Equity Bank Case Study at Universities

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					                     Case #:     1
                     Author:     Genevieve Giuliano, Keith Hwang, and Martin Wachs.
                        Title:   Employee Trip Reduction in Southern California: First Year Results
                 Publication:    Transportation Research 27 (March 1993): 125-38
                       Date:     March 1993
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt:  "Another important measure of the impact of Regulation XV is the change in modal split. The proportion of workers driving
                              to work alone [to worksites in the South Coast Air Quality Management District with more than 100 employees]
                              decreased from 75.7% to 70.9% [the year following enactment]."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 48
                   Location: Southern California

                     Case #:     2
                     Author:     Roy Young and Rongsheng Luo
                        Title:   Five-Year Results of Employee Commute Options in Southern California
                  Publicaton:    Transportation Research Record 1496 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995), 191-98.
                        Date:    1995
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  "The drive-alone share of commute trips [to 4,999 sites in the South Coast Air Quality Management District with two or more
                              approved trip reduction plans] decreased from 73.5 percent to 67.2 percent, a decrease of six share points or a 9.6 percent
                              decline. The decrease in the drive-alone share was almost entirely the result of increased carpooling…."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 63
                   Location: Southern California

                     Case #: 3
                     Author: Martha J. Bianco
                        Title: Effective Transportation Demand Management: The Results of Combining Parking Pricing, Transit Incentives, and
                               Transportation Management in a Commercial District of Portland, Oregon
                 Publication: Paper presented at the 79th annual meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
                       Date: 10 January 2000
                   Web site: Paper copy
                    Excerpt: "During the one year that had elapsed between the implementation of the Lloyd District transportation management
                               programs and the survey information collected by this study, the drive-alone mode for the trip to work by employees in the
                               Lloyd District had decreased by 7 percent. For the district as a whole, the drive-alone commute share is now about
                               56 percent."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 70
                   Location: Portland CBD, Oregon



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                     Case #:  4
                     Author:  Lloyd District Transportation Management Association
                        Title:2001 Accomplishments
                 Publication: Lloyd District Transportation Management Association
                       Date:  2001
                   Web site:  http://ldtma.com/accomplish.htm
                    Excerpt:  "In 1997, 60% of all employee commute trips to the Lloyd District were made in a single occupant (drive alone) vehicle.
                              This year's (2001) survey results indicate that drive alone auto trips have dropped to 45% of all commuter trips, a
                              25% decrease."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 150
                   Location: Portland CBD, Oregon

                     Case #:     5
                     Author:     Elizabeth K. Burns
                        Title:   Employee and Student Trip Reduction: First-year Results from Metropolitan Phoenix
                  Publicaton:    Transportation Research Record 1496 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995), 175-83.
                        Date:    1995
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  "[The Maricopa County Regional Travel Reduction Program] had an emphasis on education measures (publications/
                              newsletters, new hire orientation) and carpool incentives (preferred parking spaces, guaranteed ride home, prizes)."
                              Table 1 on page 176 shows that during the program's first year SOV trips fell from 81.7% to 78.5% for employees
                              at non-school sites, from 82.8% to 79.8% for school employees, and from 42.5% to 36.8 percent for students.
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 32
                   Location: Metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

                     Case #:     6
                     Author:     Pima Association of Governments
                        Title:   Travel Reduction Program 1999-2000 Annual Report
                 Publication:
                       Date:  2000
                   Web site:  http://www.pagnet.org/TRP/trpreport/report2000/Contents.htm
                    Excerpt:  "The TRP [Transportation Reduction Program] ended the 1999 program year with 246 sites. This is a 66% increase in the
                              number of sites since 1989 [the year of the program's inception]. [...] The percent of drive alone trips in 1999 is 80.6%.
                              This compares to the 1990 percentage of 76.3% This represents only a 5.6% increase from 1990 to 1999."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: Increase of 43
                   Location: Tucson, Arizona



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                      Notes: No reduction here! (Increase is believed due to growth of region, esp. suburban employment)
                             Document notes that TRP has helped reduce VMT growth compared to what it would have been

                    Case #:      7
                    Author:      Anthony M. Pagano and JoAnn Verdin
                       Title:    Employee Trip Reduction Without Government Mandates: Cost and Effectiveness Estimates from Chicago
                 Publicaton:     Paper presented at Transportation Research Board 76th Annual Meeting, 12-16 January 1997, Washington, D.C.
                       Date:     1997
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:   "A series of employee trip reduction demonstration projects were organized by the Chicago Area Transportation Study....
                              The [14] demonstration organizations implemented an average of 2.36 strategies. These strategies focused on ridesharing
                              via carpools and vanpools, some transit, and more infrequently compressed work week schedules and telecommuting. [...]
                              The average demonstration organization was able to reduce solo driving rates by 5.5 percentage points."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (areawide)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 55
                   Location: Chicago, Illinois

                     Case # 8
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005

                   Pub Title:    Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 1: Hartford, Connecticut)
                   Pub Date:     February 1990
                     Author:     US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                   Summary:      In Hartford ... companies charged their employees for parking based upon how many people were in the car (for example
                                 $100/mo for single occupant vehicles, $60/mo for double occupant vehicles, and so on). Companies also offered transit
                                 subsidies for the use of public transportation. In 1981, before the programs were implemented, within the downtown,
                                 there was a mode split rate of 48% drive alone, 21% ridesharing, and 31% transit. In 1987, after the programs were
                                 implemented, the drive alone rate fell to 45%, ridesharing increased to 25%, and transit fell slightly to 30%. Overall,
                                 vehicle trips per 100 travelers pre-TDM program was 57.4, post TDM program was 56.0

                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 30
                   Location: Hartford, Connecticut

                       Case#     9
                     Author:     Environmental Protection Agency
                        Title:   Transit and Vanpool Benefits: Implementing Commuter Benefits Under the Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                 Publication:    Environmental Protection Agency Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                        Date:    September 2001
                   Web site:     http://www.commuterchoice.gov/pdf/transit.pdf



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                    Excerpt: "Between 1997 and 1999, Georgia Pacific/Southern Company instituted a series of commuter benefits [including $65 per
                              month in subsidies for transit, shuttles, or vanpools and more frequent shuttle buses to MARTA stations]. Use of alternative
                              commute modes increased from 300 employees in 1997 to 1,500 employees in 2000, or from 10 percent to 50 percent of
                              all employees."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 400
                   Location: Atlanta, Georgia
                      Notes: This seems high. It is not clear if "alternative commute mode" is defined as five days a week.

                     Case #:  10
                     Author:  Tabitha Graves
                        Title:Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Programs: Profiles of Selected Universities
                 Publication: University of Wisconsin-Madison Environmental Management Campus Ecology Research Project No.5
                       Date:  December 1993
                   Web site:  http://www.fpm.wisc.edu/campusecology/cerp/tdm/tdm.htm
                    Excerpt:  See table: The percentage of drive-alone employees arriving on the UCLA campus between 6 and 9 a.m. fell from 73.7 percent
                              in 1984 to 57.7 percent in 1992. This was a result of a variety of TDM measures, including parking pricing, carpool and vanpool
                              programs, local bus service, late night van service, and emergency ride home
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (general)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 160
                   Location: University of California at Los Angeles

                     Case #:     11
                     Author:     Comsis Corporation
                        Title:   Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures
                  Publicaton:    Federal Highway Administation and Federal Transit Administration
                        Date:    September 1993
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  "[Pasadena's] TDM program includes a drive-alone disincentive, parking fees, but also many incentives to employees to
                              carpool. Elements of the program that influence carpooling include: reduced parking cost..., transportation allowance...,
                              guaranteed ride home..., on-site ridematching.... Between 1989 and 1990, SOV percentage decreased 30 percent, from
                              83 percent SOV to 58 percent SOV at City Hall."
                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 250
                   Location: Pasadena, California
                     Notes:

                      Case # 12
                   Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005




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                                Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 1: Hartford, Connecticut -
                   Pub Title:   Traveler's Insurance Co.)
                   Pub Date:    February 1990
                     Author:    US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                   Summary:     In downtown Hartford, Traveler's Insurance Company implemented a comprehensive TDM program. Travelers employs
                                about 10,000 people at its downtown site. Through a combination of locational advantages (constrained parking, near
                                good transit) and transportation program measures (priority parking for carpools/vanpools, differential parking charges,
                                active vanpool program, transit subsidy), it has achieved a mode split of 33.2% drive alone, 19.4% carpool, 8.0% vanpool,
                                36.2% transit and average of 42.8 vehicle trips per 100 commuters. This is compared agains a control company in
                                Hartford not offering a TDM program (drive alone 77.6%, and 82.1 vehicle trips per 100 travelers). Sugests a 47.9%
                                reduction in vehicle trips compared to control group.

                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 444
                   Location: Hartford, Connecticut

                     Case # 13
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 1: Hartford, Connecticut -
                   Pub Title: Hartford Steam Boiler)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: In downtown Hartford, Hartford Steam Boiler implemented a comprehensive TDM program. HSB is an insurance comapny
                              with about 1,100 employees. It has relatively constrained parking, and is near transit. The company provided parking
                              charge incentives for HOVs with a sliding scale and subsidizes transit. It has achieved a mode share of 39.9% drive
                              alone, 20.9% carpool, 1.3% vanpool, 35.9% transit, for a total of 49.6 vehicle trips per 100 employees. This is compared
                              agains a comparable control company in Hartford not offering a TDM program (67.5 vehicle trips per 100 travelers).
                              Sugests a 26.5% reduction in vehicle trips compared to control group.


                    Policies:   Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    179
                   Location:    Hartford, Connecticut
                      Notes:    49.6 vehicle trips at company vs. 67.5 vehicle trips per 100 commuters at control company

                     Case # 14
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 2: Nuclear Regulatory
                   Pub Title: Commission, Montgomery County, Maryland)
                   Pub Date: February 1990



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                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                   Summary: Montgomery County has enacted policies to moderate the impacts of growth on the quality of life, including laws that
                             prevent congestion of its roads. The NRC wanted to relocate its headquarters to North Bethesda (in Montgomery
                             County), but in order to acquire building permits, the NRC had to establish trip reduction programs. The NRC adopted a
                             Transportation Management Plan (TMP) that involved Fee Parking ($60/mo in-building, $30/mo walking distance), Transit
                             Discounts, Carpools, Early Work Hours, Nearby Parking Restrictions, and a Transit Shuttle. Before the relocation the
                             mode rates were 54% drive alone, 25% carpooled, 11% used public transit (64.4 vehicle trips per 100 commuters). After
                             the relocation and the TMP, 42% drive alone, 27% carpool, and 28% use public transit (53.7 vehicle trips per 100
                             commuters).
                   Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 120
                  Location: Montgomery County, Maryland

                     Case # 15
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 5: 3M Company, St. Paul,
                   Pub Title: Minnesota)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: The headquarters of 3M Company is located in the suburbs of the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in a campus setting,
                              employing nearly 13,000 people in a complex of 24 buildings. The company implemented a number of transportation
                              programs, including staggered work hours, subscription bus program, "ride guide" carpooling program, and a vanpool
                              program. Over time, the company's mode share has shifted from 91.6% drive alone, 13.0% carpool, 0% vanpool, 0.6%
                              transit (91.6 vehicle trips per 100 employees) in 1970 to 82.7% drive alone, 14.1% carpool, 7.8% vanpool, 1.7% transit
                              (82.7 vehicle trips per 100 employees) in 1985. It is estimated that the program resulted in a 9.7% reduction in vehicle
                              trips.


                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 89
                   Location: St. Paul, Minnesota

                     Case # 16
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 6: US West Communications,
                   Pub Title: Bellevue, Washington)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration




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                   Summary: US West had an impressive program in which the company opted for the minimum parking capacity for employee parking,
                            a pricing schedule for parking, and a large number of the limited spaces reserved for HOVs. The company has achieved a
                            mode share of 25.7% drive alone, 12.8% transit, 44.7% carpool, 1.8% vanpool, 2.0% other, 13.0% multi-mode (45.2
                            vehicle trips per 100 employees). These figures were compared to regional control sites' mode share of 81.8% drive
                            alone, 3.3% transit, 11.0% carpool, 0.8% vanpool, and 3.1% other (86.4 vehicle trips per 100 employees).



                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 561
                   Location: Bellevue, Washington

                     Case # 17
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 6: Puget Power, Bellevue,
                   Pub Title: Washington)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: Puget Power consolidated its officed into downtown Bellevue. Given limited parking, it implemented a program where
                              parking was allocated to employees using a lottery system, carpools and vanpools were guaranteed a space, a transit
                              subsidy was provided, and a transportation coordinator was made available. The company has achieved a mode share of
                              76.6% drive alone, 8.4% transit, 12.1% carpool, 2.9% vanpool (75.6 vehicle trips per 100 employees). These figures were
                              compared to regional control sites' mode share of 81.8% drive alone, 3.3% transit, 11.0% carpool, 0.8% vanpool, and
                              3.1% other (86.4 vehicle trips per 100 employees).

                    Policies: Worksite TDM (general)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 52
                   Location: Bellevue, Washington

                     Case # 18
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 6: CH2M Hill, Bellevue,
                   Pub Title: Washington)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration




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                   Summary: CH2M Hill is an architectural/engineering firm of approximately 400 employees that has used a "transprotation allowance"
                            program in conjunction with restricted on-site parking. The company has achieved a mode share of 54% drive alone, 17%
                            transit, 12% carpool, 17% other (59.4 vehicle trips per 100 employees). These figures were compared to regional control
                            sites' mode share of 81.8% drive alone, 3.3% transit, 11.0% carpool, 0.8% vanpool, and 3.1% other (86.4 vehicle trips per
                            100 employees).



                    Policies: Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 278
                   Location: Bellevue, Washington

                     Case # 19
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 7: Bishop Ranch, Contra Costa
                   Pub Title: County, California)
                   Pub Date: February 1990
                     Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: Bishop Ranch is a large suburban office park in Contra Costa County, with several large corporate offices such as Pacific
                              Bell and Chevron. The landowners of the office park were required to reduce peak hour vehicle trip generation by 40% by
                              the county. The landowners also wanted to prevent congestion from diminishing access to the park. The landowners
                              contracted with RIDES for Bay Area Commuters, the regional ridesharing organization, to facilitate ridesharing with
                              computerized ridematching, discounted rail tickets and transit sceduling information, vanpool information, and special
                              assistance for companies relocating to Bishop Ranch. The companies also provide a transit shuttle connecting to the
                              regional transit system and offer flexible work hours. While these efforts have resulted in high rates of carpooling and
                              vanpooling, overall, drive alone rates increased. This is attributed to the fact that employees relocated to be closer to the
                              park, which correlated to higher drive alone rates. Still, compared to regional control sites, the Bishop Rance Business
                              Park had 77.6 vehicle trips per 100 commuters, compared to 93.0 for control sites, for a 16.6% vehicle trip reduction
                              compared to the control group.



                    Policies:   Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    154
                   Location:    Contra Costa County, California
                      Notes:    77.6 vehicle trips per 100 travelers vs. 93.0 vehicle trips per 100 travelers for regional control sites

                     Case # 20
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 8: Hacienda Business Park,
                   Pub Title: Alameda County, California)
                   Pub Date: February 1990



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                    Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: Hacienda Business Park is located near the town of Pleasanton, which enacted a Transportation Demand Management
                            ordninace in conjunction with the planning of Hacienda to limit traffic impacts on the new development. The ordinance
                            required a 40% reduction in peak period vehicle trips for all large employers. The Hacienda Business Park Owners'
                            Association (HBPOA) created a shuttle that connected to transit rail, provided computerized matching for carpools and
                            vanpools, offered flexible work hours, and promoted public transit with subsidies. The drive alone (79%), carpool (16%),
                            and public transit (2%) remained static over time. Employees generate 85.2 vehicle trips per 100 employees, compared to
                            approximately 93 vehicle trips per 100 employees in Walnut Creek and Santa Rosa, two nearby suburban activity centers
                            used as a control comparison.

                    Policies:   Worksite TDM (general)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    78
                   Location:    Alameda County, California
                      Notes:    (85.2 vehicle trips per 100 employees vs. 93.0 vehicle trips per 100 travelers at regional control sites)

                     Case #     21
                  Report No.    FHWA-SA-90-005
                   Pub Title:   Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 9: UCLA, California)
                   Pub Date:    February 1990
                     Author:    US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary:      UCLA committed to developing a comprehensive commuter management program for students, faculty, and staff in 1984.
                                UCLA owns and runs 15- and 6-passenger vans for use by faculty, staff, and students, charging passengers on a monthly
                                basis depending on distance of commute. UCLA uses computers to match individuals for carpooling, and carpools have
                                reduced rates for parking. UCLA operates two commuter bus routes and shuttle services between popular locations,
                                including park-and-ride remote parking. UCLA has spaces for motorcycles, mopeds, and bicycles. In 1980 the mode
                                split rate was 75% drive alone, 6.9% carpool, 0.1% vanpool, 11.4% transit. In 1988, after the program was established,
                                the mode split rate was 74.4% drive alone, 10.1% carpool, 5.0% vanpool, and 6.2% transit.




                    Policies:   Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    0
                   Location:    Los Angeles, California
                      Notes:    stable level of drive alone commuting (increase in carpool and vanpool came at expense of transit)
                                (Note 8-year difference between 'before' and 'after' data)

                     Case # 22
                  Report No. FHWA-SA-90-005
                              Evaluation of Travel Demand Management: Measures to Relieve Congestion (Case Study 10: Atlantic Richfield Company,
                   Pub Title: Los Angeles, California)



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                  Pub Date: February 1990
                    Author: US DOT, Federal Highway Administration
                  Summary: Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) has a transportation management program that includes: computer matching for
                            carpooling, company sponsored vanpooling (charges $60 per month), buspooling, transit information and pass subsidies
                            ($15 per month), telecommuting, and compressed work weeks. In 1989, ARCO had a mode split rate of 40% drive alone,
                            26.2% carpool, 13.6% vanpool, and public transit 20.2% (55.3 vehicle trips per 100 travelers). These figures are
                            compared against a control group of downtown LA office workers with a rate of 68.3 vehicle trips per 100 travelers.



                    Policies:   Worksite TDM (site-specific)
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    130
                   Location:    Los Angeles, California
                      Notes:    55.3 vehicle trips per 100 employees vs. 68.3 for control group

                     Case #     23
                    Author:     United States General Accounting Office
                       Title:   Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs, Report to Selected Members of Congress
                Publication:    Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office Report GAO/RCED-93-163
                      Date:     September 1993
                  Web site:     http:/www.gao.gov
                   Excerpt:     The U.S. GAO (United States General Accounting Office) conducted a survey in 1993 of 75 U.S. agencies and organizations
                                offering $21/month transit benefits. Around 33% of the people employed by the participating agencies accepted the transit
                                benefits. 21% of the employees who accepted public transportation benefits from their agency were new transit riders.
                                Almost 60% of this group previously drove alone as their primary means of commuting to work. The GAO also
                                asked what would happen if the transit benefits were increased from $21 per month to the $60 maximum tax-free benefit
                                permitted by the new law that went into force at the beginning of 1993. Twenty-four percent of the remaining
                                non-participating employees said that they would definitely or probably change. This would increase participation from 33%
                                to 49% and the 16% increase would all be new transit riders.
                    Policies:   Transit Benefits
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    40
                   Location:    U.S.
                      Notes:    40 observed for $21/mo benefits: = 33% transit mode share * 21% new riders * 60% previously drove alone = 4% shift
                                200 estimated for $60/mo benefits:= 4% + 16% = 20%. May overstate because participation is stated, not observed.

                    Case #:     24
                    Author:     James Meyer and Edward A. Beimborn
                       Title:   Evaluation of an Innovative Transit Pass Program: the UPASS
                Publication:    Wisconsin Department of Transportation
                      Date:     March 1996




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                   Web site: http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS/upassum.htm
                    Excerpt: "Students who drive to UWM [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee] declined from a rate of 54% prior to UPASS [free
                              unlimited transit pass program] to a rate between 38% and 41% after the implementation of UPASS."
                    Policies: Transit Benefits
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 145
                   Location: Milwaukee, Wisconsin
                      Notes: The mode shift does not apply to solo drivers specifically.

                     Case #:  25
                     Author:  University of Washington Transportation Office
                        Title:10 Years of U-PASS Transportation Choices: Annual Report, 2000-2001
                 Publication: University of Washington
                       Date:  2002
                   Web site:  http://www.washington.edu/upass/news_and_reports/reports.html
                    Excerpt:  See table on page 7 of report. Among students, faculty, and staff, single-occupant vehicle commuting to campus has fallen
                              from 33 percent in 1989 (before the U-PASS program was introduced) to 25 percent in 2000.
                    Policies: Transit Benefits
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 80
                   Location: Seattle's university district, Washington

                    Case #:      26
                    Author:      Comsis Corporation
                       Title:    Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures
                 Publicaton:     Federal Highway Administation and Federal Transit Administration
                       Date:     September 1993
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:      "In late 1988, the [San Diego Trust & Savings] bank decided to increase the transit subsidy [from 100%] to 125% of the
                                 employee's cost, in response to federal tax legislation that changed the designation of employer-provided transit
                                 subsidies.... Under this legislation, parking subsides continued to be tax free, thus the bank did not increase the value of
                                 the parking subsidy [which was $55 per month or about half the employee's cost]. [...] Table 3-1 shows that between
                                 1989 and 1991 the bank reduced its drive-alone rate from 55 percent to 44 percent."
                    Policies:    Transit Benefits
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:     110
                   Location:     San Diego, California
                     Notes:      See also Table 3.2.3 showing vehicle trip reduction (but not solo driving declines specifically) for 22 companies nationwide.

                    Case #:      27
                    Author:      Todd Litman
                       Title:    Employer-Provided Transit Passes: A Tax Exempt Benefit
                 Publicaton:     Transport 2000 Canada



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                       Date: 28 January 1997
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt: "Experience with transit voucher programs in the U.S. indicate that these programs typically shift 20-percentage points of
                              recipients' commute travel from auto to transit."
                    Policies: Transit Benefits
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 200
                   Location: USA
                      Notes:

                     Case #:  28
                     Author:  Environmental Protection Agency
                        Title:Parking Cash Out: Implementing Commuter Benefits Under the Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                 Publication: Environmental Protection Agency Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                       Date:  September 2001
                   Web site:  http://www.commuterchoice.gov/pdf/parkingcash.pdf
                    Excerpt:  "Only 45 of [SuperValu's] 650 employees used an alternative to driving alone prior to the [$3 per day parking cash out
                              and ridematching service] incentive. The commuter incentive led to 40 employees giving up a parking space and carpooling
                              to work, an 88% increase in non-SOV mode share."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 62
                   Location: Eden Prairie, Minnesota

                     Case #:  29
                     Author:  Environmental Protection Agency
                        Title:Parking Cash Out: Implementing Commuter Benefits Under the Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                 Publication: Environmental Protection Agency Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
                       Date:  September 2001
                   Web site:  http://www.commuterchoice.gov/pdf/parkingcash.pdf
                    Excerpt:  "Of the 238 [University of St. Thomas] employees eligible for the [$100 cash-out incentive], 48 (23 percent) elected to
                              give up their parking space and use an alternative to driving alone to work. Prior to the incentive only 31 (13 percent) used
                              an alternative to driving alone."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 71
                   Location: University of St. Thomas, Minneapolis, Minnesota

                     Case #:     30
                     Author:     Donald C. Shoup
                        Title:   Evaluating the Effects of Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking: Eight Case Studies
                 Publication:    Transport Policy 4 (October 1997): 201-16
                       Date:     October 1997



                    12 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
                   Web site: http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu//dup/people/faculty/Shoup%20Pub%201.pdf
                    Excerpt: "After cashing out, the solo-driver share at the eight [Southern California] firms [surveyed in this study] fell from 76 percent
                              to 63 percent. The carpool share rose from 14 percent to 23 percent, the transit share rose from 6 percent to 9 percent,
                              and the combined walk and bicycle share rose from 3 percent to 4 percent.
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 130
                   Location: Southern California (downtown LA, Century City, Santa Monica, and West Hollywood)

                     Case #:      31
                     Author:      Gerald K. Miller and Carol T. Everett
                        Title:    Raising Commuter Parking Prices: An Empirical Study
                  Publicaton:     Transportation 11 (June 1982): 105-29
                        Date:     1982
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  "In November 1979, federal government employees at many government facilities in Washington, DC, and other major cities
                              began to pay nearly one-half of commercial parking rates for government-controlled parking spaces." Solo driving
                              declined by 1 to 6 percentage points at 11 sites, and increased by 1 to 5 percentage points at 4 sites.
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 60 decrease to 50 increase (net decrease of unknown amount)
                   Location: Washington, D.C. and suburbs

                       Case # 32
                      Author: Donald C. Shoup and Richard W. Willson
                              Commuting, Congestion, and Pollution: The Employer-Paid Parking Connection
                         Title:
                  Publication:Reason Public Policy Institute
                        Date: September 1992
                    Web site: http://www.rppi.org/transportation/ps147.html
                     Excerpt: "Conventional employer-paid parking induces 69 percent of commuters to drive alone [to downtown Los Angeles]....
                              If the employer allows commuters to choose cash in lieu of a parking subsidy, only 55 percent drive to work alone...."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 140
                   Location: Los Angeles, California

                       Case #     33
                      Author:     Daniel Baldwin Hess
                         Title:   The Effects of Free Parking on Commuter Mode Choice: Evidence from Travel Diary Data
                  Publication:    Ralph & Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies at UCLA Working Paper Series #34
                        Date:     April 2001
                    Web site:     http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu/lewis
                     Excerpt:     "[A multinomial logit model] predicts that with free parking, 62 percent of commuters [in Portland's CBD] will drive alone,



                     13 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
                                16 percent will commute in carpools and 22 percent will ride transit; with a daily parking charge of $6, 46 percent will drive
                                alone, 4 percent will ride in carpools and 50 percent will ride transit."
                    Policies:   Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    160
                   Location:    Portland, Oregon
                      Notes:    This is a modeling study based on empirical data from the Oregon and Southwestern Washington 1994 Activity and Travel
                                Behavior Survey conducted by Cambridge Systematics.

                    Case #:     34
                    Author:     Don H. Pickrell and Donald C. Shoup
                       Title:   Employer Subsidised Parking and Work Trip Mode Choice
                 Publicaton:    Transportation Research Reecord 786 (Washington, D.C.: Natonal Academy of Sciences,1980), 30-39.
                       Date:    1980
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:   "On April 1, 1975, the Canadian Government discontinued the provision of free parking to its employees and began charging
                              a price equal to 70 percent of commercial rates for comparable parking. …[In Ottawa] the number of persons driving alone
                              decreased by more than 20 percent [from 34.9 percent to 27.5 percent]."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 74
                   Location: Ottawa, Canada

                    Case #:     35
                    Author:     Richard Willson, Donald Shoup, and Martin Wachs
                       Title:   Parking Subsidies and Commuter Mode Choice: Assessing the Evidence
                 Publicaton:    University of California at Los Angeles
                       Date:    July 1989
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:     K.T. Analytics (FTA Parking Cash Out Web page): "A program of transit and vanpool subsidies as well as preferential
                                parking for carpoolers had little effect until [Twentieth Century Corporation in Los Angeles] raised the price of employee
                                parking from no charge to $30 per month for solo drivers. Solo driving decreased from 90 to 65 percent after pricing, a
                                49 percent decline."
                    Policies:   Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:    250
                   Location:    Los Angeles, California
                      Notes:    Decline of 49% cited in text appears to be incorrect.

                    Case #:     36
                    Author:     Monica Surber, Donald Shoup, and Martin Wachs
                       Title:   The Effects of Ending Employer-Paid Parking for Solo Drivers
                 Publicaton:    University of California at Los Angeles



                    14 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
                       Date: 1984
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt: "Ending free parking for solo drivers at [the Southern California transportation services firm] Commuter Computer dramatically
                              reduced solo driving. Solo driving decreased from 42 percent of the modal split during the last 4 months of free parking to
                              8 percent during the first 3 months after the parking subsidy for solo drivers was ended."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 340
                   Location: Los Angeles, California
                      Notes: The parking subsidy at Commuter Computer was removed only for employees who did not need their car for work.

                     Case #:     37
                     Author:     Tanya Husick
                        Title:   The Effects of Parking Pricing and a Transportation Allowance on Commute Behavior and Employee Attitudes
                  Publicaton:    Commuter Transportation Services, Los Angeles
                        Date:    15 December 1992
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  K.T. Analytics (FTA Parking Cash Out Web page): "[Los Angeles County] eliminated free parking for civic center employees
                              and charged from $120 to $70 per month depending on location. [The County] provided $70 per employee transportation
                              allowance. Solo shares declined from 53 to 47 percent, an 11 percent decline."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 60
                   Location: Los Angeles County, California

                     Case #:     38
                     Author:
                        Title:   Proceedings--Commuter Parking Symposium
                  Publicaton:    Metro and Association for Commuter Transportation, Seattle, Washington
                        Date:    December 1990
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:  K.T. Analytics (FTA Parking Cash Out Web page): "CH2M Hill in Bellevue, Washington] began charging solo drivers $40
                              per month for parking, the amount the company pays the building owner for parking. All employees receive a $40 per month
                              travel allowance in their paychecks. Carpoolers park for free. Walkers, cyclists and drop offs keep the travel allowance.
                              Solo driving declined from 89 percent to 64 percent after the parking policies were put into place, a 28 percent decline."
                    Policies: Parking Pricing
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 250
                   Location: Bellevue, Washington

                      Case #: 39
                      Author: Comsis Corporation
                        Title: Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures



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                 Publicaton: Federal Highway Administation and Federal Transit Administration
                       Date: September 1993
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt: "The 3M Company is generally credited with originating modern-day vanpooling. [...] As of 1985, the program operated 105
                              vans.... As shown in Table 3-2 [the drive-alone share fell from 91.6% in 1970 before the start of the program to 82.7%
                              in 1985]."
                    Policies: Vanpool
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits: 89
                   Location: St. Paul, Minnesota
                     Notes: See also Table 3.2.3 showing vehicle trip reduction (but not solo driving declines specifically) for 22 companies nationwide.

                     Case #:     40
                     Author:     Comsis Corporation
                        Title:   Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures
                  Publicaton:    Federal Highway Administation and Federal Transit Administration
                        Date:    September 1993
                    Web site:
                    Excerpt:     "In 1979, the [Transamerica Life] company established a vanpool program to accommodate a parking shortage and to
                                 reduce trips as a community benefit. The program was expanded in 1988 and 1990 to comply with local trip reduction
                                 ordinances. [...] Shown in Table 1-1 are mode shares [that show solo driving decreased from 49% in 1990 to 45% in 1991]."
                    Policies:    Vanpool
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:     40
                   Location:     Los Angeles, California
                     Notes:      See also Table 3.2.3 showing vehicle trip reduction (but not solo driving declines specifically) for 22 companies nationwide.

                     Case #      41
                  Report No.     P600-01-020
                   Pub Title:    Impacts of Telecommuting on Vehicle Miles Traveled: A Nationwide Time Series Analysis
                   Pub Date:     December 2001
                     Author:     California Energy Commission
                  Summary:       The study reports that telecommuting has a statistically significant, but very modest effect on total VMT. The study is 90%
                                 confident that telecommuting reduces VMT by an amount as little as 0.34%, but not 95% confident. The study states that
                                 telecommuting probably reduces VMT by less than 2%.
                    Policies:    Telecommuting
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:     < 20
                   Location:     Nationwide, United States
                     Notes:      Shift is a "five-day" equivalent (>20 employees participate, but not every day)




                    16 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
 ith two or more
r a 9.6 percent




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on ridesharing




                 19 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
e of alternative




 from 73.7 percent
arpool and vanpool




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nd organizations
pted the transit




 tion from 33%




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pus has fallen




es nationwide.




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and carpooling




percent) used




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her major cities




                   29 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
began charging




                 NO COPY




                 NO COPY




                           30 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
puter dramatically




                     NO COPY




nter employees




                     NO COPY




a $40 per month




                               31 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Case Studies
operated 105




es nationwide.




45% in 1991]."




es nationwide.




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                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:


# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:




# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:


# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:




# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:



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                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                      Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:
                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:

# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:

                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:


# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:
                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:


# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                    Case #
                  Web Site:
                  Pub Title:
                  Pub Date:
                    Author:
                   Excerpt:



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# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                     Case #
                   Web Site:
                   Pub Title:
                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:

# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                     Case #
                   Web Site:
                   Pub Title:
                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                      Notes:

                     Case #
                   Web Site:
                   Pub Title:
                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:

# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                     Case #
                   Web Site:
                   Pub Title:
                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:
                   Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                     Notes:

                     Case #
                   Web Site:
                   Pub Title:
                   Pub Date:
                     Author:
                    Excerpt:




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  # Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                     Location:
                       Notes:

                      Case #
                    Web Site:
                    Pub Title:
                    Pub Date:
                      Author:
                     Excerpt:


  # Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                     Location:
                       Notes:

                       Case #
                      Author:
                        Title:

                 Publicaton:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt:
                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:

                       Case #
                     Author:
                        Title:
                 Publicaton:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt:
                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:

                       Case #
                    Author:
                       Title:
                 Publicaton:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:



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                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:

                        Case #
                     Author:
                        Title:
                 Publication:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt:

                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                      Notes:

                       Case #
                     Web Site:
                     Pub Title:
                     Pub Date:
                       Author:
                      Excerpt:

                      Policies:
  # Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                     Location:
                        Notes:

                        Case #

                    Report No.
                     Pub Title:
                     Pub Date:
                       Author:
                    Summary:




                      Policies:
  # Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                     Location:

                        Case #
                     Author:
                        Title:
                 Publication:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                    Excerpt:




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                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:

                    Web Site:
                    Pub Title:
                    Pub Date:
                      Author:

                       Case #
                    Author:
                       Title:
                 Publicaton:
                       Date:
                   Web site:
                   Excerpt:

                    Policies:
# Shifted Per 1K w/Benefits:
                   Location:
                      Notes:




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Cases Removed from Main Database


http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/subgroups1/passenger_urban/study5/FinalReport/Final_Report.htm
Transportation Issue Table Tax Exempt Status for Employer-provided Transit Benefits; June 11,1999;
by the IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
June 11,1999
The IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
Litman (1996): This report assumes that the number of recipients would be 1.5 times the existing transit ridership and that
recipients would increase transit use by 23% on average. The net result of these assumptions (as we interpret them) is a
transit modal shift of 30% among all individuals offered benefits.
30% * (baseline % of transit users) * 1000
U.S.




http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/subgroups1/passenger_urban/study5/FinalReport/Final_Report.htm
Transportation Issue Table Tax Exempt Status for Employer-provided Transit Benefits; June 11,1999;
by the IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
June 11,1999
The IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
Commuter Check Data: A survey of 239 San Francisco Bay Area employers that purchased Commuter Checks concluded
that about 31% of employees who received Commuter Checks increased their use of transit. It is interesting to note,
however, that transit mode shifts were greater in areas outside of San Francisco (e.g. the outer regions) than areas within
San Francisco, probably due to the fact that current transit mode splits in these areas are very low.
N/A
San Francisco
Neither this Commuter Check impact study, nor two others carried out in the 1990s, specifically look at mode shift.


http://www.commutercheck.com/about/studies.html
Metropolitan Transportation Commission. Impact of the Bay Area Commuter Check Program: Results of Employee Survey
Oakland, California.
???
U.S. DOT, FTA.
About a third (31%) of the employees who receive Commuter
Checks increased their use of transit. These employees reported an
average increase of 3.24 transit trips per week.
???
San Francisco
Same as above ???


http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/subgroups1/passenger_urban/study5/FinalReport/Final_Report.htm
Transportation Issue Table Tax Exempt Status for Employer-provided Transit Benefits; June 11,1999;
by the IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
June 11,1999
The IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada
Based on the above references, there appears to be some consistency in these examples that about 30%
???????? transit benefits would be new transit users. In other words, for every three people who accept
a transit benefit, one of them would be a new transit user. Of course, these are the results of different circumstances;
in particular the U.S. studies are based on the then prevailing low levels of transit benefits. This is therefore considered
to be a conservatively low estimate and would depend on marketing efforts on the part of transit agencies.
300
U.S.



      39 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
http://www.vtpi.org/utrek.pdf
Victoria Transportation Policy Institute; UBC TREK Program Evaluation: Costs, Benefits and Equity Impacts
of a University TDM Programs
November 29, 1999.
by Todd Litman and Gordon Lovegrove;
The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee reduced student driving trips by 26%.
26% * (baseline % of drive alone commuters) * 1000
Milwaukee




http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS/upass/upas-trb.htm
An Analysis of the Usage, Impacts and Benefits of an Innovative Transit Pass Program
January 14, 1998
James Meyer & Edward A. Beimborn,
Results of the program were highly favorable. The percentage of trips by transit increased from about 12% of the trips to over
25% while at the same time auto usage dropped from 54% to about 40%.
14%
Milwaukee
Same as the case above ???


http://www.vtpi.org/utrek.pdf
Victoria Transportation Policy Institute; UBC TREK Program Evaluation: Costs, Benefits and Equity Impacts
of a University TDM Programs
November 29, 1999.
by Todd Litman and Gordon Lovegrove;
A University of Washington program reduced total vehicle trips to campus by 16% during its first year of operation,
and by 1998 the number of vehicles coming to campus during the morning pear period decreased by 19 percent
over 1990 levels, despite the growth in the campus population.
19% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) * 1000
Seattle




http://www.fpm.wisc.edu/campusecology/cerp/tdm/tdm.htm
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Programs: Profiles of Selected Universities
December, 1993
University of Wisconsin-Madison Environmental Management Campus Ecology Research Project
Seventy-seven percent of the campus community now participates in the U-PASS program. The
number of trips to campus between 7-9 A.M. decreased by 17.2 % between 1990 and 1992. SOV permits
have decreased by 24.1 %. Parking lot utilization has decreased by 16.8 %.
24% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) * 1000
Seattle
Same as above ???


TBD
Employee Trip Reduction in Southern California: First Year Results Published in Transportation Research A, Vol. 27A, No. 2
June 15, 1905
Genevieve Giuliano and Keith Hwang
TBD



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14%
California




http://ldtma.com/accomplish.htm
2000 Lloyd District Survey Summary
June 22, 1905
Lloyd District TMA
Drive alone – trips have decreased from 60% in 1997 to 48% in 2000, a 20%
decrease over four years.
20% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) * 1000
Portland, OR Lloyd District




TBD
Urban Transportation Monitor, 5/31/2002
May 31, 2002
TBD
TBD
286 ???
Portland, OR Lloyd District TMA
Same as one above ???


http://www.1800234ride.com/ + CUTR web site at ???
Background of South Florida Commuter Services
June 22, 1905
CUTR
South Florida Commuter Services achieved its highest productivity ever in the year 2000
with a 20.4 percent mode shift away from Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) use and into alternative modes of transportation.
20.4%
South Florida
20.4% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) ???


http://www.epa.gov/otaq/transp/trancont/tdmcases.pdf
TDM Case Studies and Commuter Testimonials
1995
Association for Commuter Transportation




http://www.fta.dot.gov/library/program/tchek/TransitChek.html
TransitChek® in the New York City and Philadelphia Areas.
1995
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
(For New York City …) 20.3 percent of TransitChek® recipients said their primary mode of transportation to work
was the automobile; after TransitChek® only 0.4 percent continued to use the automobile as their primary mode.
employee surveys showed that automobile and taxi use decreased and transit use increased by 16 to 23 percent among



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TransitChek® recipients.
while New York survey results show an increase of three (transit) trips per month by TransitChek® recipients.
(For Philadelphia) Before TransitChek® 20.3 percent said their primary mode of transportation to work was the automobile;
after TransitChek® only 0.4 percent continued to use the automobile as their primary mode.
Employees increased the number of (transit) trips they took per week from 7.8 to 10.3 trips after receiving the vouchers,
an increase of 32 percent.
Philadelphia survey results show an increase of 2.5 transit trips per week by TransitChek® recipients,
??? TBD
New York City and Philadelphia




http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu//dup/people/faculty/Shoup%20Pub%201.pdf
"Evaluating the Effects of Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking: Eight Case Studies"; Transport Policy, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 201-216
October 1997
Donald C. Shoup
For the 1,694 employees of the eight firms, the number of solo drivers to work fell by 17 percent after cashing out.
The number of carpoolers increased by 64 percent, the number of transit riders increased by 50 percent, and the number
who walk or bike to work increased by 39 percent. Vehicle miles traveled for commuting to the eight firms ell by 12 percent.
17% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) * 1000
California (downtown LA, Century City, Santa Monica and West Hollywood)




Richard W. Willson and Donald C. Shoup
The Effects of Employer-Paid Parking in Downtown Los Angeles: A Study of Office Workers and Their Employers
NEED COPY OF THIS
prepared for Southern California Association of Governments
May 1990


Parking Pricing

Los Angeles, California


L. Elder and W. Albert
The Effects of Parking on Mode Choice in Downtown Seattle and Bellevue NEED COPY OF THIS
Market Development, Seattle Metro
December 1991


Parking Pricing




G Miller
The Impacts of Parking Prices on Commuter Travel NEED COPY OF THIS
Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
December 1991




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Parking Pricing




South Florida Commuter Services
South Florida Commuter Services Web site

2001
http://www.1800234ride.com
"South Florida Commuter Services achieved its highest productivity ever in the year 2000 with a 20.4 percent mode shift
away from Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) use and into alternative modes of transportation."
Worksite TDM (general)
N/A
South Florida
20.4% refers only to "people in Commuter Services' rideshare database"


http://www.pyr.ec.gc.ca/tdm/tdm.asp?tdm=9&all=1
Commute Trip Reduction (CTR)
TBD
indirect citing of Comsis, 1993; Winters and Rudge, 1995
A comprehensive CTR program typically reduces peak-period automobile trips by 10-30% at a worksite
(Comsis, 1993; Winters and Rudge, 1995).
Worksite TDM (general)
30% * (baseline % of driving alone commuters) * 1000
U.S.




n/a. Cited from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Policy and International Affairs. "Policies and Measures for
Reducing Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Lesson from Recent Literature." July 1996. DOE/PO-
Employee Trip Reduction in Southern California: First Year Results.
June 1992.
Giuliano, G. K. Hwang, and M. Wachs. Institute for Transportation Studies, University of California at Los


A survey of participating employers at 1,110 sites documented modest impacts of promoting ridesharing
(Regulation XV Trip Reduction programs). One year after the programs were implemented, the percents of
workers driving alone declined from 76.6% to 71.4
Worksite TDM (general)
52 fewer drive alone commuters per 1000 employees (5.2 percentage point reduction: 76.6% to 71.4% drive
California


Tabitha Graves
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Programs: Profiles of Selected Universities
University of Wisconsin-Madison Environmental Management Campus Ecology Research Project No.5
December 1993
http://www.fpm.wisc.edu/campusecology/cerp/tdm/tdm.htm
"Twenty-seven percent of the [Cornell University] campus community now participates in OmniRide [subsidized local bus]
programs, which has led to a 22% reduction in SOV commuters each day. OmniRide caught people's attention with the cash
incentives, but an appeal to environmentally responsible resource use has become an increasingly important selling point."


      43 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
Worksite TDM (general)

Ithaca, New York

http://www.tc.gc.ca/envaffairs/subgroups1/passenger_urban/study5/FinalReport/Final_Report.htm
Transportation Issue Table Tax Exempt Status for Employer-provided Transit Benefits
June 11,1999
The IBI Group and Management of Technology Services; by Transport Canada



Richard W. Willson
Parking Pricing Without Tears: Trip Reduction Programs
Transportation Quarterly 51 (Winter 1997): 79-90
Winter 1997

"This article evaluates parking charge programs implemented by two employers in downtown Glendale, California between
1993 and 1995. The programs increased average vehicle ridership from about 1.15 to over 1.5 at both firms…."
Parking Pricing
N/A
Glendale, California
No before and after data on mode splits is presented.




      44 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
                Reason Removed

                Not an empirical study
                (Results are estimated forecasts)




                Does not estimate total mode shift




t mode shift.

                Does not estimate total mode shift
                Redundant




                Does not estimate total mode shift




                      45 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
Redundant




Redundant




Redundant




Redundant




Redundant




     46 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
Redundant




Redundant




No mode shift data




No mode shift data




      47 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
              Redundant

o. 4, pp. 201-216




              Not acquired

r Employers




              Not acquired




              Not acquired




                    48 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
              No mode shift data




percent mode shift




              Not a primary reference




              Redundant




              Insufficient data (no baseline mode share)




 ubsidized local bus]
s attention with the cash
 portant selling point."


                     49 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
             Redundant (w/GAO report)




             Insufficient data




e, California between




                   50 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Additional Mode Shift Cases
Policy                  Average # Observations   Comments
TDM Regional/Areawide      66          5         Cases 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 (1 & 3 are same programs; 6 raises questions on data interpretation)
TDM at Specific Sites     207         14         Cases 9 - 22
Transit Benefits          115          5         Cases 23 - 27
Parking Pricing           154         10         Cases 28 - 38
Vanpool                    65          2         Cases 39 - 40
Telecommuting              20          1         Case 41
Overall Average           148                    Few of these cases involve commuter inventives as significant as CCLI (making this calculation conservative)




                          51 of 51 2/1/2011 9:35 AM 43cfcb1b-a9ce-4813-905c-a49edc76e152.xls Mode Shift Calculations

				
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Description: Equity Bank Case Study at Universities document sample