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Biocatalysts and Enzyme Technology

Description:    An instructive and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of biocatalysis and enzyme
                technology.

                The use of biocatalysts, employed either as isolated enzymes or whole cells, offers a remarkable
                arsenal of highly selective transformations for modern preparative organic chemistry. Biocatalysis
                enjoys ever-increasing interest in industry: all life science industries (pharma, food, feed, agro)
                now rely on this technology for new products; in addition, the whole processing industries are
                interested in more environmentally benign processes. During the last decade, this methodology has
                now generally been accepted as a complementary method to the already existing tools. The science
                behind biocatalysis is now better understood than that for other catalysts. This book offers an
                instructive and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of biocatalysis and enzyme
                technology.

                Following an introduction to the history of enzyme applications and the motivations for using these
                highly selective and environmentally friendly methods, the book goes on to cover enzyme
                mechanisms and kinetics, production, recovery, characterization and their design, including
                recombinant methods. Alongside the application of soluble and immobilized biocatalysts, including
                whole-cell systems, the authors treat the use of non-aqueous reaction systems, applications in
                organic synthesis, bioreactor design and reaction engineering. In line with the book's didactic
                approach, a number of case studies further exemplify the advantages of enzyme processes. Each
                topic includes exercises, designed to facilitate access to this flourishing area of research.

                Reviews

                “…a solidly constructed textbook, with exercises and ample references at the end of every
                chapter…” (Chemistry & Industry, 6th February 2006)

                "In a field that moves as fast as enzyme technology, the educational impact of a new specialized
                textbook is dependent on the content being completely up to date. This textbook goes a long way
                to achieving this aim." (Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics)

                "This book covers a very wide range of aspects, while also treating the material in depth, and
                therefore it is a good starting point for readers to approach the fascinating subject of biocatalysis."
                (Angewandte Chemie)

                "The book is not only an excellent guidebook for the technological aspects of biocatalysis/enzyme
                technology, but also a supreme teaching and reference book and can be highly recommended."
                (ChemBioChem)

                "The textbook gives an instructive and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of
                biocatalysis and enzyme technology. It is therefore highly recommended to advanced and graduate
                students in biology, chemistry and biotechnology and bioengineering, as well as engineers or
                scientists in industry and academia." (Engineering in Life Sciences)


                About the authors

                Born in 1941, Klaus Buchholz studied chemistry at the universities of Saarbrückenn und
                Heidelberg, graduating in 1967. In 1969 he received his PhD from the TU Munich, after which he
                worked as a researcher at Dechema e.V. in Frankfurt/Main until 1982. In 1981 he qualified as a
                professor at the TU Braunschweig, where he then became department head at the Institute for
                Agricultural Technology and Sugar Industry. From 1988 onwards he was the provisional Head of
                the Institute, before becoming Professor for Technology of Carbohydrates at the Institute for
                Technical Chemistry in 1991. His main research areas include biocatalysts, enzymatic processes for
                the modification and synthesis of saccharides, environmental biotechnology, flow bed reactors with
                immobilized biocatalysts, and the synthesis of saccharide polymers.
            Volker Kasche, born in 1939, studied chemistry, mathematics, and physics at the University of
            Uppsala, Sweden, receiving his degree in 1964. This was followed by a year as a NATO research
            fellow at Brandeis University, USA. He received his doctorate from the University of Uppsala in
            1971, and in 1973 became Professor for Physical Biology at the University of Bremen, Germany. He
            has been Professor for Biotechnology at the TU Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, since 1986, focusing
            his research on fundamentals of equilibrium and kinetically controlled reactions catalyzed by free
            and immobilized hydrolases, the production, post-translational processing and purification of
            penicillin amidases and serine peptidases by affinity chromatography, as well as fundamentals of
            mass transfer in chromatography and enzyme technology.

            Born in 1964, Uwe Bornscheuer studied chemistry at the University of Hanover, Germany, where he
            graduated in 1990. After receiving his PhD in 1993 from the Institute of Technical Chemistry at the
            same university, he spent a postdoctoral year at the University of Nagoya, Japan. He then joined
            the Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Germany, where he qualified as a
            professor in 1998. He has been Professor for Technical Chemistry & Biotechnology at the University
            of Greifswald, Germany since 1999. Professor Bornscheuer's main research interest is the
            application of enzymes in the synthesis of optically active compounds and in lipid modification.



Contents:   Preface

            1 Introduction to Enzyme Technology.
            1.1 Introduction.
            1.2 Goals and Potential of Biotechnological Production Processes.
            1.3 Historical Highlights of Enzyme Technology/Applied Biocatalysis.
            1.4 Biotechnological Processes: The Use of Isolated or Intracellular Enzymes as Biocatalysts.
            1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Enzyme-Based Production Processes.
            1.6 Goals, and Essential System Properties for New or Improved Enzyme Processes.
            1.7 Exercises.

            2 Basics of Enzymes as Biocatalysts.
            2.1 Introduction.
            2.2 Enzyme Classification.
            2.3 Enzyme Synthesis and Structure.
            2.4 Enzyme Function and its General Mechanism.
            2.5 Free Energy Changes and the Specificity of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions.
            2.6 Equilibrium- and Kinetically Controlled Reactions Catalyzed by Enzymes.
            2.7 Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions.
            2.8 End-points of Enzyme Processes and Amount of Enzyme Required to Reach the Endpoint in a
            Given Time.
            2.9 Enzyme-catalyzed Processes with Slightly Soluble Products and Substrates.
            2.10 Stability, Denaturation, and Renaturation of Enzymes.
            2.11 Better Enzymes by Natural Evolution, in vitro Evolution, or Rational Enzyme Engineering.
            2.12 Exercises.

            3 Enzymes in Organic Chemistry.
            3.1 Introduction.
            3.2 Examples.
            3.3 Exercises.

            4 Enzyme Production and Purification.
            4.1 Introduction.
            4.2 Enzyme Sources.
            4.3 Improving Enzyme Yield.
            4.4 Increasing the Yield of Periplasmic and Extracellular Enzymes.
            4.5 Downstream Processing of Enzymes.
            4.6 Exercises.

            5 Application of Enzymes in Solution: Soluble Enzymes and Enzyme Systems.
            5.1 Introduction and Areas of Application.
            5.2 Space-Time-Yield and Productivity.
            5.3 Examples for the Application of Enzymes in Solution.
            5.4 Membrane Systems and Processes.
            5.5 Exercises.

            6 Immobilization of Enzymes (Including Applications).
            6.1 Principles.
            6.2 Carriers.
            6.3 Binding Methods.
            6.4 Examples: Application of Immobilized Enzymes.
            6.5 Exercises.

            7 Immobilization of Microorganisms and Cells.
            7.1 Introduction.
            7.2 Immobilization by Aggregation/Flocculation.
            7.3 Immobilization by Entrapment.
            7.4 Adsorption.
            7.5 Adhesion.
            7.6 Outlook: Designed Cells.
            7.7 Exercises.

            8 Characterization of Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.1 Introduction.
            8.2 Factors Influencing the Space–Time Yield of Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.3 Effectiveness Factors for Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.4 Mass Transfer and Reaction.
            8.5 Space–Time Yields and Effectiveness Factors for Different Reactors.
            8.6 Determination of Essential Properties of Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.7 Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Data for Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.8 Application of Immobilized Biocatalysts for Enzyme Processes in Aqueous Suspensions.
            8.9 Improving the Performance of Immobilized Biocatalysts.
            8.10 Exercises.

            9 Reactors and Process Technology.
            9.1 Types of Reactors.
            9.2 Case Study 1: The Enzymatic Production of 7-ACA from Cephalosporin C.
            9.3 Residence Time Distribution, Mixing, Pressure Drop and Mass Transfer in Reactors.
            9.4 Process Technology.
            9.5 Exercises.

            Appendix I: The World of Biotechnology Information: Eight Points for Reflecting on Your
            Information Behavior.9
            1 Thinking About Your Information Behavior.
            2 Playing with Databases and Search Terms.
            3 Tutorials, Subject Gateways and Literature Guides.
            4 Using Your Local Library.
            5 Using Encyclopedias.
            6 Searching Journal Articles, Patents, and Data.
            7 After Searching: Evaluating and Processing Information.
            8 Information and the World.

            Appendix II: Symbols.

            Subject Index



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