Subdisciplines of Conservation Genetics by FWSdocs

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 43

									Philosophical Differences - Manuscript Reviews


Manuscript submitted to Molecular Ecology

Reviewer 1:
Quality of Science - experimentally excellent
Importance of Science – addressed consequential questions
Quality of presentation – writing & data analysis transparent

Reviewer 2:
Quality of Science - experimentally excellent
Importance of Science – addressed consequential questions
Quality of presentation – writing & data analysis transparent

Reviewer 3:
Quality of Science – weak, major flaws
Importance of Science – research descriptive, only relative to Zapus
Quality of presentation – writing & data analysis transparent
Preble’s Meadow Jumping Mouse Case Study


Most information is available at this USFWS, Region 6, site:


  http://mountain-prairie.fws.gov/preble/PEER/PEERindex.htm



Copies of King et al. 2006 (or any other article) will be
mailed upon request.
Conservation Biology Volume 20, No. 6, 1584–1594
 Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive


•Genetics plays an influential role in ESA listing/delisting decisions.
•Genetics data corresponded with agency decisions 83% of the time.
•Studies of organisms that did not detect genetic distinctions relied
       on fewer markers and less data.
•One half of the studies/decisions used a single marker type.

           Mean               mtDNA      Microsat   Allozyme     RFLP
   From 41 decisions made
   between 1996 and 2005
                             sequences     loci        loci    enzymes
   (source S.Fallon, NRDC,   430 bp         3          7          4
       Washington, DC)

      Salmo salar                          12          -          10

   Zapus hudsonius           1380 bp       21          -          -
       preblei
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive Discipline


•   Phylogenetics

• Phylogeography

• Population Genetics


• Captive Breeding Management

• Landscape Genetics

• Community Genetics

• Ecological Genomics

• Genetic Engineering
Captive Propagation Program for the
        Key Largo Woodrat
     (Neotoma floridana smalli)
    Subspecies
   Justification


160 miles
Virtually no
hardwood hammock
between localities
Morphological
differences
Molecular taxonomy
unknown
     Current Population Estimates
By 1995 stick nests had all but disappeared
from N. Key Largo
The KLWR population was estimated at 106 (30-
182) in 2002, an October 2004 report estimated
the population at 40 (5-104).

          200
          180
          160
          140
          120                                           Pop Est
          100                                           Upper 95% CI
           80                                           Lower 95% CI
           60
           40
           20
            0
            March-   October   January   April   July     McCleery et al 2004
             Sept
   Captive Propagation and Reintroduction Plan


Maintain refugia populations in captivity until causes of
the current decline are understood and addressed


Maintain refugia populations in captivity in case of
catastrophic events
        With breeding success came the need for…

    Genetics-based Captive Breeding
              Management

                        Objectives:

Prevent the extinction of KLWRs in the wild by maintaining
the population through augmentation with captive-born
woodrats

Maintain present levels of genetic diversity and
heterozygosity

Minimize inbreeding and thwart inbreeding depression
            Needed Genetic Analysis
• Closest known relative is the Eastern woodrat (Neotoma
floridana floridana)
• This non-listed subspecies served as a ―surrogate species‖
for training Service and Commission biologists to take blood
samples and insert microchip identification tags
• No phylogenetic analyses comparing the two subspecies
have been reported (research currently underway)
• Compare genetic diversity within and between subspecies
to place observed levels of N. f. smalli genetic diversity into
proper phylogenetic perspective.
                      Methods
Trapping performed by USFWS Ecological Services

Blood taken and preserved on FTA cards; tail tips
also placed in ethanol; ‗tick blood‘ placed onto FTA;
fecal samples placed on FTA cards and in alcohol

Genotyping performed by USGS

Microsatellite DNA markers developed for congeneric
species (Allegheny woodrat)

Nine markers currently in use; others being developed
Tissue sampling
                                                                                                            Neotoma
Neotoma floridana smalli                                                                                    floridana
                                                                                                            floridana


                                                                                                          D6     D2
                                           Neotoma
                                           floridana                                                                   B1
                                             smalli                                                                4
                                                                4400
                                                         4398
                          Felecia




 family unit 1
                 Fred H




                 Herbert

                                                                                               Bill    family unit 2

                                    3573                         Sallie B
                                                       Sophie                     4351
   0.1                                                                 Sammie B
                                                                                            Data suggests this
-ln(PSA)
                                                                                             individual may be
                                                                                         Bill’s sibling or offspring
                                            3566
                                            Unrooted neighbor-joining tree
                                                                     CAPTIVE-BRED FAMILIES
  Neotoma floridana smalli                                           Sire      Dame F1(offspring)

                                                                     Bill      Sophie       SallieB,SammieB

                                                                     FredH     Rita         RosieF,RiaF,RickyF
                                                                     FredH     SammieB      SamF,SyF
     QUIGLEY                                                         FredH     SallieB      SalF,StanF
                                                                     FredH     Ripper       RipleyF

                                                                     Herbert   Felicia      FredH,FrannieH

                              SyF                                    Dan       FrannieH     FridaD (not shown)
                        MAX
                                                   RITA              ?         Rita         Ripper
 FELICIA


                                                           ANGIE
KITTY

                                      SamF
 FrannieH                                                 RIPPER
            HERBERT
                                     IVAN      RipleyF
               SOPHIE



                                             DAN            0.1
                                                          -ln(PSA)
             ULY          YOGI
                              ZEKE                          Units

                   BILL
Animal 1   Animal 2   Distance             Full sibs
 RosieF      RiaF       0.118
 SallieB   SammieB      0.251    RosieF      RiaF      0.118
  SalF      StanF       0.325    SallieB   SammieB     0.251
   Bill       Uly       0.405     SalF       StanF     0.325
  RiaF      RickyF      0.405     RiaF      RickyF     0.405
 RipleyF    RickyF      0.405    RosieF     RickyF     0.405
 RosieF     RickyF      0.405     SamF        SyF      0.588
   SyF       SalF       0.405    FredH      FranH      0.693
   SyF      StanF       0.405                Mean      0.398
  Zeke       Yogi       0.405                 SD       0.195
   Bill      Yogi       0.492
 Felicia     FranH      0.492              Half sibs
 FredH      RickyF      0.492
 FredH       SamF       0.492      SyF       SalF      0.405
 FredH         SyF      0.492      SyF       StanF     0.405
  MAX         Ivan      0.492     SamF       RiaF      0.492
 Ripper     RipleyF     0.492    RosieF     RipleyF    0.588
  Rita      Ripper      0.492    RosieF      SamF      0.588
 SamF         RiaF      0.492     SamF       StanF     0.588
SammieB      SamF       0.492    RosieF      SalF      0.693
 Sophie       Ivan      0.492     SalF      RickyF     0.693
  Yogi      SallieB     0.492      SyF      RickyF     0.693
  Yogi     SammieB      0.492    RipleyF     RiaF      0.811
  Zeke       SamF       0.492     SalF       RiaF      0.811
   Bill     SallieB     0.588     SamF       SalF      0.811
   Bill    SammieB      0.588      SyF       RiaF      0.811
 Felicia     FredH      0.588      SyF      RipleyF    0.811
 Felicia    Quigley     0.588    RosieF      StanF     0.944
 FredH        RiaF      0.588    RosieF       SyF      0.944
 FredH      RipleyF     0.588     SalF      RipleyF    0.944
 FredH      RosieF      0.588     SamF      RickyF     0.944
 FredH        SalF      0.588     StanF     RipleyF    0.944
 FredH       StanF      0.588     StanF      RiaF      1.099
  Ivan      RosieF      0.588     StanF     RickyF     1.099
  Ivan       SamF       0.588     SamF      RipleyF    1.281
  Ivan     SammieB      0.588    RipleyF    RickyF     0.405
  Kitty     Quigley     0.588                Mean      0.774
  MAX        FredH      0.588                 SD       0.237
  MAX         SalF      0.588
  MAX          SyF      0.588
  Rita        RiaF      0.588
  Rita      RickyF      0.588
 RosieF     RipleyF     0.588
 RosieF      SamF       0.588
 SallieB      SalF      0.588
 SallieB     StanF      0.588
 SamF        StanF      0.588
 SamF          SyF      0.588
Animal 1 Animal 2 Distance Relationship
  RosieF      RiaF     0.118    FS
  SallieB   SammieB    0.251    FS
   SalF      StanF     0.325    FS
     Bill      Uly     0.405     ?
   RiaF      RickyF    0.405    FS
  RipleyF    RickyF    0.405    HS             QUIGLEY
  RosieF     RickyF    0.405    FS
    SyF       SalF     0.405    HS
    SyF      StanF     0.405    HS
   Zeke       Yogi     0.405     ?
     Bill     Yogi     0.492     ?
  Felicia   FrannieH   0.492    PO
 FrannieH    Herbert   0.492    PO                                      SyF
  FredH      RickyF    0.492    PO
  FredH      SamF      0.492    PO
                                                                  MAX
  FredH        SyF     0.492    PO                                                           RITA
   MAX         Ivan    0.492     ?         FELICIA
  Ripper     RipleyF   0.492    PO
    Rita     Ripper    0.492    PO
  SamF       Herbert   0.492    GO
  SamF        RiaF     0.492    HS                                                                   ANGIE
 SammieB     SamF      0.492    PO        KITTY
  Sophie       Ivan    0.492     ?
   Yogi      SallieB   0.492     ?
   Yogi     SammieB    0.492     ?                                              SamF
   Zeke      SamF      0.492     ?
   Angie     Ripper    0.588     ?         FrannieH                                                 RIPPER
     Bill    SallieB   0.588    PO                    HERBERT
     Bill   SammieB    0.588    PO                                             IVAN      RipleyF
  Felicia    FredH     0.588    PO                       SOPHIE
  Felicia    Quigley   0.588     ?
  FredH      Herbert   0.588    PO
  FredH       RiaF     0.588    PO
  FredH      RipleyF   0.588    PO
  FredH      RosieF    0.588    PO                                                     DAN
  FredH       SalF     0.588    PO                                                                    0.1
  FredH      StanF     0.588    PO
    Ivan     RosieF    0.588     ?                                                                  -ln(PSA)
    Ivan     SamF      0.588     ?
                                                       ULY          YOGI
                                                                        ZEKE                          Units
    Ivan    SammieB    0.588     ?
   Kitty     Quigley   0.588     ?
   MAX       FredH     0.588     ?                           BILL
   MAX        SalF     0.588     ?
   MAX         SyF     0.588     ?
    Rita      Angie    0.588     ?
    Rita      RiaF     0.588    PO
    Rita     RickyF    0.588    PO
  RosieF     Herbert   0.588    GO
  RosieF     RipleyF   0.588    HS+
  RosieF     SamF      0.588    HS
Partners:
USFWS
USGS
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Lowry Park Zoo
Texas A&M University
University of Georgia
Copyrighted zoological facility outside of Orlando, FL
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive Discipline


•   Phylogenetics

• Phylogeography

• Population Genetics


• Captive Breeding Management

• Landscape Genetics

• Community Genetics

• Ecological Genomics

• Genetic Engineering
Identification of the basic unit of management


Regardless of objective (RESTORATION or ERADICATION)
must identify the basic unit of management.


Molecular genetic techniques combined with
new statistical analyses provide a robust set of tools for
delineating the appropriate unit of management.


Contemporary molecular genetics allows research at the
finest level possible - the unique multilocus genotype.
Witnessing somewhat of a paradigm shift - away from the
population as the OTU (operational unit).
What is Landscape Genetics?


Population structure reflects the dynamics (directed and stochastic
processes) of the species’ interactions with its environment.

Traditional population genetic analyses can provide useful
information (phylogeographic structure, demographic information)
but are often not the most appropriate for use in detecting
fine-scale structure.

Contemporary molecular genetics allows researchers to focus
at the finest level possible - the unique multilocus genotype.
What is Landscape Genetics?


 Robust statistical tools applied to unique multilocus genotypes
 can allow the identification of fine-scale spatial genetic patterns.

 These patterns will be compared with landscape or environmental
 features (including robust distance metrics and numerous data
 Layers) made available by landscape ecologists to identify the
 most basic unit of management.


 Population/Individual          Landscape            Landscape
                          +                      =
       Genetics                  Ecology              Genetics

  unique genotypes            distance metrics
  genetic distances           GIS data layers


           robust statistical analyses
                        Unique Multilocus Genotypes
 Animal ID     Nma1        Nma4       Nma5       Nma8       Nma10       Nma11       Nma14     NmaD121    NmaD138
     Bill    321  321    159  165   231  243   134  138   223   225   164   166   163   163   151  153   297  297
  Sophie     299  303    157  159   227  241   134  138   213   227   164   164   159   161   155  157   297  305
  Felicia    315  317    141  159   231  241   130  132   209   213   162   164   159   161   161  163   289  305
    Rita     295  295    169  169   243  243   132  134   223   225   164   164   159   163   155  157   297  297
   Zeke      315  321    159  165   231  231   132  138   213   225   164   164   161   161   151  155   293  297
   MAX       303  317    159  171   231  243   134  138   209   227   164   164   159   167   157  163   293  305
   Kitty     317  321    159  163   227  241   130  130   213   223   164   164   159   163   155  161   289  297
 Quigley     313  317    159  163   241  241   130  130   209   223   162   164   161   161   161  161   289  289
    Yogi     321  321    159  161   231  231   134  138   213   225   164   166   161   163   151  155   289  293
    Ivan     299  303    157  159   231  243   138  140   209   225   164   164   159   167   151  155   297  305
     Uly     315  321    159  165   243  243   134  134   225   225   164   166   163   163   151  155   293  297
   Angie     295  321    159  165   243  243   132  134   211   223   164   164   159   159   153  157   293  301
  Fred_H     299  317    141  171   227  231   130  134   209   209   164   164   159   161   155  163   305  305
 Sallie_B    299  321    159  159   231  241   138  138   213   225   164   166   161   163   151  157   297  305
Sammie_B     303  321    159  159   227  231   138  138   225   227   164   166   161   163   151  155   297  305
  Ripper     295  313    163  169   243  243   134  136   211   225   164   164   157   159   157  161   297  301
  Fran_H     299  315    159  159   227  241   132  140   209   209   162   164   159   161   155  161   293  305
 Rosie_F     295  299    163  171   227  243   134  134   209   225   164   164   159   159   155  155   297  305
  Sam_F      317  321    141  159   227  231   134  138   209   225   164   164   161   161   155  155   297  305
   Sy_F      317  321    159  171   231  231   130  138   209   225   164   166   159   163   155  163   305  305
   Sal_F     299  299    159  171   227  241   134  138   209   225   164   166   159   163   157  163   305  305
  Stan_F     299  299    159  171   231  231   134  138   209   225   164   166   161   161   151  163   305  305
 Ripley_F    295  299    163  171   231  243   130  136   209   211   164   164   157   159   161  163   301  305
   Ria_F     295  317    169  171   227  243   134  134   209   225   164   164   159   159   155  155   297  305
 Ricky_F     295  299    169  171   227  243   130  132   209   211   164   164   159   163   155  163   297  305
    Dan      301  321    153  159   241  243   134  138   209   225   162   164   163   167   151  155   293  293
 Herbert     299  301    159  171   227  241   134  140   209   225   164   164   161   161   147  155   293  305


                           Alleles measured in base pairs
Any study that involves the generation of unique multilocus genotypes
    and incorporates the use of GPS data to record collection site.
                                                          Linkage Disequilibrium
                                                               Locus Pair              Chi2      df     P-value

Population Genetics                                   Nma1         &         Nma4     Infinity   2    Highly sign.
                                                      Nma1         &         Nma5      0.872     2      0.6466

    Analyses                                          Nma4
                                                      Nma1
                                                                   &
                                                                   &
                                                                             Nma5
                                                                             Nma8
                                                                                       3.527
                                                                                       2.74
                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                        0.1714
                                                                                                        0.2542
                                                      Nma4         &         Nma8      5.373     2      0.0681
                                                      Nma5         &         Nma8      4.957     2      0.0839
                                                      Nma1         &         Nma10     7.768     2      0.0206
                                                      Nma4         &         Nma10     3.512     2      0.1727
                                                      Nma5         &         Nma10     1.279     2      0.5275
                                                      Nma8         &         Nma10     3.499     2      0.1738
                                                      Nma1         &         Nma11     6.395     2      0.0409
                                                      Nma4         &         Nma11     2.445     2      0.2946
                                                      Nma5         &         Nma11     3.539     2      0.1704
                                                      Nma8         &         Nma11     0.867     2      0.6481
                                                      Nma10        &         Nma11     0.705     2      0.7028
             Hardy-Weinberg                           Nma1
                                                      Nma4
                                                                   &
                                                                   &
                                                                             Nma14
                                                                             Nma14
                                                                                       0.927
                                                                                       3.394
                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                        0.6289
                                                                                                        0.1832
                                    Fis      Fis      Nma5         &         Nma14     3.66      2      0.1605
     Locus   Probability   S.E.    W&C      R&H       Nma8         &         Nma14     0.683     2      0.7107
                                                      Nma10        &         Nma14     5.717     2      0.0574
    Nma1        0.948      0.005   0.033     0.000    Nma11        &         Nma14     7.022     2      0.0299
    Nma4        0.757      0.018   -0.107   -0.024    Nma1         &        NmaD121    1.526     2      0.4663
    Nma5        0.207        /     0.114     0.077    Nma4         &        NmaD121    1.035     2      0.5959
    Nma8        0.429      0.010   0.037     0.025    Nma5         &        NmaD121    1.744     2      0.4180
    Nma10       0.785      0.008   -0.170   -0.117    Nma8         &        NmaD121    2.572     2      0.2764
    Nma11       1.000        /     -0.191   -0.126    Nma10        &        NmaD121    4.541     2      0.1033
    Nma14       0.458      0.010   0.138     0.073    Nma11        &        NmaD121    1.043     2      0.5938
   NmaD121      0.765      0.010   -0.077   -0.051    Nma14        &        NmaD121    1.805     2      0.4055
   NmaD138      0.802      0.006   0.044     0.084    Nma1         &        NmaD138    7.807     2      0.0202
                                                      Nma4         &        NmaD138   11.585     2      0.0031
   All        (Fishers Method)                        Nma5         &        NmaD138    3.637     2      0.1622
   Chi2 :         8.5                                 Nma8         &        NmaD138    2.142     2      0.3426
   Df :           18                                  Nma10        &        NmaD138    4.92      2      0.0854
   Prob :       0.9696                                Nma11        &        NmaD138    3.702     2      0.1571
                                                      Nma14        &        NmaD138    0.646     2      0.7238
                                                     NmaD121       &        NmaD138    8.29      2      0.0158
     QUIGLEY




                              SyF
                        MAX
                                                   RITA
 FELICIA


                                                           ANGIE
KITTY

                                      SamF
 FrannieH                                                 RIPPER
            HERBERT
                                     IVAN      RipleyF
               SOPHIE



                                             DAN            0.1
                                                          -ln(PSA)
             ULY          YOGI
                              ZEKE                          Units

                   BILL
                                     Mantel Test of Isolation by Distance
                   3.00




                                 P < 0.0001; r = 0.46

                   2.29
Genetic Distance
  (-ln (PSA))




                   1.58




                   0.87




                   0.15
                          0.00           2.39           4.79    7.18        9.57
Effective Distance Approach




                        “Least-cost” modeling
                         may provide a better
                             relationship
                      12.67
                                 T = 3.48, P < 0.002
                                      Z = 90.86
                                       r = 0.61


                      9.51
Geographic distance




                      6.35




                      3.19




                      0.03
                          0.02                   0.12         0.22         0.32        0.42

                                                        Genetic distance          Figure 5
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive Discipline


•   Phylogenetics

• Phylogeography

• Population Genetics


• Captive Breeding Management

• Landscape Genetics

• Community Genetics

• Ecological Genomics

• Genetic Engineering
What is Community Genetics?


• “The analysis of evolutionary genetic processes that
occur among interacting populations in communities”
(Antonovics 1992).

• Study of the role of intraspecific genetic variation in
DOMINANT and KEYSTONE species, which in turn
affects dependent species, community organization, and
ecosystem dynamics.
Why do we need a community genetics perspective?



 •   Prevailing models of community organization and ecosystem
     dynamics do not include a genetic-based perspective.

 •   A genetic-based model would clearly place community and
     ecosystems ecology within an evolutionary framework.

 •   Essential for scaling up from population to communities and
     ecosystems. Genes are likely the best scalers because they
     are the result of natural selection and evolution.
Community Genetics Summary Points


• In diverse systems, genes exhibit phenotypes that affect
        community structure & ecosystem processes.

• These phenotypes are likely to be most important
       when expressed in dominant and keystone species.

• Community structure and ecosystem processes
      can be heritable.

• To conserve dependent communities, we must
     preserve genetic diversity in dominant species.

• Emphasizes a community approach to conservation rather than
     a species approach.
Community Genetics Example


  • Study the phylogeography or phylogenetics among the
      species coexisting within and among Lophelia bioherms
      (deep-sea coral reefs).
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive Discipline


•   Phylogenetics

• Phylogeography

• Population Genetics


• Captive Breeding Management

• Landscape Genetics

• Community Genetics

• Ecological Genomics

• Genetic Engineering
Ecological Genomics Applications


Comparative Functional Genomics
      Determine whether genetic differentiation is adaptive or
      just an indicator of the impact stochastic processes have
      had on population structuring

Ecotoxicogenomics
       Identify up-regulated and down-regulated genes in response
       to herbicides, pesticides, paper mill effluent, low pH,
       and/or heavy metals
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive


           Functional Genomics
                       Goal:
     Use powerful tools (e.g., microarrays) to
     investigate the evolutionary processes of
   adaptive divergence among natural populations.

                           Research Question -
                           Does the genetic divergence
                           observed among brook trout
                           show adaptive significance
                           (i.e., or is differentiation due
                           to divergent natural
                           selection)?
Functional Genomics
                                               Salvelinus fontinalis


 Will utilize transcriptome profiles obtained from a
 ~3500 cDNA gene microarray developed for
 Atlantic salmon.

 Experiments will test for significant differential
 expression between genetically divergent populations.




                                     B. Koop
Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive Discipline


•   Phylogenetics

• Phylogeography

• Population Genetics


• Captive Breeding Management

• Landscape Genetics

• Community Genetics

• Ecological Genomics

• Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering


   Known risks - Engineered organisms pose risk to
   the environment in cases where:

 • Lack of experience with the trait (e.g., increased growth) or
   DNA construct (e.g., an inhibitor) and its interaction with
   the target organism

 • The organism may persist without human intervention

 • Genetic exchange (i.e., introgression) is possible

 • Trait confers a selective advantage
Genetic Engineering



         Parallels to Pesticides
   A Perspective on humility and power

   ―The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction
   between living things and their surroundings. To a large
   extent, the physical form and the habits of the earth‘s
   vegetation and its animal life have been molded by the
   environment….Only within the moment of time represented by
   the present century has one species—man—acquired
   significant power to alter the nature of the world.‖
                                      Rachael Carson
                                      ―The Obligation to Endure‖
                                      Silent Spring
Genetic Engineering


               Parallels to Pesticides
 A Perspective on time
   ―For time is the essential ingredient; but in the modern world,
   there is no time. The rapidity of change and the speed with
   which new situations are created follow the impetuous and
   heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of
   nature‖

 A Perspective on imbalances in the pace of science
    ―There are vast gaps in our knowledge….for the chemist‘s
    ingenuity in devising insecticides has long ago outrun biological
    knowledge of the way these poisons affect living organisms.‖

                                         Rachael Carson
                                         ―The Obligation to Endure‖
                                         Silent Spring
    Conservation Genetics – Dynamic and Adaptive


      Direct Gene Insertion and Manipulation
     (allows for rapid selection of desirable or detrimental traits)


Transgenic (GH) salmon
•    Faster growth
•    Increased feed conversion efficiency
•    Consume more feed
•    Uptake more oxygen


Might show increased fitness, but gaps still exist in understanding key
fitness parameters to allow assessment of the impact to wild
populations.


Cultivated salmon escapes into the wild from farms pose ecological and
genetic risks (gene flow-introgression) to native salmon stocks.
 GEOs as a Conservation Tool

Gene constructs may be used to control the reproduction of invasive species

Example - Daughterless Gene Technology


                           Possible applications:
                            Asian swamp eels
                           Northern snakehead
                                Asian carp

  Monopterus albus        Similar technology may be
                     applicable to other invasive species
                        (e.g., zebra mussels, nutria)       Dreissena polymorpha


                        Advantages: no con-generics
                       occur in North America for the
                     construct to jump to other species.

     Channa argus                                             Myocastor coypus

								
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