Environmental Management Flow Chart - DOC

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					               A Brief Introduction to Environmental Management and
                          Pro-Formas for the EPP Workshops


This guide is written for those students who are undertaking projects covering issues such as
waste minimisation, environmental management systems, energy, water & effluent management
and packaging. Its purpose is both to help you get started on your project and also to suggest
information which you could collate together to bring along to the various workshops. It is meant
to compliment the advice given to you by your business adviser and the various publications that
will be given to you.

Getting Started

When first starting on the project it is quite understandable to feel a little apprehensive. However,
there is plenty of help available and following the steps outlined below should give a structure and
some ideas to help you get going.

The objective of the first week is simply to gather as much information as possible about the
company, the processes and the relevant environmental management issues. Your supervisor,
your business adviser and the workshops will then help you to analyse this information so that you
get involved in more detail later in the project

You can obtain information from a whole range of sources - your supervisor, other managers and
employees in your host company, your business adviser, suppliers, trade associations, the
Envirowise Programme, the Scottish Energy Efficiency Office, Scottish Water, SEPA etc. Also walk
around the businesses and simply observer what is going on. Always try and find out if any similar
work has been undertaken before and don't be put off if the information is not immediately
available.

Steps 1,2 & 3 are relevant to most of the projects. Later on it might be appropriate to concentrate
on a specific issue such as water or energy.

To help you prepare for the workshops a series of simple pro-formas have also been included
which can be photocopied if necessary. Please fill them in as best you can and bring them along to
the various workshops.

STEP 1

It is useful, but not essential, to obtain copy of the site plan and mark on it the location of various
departments, major machines, oil tanks, waste storage, boilers etc. If a site plan is not available
have a go at drawing one yourself.

For those students doing projects on either water & effluent or environmental management
systems try and get a copy of the drainage plan (if it exists!).

STEP 2

List the major processes from "Goods In" through to "Dispatch". Once you have a good idea of
what is going on prepare a flow chart of the production process(es).
Spend some time on the factory floor observing what is going on. Try and build a good
relationship with the machine operators and factory staff who, even though they may be a little
apprehensive to begin with, can often be really good sources of information and ideas.

STEP 3

Once you have prepared a flow chart the next stage is to try and identify all the inputs and
outputs.


          Inputs would include                      Outputs could include
                 Raw materials                             Packaged Product
                 Energy                                    Air Emissions
                 Water                                     Effluent
                 Chemicals / Gases                         Other liquid wastes
                 Packaging                                 Solid waste
                 Labour                                    Noise
                                                           Waste heat

You can do this for the business as a whole, for various individual processes, or for an individual
machine.

As well as the production processes don't forget to include other operations such as cleaning,
maintenance, distribution, office activities etc. Also consider abnormal operations as well as normal
operating procedures.

It is often useful to illustrate the inputs and outputs schematically as shown below:


           Raw Materials                              Air Emissions
                                     Reprocessing



             Packaging                                                                Product

                                                Process or Service
              Energy                                                                 Bi-Product



               Water

                                      Trade              Liquid              Solid
                                     Effluent            Wastes             Wastes


STEP 4

The next stage is to try and quantify the various inputs and outputs that you have identified. At
this stage it might be appropriate to concentrate on a specific issue such as energy, water &
effluent, or raw materials & waste depending on the nature of your project.

Raw materials and solid wastes can be quantified by weight, volume, length or other measures.
Water & effluent is general quantified in litres or cubic metres1; electricity and gas in KWh;
oil/diesel in litres. If possible it is useful to quantify all the inputs and outputs in both financial as
well as physical terms.
1
    1 m3=1000 litres
A good source of information can often be the finance/purchasing department. As examples
electricity bills give details of consumption in kWh as well as the cost of the electricity and waste
bills sometimes give the weight of waste as well as the disposal cost.

STEP 5

If you have time the next stage is to undertake some simple analysis on the data that you have
gathered. For example if you can obtain copies of the energy bills it would be worth putting the
data into a spreadsheet and then plotting a graph of energy consumption (in KWh per day) against
the bill month over a 12 month period.
All Workshops

Please bring a site diagram and a basic flow chart of the process(es). Also have a go at filling in the inputs and the outputs on this diagram for each
of the major processes




                                                                      Air Emissions

      Raw Materials




        Packaging                                                                                                               Product
                                                                 Manufacture of product
                                                                           or
                                                                   Delivery of service

          Energy




           Water                           Trade Effluent             Liquid Wastes              Solid Wastes
Waste Minimisation


1) Annual Consumption and Expenditure

Please try and fill in as much of this table as you can:

                                       Estimate   of        Annual Estimate of Annual
                                       Consumption               / Cost
                                       Production
Major Raw Materials :

……………

……………

……………

……………

Packaging

Water

Electricity

Gas / oil

Product(s)



Waste

Effluent

Other



2) Causes of Waste
List the main causes of waste in the business that you have identified so far
3) Observations

Please note any other initial observations:
Energy


1) Annual Consumption and Expenditure

Please try and fill in the table for your company:

Energy Supply          Estimate           of Estimate          of Price per unit
                       Annual                Annual Cost
                       Consumption
Electricity

Gas

Oil

Diesel

LPG

Other



2) Uses of Energy
List the main uses of energy in the business: (eg: process machines, compressed air, refrigeration,
ovens, equipment, process steam, heating, lighting, transport, extraction fans, air-conditioning)

Electricity




Gas




Oil



Diesel



Other
3) Observations

Please note any of your initial observations:




4) Graphs

If possible plot the following graphs:

Pie Chart:

       Energy supply                     Percentage use by annual consumption
                                         Percentage use by annual cost

Bar Chart or Line Graph

       Electricity:                      Consumption per day - vs - period

       Oil / Gas / Diesel / Petrol       Consumption per day - vs - period




5) Other Information

As well as this pro-forma, please bring along a copy of at least one bill for each energy supply
Packaging


1) Packaging Materials

Please try and fill in the table for your company for the packaging materials which are purchased
by your host company. Include both packaging around product(s) and packaging used for transit
and distribution.

Packaging             Uses                                     Estimate    of Estimate    of
Materials                                                      Annual         Annual Cost
                                                               Consumption
Paper          and
Cardboard




Plastic




Glass




Metal




Wood




Other
2) Supplier's Packaging

List the packaging which protects raw materials and other supplies which are purchased by your
company

                                                       What happens to it?
Cardboard




Plastic



Glass

Metal

Wood

Other




3) Observations

Please note any of your initial observations:




4) Other Information

As well as this pro-forma, please bring along examples of the different packages used by your host
company.
Water & Effluent


1) Annual Consumption and Expenditure

Please try and fill in the table for your company:

                Estimate    of    Annual Estimate                  of Price per unit
                Consumption / Production Annual Cost
Water

Effluent



If the company as a trade effluent consent try filling in the following



                       Suspended Solids        BOD             COD         pH

Effluent
Characteristics



2) Uses of Water
List the main uses of water in the business:

Process




Cleaning


Steam
generation

Cooling


Domestic


Other
3) Observations

Please note any of your initial observations:




4) Graphs

If possible plot the following graphs:


Bar Chart or Line Graph

       Water:                 Consumption per day - vs - period

       Effluent               Consumption per day - vs - period
                              Suspended Solids - vs - period
                              BOD/COD - vs - period




5) Other Information

As well as this pro-forma, please bring along a copy of at least one waste bill and one effluent bill
preferably the most recent bills.

Also, if possible, please bring copies of any trade effluent discharge consents and the drainage
plan
Environmental Management Systems


As you are probably already aware, the development of an Environmental Management System to
the ISO 14001 specification involves a number of specific stages. Your project is likely to involve
either:
         a focus on one or more elements of the system
                                                      2
         a focus on one of more environmental aspect

To help to establish the elements in the development of the ISO14001 environmental management
system which your host company has already dealt with, please answer as many of the following
questions as you can.

Stages       in                                                                               Yes       No         Don't
Development of                                                                                                     Know
ISO 14001
Environmental             Has an environmental policy been developed?
Policy
                          If so, does it meet the requirements of ISO14001
                          (see page 3 of the Making Environmental
                          management Systems Work for businesses)?
                          Can you bring a copy to the workshop?

Initial Review            Has an environmental review been undertaken at
                          the company?
                          If so, does this review identify the company's
                          environmental 'aspects' and 'impacts'
                          Can you bring a copy to the workshop?

Environmental     Has your host company set environmental
Objectives    and objectives and targets, eg are there any plans to
Targets           reduce energy consumption / waste management
                          by X% by the year 200X?

Other                     Is your host company aware of its legal
Requirements              requirements with regard to the environment?
                          Is there any environmental training provided to
                          employees, eg during your induction with the
                          company?
                          Has you host company ever had any accidents
                          which might impact upon the environment, eg
                          spillage from a bulk oil tank?3

General                   Does the company operate an ISO 9001 or ISO
Information               9002 Quality Management System?


Using the information from the process flow chart (see Introductory Guide to Environmental
Management) please have a go at starting the following tables which gives details of the various

2
  An environmental aspect is defined as 'an element of an organisation's activities, products or services that can create
an impact upon the environment
3
  Remember to assure your supervisor that you are bound by confidentiality agreements as regard any information
provided to you
environmental aspects in your company. Assume each stage in the process is an 'activity', and
then identify the 'aspects and 'impacts'4 associated with each activity. Remember you should try to
do this for not only the process itself, but also the product and / or service which your company
manufactures or provides as a result.


As an example, activities undertaken in a printing company might include the following:

              Printing Plate Making using the Design

              Printing using the Plates

              Dispatching the Printed Sheets


An example of Aspects and Impacts associated with these activities might include:

              The aspect might be 'discharge of aqueous waste to drain' whilst the associated impact
               would be 'contamination of surface and ground waters and an additional burden on
               water treatment works'.

              An aspect might be 'emission of VOCs from solvent containing inks' whilst the impact
               would be 'global warming, ozone depletion and photochemical smog formation'

              An aspect might be 'transport depletes non-renewable resources' whilst the associated
               impact would be 'ecological damage from increased mining / exploration etc'

The product would of course be printed sheets, whilst services offered may include design or
stationery supplies etc.

Have a go at using the table below to do the same for some of your company's aspects as well as
one of its products and a service if any are offered.


Activity:

Environmental Aspect                                           Environmental Impact




4
    Don't forget that impacts can be positive as well as negative
Activity:

Environmental Aspect   Environmental Impact




Product:

Environmental Aspect   Environmental Impact




Service:

Environmental Aspect   Environmental Impact

				
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