then crush it.
ular asphalt.                                    timore paves some streets with it, even        The city may have to buy some of its cullet
   Karl Leupold, deputy commissioner of          though the use of cullet to replace part of    from a recycling operation for future glas-
public works for Oyster Bay, says the test       the aggregate increases paving costs by        phalt needs, Baker says, and this could
was done because the town is considering         $10 to $15 a ton, according to Bill Baker,     add another $4 or so per ton to the cost
glasphalt as a possible market for its           a highway engineering supervisor for the       of glasphalt.
waste glass containers. Although it’s too        Baltimore Department of Transportation.
early to say how well the street will hold          Baltimore first experimented with glas-     Test results show some problems
up, Leupold says there was “no problem           phalt about 1971 “to do the recycling bit,”    Baker says he knows of only one glasphalt
at all” with the paving.                         Baker says. City officials soon discovered     paving project where there have been
   Petrarca and Chesner have solid cre-          costs were higher than for regular asphalt,    problems with the material. The pavement
dentials to back up their belief in the worth-   and they couldn’t maintain a supply of cul-    on that street - which has a 12 percent
iness of glasphalt. Chesner operates his         let to keep up with paving needs. But they     grade, and receives heavy bus and truck
own engineering firm, while Petrarca is          also realized how attractive glasphalt         use - has started to ripple. Baker adds
chairman of the construction engineering         looked. Since then, about 16,000 tons of       that even streets with regular asphalt
technology department at the State Uni-          glasphalt have been used in Baltimore,         often have the same problem, under simi-
versity of New York at Farmingdale. This         for approximately 20 special paving proj-      lar conditions.
year he is on sabbatical from that position,     ects. Portions of three streets around the        Tests in other parts of the country have
however. In addition to their work with          city’s new symphony hall were given the        shown that tire traction on glasphalt is not
Ecosphere, he and Chesner currently are          glasphalt treatment, as was a street along     quite as good as on regular asphalt once

Resource Recycling July 1988
 speeds exceed about 45 miles an hour.            land campus at College Park, emphasizes        of glass materials for more than 30 years.
 For this reason, Baltimore uses glasphalt        research. Its members are oil companies,          About 1968, Day gave this assignment
only on lower-speed roads. Baker says             which provide all of its funding. President    in an undergraduate course he was teach-
he has not heard of any accidents in              Gerald Triplett says the institute has no      ing in glass materials: Imagine you work
 Baltimore ever being attributed to skidding      formal position on the use of cullet in as-    for a glass container company receiving
problems on glasphalt.                            phalt. “There has never been enough of         bad press because of the litter problem,
   Another problem various researchers            it done, really,” to make a judgment, he       and see if you can come up with some
have observed with glasphalt is “strip-           says. The institute has run a few tests on     secondary uses for glass bottles.
ping” - pieces of glass materials becom-          glasphalt, and those results have not been        Day says his favorite answer was,
ing separated by the tarry, petroleum-            encouraging, says Triplett. If waste mate-     “Make a beer bottle that tastes like a
based cement that is used to hold asphalt         rials can be added to asphalt in such a        pretzel.” But other, more serious students
together. Immediately after glasphalt is in-      way that the asphalt remains structurally      talked to civil engineering professor Ward
stalled, stripping does occur, Baker says,        sound, he says, “Then we would certainly       Malisch, a specialist in asphalt and con-
and many little grains of loose glass ap-         support it.”                                   crete, about the assignment. Malisch and
pear on the pavement. But the glass is so            Triplett suggests glasphalt might be        Day got together with Bobby Wixson, an
small, “it doesn’t slice the tires,” he adds,     better suited for lower layers of a roadway,   environmental engineering professor
and after a few weeks the stripping ends.         rather than the surface layer. (In Baltimore   specializing in waste disposal, and the
   Because of the stripping, Baltimore            and in the New York and Long Island            three of them developed glasphalt. They
generally does not use glasphalt on resi-         tests, it is used on the surface layer.)       tried out their first tiny batch in a hole in
dential streets. “People see glass pieces                                                        a university parking lot.
on the street and they get upset,” Baker          Others look at glasphalt                          Some people misunderstand glasphalt,
explains. He points out that the overall          Chaz Miller, director of recycling for the     Day believes. “We were not trying to make
public response to glasphalt streets has          Glass Packaging Institute of Washington,       an improved asphalt.” Rather, he says,
been very positive. “They think it’s gorge-       D.C., says the institute would prefer that     their goal was to develop a material that
ous.”                                             glass containers be recycled again and         would be satisfactory for lower-speed
   Because glasphalt streets have held up         again as containers. Glasphalt will always     roadways and parking lots, and would
well and contractors have never had prob-         be a lower end use than containers, he         help solve the litter problem.
lems laying it, Baker has a lot of respect        says, but the institute would rather glass        Day and his fellow professors wrote
for the material. “It’s proven itself very well   containers be made into glasphalt than         several scientific papers on glasphalt, and
here in this town,” he says. “It really           end up in a landfill. Miller believes glas-    some of their research was funded by the
works.” However, Baltimore’s program              phalt will be most economical in the few       federal Environmental Protection Agency
has been on such a small scale, and has           cities that have their own asphalt plants.     and the glass container industry. Others
been so expensive, it has had virtually no            In the early 197Os, the Federal Highway    also studied glasphalt, and test strips
impact on increasing the acceptance of            Administration      conducted     extensive    were laid throughout the U.S. and
glasphalt.                                        studies of waste materials in highway          Canada, Europe and Japan.
                                                  construction. WC. Ormsby, a supervisory           “As far as I know, no major technical
 Industry is more cautious                        research chemist at the FHA research           problems were found” with glasphalt,
At the same time that the state of Mary-          center in McLean, Virginia, managed that       Days says. It appears the main reason
 land is home to the most successful pav-         program.                                       glasphalt has not seen wider use so far
 ing-oriented (as opposed to recycling-              When he and his staff looked at the         is economics, he adds, and he still be-
oriented) glasphalt program, it’s also the        possibility of using glass containers in as-   lieves it could be a viable disposal option.
home of two national asphalt industry or-         phalt, Ormsby says, they concluded there       “You can get rid of one tremendous
ganizations. And officials with both groups       were many problems with it, its properties     amount of glass in this way.”
express reservations about glasphalt.             were not that good, a lot of glass contain-       Two advantages glasphalt has over
   The National Asphalt Pavement As-              ers were already being recycled, and           regular asphalt, according to Day, are that
sociation (NAPA) of Riverdale, Maryland,          there was not enough glass cullet avail-       it dries faster and it retains heat a little
represents asphalt contractors. Executive         able. For those reasons, they decided not      longer. Its extra heat retention could be
director Mike Acott says NAPA would sup-          to test glasphalt at all.                      especially beneficial when paving in a cold
port the use of waste materials in asphalt           Ormsby remains convinced glasphalt          climate. A disadvantage observed on a
only if those materials would enhance             will not work. “Because of these limita-       glasphalt test strip in Montreal is that rut-
some quality in asphalt and would not add         tions, in my opinion, it’s not going to be     ting may occur when studded tires are
to the cost.                                      used for road building,” he says. “There       used, he says.
   Because trucks are getting heavier and         are an awful lot of problems.” One of those       The Rolla professors ended their work
traffic is increasing, NAPA is more in-           problems, which others have also men-          on glasphalt by 1975. “We took it as far
terested in improving the quality of asphalt      tioned, is that additives may be needed        as we thought it could be taken. From a
than in using recycled materials that might       to help prevent stripping, and this adds to    research standpoint, there wasn’t much
reduce quality, Acott says. He adds that          the cost.                                      more to do,” says Day. He says everyone
the association would oppose any man-                But glasphalt also has its staunch de-      seems to agree that he and his colleagues
dates requiring the use of waste materials        fenders, including Delbert Day, one of the     were not only the first to use glass mate-
in asphalt. A roadway should not be “a            “fathers” of glasphalt. Day is a professor     rials in asphalt, they also originated the
depository for waste materials,” Acott            of ceramic engineering at the University       term “glasphalt.”
maintains.                                        of Missouri-Rolla, and director of the ma-        “We were going to call it as-glass,” Day
   The Asphalt Institute, which has its           terials research center there. He has          says with a laugh, “but we decided glas-
headquarters on the University of Mary-           specialized in the manufacture and use         phalt would be better.”                  RR

                                                                                                                   Resource Recycling July 1988
                               Tire recycling bounces along

                               Scrap tire reclaimers are as tough and           tions, Waste Recovery Inc. is an example
                               durable as the recyclable product they           of a scrap tire processor making a product
                               handle. This isn’t a quick-profit, easy-work     that can be sold. Unfortunately, product
by Jerry Powell                industry. As shown below, recent prog-           development and processing costs are
Resource Recycling             ress in tire recycling has been braking.         high and WRI is losing money.
                                                                                    WRI is the nation’s top producer of wire-
                               Converting scrap tires into rubber               free, tire-derived fuel. Tire chips from
                               Using sizable chunks of state and local          WRl’s plants in Portland, Oregon and
                               government monies, Rubber Research               Houston, Texas are used by solid-fuel
                               Elastomerics opened a scrap tire proc-           boiler operators, such as paper com-
                               essing and recycling plant early last year.      panies and cement producers. Tire-de-
                               The Babbitt, Minnesota facility uses a           rived fuel users include Boise Cascade,
                               proprietary technique to convert ground          Great Northern Nekoosa and Jefferson
                               tires treated with chemicals into reusable       Smurfit.
                               rubber. The firm’s executives say this in-           The firm lost about $1.1 million last year
                               novative product - called TireCycle -            on $2.1 million in revenue, due in part to
                               has a huge demand. That’s why RRE                market development efforts. Goodyear
                               wants to build other government-financed         Tire and Rubber is the single largest in-
                               plants.                                          vestor in WRI and loaned it $1 million re-
                                   Initial results from the Babbitt operation   cently. Fuel sales in 1987 totaled 21,485
                               are not so encouraging. The firm pro-            tons at about $33 per ton, a drop of about
                               duced about 650 tons of TireCycle in nine        $2 per ton from the average 1986 fuel
                               months last year, processing about               price. Tip fees to unload scrap tires at
                               100,000 tires. But the plant has a design        WRI facilities rose 63 percent in 1987.
                               capacity of more than 3 million tires per            The 16-year-old Portland plant handles
                               year. Company officials predict the              about 2 million scrap tires annually and
                               facility will produce 5,000 tons of TireCy-      the two-year-old Houston operation is
                               cle this year, still just a small portion of     shredding approximately 4 million casings
                               its potential processing capacity. For the       per year. A $2 million facility is being built
                               nine months ending December 31, 1987,            in Atlanta to handle about 5 million tires
                               RRE lost $1.5 million.                           annually. WRI is also considering tire-de-
                                   RRE’s status has created some con-            rived fuel production facilities in Jackson-
                               sternation in the state, particularly since      ville, Florida; Camden, New Jersey; and
                               some of the tires received at the site come      near Boston. The New Jersey plant would
                               from out of state. The North Central Tire        be the nation’s largest tire processing site,
                               Dealers and Suppliers Association has            designed to handle 10 million tires per
                               expressed its concern because Min-               year.
                               nesota tire dealers hoped the Babbitt plant          WRI has been hurt by the recent cheap
                               would do more to ease the cost burden            cost of other solid fuels-particularly coal
                               of tire disposal.                                and wood chips. Also, the firm has spent
                                   RRE president Fred Stark has asked           heavily testing tire-derived fuel in potential
                               for a little more understanding. He notes        customers’ boilers. Although quarterly
                               it is typical for a rubber production facility   losses are declining, more red ink is ex-
                               to take about two years to work out the          pected
                                                                                Whole-tire incineration
                               Tire-derived fuel production                     RRE is making an unknown product and
                               If RRE hasn’t yet met market expecta-            is struggling. WRI generates a known re-

Resource Recycling July 1988
cycled product and it too has problems.            The air pollution issue has slowed down some chips are destined for a Greek
 Investment levels are relatively small;        Oxford Energy’s plans for incinerators cement plant.
RRE and WRI plants cost about $2 million        elsewhere. The company already has ac-          Domino Salvage of Conshohocken,
to $3 million each. In comparison, the          cess to 90 million tires on the East Coast, Pennsylvania has opened a similar shred-
biggest risk in scrap tire recovery has         but plans for a second incinerator had ding operation. The firm charges between
been taken by Oxford Energy.                    been waylaid by strong local opposition. $8 and $50 per ton, with discounts for
   The company has built a $41 million             A $70 million, 25-megawatt plant has high volume suppliers.
whole-tire-to-energy incinerator at the site    been announced for Sterling, Connecti-          RW Technology of Cheshire, Connec-
of the world’s largest scrap tire pile near     cut, nearly on the Rhode Island border. ticut says it grinds scrap casings into a
 Modesto, California. The 14-megawatt                                                        powder and blends it with polyethylene
plant also produces zinc oxide from the                                                      plastic. The product can be used to make
fly ash and has the capability of producing                                                  molded items, such as car bumpers. The
a soil additive from the baghouse dust.                                                      firm plans to establish several processing
   As the world’s largest tire incinerator,                                                  plants in the U.S.
the plant can eat up 4.5 million tires yearly   RRE’s scrap tire                                George Keyser, a scrap automobile
at the rate of 700 per hour. To assure the                                                   processor in Essex, Virginia, has a unique
supply of scrap tires, Oxford Energy re-        processing facility is                       idea. He intends to shred 100,000 old tires
cently bought the tire collection business      handling only a fraction                     and dump the chips in the Chesapeake
run by Ed Filbin - the tire pile’s owner                                                     Bay to help establish new oyster beds.
- for $2.75 million.                            of its design capacity.                      His idea is not attractive to the Virginia
   The plant uses a German technology                                                        Marine Resources Commission, due to
for which Oxford Energy holds a license.                                                     previous problems of tire chips washing
Joining the firm as an equity partner in                                                     up on beaches along the Rappahonnock
the California project is General Electric.                                                  River.
CMS Generation Co. of Jackson, Michi-                                                           The tire recycling industry was bruised
gan recently announced plans to pur-            Although citizen groups opposed the facil- by the Philadelphia inquirer revelation of
chase 49 percent of Oxford Energy’s             ity, the Connecticut Siting Council recently special federal tax treatment accorded in-
common stock for $30 million. CMS               approved siting of the facility. The pro- vestors in a tire incinerator firm. As part
Energy is linked to Consumers Power Co.,        posed plant would burn 9 million scrap of last year’s monumental tax law, some
one of the largest gas and electric utilities   tires annually and would open in 1990. A firms got special breaks. One of those was
in the U.S. CMS Generation invested in          third plant in New York is being discussed. Garb Oil and Power of Salt Lake City. As
an unprofitable operation, for Oxford              Oxford Energy presently operates tire a favor to Sen. Orrin Hatch (Rep., Utah),
Energy posted a loss of $679,000 in 1987.       shredding facilities in Bloomfield, Con- the bill allowed the firm to escape an es-
   The California plant has met stern op-       necticut and Walpole, Massachusetts. It timated $2 million or more in income
position from two fronts. California Attor-     recently purchased Granular Systems of taxes. Garb Oil wants to build a tire in-
ney General John Van de Kamp has                Sacramento, California, which produces cinerator in Rialto, California to handle
joined several environmental groups in a        tire-derived fuel from about 800,000 scrap about 10 million tires annually to produce
suit against the firm and Filbin, arguing       tires annually.                              35 megawatts of electricity. Although two
that the 300-foot-deep tire pile is a nui-                                                   counties and seven cities have sued to
sance. Van de Kamp doesn’t want more            Other corporate developments                 stop construction, the firm expects a
tires added, although 20,000 arrive every       Many firms are launching tire recovery favorable ruling this summer. In response
day. Earlier, Ecology Action of Modesto         projects. Metropolitan Tire Convertors is to critics of the firm’s federal largesse,
had sued Oxford Energy over this issue.         making tire-derived fuel at a new plant company president John C. Brewer told
The environmental organization is also          located opposite the Newark, New Jersey the Inquirer, “You’ve got some people
concerned about the potential air pollution     airport. The firm charges a tipping fee of who are just opposed to any kind of
effect of tire incineration, although the       about $1 per tire ($100 per ton), shreds progress.”
local air pollution control agency issued a     the casings and sells the fuel product,         Keystone Carbon and Oil of Blooms-
final permit to Oxford Energy this spring.      primarily to foreign buyers. For instance,                       Continued on page 70.

                                                                                                                Resource Recycling July 1988
                                              German outlook on recycling
                                              Germany is no different than other coun-         equally “recycling and composting” on the
                                              tries, where laws and regulations provide        one hand and “incineration and pyrolysis”
                                              the regulatory and operational framework         on the other - despite the ecological ad-
by Florian Heinstein                          for solid waste management. But when             vantages of recycling and cornposting.
Florian Heinstein joined West Germany’s       non-Europeans assess German condi-               Materials remaining after source reduc-
Institute for Energy and Environmental        tions, they often underestimate or ignore        tion and resource recovery activities will
Research in 1985, after serving 13 years      the relatively high degree of integration of     be deposited in landfills.
as director of economics at the Duravit       the European Economic Community, a re-              The term “source reduction” has
Porcelain Manufacturing Plant in Heidel-      lationship that has important conse-             another connotation than its supposed
berg. The Institute for Energy and En-        quences for solid waste management by            equivalent in German, “Abfallvermei-
vironmental Research (IFEU-Institute)         individual community members. Member             dung.” In German, “Abfallvermeidung”
carries out studies and reviews in            countries tend to avoid actions that may         means a reduced production of materials
radioecology, energy, motor vehicle emis-     interfere with the implementation of free        that normally end up as waste. “Abfallver-
sions, environmental impacts, air pollution   trade within the European Economic               meidung” covers, for example, the selling
and solid waste management. The insti-        Community, scheduled for implementa-             of beer in refillable bottles or the increased
tute, founded in 1978, is a nonprofit or-     tion in 1992.                                    production of durable goods. However,
ganization and sees its function, among                                                        the German term does not embrace the
others, as providing scientific information   Unique conditions                                concept of increased recycling of mate-
and advice for citizens and citizen initia-   To illustrate this, in 1986 the Federal Re-      rials that would usually end up as waste.
tives. The information in this article was    public of Germany (FRG) was unable to               When communities decide to introduce
presented in a speech at the spring con-      prescribe catalytic converters for each          a source reduction program, they often
ference, “Recycling Markets: California       new car manufactured, because this               promote a deposit system for beverage
and the Pacific Rim.”                         would constitute restraint of trade for other    bottles and composting of organic mate-
                                              European automobile manufacturers.               rial in one’s own garden.
                                                 Denmark offers another example. The
                                              production and use of one-way beverage           Markets for waste paper
                                              containers is prohibited by law. Other EEC       Buyers of waste paper are nearly exclu-
                                              member countries, Germany included,              sively paper manufacturers. There are of
                                              consider this ban as an impermissible            course other recycling possibilities-e.g.,
                                              trade barrier and have applied for an in-        the production of pressboard panels or of
                                              junction at the European Court of Justice        coffins made of waste paper - but the
                                              in The Hague. Most probably, Denmark             current and probably future sales potential
                                              will be the unsuccessful party in this litiga-   of these products is so marginal (at pres-
                                              tion.                                            ent less than 5 percent of total production)
                                                 Taking into account this restricted           that they will not be addressed here.
                                              sovereignty, the FRG enacted new legis-             In the Federal Republic of Germany
                                              lation in November 1986 that delineated          about 43 percent of the paper produced
                                              responsibility for the disposal of solid         is made from waste paper. The corres-
                                              waste: the disposal of nontoxic solid            ponding number for the European
                                              waste is delegated to the counties and           Economic Community as a whole is 47
                                              townships, and the federal states are re-        percent, whereas only 26 percent of the
                                              sponsible for the disposal of toxic solid        paper production consists of waste paper
                                              waste.                                           in the United States.
                                                 The primary emphasis of this legislation         The proportion of waste paper used to
                                              is to avoid materials that will increase the     produce different sorts of paper and
                                              amount of solid waste and only sec-              paperboard differs considerably. In the
                                              ondarily to increase the level of recycling      FRG 95 percent of the packing material,
                                              and resource recovery. It evaluates              but only 11 percent of printing and writing

Resource Recycling July 1988
   The metal portion of the package might       nonexistent.                                          cans would be preferable to bi-metallic
be recovered by burning off the plastic            After aluminum beverage cans, glass                cans.
and paper, but the amount of metal              container recycling comes next in overall        n Choose materials that are compatible
present is generally so small that this is      percentage. Steel can recycling is neg-              or easily separable when two or more
not economical even if it is technically        ligible in most localities. For the most part,        materials must be used.
feasible. Trying to separate either the         recycling of paper packaging is limited to       n Use recycled materials in package pro-
paper or plastic for recycling is generally     recovering old corrugated containers from            duction as much as possible. Consider
not feasible either. The best hope for recy-    commercial establishments. Most plastics              blends of recycled and virgin materials
cling such materials may be as a com-           recycling takes the form of recovering                as well as 100 percent recycled mate-
ponent in mixed (commingled) plastic re-        PET containers in states with deposit sys-            rial.
cycling systems, where they may serve           tems.                                               Most packaging materials are poten-
as a filler without significant deterioration      Thus, our conclusion must be that de-         tially recyclable to some degree, but pack-
of the overall properties of the blend.         signing packages with recycling in mind          age design can make recycling more or
                                                is not enough. The packaging industry            less difficult and economical. Although
Design for recycling                            must join with legislators and the general       package disposal is generally considered
When designing packages for future re-          public to support expanded recycling,            an external cost to the manufacture of the
cycling, the technological feasibility of       both of packaging materials and other            package, package design should incor-
recycling the package material and the          consumer and industrial items. There is          porate ease of disposal with the traditional
probability of recycling the package must       no category of packaging materials that          package functions of protection, com-
be considered. For example, no packag-          is inherently unrecyclable, though some          munication and convenience.
ing material is currently being recycled at     materials are more easily recyclable than            But designing packages for ease of re-
the highest feasible rate nationwide. Re-       others. With this in mind, we propose four       cycling will not by itself lead to actual re-
cycling of aluminum beverage cans               general rules for designing packaging for        cycling. Support for the development of
comes closest, with rates over 90 percent       recycling.                                       recycling systems is also required from
in some states with deposit laws; many                Use reusable packaging to avoid waste      industry, legislative bodies and the gen-
communities in other states have virtually          generation.                                  eral public.                             RR
no recycling. Recycling of aluminum pack-       n Use only one material for the package,
aging other than beverage cans is virtually         if possible. All-steel or all-aluminum

                                                                                                                   Resource Recycling July 1988
                                               Retread market could change                         cled products such as retread tires. Re-
                                               In 1984 the tire retreading industry sued           view comments were received at the start
                                               the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-             of June and EPA is now revising the draft
Tire recycling                                 cy to force it to issue retread tire procure-       guidelines.
(continued from page 23)                       ment guidelines as required by a 1978
                                               law. The proposed guidelines were issued             Research planned
                                               in May this year and focus on federal pur-           The U.S. Department of Energy is funding
burg, Pennsylvania wants to build a tire       chases of $10,000 or more.                           a $350,000 study of using recycled rubber
burning plant in Foster Township in that          The draft rules state that reclaimed rub-         as a virgin polymer substitute. The re-
state. Local residents and elected officials   ber is allowable in tire compounds and               search and development project will be
have expressed concern about the pro-          procurement agencies must develop a                  performed by Air Products and Chemicals
posed facility’s effect on the environment.    purchase preference program for recy-                of Allentown, Pennsylvania. The surface
                                                                                               -   Iof ground scrap tire rubber will be chem-

                                                                                                    ically modified and then used to make
                                                                                                    unique composite products, including rub-
                                                                                                    ber/polyurethane blends.

                                                                                                   Legislators are active
                                                                                                   Scrap tire recovery is a hot topic in many
                                                                                                   state capitols. A sampling of bills includes
                                                                                                   a measure in Nebraska that would tax tire
                                                                                                   sales and use vehicle registration and title
                                                                                                   transfer funds to generate a tire recycling
                                                                                                   fund. Grants and loans would be made
                                                                                                   for tire processing and recovery efforts.
                                                                                                      In Ohio, efforts to establish a tax-
                                                                                                   funded tire recycling program have met a
                                                                                                   roadblock. Consensus had been reached
                                                                                                   that a vehicle title transfer surcharge was
                              AOR Annual Conference in Ashland                                     the best funding mechanism for the pro-
                                                                                                   gram, but it now appears this approach
                              The Association of Oregon Recyclers hosts its                        goes against the state’s constitution.
                              nationally recognized annual conference this                            A tax on tire sales in Oregon is now in
                              year in Ashland, the home of the nationally                          force. The monies go in part to reimburse
                                                                                                   users of scrap tire products, such as tire-
                              recognized Shakespearean Festival. The con-                          derived fuel. The tax will raise about $2.5
                              ference will focus on how new recycling pro-                         million annually.
                              grams are working across the nation, as well
                                                                                                   Tire industry responds
                              as looking at what’s new for Oregon.
                                                                                                   The legislative interest in scrap tire recov-
                                                                                                   ery has spurred concerted efforts by tire
                              You can exchange ideas as you mingle with                            producers and retailers. The National Tire
                                                                                                   Dealers and Retreaders Association has
                              representatives of all phases of recycling-
                                                                                                   been active. The group has lobbied the
                              markets, plastics, paper, government, curb-                          federal Strategic Highway Research
                              side, and more. Be sure to include the golf                          Program to assess the feasibility of using
                              scramble and the Shakespearean plays!                                scrap tire rubber in road asphalt. The five-
                                                                                                   year program will help develop standards
                                                                                                   for rubber asphalt and research the poten-
                                                                                                   tial negative effect of steel in the product.
                                                                                                       NTDRA’s Scrap Tire Committee is con-
                                                                                                   ducting a nationwide survey of its mem-
                                                                                                   bership to ascertain their concerns about
                                                                                                   tire disposal and recovery. From this, the
                                                                                                   association plans to develop model legis-
                                                                                                   lation.                                    RR

                                                                                                   For those desiring more tire recycling in-
                                                                                                   formation, we recommend you request a
                                                                                                   copy of Scrap Tire News, a bimonthly
                                                                                                   newsletter available from MBS Research
                                                                                                   Group, 8727 Beechwood Drive, Fairfax,
                                                                                                   VA 22031.

Resource Recyclng July 1988

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