Exterior Lighting _ the Environment by dfsiopmhy6

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 44

									   Exterior Lighting
  & the Environment
Statutory Nuisance and Planning

Gareth Pritchard BTech(Hons) IEng FILE TechIOSH



    Institution of Lighting Engineers
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Electromagnetic Spectrum




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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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Exterior Lighting & Planning




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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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 Exterior Lighting & the Environment

• Photopic above about 3 cd/m
• Mesopic between 0.01 and 3 cd/m
• Scotopic below 0.01 cd/m



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Exterior Lighting & the Environment




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                 Lamps
• Lumen Output

• Colour Appearance

• Colour Rendering

• Luminous Efficacy

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     Lamps - Lumen Output
• Is the term given to the amount of light
  emitted by a lamp in Lumens.




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 Lamps - Colour Appearance
• Colour Appearance

 An expression given to the colour
 perception of a light source (lamp)
 when viewed directly.




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  Lamps - Colour Rendering
• Colour Rendering

 A general expression for the appearance
 of surface colours when illuminated.

 “Good colour rendering” implies
 similarity to surfaces lit by daylight.

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Lamps - Colour Rendering
• A lamp’s colour rendering quality is
  defined by a number known as the
 Colour Rendering Index -      CRI


• Generally speaking lamps defined as
    emitting “White Light” have a
    CRI greater than Ra60
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70W SON              35W MH




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 Colour - 1.High Pressure Sodium
2.Metal Halide 3.Low Pressure Sodium




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  Lamps - Luminous Efficacy
• The efficiency of lamps is normally stated
  as Lumens/Watt - which is how much
  light is produced for the consumption of
  1 watt of electricity.




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  Lamps - Production of Light
• Incandescent
  Light is produced by passing electric
  current through a tungsten filament.
• Discharge
  Light is produced by an electrical discharge
  passing through a tube containing a gas and
  various metallic elements.

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  Lamps - Production of Light
• Incandescent - can be connected directly
  to a source of electrical energy.


• Discharge - requires “control gear”
  between the lamp and energy source.


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               Lamp - Types

• Tungsten Filament (G.L.S.)-Domestic
• Tungsten Halogen (T.H.) - Domestic
  --------------------------------------------------
• Compact Flu. ( C.F. ) - Domestic
• High Pressure Sodium (H.P.S.) Ind.
• Low Pressure Sodium (S.O.X.) Ind.
• Ceramic Metal Halide (C.D.M.) Ind.
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    Lamps - Tungsten Filament

• Domestic
• 15 to 1000 watt
• Good Colour -CRI-100
• Poor Life (1000 hrs)
• Poor Efficacy(10/12
  lumens/watt)
• Instant Restrike


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   Lamps - Tungsten Halogen
• Small Floodlights
  (D.I.Y. with P.I.R.)
• No Control Gear
• Good Colour - CRI-100
• Poor Life (2000 hrs)
• Poor Efficacy( 20
  lumens/watt)
• Instant Restrike

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    Lamps - Compact Fluorescent
• Mainly Domestic
• 5 to 58 watt
• Good Colour CRI-85
• Fair Life (5000 hrs)
• Fair Efficacy( 50
  lumens/watt)
• Instant Restrike
• Ideal replacement for
  G.L.S. lamps
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Lamps - Low Pressure Sodium
• Street Lighting – also used for
  some “security” lighting
• 18 to 180 watt
• Poor Colour CRI-(not avail.)
• Good Life(8000 hrs)
• Good Efficacy(130
  lumens/watt
• Reqs. Control Gear
• Not Instant Restrike
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Lamps - High Pressure Sodium
• Ind./Street Ltg.
• 50 to 400 watt
• Reasonable Colour CRI-60
• Good Life(12000hrs)
• Good Efficacy(100
  lumens/watt)
• Reqs. Control Gear
• Not Instant Restrike
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Lamps - Ceramic Metal Halide

•   Street Lighting,Commercial/Industrial.
•   35 to 150 watt (will be up to 400 watt).
•   Excellent Colour. CRI - 90
•   Good Life (10-16000hrs.)
•   Good Efficacy ( 90 lum/watt ).
•   Reqs Control Gear.
•   Not Instant Restrike.
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           Lamps- L.E.D.
• L.E.D. or Light Emitting Diode is a
  solid state device which when current
  passes visible light is produced.
  * Very Low Lumen Output
  * Life & Colour Stability not Proven
  * Luminaires still being developed
  * Very Low Energy Consumption

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              Luminaires

•   Housing for the lamp
•   Controls Light Output
•   Can Include Control Gear
•   Provides Weatherproofing
•   Helps Aesthetics



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           Lighting Design
               Glare
• “Glare” - Can be a danger and reduces
  visibility by causing sharp contrasts in
  lighting levels that may actually help
  conceal objects or people.
• Care should be taken to ensure that the
  correct luminaire is chosen and aimed in
  the intended direction.

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      Environmental Factors
           “Sky Glow”
• Use specifically
  designed equipment
  to minimise spread of
  light above the
  horizontal




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                Guidance Notes for the
              Reduction of Obtrusive Light
                          Direct Upward
                          Light                Upward
                                               Reflected Light



                          Spill Light




                Useful Light                                     Light Trespass
Spill Light



                                                                        Viewed Source
                                                                        Intensity
                        Area to be Lit



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          Lighting Design
• Office Lighting -    Illuminance

• Area Lighting   -    Illuminance

• Road Lighting   -    Luminance

 Illuminance = Lux
 Luminance = Candelas / sq metre
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      Lighting Design
Illuminance & Luminance




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        Levels of Illumination
          Some Examples
•   English June Day           80000 lux
•   Well Lit Office           500 lux
•   Main Road Lighting        1.5 cd/m2
•   Side Road Lighting        5 lux
•   Clear Moonlight           0.2 lux



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       Lighting Standards
       C.C.T.V. for Security

• 20 Lux for recognition
  (with good colour rendering min Ra80)

• 5 Lux to detect movement

 (no specific standards exist)


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              Sports Lighting
• Class I - Top Level Competition.

• Class II - Intermediate Level Competition.

• Class III - Lower Level Competition &
Supervised Training.

Lighting for CTV broadcasting has specific
requirements and recommendations
(CIE No.83:1989).


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Sports Lighting




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Lighting - Measurements

      Illuminance




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Lighting - Measurements

      Luminance




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