Example of Experimental Research Proposal by kbf37505

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									                              Experimental Research Designs
                       Proposed New Course # for 02 Spring: EDLD 656

                                          from Winter 2000

                                Instructor:   Russell Gersten, Ph.D.
                  Phone: 342-4268 E-mail: rgersten@OREGON.UOREGON.EDU
                        Office: 132 E. Broadway (off-campus main office)

A. Course Objectives

The major objective of the course is to develop skill and facility in:
     • designing experimental and quasi-experimental designs that can be
        implemented in schools and classrooms and other educational settings;
     • interpreting data from experimental and quasi-experimental studies.

A major focus throughout the course is:
      • translation of research questions into research design, and how each aspect of
         the research design subtly shapes and re-shapes the questions asked, and the
         "answers" obtained.

By the end of the course, students should be capable of designing a study -- or a series
of experimental/quasi-experimental studies -- to examine a research issue or question
of interest to them or those they work with. This includes an evaluation of the pros and
cons of various designs, determining a reasonable sample, selecting or designing a set
of valid measures and other related issues.

This ability is essential for developing a dissertation proposal if your interest is in applied
classroom research, and should be extremely useful for comprehensive examinations.

The course will stress concepts and applications rather than computations. Thus, for
example, in utilizing a text such as Keppel and Zedeck, the main thrust will be on the
theoretical rather than the computational formulae. Virtually all the computations
required (for example on planned comparisons, Tukey post-hoc tests) should be basic
enough that they can be done with a hand calculator.

Because no textbook stresses the approach I will use, the major source will be
handouts. The text will serve primarily as a source book. A wide range of examples will
be used in class. Two new statistical topics (not covered in the winter statistics course)
-- mixed designs and analysis of covariance -- will be covered.

The following pages outline a list of topics. A rigid scheduling of topics to days does not
seem appropriate. The course will be set up so that you can feel free to ask questions,
expand on ideas, raise questions about applications to your own work or interests, etc.
We will stress applications and discussions of application exercises.

Note that some of the topics have been covered in previous statistics courses you have
taken. This is totally intentional. The goal now is to revisit these concepts in terms of
experimental designs, to begin to understand the utility of these concepts.



Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                Page 1
In many ways, learning statistics is like learning another language and repeated
exposure to the same concepts from different vantage points is likely to increase
comprehension. As part of the course, you will be asked to read a series of studies, in
part, to immerse yourself in the language of experimental design.

There will also be occasions when you will be asked to critique a research study in
terms of the concepts and issues covered in class.



B. Assignments to be collected

The following will be collected and serve as a basis for grading:
       1. Two quizzes
       2. Two article critiques
       3. One draft research proposal and presentation
       4. Group project on research design standards

If appropriate, may overlap with research topic that was developed for Grant Writing
Seminar.
More information regarding assignments will be provided in class.

C. Student Support

A student with a documented disability and in need of accommodations in this course
should meet with the professor as soon as possible. Please request that Hilary Gerdes,
Counselor for Students with Disabilities (346-3211), send a letter to the professor
verifying the disability.

D. Prerequisite
Prerequisites include two terms of statistics. If you have any concerns about the
prerequisites, please talk to the instructor.

E. Presentations

Two students working on their doctoral dissertations will present to the class, Sr. Mary
Karen Oudeans and Lana Edwards.

There will also be an opportunity for several students in this class to present their
designs to the class during the final two weeks. Often this is most useful for those who
are getting ready for a dissertation proposal meeting.




Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                             Page 2
D. Topics [Dates subject to change because my goal is comprehension of the material]
For each topic, sections of two texts will be suggested for review:
      1. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.)
          and
      2. Keppel and Zedeck (1989) Data analysis for research designs . Emphasis on
          conceptual understanding

                 Topic                     Gall, Borg and             Article            Keppel and
                                            Gall (1996)                                 Zedeck (1989)

1. True experiments vs. Quasi-            p. 463-501          Dimino et al. 1990.       p. 379-389
experiments                               (Ch.12)             Read the article for
        • Random assignment               p. 505-508          second class. Read it
        • Matching with random                                as a story, and a
             assignment                                       study to understand,
        Review of threats to internal                         not (yet) as a study to
        validity for quasi-experiments                        critique.
        and experiments
        Date: January 7


2. The language of Analysis of            p. 392-394          Woodward, Carnine         p. 69-80 (Ch.
Variance                                  p. 508-519          and Gersten (1988)        6)
        • Between and within                                  (Skip the Secondary       • For basic
            subjects variables                                Analyses p.81)                statistical
        • Types of factors                                                                  concepts
            (personological,
            treatment, other (e.g.
            time/setting))
Review of 4 major types of
experimental designs
        Date: January 7 - 10

3. Critiquing articles-- basic issues     p. 142 (Fig. 4.9)
and guidelines                            p. 741-744
         Date: January 10                 (Appendix F)
                                          p. 745-748
                                          (Appendix G)



                 Topic                     Gall, Borg and            Article              Keppel and
                                             Gall (1996)                                Zedeck (1989)
                                          p. 508              Darch and Gersten         p. 213-236
4. Linking main effects and               (definitions)       (1986)                    (Ch. 14)
interactions to research questions        p. 510-511 (an                                p. 239-259
         • Post hoc tests: review         example)                                      (Ch. 15)
             and application                                                            p. 232 (Fig.
         • All Four Cases of                                                            14-1!)
             Designs
         • Relating interactions to
             research questions
        Date: January 21


5. Data Analysis and Interpretation                           •   Reread Woodward
        Date: January 28                                          et al.

Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                              Page 3
                                                                et al.
                                                            •   Reread Dimino et
                                                                al. (skip ATI)


6. Effect size calculation                p. 194-196
        Date: January 28


7. Core Concepts in Experimental          p. 463-501
Design                                    (Ch.12)
       • Power and error                  P. 505-537
       Date: February 7                   (Ch.13)




                 Topic                     Gall, Borg and           Article            Keppel and
                                             Gall (1996)                             Zedeck (1989)
                                          p. 215-242        •    Review Gersten,     p. 15-20
. Core Concepts in Experimental           • sampling            Baker, and Lloyd     p. 32-37
Design (con)                              p. 245-367            (in press)
         • Power                          • data            •   Review the
Brief discussion of Darch-Gersten             collection        handout
study                                     p. 485-490            “Designing A Field
                                          • random              Study”
. Designing an Experimental Field             assignment    •
Study                                     p. 537-538
       • Sampling, blocking               common
       • Specification of measures        mistakes
           (transfer, maintenance
           etc.)
       Experiments vs. quasi-
       experiments
       Issue of random assignment
       (with and without matching)
       Guest Lecture: Lana Edwards
       Date: February 14


. Designing an Experimental Field         p. 394-395        Baker, Gersten and       p. 453-482
Study (con)                                                 Keating (in press)       (Ch. 22)
Example of a current research study                                                  • Emphasiz
at the middle school level                                                               e
                                                                                         conceptua
                                                                                         l rather
Analysis of Covariance                                                                   than
       • The link between                                                                numerical
            regression and ANOVA                                                         understan
       • Residual scores                                                                 ding
       • Realistic issues
       Date: February 18

                                                            Gersten (1999)
Qualitative Interlude


        •


Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                        Page 4
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen
Oudeans


       Date: February 25




                 Topic                    Gall, Borg and           Article         Keppel and
                                           Gall (1996)                            Zedeck (1989)
                                                           Read Greenwood
12. Quasi-Experiments                     p. 505-508       (1991)                 p. 379 - 389
       • Problems/issues in using
           covariance with quasi-
           experimental studies
       Date: February 28


13. Mixed Designs: Their Basic            p. 514-515                              p. 294-299
Statistics and Their Unresolved,                                                  p. 312
Hidden Secrets
Why they are used so much in special
education research?


Aptitude treatment interactions -- a
modern view
       Date: March 3


                                                           •   Lyon and Moats
14. Introduction to Growth Curve                               (1997)
Analysis                                                   •   Baker et al. (in
         • Concept of linear vs.                               press)
             quadratic growth
        Date: March 10
                                          p. 58-59
15. Planned Comparisons                                                           p. 2-6
       Date: TBA                                                                  p. 179 (Fig.
                                                                                  12-1)




Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                          Page 5
E. Schedule and Assignment Due Dates



Monday                                           Friday


                                                 January 7


January 10                                       January 14


January 17           M.L.K., Jr. Day             January 21    CRITIQUE 1 DUE
                                                               Focus on Design and
                                                               Questions (not Analysis)

January 24                                       January 28


January 31                                       February 4


February 7                                       February 11   EXAM #1


February 14                                      February 18


February 21                                      February 25   MINI-PROPOSAL DUE


February 28          CRITIQUE 2 DUE               March 3
                     Focus on Design and Analysis

March 6              MINI-EXAM #2                March 10




Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                   Page 6
F. Readings

Sections of the following beginning research and data analysis textbooks will be suggested to the student
to review:

                 Gall, M.D., Borg, W.R. & Gall, J.P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th
                 ed.). New York: Longman Publishers.

                 Keppel, G. & Zedeck, S. (1989). Data analysis for research designs. New York: W.H.
                 Freeman and Company.

The following journal articles will be used by the instructor to illustrate various research themes.


        1. *Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Blake, G. (1990). Story grammar: An approach for
           promoting at-risk secondary students' comprehension of literature. Elementary School
           Journal, 91(1), 19-32.

        2. *Woodward, J., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1988). Teaching problem solving through
           computer simulations. American Educational Research Journal, 25(1), 7-28.

        3. Darch, C., & Gersten, R. (1986). Direction setting activities in reading comprehension: A
           comparison of two approaches. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 9(3), 235-243.

        4. Greenwood, C. R. (1991). Engagement, and achievement in at-risk versus non-risk students.
           Exceptional Children 57(6): 521-535.

        5. Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J.W. (in press). Designing high quality research in special
           education: Group experimental design. Journal of Special Education.

        6. Gersten, R. (1999). Lost opportunities: Challenges confronting four teachers of English-
           language learners. Elementary School Journal, 100 (1), 37-56.

        7. Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Keating, T. (in press). When less may be more: A two-year
           longitudinal evaluation of a volunteer tutoring program with minimal training. Reading
           Research Quarterly. (note: utilizes analysis of covariance).

        8. Lyon, G. R. and L. C. Moats (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in
           reading intervention research. Journal of Learning Disabilities 30(6), 578-588.


For article critique #1

        Johnson, L. and M. Pugach (1991). Peer collaboration: Accommodating students with mild
learning and behavior problems. Exceptional Children 57: 454-461.


For article critique #2


       Johnson, R.T., Johnson, D.W., & Stanne, M.B. (1986). Comparison of computer-assisted
cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3),
382-392.


*Based on dissertations completed at the University of Oregon.




Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                                Page 7
                              General Issues to Address in Article Critique

        1. Importance of research question/clarity of research question.

        2. Sampling.

        3. Nature of comparison group/Assignment of subjects to treatment

        4. Quality of the intervention/monitoring of fidelity of treatment – is the intervention feasible in a
           classroom setting?

        5. Measurement – quality and adequacy of instruments used.

        6. Were data analyzed appropriately?

        7. Were results interpreted properly?

        8. Generalizability of findings.

        9. Clarity of writing style and any other salient issues.


    This critique should be between 6 and 10 pages. Not every issue raised above will be particularly
                                         germane to the article.



Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action / Americans with Disabilities Act Statement
The University of Oregon is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution committed to cultural
diversity and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. If you have a documented disability and
anticipate needing accommodations in this course, please make an appointment with the primary
instructor during the first week of the term. Please request that the Counselor for Students with
Disabilities send a letter verifying your disability. The current counselor is Molly Sirois 346-1155.
Disabilities may include (but are not limited to) neurological impairment, orthopedic impairment, traumatic
brain injury, visual impairment, chronic medical conditions, emotional/psychological disabilities, hearing
impairment, and learning disabilities.




Experimental Research Designs 00 Winter                                                               Page 8
EDLD 607: Experimental Design
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