Origins of Conservation Genetics by FWSdocs

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									The Origins of Conservation
         Genetics
    It wasn’t always this way.
                  Outline
•   Population genetics
•   Modern evolutionary synthesis
•   Molecular markers
•   Phylogenetic systematics
•   Conservation Genetics
          Population genetics
       primarily 1920s & 1930s
Mendelian genetics at the population level

• Ronald Fisher
• Sewall Wright
• J.B.S. Haldane
    Modern Evolutionary Synthesis
•   Theodosius Dobzhansky
•   Ernst Mayr
•   George Gaylord Simpson
•   Julian Huxley
•   Ledyard Stebbins
“Modern” Synthesis of Evolution
• Importance now sometimes downplayed
  because of its association with biological
  species concept (BSC).
• More than just BSC: integration of
  genetics, taxonomy, paleontology,
  embryology, behavior, and other fields.
• Without the synthesis, there would be no
  phylogenetics, evolutionary genetics, or
  integrative and evolutionary biology.
         Molecular Markers
• 1962: Zuckerkandl & Pauling describe
  “molecular evolution” of hemoglobin,
  including sickle cell anemia.
• 1966: Lewontin & Hubby (Drosophila) and
  Harry Harris (humans) introduce protein
  genetic variants for population studies.
  Made abundant, codominant genetic markers
   available for population studies.
     Molecular Markers (cont)
• Late 1970s: Restriction site mapping of
  mtDNA.
• 1980s: sequencing of DNA.

• 1986: Mullis et al. introduce polymerase
  chain reaction!!!!!!!!!!
    Phylogenetic Systematics
• Willi Hennig 1950. Published in German,
  title translated as “Fundamentals of a
  theory of phylogenetic systematics.”
• “Best” classification is one that exactly
  reflects the genealogical relationships of
  organisms.
• DNA sequence data facilitated application
  of his method to genetics.
Conservation Genetics
                Pre-1980
• 1950: Paavo Voipio, Evolution at the
  population level with special reference to
  game animals and practical game
  management. Papers on Game
  Research, Helsinki 5:1-176.
       Pre-1980 (continued)
• 1970: Nils Ryman. A genetic analysis of
  recapture frequencies of released young
  of salmon. Hereditas 65:159-160

• 1972: Fred Utter: Described genetic
  markers in stock concepts of marine fishes
  in paper in The Stock Concept in Pacific
  Salmon
       Pre-1980 (continued)
• 1974: Bonnel and Selander: Elephant
  seals: genetic variation and near
  extinction. Science 184:908-909.
     Soulé & Wilcox (eds) 1980
       Conservation Biology

• Ian Robert Franklin: Evolutionary change
  in small populations

• Michael Soulé: Thresholds for survivial:
  maintaining fitness and evolutionary
  potential.
                  Zoos
• Ralls, Ballou, & associates found strong
  evidence that inbreeding depression was
  common in mammal species in zoos.

• Seal, Flesness,Templeton, & Foose began
  developing breeding strategies for
  maintaining genetic variation in zoo
  breeding programs.
Conservation and Evolution

      Frankel and Soulé
            1981
 Pre-1980 barriers to incorporating
    genetics into management

• Hatchery genetics: catchable strains

• The “whooping crane bias”
       Genetics and Conservation
          Symposium – 1982

•   Isolation
•   Extinction
•   Founding/bottlenecks
•   Merging/hybridization
•   Natural diversity & taxonomy
                  Today

Journals dedicated to the field:

• Conservation Genetics
• Molecular Ecology
                  Outline
•   Population genetics
•   Modern evolutionary synthesis
•   Molecular markers
•   Phylogenetic systematics
•   Conservation Genetics

								
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