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									           Photovoltaics versus
         Concentrated Solar Power
                   Dr. Martin Stickel
                            ICCI
International Energy and Environment Fair and Conference
                  Isanbul, 14th May 2010
    Agenda


     Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

     Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

     Financial Results depending on Plant Location

     Summary




2                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    The Fichtner Group

     Established in 1922 – still a family-owned concern

     Germany‟s biggest independent engineering and
      consultancy enterprise

     More than 1700 employees worldwide – 450 in our Home Office

     Project experience in 150 countries

     Over 1200 ongoing projects – around 650 in our Home Office

     Active on behalf of:
      • enterprises in the central services and utilities sector
      • energy-intensive industries
      • international development and commercial banks
      • government and communal institutions and authorities

     Total turnover of 179 million € in 2008 – 67% international turnover

3
3      Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    FICHTNER – Independent Engineering and Consulting
     Founded in 1922 and 100% family owned since then

     Germany‟s biggest independent engineering and consultancy company

     Staff strength:                                         Turn-over 2008:
     Home office (Stuttgart)        ca. 450                  Home office:                       122 million EUR
     Total                          ca. 1,700                Total:                             179 million EUR
     On a global level FICHTNER is on average involved in approx.1,200 projects with
     an overall investment volume of about 60 billion EUR.
     FICHTNER is represented in more than 50 countries worldwide.




4                      Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    FICHTNER Turkey

     FICHTNER has been working for more than
      40 years on various projects in Turkey
     Established in July 2008, FICHTNER Turkey is
      100% owned by FICHTNER Germany
     Completed numerous projects
      mainly in the private sector
     Brought together experienced international
      experts & local engineers/consultants
      and worked on the most important projects of Turkey
     Vision of FICHTNER Turkey:
       • Become one of the biggest well established engineering companies in the
          region
       • Provide state-of-the art engineering and technical services to meet the
          demands of the growing energy market
       • Make use of Turkey‟s young population: Train local engineers and technical
          staff to make them compatible with international experts
       • Use them for the most challenging projects in the region and worldwide
5                     Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    Renewable Energy Technologies

    Hydropower
    Wind Power
    Solarthermal Power
    Photovoltaic
    Geothermal Power
    Solid Biomass
    Sewage and Landfill Gas
    Biogas
    Biomass to Liquid (BtL)
    Fuel Cells



6                 Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    Our Range of Engineering and Consultancy Services
    Project phase                        Our service                                     Objective

    Concept study                        Development and review of                       Definition of approach
                                         realization concepts

    Feasibility study                    Investigation of technical and                  Financing agreement/depiction of
                                         financial viability                             financial performance

    Conceptual and                       Drawing up permit                               Construction and operation
    layout engineering                   application documents                           permits

    Detail engineering                   Drawing up tender documents                     Project- and client-specific
                                                                                         tender documents

    Tendering and                        Bid evaluation and                              Plant procurement to meet quality,
    contract award                       contract negotiations                           time and cost requirements

    Construction and installation        Site supervision                                Functional plant

    Commissioning / test operation Supervision of commissioning                          Production-ready plant
                                   and tests

    Operation                            Check of routine operation                      Regular commercial utilization
7                          Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    Agenda


    Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

    Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

    Financial Results depending on Plant Location

    Summary




8                  Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
    Solar Irradiation in Turkey




    Turkey shows similar irradiation characteristics as Spain, one of the
     largest solar energy markets.



9                    Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Worldwide Installed PV Supply




10                Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV „Grid Parity“ in Germany




11                Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference   Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft
     Solar Technologies
                                                                     Solar Power
                                                                        Plants                         Photovoltaic
                              Solar Thermal
                                                                                                          (PV)

            Non-               Linear-focusing                Point-focusing (dual
        Concentrating            (single axis)                       axias)

         Solar-           Linear         Parabolic            Central                          Concentrating      Non-
                                                                                  Dish
        Chimney          Fresnel          Trough             Receiver                             (CPV)         Concentr.

                        Concentration ratio and Temperature increasing

                                   Thermal Energy Storage

                                   Rankine Cycle (ST)
         Wind
        Turbine          Integrated Solar Combined Cycle                                              DC-AC Inverter
                                                                    Brayton Cycle
                                                                                 Stirling
                                                                                 Engine

                                                          Electric Power
12                          Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Photovoltaics




                                                                                              Source: Juwi AG


13                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Photovoltaic Power - Module Types

     •Mono-crystalline silicon: Most efficient technology (efficiencies of
      around 18% (commercial) to 28% (research)
     •Multi-crystalline silicon: Cheaper than mono-crystalline silicon but also
      less efficient. Research cells approach 24% efficiency, and commercial
      modules approach around 16% efficiency.
     •Thin film:
         •Cheaper than crystalline silicon but less efficient.
         •Various materials (amorphous silicon, Cadmium Telluride, Copper
          Indium Diselluride (CIS))

     Selection of the technology depending on: site, irradiation, temperature, costs vs.
     efficiency etc.




14                       Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
       Photovoltaic Power - Module Tracking




                                         Mean annual radiation gain in Central                    Mean annual radiation gain in
                                                       Europe                                          Southern Europe
     Fix, optimum tilt angle                             0%                                                  0%
     Horizontal N-S axis                                      11.5%                                          17.4%
     30° tilt axis                                            22.9%                                          29.8%
     Vertical axis, module tilt 50°                           23.1%                                          29.6%
     Biaxial tracking                                         27.2%                                           34%



15                           Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
     General Technology Principle
      Concentration of solar energy flow (direct irradiation required)
      Conversion of Solar irradiation into high temperature heat
      Conversion of high temperature heat into mechanical energy
      Conventional power generation technology

     Characteristics
      High energy density
      Conventional components used (hybridisation possible)
      Economy of scale leads to large scale plants
      Possibility of thermal energy storage
     Types of Solar Thermal Power Plants
      Parabolic Trough
      Fresnel Trough
      Solar Tower (Central Receiver)
      Parabolic Dish (Dish/Stirling)
      Solar Chimney



16                         Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Parabolic Trough



                               395°C                                 Steam
                                                                     370°C, 100bar


                                 Solar HX
                                                                                                                 Air and
                                                                                                                 vapour
                                                                     Steam
                     Storage                                         turbine            G~        Cooling
                                                                     30 MW                        Tower


                                                                                                   Air             Air
                               295°C                                        Condenser

       Parabolic
      Trough Field



                                                                                                            Electricity
                                                                                                            to the grid



                                                                                                            Source: Fichtner

17                       Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     CSP Advantage: Operation without Sunshine

                                                                                             Thermal storage
                                                       Solar Heat
                           120
                                                                                             transfers excess
                                                                                             solar heat into
                                        21. Jun                                              evening hours.
                           100          dumping
                                        to storage
                                        from storage
      Solar Heat (MW-th)




                            80          direct used


                            60


                            40


                            20


                             0
                                 1 2   3 4 5   6 7 8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
                                                             Time (hr.)



      Extension of full load operation to night time hours
      Reduction of part load operation (cloud transients)
      Dispatchable power generation

      State-of-the-art technology: Two-tank molten salt
       storage (E.g. AndaSol 1-3: 1050 MWh [7.5 h])
18                                                           Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Trends & Expectations
            Capital Costs PV plants:
             2.5-4 €/Wp EPC prices depending on module type and tracking system
             Decreasing module costs (future 1€/Wp), i.e. even lower EPC prices
            Capital Costs CSP plants:
             4-6 €/Wp (parabolic trough, 50MW)
             Due to technological innovations and economies of scale decreasing
              electricity generation costs expected
            Peak load or “base load”
             PV:       Peak load plants purely depending on global solar irradiation
             CSP:      Possibility of energy storage & relatively high predictability
                        of plant availability
            Project Capacities
             PV:       1kW – 50MW
             CSP:      Parabolic trough 10MW – 300MW
                        Fresnel 30MW (first commercial plant)


19                        Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Agenda


      Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

      Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

      Financial Results depending on Plant Location

      Summary




20                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Feasibility of Solar Projects


       Plant Concept &
                                                                                        Revenues for
         Simulation of                                Feed-in Tariff
                                                                                       Electricity Sales
     Electricity Generation



          Plant CAPEX                                                                 Modelling of
          Plant OPEX                                                               Project Economics

     Fichtner Cost                                                               Net present value
     Database                                                                    Internal rate of return
                                                                                 Levelized electricity costs…

21                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV Performance Projection - Example




22               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV Performance Projection - Example




23               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Site Assessment




                                                                                          Source: Google Maps


24               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
         Site Assessment
          Example: Johannesburg, South Africa
                   0.25


                   0.20
     LEC [€/kWh]




                   0.15
                                                                                                                  fixed
                   0.10                                                                                           1-axis
                                                                                                                  2-axis
                   0.05


                   0.00
                          Thin film      Poly- crystalline                  Mono-                     Parabolic
                                                                          crystalline                  trough

25                               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Sensitivity of O&M Costs


                                100%         90%               80%               70%               60%          50%   40%
                          0%
                         -1%
                         -2%
     Change of LEC [%]




                         -3%
                         -4%
                         -5%
                                       Thin film (fixed)
                         -6%
                                       Polycrystalline (fixed)
                         -7%
                                       Monocrystalline (1-axis)
                         -8%
                         -9%           Parabolic trough

                         -10%
                                          Change of O&M costs (100%=O&M costs of Montalto)




26                                     Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Sensitivity of Land Costs

                     4%
                     3%                                                                    Thin film (fixed)
                                                                                           Monocrystalline(fixed)
                     2%
                                                                                           Polycrystalline (fixed)
     Change of LEC




                     1%
                                                                                           Parabolic trough
                     0%
                     -1%
                     -2%
                     -3%
                     -4%
                           +100 +80    + 60 + 40 + 20                     0        - 20       - 40 - 60% - 80        -100
                            %    %      %    %    %                                 %          %          %           %
                                                            Change land costs


27                               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Sensitivity of Ambient Temperature

                       8%

                       6%

                       4%
       Change of LEC




                       2%

                       0%

                       -2%

                       -4%
                                                            Thin film                                    Monocrystalline
                       -6%
                                                            Polycrystalline                              Parabolic trough
                       -8%
                             11.0     12.8         14.6         16.4         18.3         20.1         21.9    23.7   25.6
                                                         Ambient temperature [°C]


28                                  Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Sensitivity of Direct Normal Irradiation

                      25%
                                                                                    Thin film
                      20%
                                                                                    Monocrystalline
                      15%                                                           Polycrystalline
      Change of LEC




                      10%                                                           Parabolic trough

                       5%


                       0%


                      -5%


                      -10%
                             1,254   1,463     1,671       1,881      2,089       2,299       2,508      2,716   2,926
                                                               DNI [kWh/a]

29                                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Agenda


      Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

      Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

      Financial Results depending on Plant Location

      Summary




30                   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Global Annual Solar Cell Production




                                                                                           Source: Photon

31                Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV: Projection of Module Production Capacity
               35000


                                   Recession
               30000
                                   Conservative

                                   Accelerated
               25000



               20000
         MWp




               15000



               10000



                5000



                   0
                        2003        2004       2005       2006      2007       2008       2009       2010       2011       2012       2013
         Recession      675.3      1049.8      1407.7    1984.6     3073       5455.8    5214.1     5425.4     6207.7      11611     15569.5
         Conservative   675.3      1049.8      1407.7    1984.6     3073       5455.8    5990.2     6808.1     8770.3     11731.9    15732.7
         Accelerated    675.3      1049.8      1407.7    1984.6     3073       5455.8    6555.2     8507.2     12202.2    18718.2    28795.6


                                                                                         Source: Paula Mints, Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2009
32                              Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
                                                                                          Announced CSP Projects

                                          10,000


                                           9,000


                                           8,000
     Cumulative Installed Capacity [MW]




                                           7,000


                                           6,000


                                           5,000


                                           4,000


                                           3,000


                                           2,000


                                           1,000


                                              0
                                               2009                           2010                          2011                       2012   2013


                                                      Accelerated         Base Case      Slow Development




33                                                                  Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Summary
      No general „better“ technology but project specific technology
       selection
       Size, topography, irradiation (global / direct), Accessibility, grid condition
       Feed-in tariffs
       Relevance of dispatchability / storage

      Design optimization required for each project

      Thorough project development and due diligence process
       Reliable design
       “Bankable” EPC and O&M Contracts
         performance and plant acceptance criteria and procedures
         liquidated damages and incentive schemes
       Reliable Yield Forecasts

      Enormous potential for solar technologies in Turkey and worldwide

34                      Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Contact

     Whom to contact?


     FICHTNER GmbH & Co. KG                                             FICHTNER GmbH & Co. KG
     Büyükdere Cad. 87/5                                                Sarweystraße 3
     34387 Mecidiyeköy                                                  70191 Stuttgart
     Istanbul                                                           Germany
     Turkey
                                                                        Dr. Martin Stickel
                                                                        Manager PV / Solar Technologies

                                                                        Phone       +49 (0)711 8995-684
     Phone    212- 2171767                                              Fax         +49 (0)711 8995-495
     Fax      212-2178124                                               Mobile      +49 (0) 172 6358294
     Mobile   0549-2171775                                              E-Mail      martin.stickel@fichtner.de
     E-Mail   Rabia.Recla@fichtner.de
                                                                        www.fichtner.de
     www.fichtner.com.tr



35                         Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Typical Project Constellation
                                                            Investor


                    Lender                                    Equity                                Insurance
                                                                                                     company
                                           Loans                               Policies



                                                        Solar Project               Operation
                                      Project
               Developer              Rights
                                                        Special Purpose             Contract           Management
                                                         Vehicle (SPV)


                                  Power purchase                                  O&M Contract
                                    agreement

                                                          EPC Contract
                     Utility
                                                                                                     Service
                                                                                                    Company
                                                     EPC contractor(s)



           Objectives:
               Implementation of a long life power plants with high energy yield and availability
               Proper and safe operation complying with the relevant requirements
               Low cost, high return on investment

36                         Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
      Typical Solar Power Technical Due Diligence

                 Phase I: Pre-Financial Close Due Diligence
   Facilitate    • Project structure and obligations of project parties
 investment /    • Solar radiation measurements and long-term global solar radiation assumptions
   financing     • Technical concept such as layout, grid connection, civil works
   decisions
                 • Energy yield assessment as to the reliability of the input data, simulation, methods
                   and results (SOLPRO / PVSYST)
                 • Suitability of site (e.g. radiation, temperature, site complexity, soil conditions)
 Conceptual      • Contracts / project agreements including mainly: EPC-Contract, grid connection
  study and        agreement, PPA, O&M, technical and administrative operation
  decision-      • Adequacy of the technical warranties and verification procedures (e.g. performance
making phase       test, availability, technical characteristics)
 Engineering     • Qualification of involved parties, QC/QA concept
 and contract    • Permits and licenses (status, constraints e.g. due to noise, etc.)
    award        • Project insurances
                 • Time schedule /
 Construction    • Project management / risk management
                 • Financial model: elaboration of model or providing input data to bank‟s / financial
     Operation     advisor‟s model
37
                 • AnalysisPhotovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
                             of project sensitivities / risk assessment
      Typical Solar Power Technical Due Diligence

                 Phase II: Construction Monitoring
   Facilitate     • Construction monitoring (compliance with contract / specifications)
 investment /     • Compliance with project schedule
   financing      • Review of EPC contractor„s / owner„s progress report
   decisions      • Site and workshop inspections
                  • Preparation of monthly or quarterly progress reports

                 Phase III: Testing and completion certificate
 Conceptual
  study and       • Certification of completion
  decision-       • Review of commissioning and of trial operation
making phase      • Attendance and monitoring of the performance and reliability tests
 Engineering      • Review of performance test results in view of liquidated damages requests
 and contract     • PV plant installation and mounting inspections
    award
                 Phase IV: Monitoring during term of project loan facilities
 Construction    • Carry out annual site visits
                 • Preparation of (semi-) annual operating status reports including
     Operation     •operating performance (availability, power performance, energy yield)
                   •maintenance and extraordinary events
38                         Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
39   Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV World Market 2008




40               Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference   Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft
     Integrated Expertise

            Energy Technology                   Comprehensive technological know-how as foundation
                                                • conventional technologies
                                                • innovative technologies / renewable energies
            Power Supply                        Extensive planning experience in all project phases

                                                Classical planning services are rounded off by
            Environmental                       our over-arching expertise in consultancy
            Technology

            Water and                                  Technologies                          Planning
            Infrastructure

            IT, Economics and                                                Consultancy
            Finances



               Broad-based range of services from one source
           Complete solutions on a sound technical and economic footing
41                  Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC)


                                                   Stack
                                                   Exhaust
                                                   100°C
                       395°C
                                                                Steam
                                                                540°C, 100bar


                                  Solar HX           HRSG
                                                                                                                 Air and
                                                                                                                 vapour
                                                                   Steam
                       Storage                                     turbine              G~         Cooling
                                                                   60 MW                           Tower


                                                                                                    Air            Air
                      295°C                                                  Condenser
                                       Exhaust
        Parabolic                      600°C
       Trough Field


                                                                                G
                                                                                ~                            Electricity
                                                                                                             to the grid
                                                     Gas turbine 90 MW

               Solar Island           Combined Cycle Island
42                        Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Solar Thermal Power Plants – Fresnel

     Principle / Characteristics
      Line-focussing with long mirror strips onto fixed absorber
      Lower optical efficiency compared to parabolic trough
      More simple design offers potentially lower investment cost
      Direct steam generation in absorber (25 – 100 bar / 270 – 550°C)
      Conventional water-steam-cycle (now saturated, future superheated)
      Efficient use of land due to compact design

     Status
      Relatively new technology
      Several pilot plants in operation in Australia, Spain and USA
      First pre-commercial demonstration plant for electricity generation
       (5 MWe) started operation end of 2008 in California
      First large scale plant shall start operation in 2012 in California
       using Ausra‟s Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector technology.
      New 30MW project announced in Spain, recent large
       investment by Swiss utility
43                         Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
      Solar Thermal Power Plants – Solar Tower
     Principle / Characteristics
      Tracked field of mirrors („heliostats“), point focussing (factor > 500)
      Concentration on small area on top of the tower („receiver“)
      High concentration factors = high temperatures (up to 700°C)
      High solar-electric efficiency due to higher temperatures
      Different heat transfer fluids (molten salt, air, water/steam)
      generation of steam by heat exchanger
      conventional water-steam-cycle


     Status
      Potential successfully demonstrated in several large pilot plants
      Solar Tower technologies at different development stages
      First two commercial plants in operation in Spain (PS 10 & 20)
      Several large plants (>100 MWe) under development in US
      Despite first commercial plants still more R&D needed


44                           Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     PV related services

     -   technical due diligences - on behalf of lenders as well as investors
     -   techno-economic feasibility and conceptual studies
     -   yield projections
     -   specifications for large-scale PV installations
     -   check of construction and operating contracts - EPC and O&M -
         under their technical and commercial aspects
     -   supervision of construction and progress monitoring
     -   participation in acceptance tests
     -   verification of electricity yields during operation
     -   other PV related technical advisory


45                      Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Methodology




46                 Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Methodology – Financial Calculation


     Levelized electricity costs (LEC) in €/kWh




         It      Investment expenditures in the year t in €
         Mt      Operations and maintenance expenditures in the year t in €
         Et      Electricity generation in the year t in kWh
         i       Discount rate
         n       Life time of the system in years

47                     Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Site Assessment

     Nassau, Bahamas


                         0.38

                                                                                             fixed
                         0.33
                                                                                             1-axis
           LEC [€/kWh]




                         0.28                                                                2-axis

                         0.23

                         0.18

                         0.13
                                3.0
                                       2.8
                                             2.6
                                                   2.4
                                                         2.2
                                                               2.0
                                                                     1.8
                                                                           1.6
                                                                                 1.4
                                                                                       1.2
                                                                                              1.0
                                                                                                    0.8
                                                                                                          0.6
                                                     Price of Module [€/Wp]



48                                    Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Sensitivity of Wind Speed

                         2.5%
                                                                                         Thin film
                         2.0%
                                                                                         Monocrystalline
     Change of LEC [%]




                         1.5%
                                                                                         Polycrystalline
                         1.0%
                                                                                         Parabolic trough
                         0.5%

                         0.0%

                         -0.5%

                         -1.0%

                         -1.5%
                                 2.6      3.0          3.5           4.0           4.4          4.9             5.3   5.7   6.2
                                                                     Wind speed [m/s]

49                                     Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Extract of Reference Projects – Solar Thermal
                Spain, AndaSol-1, -2, -3:                Spain, PS-10                  BMU / KfW, ZIP Program                  Greece, Theseus AE
                Three Solar Rankine Cycle Plants         10 MW                         Ten research projects for Market        Project Company
                with storage, each 50 MWe                Central Receiver Plant        Introduction of Solar Technology        50 MW Solar Rankine Cycle Plant

                                        Spain, RentaSolar S.A.
                                        Project Company for
                                        PV Power Plants in Spain


                                                                                                                                           Abu Dhabi:
                                                                                                                                           Design and Engineering
                                                                                                                                           100 MWe CST Plant

      Arizona, USA
      Project Development for
      250 MWe Solar Rankine Cycle Plant                                                                                         India, Mathania
                                                                                                                                140 MWe ISCC (solar 30 MWe)


       World Bank
       Global Market Initiative (GMI)
       EM-Power


                                                        Botswana                Egypt, Kuraymat:
        Morocco, Ain Beni Mathar                        Site Selection and      150 MWe ISCC (solar 20 MWe)          Jordan                     Australia
        400 MWe ISCC (solar 20 MWe)                     Feasibility Study for                                        Project Development        Site Selection and
                                                        200 Mwe CST Plant       Egypt, El Nasr                       for 50 MWe Solar           Feasibility Study
                                                                                Solar Process Heat Plant             Rankine Cycle Plant        200 MW CST Plant


50                                           Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Solar Irradiation




                                                   Direct


        on
             no
                rm
                  al                                                                                 Diffuse
                     p   lan                                           Direct
                            e         Direct
                                                                                                 Global = Diffuse + Direct

                                                  on horizontal plane




                Different technologies use different type of irradiation.

51                              Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Solar Thermal Power Plants – Parabolic Trough
     Principle / Characteristics
      Tracked parabolic trough focuses on a „receiver“ (up to factor 100)
      Heat transfer fluid (currently synthetic oil) heats up to 393°C in receiver
      Generation of superheated steam via solar heat exchanger
      Conventional water-steam-cycle
      Possibility to store thermal energy (currently molten salt storage)
      Solar-to-electric efficiency of 12-16%

     Status
      Most mature and bankable CSP technology
      First nine plants (SEGS plants) successfully in operation
       since more than 20 years in California
      Several Gigawatts of parabolic trough power plants in
       planning or already under construction
      Major cost reduction due to mass production, economy
       of scale and further technological advancements
      Next steps: Direct steam generation + implementation
       of new storage technologies (e.g. concrete)
52                          Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference
     Site Assessment

                             DNI                    Temperature                       Wind
           Site
                           [kWh/m²]                    [°C]                           [m/s]
      Nassau                           1,890                        25.7                          4.1
      Montalto                         1,584                        16.0                          3.0
      Johannesburg                     2,302                        15.7                          3.5

                                Nassau                    Montalto                 Johannesburg
        Technology
                              [kWh/kWp]                  [kWh/kWp]                   [kWh/kWp]
      Thin film                           1,886                       1,609                         2,020
      Monocrystalline                     1,728                       1,485                         1,904
      Polycrystalline                     1,683                       1,466                         1,879
      Parabolic trough                    2,125                       1,570                         2,155



53                       Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power – Turkey 2010 Conference

								
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