Plain English Summary of Project by ChrisU


									             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                           SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CRC

                            August 2007

A. Progress on current and recently completed projects
1. National strategic projects

                         OF TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS (#80037)

Organisation             Curtin University, WA
Project Coordinator      Dr David Wood
Phone                    (08) 9266 4747
Fax                      (08) 9266 2594
States of focus          Vic, Tas, WA
Start Date               01/01/2006 (commenced later than originally planned)
End Date                 31/12/2008
Aims                          1. Develop practical, credible and robust methods for assessing the direct
                                 economic, social and environmental values of protected area tourism,
                                 and presentation of that information.
                              2. Estimate direct economic, social and environmental values relating to
                                 tourism pertaining to a representative sample of high profile protected
                              3. Generate recommended indicators and associated protocols that are
                                 amenable to incorporation into monitoring and reporting processes for
                                 protected areas.
Summary of Project       The project will involve a detailed assessment of the direct economic values of
                         tourism in localities adjacent to protected areas in Tasmania, Victoria and
                         western Australia. The economic assessment will expand on earlier work by
                         Wood and Carlsen to expose direct employment, investment and income
                         attributable to tourism in natural areas. It will involve tourists, townspeople,
                         natural area managers, government authorities and investors. The project will
                         also assess the direct social values of tourism related to employment and
                         services such as health and education to name but two and will build on the
                         work of Deery and Fredline. It will also evaluate perceived environmental values
                         derived from tourism, including values associated with the protection,
                         conservation and restoration of natural areas (based on community surveys).
                         These values will be expressed in monetary and non-monetary terms. The
                         project will enable natural area managers to present detailed economic
                         arguments for management resources. The success of the project can be
                         foreshadowed on the basis of the successful outcomes, for the Department of
                         Conservation and Land Management, of Carlsen and Wood's work in Western
End products             STCRC has earlier produced a web-based „Valuing Places Toolkit‟ (in press) to
                         assess value of tourism based on protected areas - method based on tourist
                         direct expenditure in the region (effectively used in political argument for

 All projects must produce a STCRC technical report, and are also expected to produce academic publications.
These are not listed in this document.

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      increased funding in WA). The current project will produce a new valuation
                      toolkit which extends the above by adding valuation of environmental and social
                      costs and benefits.
                      The project will also feed into project 5 below to develop indicators for
                      monitoring economic, social and environmental impacts in natural areas and will
                      provide background for the monitoring project to commence in 2006. It is
                      envisaged that both project co-coordinators would collaborate in the
                      development of monitoring frameworks when the second project commences
                      and that they should conduct joint fieldwork to complete both projects.
Progress              Project commenced later than planned, as agreed with CRC.
                      The scope of the project has changed slightly following consultation regarding
                      what measures are useful and practicable.
                      Social and environmental survey instruments have been developed and field
                      tested in Grampians NP (Vic) and NW Tasmania (copies of surveys available
                      on request). Results have been processed and an early draft technical report is
                      available. A visitor expenditure survey has also been run in the Grampians.
                      A modified version of these surveys is being implemented in the Gascoyne
                      region of WA. Data on the costs and revenues of (park related) tourism for DEC
                      and local government have been collected in Exmouth.
                      The final project report, which will include recommended surveys and protocols,
                      is expected to be completed by December 2007 (on track given late start). It is
                      proposed that this work be further developed, and a toolkit produced, as part of
                      the STCRC project „Destination modeling of tourism at Ningaloo Reef‟ (see later
                      in this document).
                      An IRG meeting was held early in the project and another is planned shortly.


Organisation          Curtin University, WA
Project Coordinator   Prof Jack Carlsen
Phone                 08 92661132
Fax                   -
States of focus       Tas, WA, NSW, Vic
Start Date            01/08/2005
End Date              31/12/2006
Aims                      1. Develop practical, credible and robust guidelines and processes for
                             designing best-practice user-pays systems for protected areas and
                             associated pricing policies
                          2. Demonstrate the application of the guidelines to representative
                             examples of protected areas
Summary of            This project will involve key Protected Area [PA] Land Management agencies in
Project               all States that impose fees in developing an understanding of the user-pays
                      systems for PAs. In developing this knowledge, the guidelines, techniques and
                      templates for assessing user-pays systems for PAs are more likely to be
                      understood and adopted. Researchers at Curtin, Murdoch, South Australia and
                      Tasmania Universities will undertake a detailed review of user-pays systems
                      internationally to identify the key issues and practices. Based on this
                      understanding, user-pays systems in Australian PAs will be compared with
                      those identified in the literature. Techniques used for developing user-pays
                      systems will be of key interest to researchers, particularly the basis for
                      calculation of fees and charges. Where the basis for calculation of fees and
                      charges is not clearly identifiable, a survey of agencies will be conducted to

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      identify existing practice. Virtually every PA in Australia has adopted some form
                      of user-pays system, but there is still limited understanding of the costs and
                      benefits of these systems. This project will address this lack of knowledge and
                      develop guidelines, techniques and templates for assessing teh viability of new
                      and existing user-pays systems for PAs in Australia.
End products                1. Guidelines/ toolkit for application of user pays systems (according to
                               specified circumstances)
                            2. Demonstration sites – parks to which the above guidelines are applied
                              (and described)
                      This project will devise guidelines, techniques and templates for designing
                      world's best practice in user-pays systems for protected areas. These
                      techniques can be used to estimate total and marginal costs of providing visitor
                      services in PAs. These can then be related to total and marginal revenue as a
                      basis for assessing the viability of user-pays systems for PAs. Integral in these
                      guidelines will be an understanding of the potential for user-pays systems to
                      deliver the outcomes that PA managers have, especially financial objectives.
                      The wider public and political costs and benefits of user-pays systems will also
                      be identified to ensure that user-pays systems gain the maximum level of public
                      and political support. The final product will be a template for assessing the
                      financial viability of user-pays systems (including honesty-based systems)
                      based on the existing cost and revenue structures of PAs and the financial
                      objectives of PA Managers. It will be based on an understanding of the potential
                      of various forms of entry and licensing fees identified in the ANZECC Report as
                      well as close consultation with PA Managers.
Progress                       Literature review of user pays principles completed.
                               Review of current practices of protected area agencies complete
                             Project findings have been presented to TAPAF and the Queensland
                            State Tourism Forum, and the information has been well received.
                             An opportunity to access previously unattainable information from DEC
                            in WA on the costs and revenue associated with Park entry fees for
                            Yanchep NP has emerged, and is being integrated into project to facilitate
                            the Cost Benefit Analysis. (CBA had not been possible due to restricted
                            access to financial information). DEC WA has provided supplementary
                            funding for this component. It is not yet clear to what extent the
                            methodology (or approach to developing this) for this site will be more
                            broadly applicable.
                             Given the diversity and complexity of user pays systems across
                            Australia, and feedback from the IRG, it has been decided that production
                            of a toolkit is not practicable.
                             Draft technical report available (not including CBA component) –
                            includes broad guidelines/ recommendations and good reference examples.
                               Expect completion by September 2007 (slightly overdue).


Organisation          University of Technology, Sydney, NSW
Project Coordinator   Dr Simon Darcy
Phone                 02 9514 5100
Fax                   02 9514 5195
States of focus       All
Start Date            01/08/2005

           Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
End Date             01/07/2008
                         1. Develop a set of practical, nationally consistent approaches to visitor
                            data collection, collation, management and dissemination.
                         2. Develop strategies to operationalise the system and maximise its
                            adoption by appropriate staff within protected area agencies.
                         3. Develop benchmarking for the above systems.
                         4. Use demonstration projects to illustrate how visitor data can most
                            effectively be used for planning purposes (yr 3).
Summary of Project   This project aims to identify core generic visitor data needs amongst Australian
                     protected area agencies, to evaluate current practices in relation to meeting
                     those needs, and to develop ways to improve on the current practices for
                     collecting, managing and use of such data. The project will seek to develop
                     nationally consistent approaches and to encourage sharing of information
                     between parks agencies where this would improve the quality and quantity of
                     data available for informing management decision making processes. Having a
                     better understanding of visitors as an outcome of this study should enable more
                     efficient and effective management decisions to be made in relation to meeting
                     their needs and expectations, as well as dealing with issues associated with
                     visitation to parks. The project will be conducted in close consultation with
                     protected area agencies so that it reflects not only their data needs but also
                     recognizes the pragmatic organisational cultural issues associated with visitor
                     data collection, management and use. Researchers from University of
                     Technology, Sydney, Murdoch University and University of South Australia will
                     be involved in the project.
                     Indicators and protocols developed in this project will also feed into project 5
End products
                          1. Visitor survey toolkit, including core and supplementary components
                          2. Nationally consistent system for collecting and managing visitor data
                             (for core elements)
                          3. Guidelines for use of visitor data
                          4. Demonstration projects to illustrate effective use of visitor data for
                             planning (for tourism and management)
                     The key project outcomes will include a set of core visitor use indicators and
                     benchmarks collected in a standardised way across Australian protected area
                     agencies. Further, a series of supplementary indicators (e.g. of sustainability)
                     will be provided that individual agencies may opt to operationalise but will not
                     necessarily be collected Australia-wide. Both will be accompanied and
                     supported by associated collection, analysis, storage protocols, interpretation
                     and dissemination guidelines.
                     Accompanying these would be guidelines that will advise agency staff on how
                     to optimize the use of visitor data for a range of purposes, including corporate
                     performance reporting, regional tourism/recreation strategies, plans of
                     management, facility design, devising interpretation programs and marketing
                     strategies. The underlying objectives will be integration into management and
                     further development of adaptive management approaches to visitor use of
                     protected areas. Each will be supported by an illustrative case study that
                     implements the use of the collected data for protected area reporting.
Progress                  Produced document on benefits of nationally consistent approach,
                         including presentation at Heads of Agencies meeting 2005 - approach
                         generally supported.
                          The complexity and variability of visitor data collection and use has led
                         the review of current practices to require significantly more resources
                         (including time) than planned.
                          Data collection for review of current practices complete, including
                         addition of agencies not included in original brief – Australia wide (based on
                         more than 120 formal interviews and other informal contacts)
                            Numerous ongoing briefings with agencies

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                          Two presentations to the Heads of Protected Area Agency (HOPA)
                         meetings, most recently in November 2006
                          Paper presented at the Council of Australian University Tourism and
                         Hospitality Educators (CAUTHE) conference outlining the emergent
                         themes, gaps and opportunities identified in the data collection stage. The
                         paper was distributed to the HOPA and IRG for comment which was
                         incorporated into the final version of the paper, together with the referees
                         comments .
                            Issues paper on core and supplementary data produced
                            Issues paper on options for demonstration projects produced
                            Agreement reached through IRG on core and supplementary indicators
                          Technical report nearing completion will provide detailed summaries of
                         current practices for each individual agency, identifying strengths and
                         weaknesses of each agency‟s practices, recommending future directions
                         including core and supplementary indicators and broad protocols for data
                         collection and management.
                          As agreed by the Sustainable Resources program steering committee,
                         there is a need to provide further resources to complete the project,
                         particularly an extension phase to include an information technology
                         component. These resources have been provisionally approved, subject to
                         final approval by the CRC.
                          Final report expected September 2007; will then move into
                         implementation/ extension stage.
                          Project running behind schedule but on track to meet final deliverables
                         as long as additional funding approved by CRC (pending).

                      (consists of 4 sub-projects – see details in following sections)

Overall Project       Prof Betty Weiler
Aims                     1. Provide a framework and set of tools (including user manual) for use of
                             a practical yet theory-based approach to strategic communication
                             planning by protected area managers, including interpretation and
                         2. Assess the effectiveness of current marketing practices relating to
                             protected areas.
                         3. Determine how to best use interpretation to modify the most
                             problematic visitor behaviours.
                         4. Determine how to best use interpretation to enhance the visitor
                             experience of protected areas, including appropriate use of market
                         5. Propose a capacity building program to help facilitate enhanced
                             strategic communication practices relating to protected areas.
Overall project end      Tools and capacity building to support development of an integrated
products                 approach to strategic communication that includes:
                         - planning marketing programs and assessing their effectiveness
                         – developing interpretation programs to manage problem visitor behaviours
                         – developing interpretation programs to enhance the visitor experience.


             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
Organisation          Monash University, Melbourne
Project Coordinator   Prof Betty Weiler
Phone                 03 9904 7104
Fax                   03 9904 7225
States of focus       WA, Vic, Tas
Start Date            01/05/2006 (started earlier unofficially)
End Date              31/12/2007
Summary of            (This is the „integrating component‟ of project 4)
Project               While the marketing and interpretation sections of protected area management
                      agencies share common organisational goals, their functional separation has
                      sometimes resulted in working at cross-purposes. For example, marketing and
                      interpretation staff within protected areas, and other stakeholders such as tour
                      operators, sometimes plan and deliver communication targeted at the same
                      audiences but with different strategic outcomes in mind. Advances in integrated
                      communication and marketing theory are not always reflected in how
                      communication activities are conceived, designed and implemented in many
                      protected area agencies. The first part of this project will define what is meant
                      by strategic and integrated communication, and identify the benefits of planning
                      and delivering communication with visitors in a more integrated and strategic
                      way, and the barriers and costs of doing so. This will be based on a review of
                      contemporary communication and marketing theory and research, input from
                      key personnel within protected area management agencies in Australia,
                      documentation of successful approaches, and feedback from an expert panel
                      that includes the STCRC strategic communication sub-project leaders and
                      others. The second part of the project will draw on all the sub-projects to
                      provide a product to facilitate a more integrated approach to strategic
                      communication, most likely in the form of a planning framework, model and/or
                      set of guidelines.
End products          A practical product that enhances the capability of protected area management
                      agencies to integrate their marketing and interpretation toward strategic visitor
                      management outcomes. Decisions about the nature of this product, and how to
                      facilitate its take-up and dissemination, will be made via input from an IRG and
                      an expert panel.
Progress                   Coordination between the various sub-projects has been occurring,
                          including providing input into their draft reports.
                           Literature and materials from secondary sources assembled; have
                          produced inventory of previous communication projects (a literature review
                          has not been written as originally planned)
                             In process of completing telephone interviews with key PA personnel
                           Over next few months will consult with IRG regarding appropriate
                          format for final project product.
                           Project slightly behind schedule, but contingent on timely completion of
                          other strategic communication projects. Due for completion December 2007

TITLE                 4b. Marketing of protected areas as a tool to influence visitors’ pre-visit
                      decisions (#90087)

Organisation          Monash University, Melbourne
Project Coordinator   Dr Mike Reid
Phone                 61 3 9905 5539

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
Fax                  61 3 9905 9232
States of focus      WA, Vic, Tas
Start Date           31/10/2005
End Date             31/10/2007
Summary of           This project will assess the effectiveness of current marketing practices (by
Project              protected area agencies and others) in influencing potential visitors‟ pre-visit
                     decisions of where to go, what to do, and how to behave when visiting a
                     National Park. (Effectiveness in this study will be considered in terms of the
                     environmental, economic and social goals of natural area management over the
                     long term.) The project will provide practical guidelines, and collate relevant
                     information, to allow protected area marketing staff the opportunity to develop
                     effective pre-visit marketing communication strategies and monitor their
                          The research will include:
                         a review of the typical marketing communication practices employed by
                         Protected Area agencies (and associated agencies) to influence pre-visit
                         decision making of prospective visitors.
                          an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of these communication
                         practices in meeting desired communication and behavioural objectives.
                          audit of the current visitor data (market research) being collected and
                         employed by Protected Area managers and associated agencies in the
                         development of pre-visit marketing communication strategies.

End products             A workbook will provided that includes:
                         - Practical guidance on how to monitor the effectiveness of specific
                         protected area marketing practices.
                         - Market segmentation table or matrix for use in developing pre-visit
                         marketing communication strategy.(park experiences x market segments)
                         - Practical guidance on how to develop a pre-visit marketing communication
                         strategy, including how to use market segmentation information (integrated
                         with outputs of the other components of the project).
                         - Case studies of the implementation of this workbook.
Progress                  Produced internal report “Marketing of protected areas as a tool to
                         influence visitors‟ pre-vist decisions: an introduction to core concepts and
                         issues”. This will later be incorporated into the final technical report.
                          Conducted web search for pre-visit communication tools in operation
                         across different industries.
                          Interviewed range of key informants across Australia to determine
                         issues faced in planning and implementing pre-visit communication.
                         Analysis underway.
                          Prepared detailed survey and sampling design to determine and
                         evaluate current practices.based on integrated marketing communication
                         best practice (drawn from interviews and literature).- one version for park
                         and tourism agencies, another similar version for tourism operators, to be
                         disseminated online. Pretesting in process.
                          Market segmentation matrix being developed using online material to
                         aid in developing segments and to understand the relationship between
                         currently employed segment strategies and protected area marketing
                         (reflective of work produced by NZ Department of Conservation). This will
                         be further refined based on the above survey data, and will comprise part of
                         the final STCRC report.
                          Data collection expected to be substantially complete by end October
                         2007, and summary of key results from survey component to be produced
                         by end November 2007.

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                             A template for the planned workbook is under development.
                           Case studies to test and report on implementation of workbook
                          approach to be conducted after draft workbook complete.
                           Final report and workbook due November 2007, now expected by end
                          February 2008.
                           2 IRG meetings held and another planned very soon. Ongoing informal
                          contact with IRG members.

TITLE                 4c. Optimising Use of Strategic Communication to Achieve On-site and
                      Post-visit Management Objectives (#80039)

Organisation          Monash University, Melbourne
Project Coordinator   Prof Sam Ham
Phone                 03 9904 7224
Fax                   03 9904 7225
Email       ,
States of focus       Vic, Tas, WA
Start Date            01/08/2005
End Date              01/07/2007
Summary of            This project is aimed at enhancing the role of strategic communication in
Project               managing visitors in protected areas. It involves working with managers of
                      terrestrial protected areas in three states toward developing and delivering
                      purposeful, targeted communication informed by substantiated theory and
                      designed to reduce visitor impacts and/or their exposure to hazards in protected
                      areas. The major benefits will be a sharpened understanding of the value of
                      strategic communication in protected area management as well as development
                      of research methods and results that enhance the use of strategic
                      communication to influence on-site visitor behaviour. The initial deliverables are
                      designed primarily to facilitate better use of strategic visitor communication by
                      terrestrial protected area managers in three states: Victoria, WA and Tasmania.
                      However, lessons learned from strategic communication research in these
                      states will also benefit protected area managers and other stakeholders
                      nationwide. Researchers and the relevant protected area authority based in
                      each of the three states will work closely together to consistently and rigorously
                      apply theoretically-driven methods to influence selected behaviours identified as
                      key problem behaviours in these states. Building capacity within PAMAs to
                      conduct this kind of work themselves in future is a key emphasis of the project.
End products             Manual for managers and tour operators on how to plan and design
                          strategic communication for managing visitors‟ on-site behaviour
                          (will also form part of product produced through project 90040)
                         Professional development workshops including manual distribution

Progress                 In 3 states, held problem identification workshops, developed behaviour
                          classification summaries and tables, completed elicitation surveys,
                          conducted field measurement of salient beliefs. The visitor behaviours being
                          addressed are: bird feeding, not picking up rubbish, walking dogs off lead.
                          These beliefs will provide the basis for designing persuasive communication
                          interventions, the effectiveness of which will then be evaluated.
                         Have achieved following in all three states:
                      (1) determined which of the salient beliefs identified in the Stage 2 elicitations
                      distinguish compliers from non-compliers and, in turn, which subset of these
                      distinguishing beliefs stands the best chances of informing a persuasive
                      communication intervention aimed at increasing visitors' compliance associated

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      with each behaviour;
                      (2) consulted with the PA management agency and IRG representative in each
                      state to craft one or more messages and appeals for communication
                      interventions aimed at impacting relevant cognitive determinants and thereby
                      increasing compliance with the desired behaviour in each state. Ensured in the
                      same consultative process that the messages conform to standards and
                      previous research evidence pertaining to persuasion and behaviour modification
                      (3) determined through a series of manipulation checks that the messages and
                      appeals intended in each message are, in fact, inherent in the communication
                      interventions designed for each site.
                      (4) Designed the Stage 4 instruments for all three states, carried out data
                      collection and completed analysis
                      (5) Carried out professional development workshops for PA staff, excellent
                      The manual „Promoting persuasion in protected areas: a guide for managers‟
                      has been submitted to the CRC and is in final editing and design. This manual
                      provides plain language instructions for PA managers on how to conduct the
                      beginning stages of a strategic communication planning process aimed at
                      influencing visitor behaviour. The manual has received highly positive feedback
                      from informal reviewers in Australia and overseas.
                      The final STCRC report is slightly overdue and expected by September 2007.
                      Project is otherwise complete and has been carried out as planned.

TITLE                 4d. Enhancing visitor experience through interpretation: an examination
                      of influencing factors (#80035)

Organisation          University of Technology, Sydney
Project Coordinator   Assoc. Prof Stephen Wearing
Phone                 02 95145432
Fax                   02 95145195
States of focus       Vic, Tas, (NSW)
Start Date            01/07/2005
End Date              01/07/2007
Summary of Project    Currently much of the provision of interpretative services in protected areas is
                      driven by ad hoc approaches with little reference to a systematic theoretical
                      context and/or theory based research. This project will develop a process and
                      framework that will enable initiatives in interpretation to deliver effective
                      messages to targetted visitor segments in specific settings. A means to
                      evaluate the effectiveness of the process will also be provided through
                      satisfaction indicators previously developed by the STCRC. The project will
                      isolate interpretation and audience variables associated with visitor satisfaction
                      levels. The project will set out the different ways effective interpretation can
                      contribute to sustainable tourism and some core best practice principles for
                      effective interpretation. Finally, the project will deliver the process to any group
                      involved in protected area management, including park managers, destination
                      tourism managers and individual tourism operators.
End products          a documented process to guide managers/operators in how to enhance the
                      visitor experience of protected areas through an analysis of interpretation
                      measures for different market segments
                      (will also form part of product produced through project 90040)

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
Progress                   Working paper providing framework for interpretation design sent to
                          IRG for feedback.
                             Questionnaire run on case study sites in Tasmania, Victoria, NSW
                             Report written for Tasmanian site (Hastings Cave)
                           In process of completing reports for Tas and Vic for sites and will then
                          circulate to IRG for comment and make decision on whether another site is
                          still needed
                           Progress slower than expected due to difficulty gathering data from
                          remote sites and getting sufficient sample sizes
                           Technical report has not yet been submitted as planned by July 2007.
                          Expected by October 2007 if no need for further data collection.

TITLE                     6. Monitoring and reporting on sustainability of visitor use of
                             protected areas
                             (3 sub-projects plus components – see progress details below this
                             introduction - and input from 2 other projects)

Overall Project       Dr Karen Higginbottom
Aims                      1. Develop a system for sustainability monitoring and performance
                             evaluation for visitor use of Australian protected areas (including
                             environmental quality, visitor experience and economic viability).
                          2. Develop suitable indicators, and associated methods for their
                             measurement, to apply within the above framework.
                          3. Integrate these indicators and methods into established frameworks for
                             assessment and reporting being used in Australia and internationally.
Overall project end       1. Process and tools (especially indicators) for sustainability monitoring
products                     (covering environmental quality, visitor experience and economic value).
                          2. Process for performance evaluation based on the above, and integrated
                             with existing assessment and reporting mechanisms.

TITLE                 5a. Monitoring and reporting on sustainability of visitor use of protected
                      areas: developing an integrated framework

Organisation          Griffith University, QLD
Project Coordinator   Dr Karen Higginbottom
Phone                 07 5545 3498
Fax                   07 5552 8067
States of focus       WA, NSW, Vic
Start Date            01/10/2006
End Date              31/07/2008
Summary of Project    (This is the “integrating sub-project” of this monitoring and reporting project)

                      The key outcome of the project will be an integrated framework to guide
                      monitoring and reporting on the sustainability of visitor use in Australian
                      protected areas. This framework will include (a) a process for prioritising
                      monitoring efforts, (b) identification of indicators and/or methods for their
                      selection, (c) a process for identification of suitable targets (d) monitoring

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      protocols, (e) guidance on how to determine causal links of outcomes with
                      visitor use, (f) guidance on how to integrate this framework into the WCPA
                      management effectiveness evaluation framework, (g) processes for feeding this
                      information into key existing major reporting processes and (h)
                      recommendations on any changes needed to planning and management
                      processes to facilitate effective use of this framework.

                      Ecological, visitor-related and economic components of sustainability will be
                      covered in detail (through linking with the following sub-projects), while
                      community related and „brown‟ environmental components will be covered more
                      briefly. The framework will be applicable at a hierarchy of administrative scales,
                      from site to whole-of-agency. It will be designed to be consistent with, and fit
                      into, the WCPA management effectiveness evaluation framework, and will
                      involve close collaboration with Dr Marc Hockings.
End products          A practical manual or documents tailored for the three focus agencies, designed
created by this       for direct use by protected area management staff. Application of this
project               framework, guidelines and tools will contribute to an enhanced ability of
                      protected areas to achieve triple bottom line sustainability in relation to visitor
                      use of protected areas.
Progress              Commenced on 1 October 2007. Achieved to date:
                      1. Ongoing coordination of the project as a whole, by providing central point for
                      liaison with IRG, providing input into planning, and reviewing all outputs.
                      Formation of IRG, first IRG teleconference, IRG approval for project plans.
                      2. Face to face meetings with all IRG members and their colleagues
                      3. Several planning meetings amongst research team and collaborators.
                      4. Literature review conducted
                      5. Review of current practices re evaluation and reporting on visitor use of
                      protected areas in progress
                      - meetings and phone conversations with IRG members and colleagues to
                      clarify general agency practices and relevant documentation
                      evaluation/ reporting documents collected from agencies and relevant content
                      classified in a standardized template
                      - interviews with key informants from agencies commenced
                      - writing of report in progress
                      6. Recommended framework, monitoring indicators and protocols derived from
                      all components of this project being compiled.
                      Next stage will be field testing of the above by parks staff with support and
                      evaluation from research team.
                      The review of current practices (item 5 above) is about 3 months behind
                      schedule due to difficulties and delays in obtaining relevant agency
                      documentation, and the unforeseen size and complexity of the task. However
                      the whole project is still on track for delivery in July 2008.

                      PROTECTED AREAS (#80075)

Organisation          Griffith University, QLD
Project Coordinator   Dr Catherine Pickering
Phone                 07 5552 8059
Fax                   07 5552 8067
States of focus       WA, NSW (?), Tas (?)

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
Start Date           01/07/2005
End Date             01/07/2008
Summary of Project   The focus of this sub-project is identifying and testing ecological indicators that
                     clearly report on the effects of visitor use on the condition, structure and
                     function of terrestrial ecological communities, particularly for park and broader
                     scales. A set of conceptual framework of indicators and/or methods for
                     developing indicators will developed based on an international review of
                     existing indicators including State of the Park reporting. These will then be field
                     tested in three States by State based protected area agency staff, which will
                     then be reviewed by researchers and management agency staff to assess their
                     effectiveness, relevance, and ease of use. Based on the field evaluation a final
                     set of guidelines would then be developed and integrated into an overall set of
                     terrestrial and aquatic indicators as part of the development of a framework for
                     use and application of monitoring of sustainability of visitor use of protected
                     areas. Both a Scientific and Industry Reference Group will review the
                     development, field-testing and evaluation of these indicators.
End products         The key outcomes of this sub-project will be a series of terrestrial indicators, or
                     methods for developing such indicators, that have been developed based on an
                     evaluation of research and monitoring methods in recreation and conservation
                     ecology, which have then been field tested, evaluated and refined. The resulting
                     methods will then become part of an integrated framework for monitoring and
                     performance reporting of sustainability of visitor use in Australian protected
                     areas. The indicators in the framework should be meaningful to all agencies
                     and stakeholders, and also readily adaptable for other reporting mechanisms,
                     e.g. State of Environment, World Heritage and Convention on Biological
Progress                1. Reviews relating to framework for indicator development and
                              monitoring of walking track impacts complete.
                        2. Phase 1 fieldwork (field testing of indicators by research team)
                              complete for walking track impacts
                        3. Phase 1 fieldwork in progress for mountain biking and horse riding.
                     The following is the status of the deliverables planned for this sub-project:
                     Documents designed directly for use by parks agencies
                          “Fact sheets” designed for direct use by parks agencies on ecological
                         threats from common visitor activities –first fact sheet (on walking track
                         impacts) produced, with list of other proposed fact sheets, sent to IRG for
                         feedback Aug 2007. Other fact sheets to be produced by July 2008.
                          Draft manual on how to monitor walking track impacts produced (this
                         may be updated following Phase 2 fieldwork)
                         Manual on how to monitor horse riding and mountain biking impacts
                        due by July 2008
                     Sustainable Tourism CRC Reports
                          A framework for development of ecological indicators for impacts of
                         visitor use on protected areas – was reviewed by previous sub-project IRG,
                         now under publication by CRC.
                          Ecological monitoring and reporting on sustainability of visitor use in
                         World Heritage Areas: a critical review and description of best practice
                         (based on lit review) – submitted to CRC after IRG feedback.
                          Review of indicators and protocols for evaluating impacts of walking
                         tracks – draft completed and being reviewed by research team Aug 2007,
                         will then be sent to IRG for feedback.
                          Report on field assessment of walking track indicators and protocols
                         (carried out in several NSW parks by research team) – in preparation
                          Evaluation of indicators (or process for their development) for
                         monitoring impacts of horse riding and mountain biking (based on lit review
                         and field work by research team) – behind schedule, expected by Dec 2007

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      Academic publications
                           2 based directly on this project in press or in review, and several others
                      Overall: On track for all milestones (or their equivalent), and for completion by
                      July 2008.

TITLE                 5c. Development of indicators and methods for monitoring impacts of
                      tourism on aquatic ecosystem health (#80076)

Organisation          Griffith University, QLD
Project Coordinator   Dr Wade Hadwen
Phone                 61 7 3875 3987
Fax                   61 7 3875 7615
States of focus       NSW, Vic
Start Date            01/08/2005
End Date              30/09/2008
Summary of Project    In protected areas like World Heritage Areas, National Parks and State Forests,
                      aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands often
                      represent focal sites for tourism and recreation. In areas with high visitor loads,
                      activities in and around these aquatic ecosystems can adversely affect their
                      ecological health. Despite these threats and the reliance of our tourism industry
                      on natural resources and protected areas in particular, a cohesive approach to
                      monitoring visitor impacts in protected areas has not yet been developed, either
                      in Australia or globally. Most existing monitoring programs operate at coarse
                      spatial and temporal scales that are not able to detect the impacts of site-
                      specific visitor activities. Current monitoring protocols are also weak in
                      differentiating among different stresses and thus in determining impacts arising
                      from visitors as opposed to other threatening activities. In this project we will
                      evaluate and develop a suite of indicators for detection of visitor impacts in
                      aquatic ecosystems in protected areas. Through field testing and scale-
                      sensitive evaluation of indicator performance across a range of aquatic
                      environments, the final suite of recommended indicators will provide Protected
                      Area managers with the tools to ensure that growing visitor numbers do not
                      compromise aquatic ecosystem health and biodiversity.
End products          · Guides and kits to aid visitor impact monitoring
                      · A rigorous scientific approach to examining, testing and refining indicators to
                      assess visitor impacts in aquatic ecosystems within protected areas
                      · Evaluation of visitor impacts in a range of aquatic ecosystems within selected
                      protected areas
                      · Advice on indicator responses to a range of visitor activities
                      · Workshops associated with the delivery of technical reports, guides and kits to
                      assist protected area managers in the establishment of indicator tests and
                      monitoring programs within their park.
                      · Ongoing consultation with protected area managers and tour operators to
                      ensure the delivery and acceptance of findings.
                      · Understanding of the scale at which visitor activities can influence aquatic
                      ecosystem health
                      · Quantification of visitor impacts on aquatic ecosystems
                      · Quantification of aquatic characteristics that appeal to visitors in protected

           Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      · Evaluation of visitor activities which might be threatening to key aquatic
                      · Development of thresholds of acceptable change in aquatic ecosystem
                      variables and processes that can be built into benchmarking and accreditation
                      programs within Green Globe and EarthCheck protocols.
                      · Development of a set of protocols for monitoring and reporting visitor impacts
                      across a range of aquatic ecosystems in protected areas
                      · Increased visitor awareness of their capacity to influence aquatic ecosystem
                      health and value for recreation.
Progress                   Strong interaction with terrestrial sub-project, working together on
                          publications (see that project description for details)
                           Desktop evaluation of indicators complete. The desktop evaluation
                          served to identify potential process-oriented indicators for implementation in
                          the fieldwork component of the project.
                             Draft indicators and models developed for field testing.
                             First phase of field work underway – in Vic, SE Qld, NE NSW.
                          Indicator field trials will be carried out in spring 2007 – summer 2008.
                      The following is the status of the deliverables planned for this sub-project:
                      Documents designed directly for use by parks agencies
                           “Fact sheets” designed for direct use by parks agencies: one focussing
                          on the way in which visitor activities may influence aquatic ecosystem
                          health and the other to provide agency staff with an understanding of the
                          Tourist Pressure Index (TPI) developed to examine patterns of visitor
                          distributions within protected areas in instances where visitor monitoring is
                          not able to provide quantitative information on visitor loads at sites within
                          park boundaries. Drafts have been completed and have been sent to IRG
                          with no feedback to date. They will be resent with feedback request Aug
                          How-to guide on selection of aquatic indicators and protocols due July
                      Sustainable Tourism CRC Reports
                           Report providing desktop evaluation of aquatic indicators complete.
                          Has been sent to IRG with no feedback to date. Will be resent with
                          feedback request Aug. 2007.
                           Evaluation of aquatic indicators, based on field work component, due
                          July 2008
                      Academic publications
                      4 academic papers directly from this project published or in press and several
                      others planned
                      Overall: On track to meet final deadlines, although certain milestones (mainly
                      start of field work) delayed slightly. This is due largely to late start of integrating
                      sub-project (see above) which led to minor modification of project direction and
                      deliverables, and took significant additional time to sort before field work could
                      be organised.


Organisation          Murdoch University, WA
Project Coordinator   Dr Susan Moore
Phone                 6 18 9360 6484
Fax                   6 18 9360 6787

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
States of focus      Tas, Vic, WA
Start Date           Approx. 30/9/2006
End Date             30/6/2008
Summary of Project   Both protected areas and the associated tourism industries can benefit from
                     partnerships between protected area management agencies, members of the
                     tourism industry and/or local communities. This project explores a number of
                     different types of partnerships and the perceptions and attitudes of the partners
                     regarding their efficacy. A particular focus is new inter-organisational forms of
                     partnerships, such as those centering on regional planning authorities and/or
                     local government, joint planning for and management of protected areas, and
                     community-based initiatives. Also of interest are partnerships in potentially high-
                     conflict locales such as marine parks, peri-urban protected areas, old growth
                     forests and wilderness areas. The project will produce a manual providing
                     guidance on how to manage and monitor stakeholder interactions relating to
                     tourism in and around protected areas, a set of good practice case studies, a
                     ST-CRC report and associated academic publications, and an evaluation and
                     recommendations for methods and instruments for determining partner
                     perceptions and attitudes.
End products         1. Practical manual and PowerPoint presentation providing guidance on how to
created by this      manage and monitor stakeholder interactions, and particularly partnerships,
project              relating to tourism in and around protected areas. Uptake by IRG support
                     through sectors and ST-CRC widely publicising manual availability.
                     2. „Good practice‟ case studies of successful partnerships associated with
                     protected areas and sustainable tourism including public-public, public-private
                     and private-private partnerships, as part of the manual. Uptake as for (1).
                     3. Proposal for a series of workshops (for funding by protected area agencies –
                     as per EOI Brief for this project) to further disseminate the guidance provided by
                     the manual. Uptake through advocacy by protected area agencies.
                     4. ST-CRC technical report containing up-to-date literature reviews, detailed
                     methodologies, case study analyses and other results and recommendations
                     for good practice, plus other research products identified during the project.
                     Uptake through availability via ST-CRC online bookshop and conference
                     networking and presentations by Project Team members.
                     5. Publications in peer reviewed journals. Uptake through individual researcher
                     websites and journals.
                     Service/knowledge created by this project:
                     6. Critical evaluation and recommendation of methods and instruments for
                     determining partners‟ and potential partners‟ perceptions and attitudes
                     regarding partnerships, the aim being improved understanding of how these
                     attributes affect partnering. Inclusion in products 4 and 5 (and potentially 1)
                     above will assist availability and uptake.
                     For this project, State and Commonwealth protected area and tourism
                     agencies, non-government environmental organizations, regional development
                     authorities, and regional tourism and development organizations are collectively
                     defined as the 'tourism industry and associated organisations'. Products 1-4 will
                     be specifically targeted towards all of these industry members. Product 5 and
                     item 6 will be of more interest to researchers.
Progress             Project commenced only in October 2006. So far, have:
                          Submitted first technical report to CRC. Comprises literature review to
                         underpin the project, including (a) guiding the selection and analysis of case
                         studies; and (b) influencing the approach taken to the knowledge transfer
                         components of the project, especially the structure and content of the final
                         technical report and manual.
                          Designed research protocol and completed to final draft two survey
                            Planned case studies with IRG
                            Held 2 IRG meetings
                            Field work to start late July 2007

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                               Slightly behind schedule but on track for final delivery dates.


Organisation          Charles Darwin University, NT
Project Coordinator   Dr Dean Carson
Phone                 08 89466772
Fax                   -
States of focus       Vic
Start Date            01/08/2005
End Date              01/08/2006
Summary of Project    Protected area managers have indicated a concern about the availability and
                      quality of tourism related data which is becoming more important in
                      management decision making and reporting. Few data sources are readily
                      accessible by protected area managers, and there is limited understanding by
                      tourism researcher providers as to what protected area managers need and
                      how they might use information. This project will begin the process of
                      addressing these issues by firstly modelling the information needs of protected
                      area managers and secondly identifying existing data sources which might
                      meet these needs. It will collaborate with a number of other Sustainable
                      Tourism Cooperative Research Centre projects to propose ways of addressing
                      information gaps. Protected area managers will benefit through an improved
                      understanding of tourism data sources and their application. Tourism research
                      agencies will benefit through an improved understanding of protected area
                      managers information needs. Ultimately, the project will facilitate better decision
                      making, some standard reporting approaches across and between jurisdictions,
                      and improvements in the quality of tourism information made available to
                      protected area managers.
End products               A draft national tourism and protected areas reporting framework
                           A protected area management tourism information model
                           A catalogue of available data sources for the reporting framework (available
                           Best practice recommendations for addressing gaps in the reporting
                           Recommendations for improving access to tourism information for State
                            and local protected area managers
Progress              Report well overdue - not yet delivered despite plan to do so by now in previous
                      progress report. CRC pursuing delivery of report.
                      Data collection considered by project leader to be complete, but some of end
                      products likely not to be produced. Consultation with CRC parks agency
                      partners has been limited.
                      Report expected to provide a guide for tourism and parks agency staff re the
                      sorts of decisions they make that affect each other, and the sorts of information
                      they can share to improve those decision making processes.
                      Provisional conclusions that:
                      - future development of data management systems should probably be based
                      on existing protected area agency systems
                      - certain agencies currently not able to articulate clear decision making
                      functions, as needed to underpin a useful data management system. This has
                      inhibited project from achieving its goals. (However project 3 above is
                      facilitating this)
                      - the following decision types are examples of those that should be considered:

             Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      run a campaign to modify visitor behaviour, organise a park-focused event, plan
                      for investment in infrastructure, plan a new tourism operation, raise the value of
                      park as a tourism asset, identify where a new piece of infrastructure would be
                      most effective, report on the success of management strategy or plan, identify
                      new markets for the region
                      As this topic has again been identified as a priority need by the steering
                      committee, it is being re-constituted as part of the extension phase of the visitor
                      information project led by Simon Darcy and with direct involvement of CRC IT
                      and extension staff (see above).

                      PROTECTED AREAS: SCOPING PROJECT (#80036)

Organisation          Griffith University, QLD
Project Coordinator   Dr Jan Warnken
Phone                 07 55528587
Fax                   07 55528067
States of focus       WA
Start Date            01/08/2005
End Date              01/08/2006
Aims                       1. Determine the needs of protected area agencies with regard to
                              monitoring of visitor use, movements and activities; and compliance with
                              park regulations.
                           2. Provide a detailed analysis of the practicalities of applying available IT-
                              based monitoring and surveillance systems to these monitoring
                           3. Identify one or two technological applications of particular usefulness to
                              protected area agencies, and develop proposals for their development.
Summary of Project    This project will provide an in-depth analysis of potential practical applications
                      of current and upcoming IT-based (digital) monitoring and surveillance systems
                      and technology in other industry sectors for use in Australian terrestrial and
                      marine protected areas. The knowledge generated will provide the basis for
                      developing reliable and cost-effective methods for monitoring visitor movements
                      and activities, and compliance with park regulations (incl. user pay systems).

                      This highly interdisciplinary and practice-oriented scoping project has two main
                      objectives and, accordingly, is subdivided into two phases. The first phase
                      intends to identify and characterise visitor/operator-monitoring scenarios in
                      Australian protected areas that are of concern or that have been identified by
                      relevant management authorities for requiring more detailed surveillance. The
                      second objective is to analyse current and upcoming IT surveillance technology
                      (and potential minor modifications) for continuous, automated collection of
                      visitor data from mostly remote locations in Australian protected areas. A
                      smaller, third component of this project will involve a brief review of legal issues
                      in regard to identification of individual persons by remotely operated
                      surveillance equipment.
End products              a categorical ranking (based on importance and frequency) of visitor
                           surveillance and monitoring scenarios in terrestrial and marine protected
                           areas that would benefit from more detailed information than currently
                          a list of surveillance technology and systems, their costs and practicalities

           Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                       (incl. simple modifications) that could be employed for visitor surveillance
                       scenarios identified above;
                      recommendations for further R&D of surveillance systems with the greatest
                       user potential amongst PAMs in Australia
Progress           Project complete. Final technical report submitted to CRC for publication
                   February 2007, revisions completed July 2007 and in publication. Includes
                   proposal for follow up research and development. Potential for
                   commercialisation project currently being investigated in conjunction with
                   STCRC‟s extension section and agency staff.
                   Information from this report has now been incorporated into the Tourism
                   Information Voice System R&D project. This project will deliver tour
                   commentary to bus tours, tag along 4wd tours and FIT tourists as it tracks their
                   progress to and through destinations. Work on delivering a commercial
                   prototype in WA is underway and will be completed during 2007.

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
2. Other research projects


Organisation          University of Queensland (with QPWS, TQ)
Project Coordinator   Prof Roy Ballantyne
States of focus       QLD
Aims                  Using the STCRC‟s „Valuing Places Toolkit‟, estimate economic values of all
                      Queensland parks and use this to generate estimates of the economic value of
                      park visitation to the Queensland economy.
End products          This project will deliver the following:
                      a) An estimate of direct visitor expenditure attributable to Protected Areas
                      (PA‟s) in Queensland;
                      b) An estimate of direct visitor expenditure attributable to PA‟s in Queensland
                      c) An estimate of visitor expenditure that would be lost1 to Queensland in the
                      absence of PA experiences;
                      d) Insight into visitor expenditure patterns based on different types/categories of
                      e) Profiles of different types of visitors to PA‟s (expenditure; accommodation
                      types used; transport used; activities undertaken during visit to park/forest;
                      duration of stay etc);
                      f) An extrapolation of direct visitor expenditure attributable to categories of PAs
                      in Queensland to provide an estimate of total direct expenditure by visitors to
                      Queensland PAs;
                      g) An estimate of the net direct visitor expenditure attributable to PAs (being
                      direct visitor expenditure attributable to PAs minus government expenditure);
                      h) An indication of visitor satisfaction with their visit to Pas
Progress              Data all collected and analysed, report in preparation, expected very soon.

                      (approximate title)

Organisation          Curtin Uni
Project Coordinator   Prof Jack Carlsen
Phone                 08 92661132
States of focus       Australia wide
Aims                  Produce an Atlas of Protected Areas Tourism Value in each state and
                      territory in cooperation with state and territory park management
End products          Protected Area values, aggregated to regional, state and national level will be
                      presented in an Atlas format

Progress              Participation agreed by most Australian PA agencies. In progress. Primary and
                      secondary data already collected from WA, NT and Qld and data collection in
                      other States and Territories is progressing, with the co-operation of relevant
                      conservation and tourism agencies. Some modification to the methods may be
                      required in order to complete the project within the time allocated.

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom

                      TOURISM IN THE NT

Organisation          Charles Darwin Uni, NT
Project Coordinator   Assoc. Prof. Pascal Tremblay
States of focus       NT
Aims                  To provide a method to assess the economic contribution that Kakadu National
                      Park (KNP) makes to tourism in the Northern Territory, in the Top End in
                      particular and to the Jabiru region.
Summary of Project    The project will adapt the Carlsen and Wood model for the assessment of the
                      economic value of tourism in parks (applied in WA for CALM) to the Kakadu
                      National Park (KNP). In the first instance, information about tourists
                      expenditures will be gathered by supplementing NTTC data on tourists profiles
                      with an on-site visitor survey. The NTTC data will serve as the benchmark for
                      the sampling process and the park survey will focus on direct expenditure
                      patterns, basic demographics (used for segmentation of international and
                      domestic tourists) and activities (the basis for segmentation of domestic tourists
                      compatible with the NTTC).

                      As per the methodology above, attribution and substitution factors will be
                      calculated to provide conservative estimates of the direct contribution of tourists
                      to the local, regional and Territory economy. Data quality allowing, it will be
                      possible to infer how much different visitor segments contribute to direct
                      spending and derive implications for Park and regional destination tourism
                      management. Directions for further research into taxation and financing outlays
                      connected with these expenditure flows and possible methods will be
End products              It is expected that the project will provide an informed and well argued
                           estimate of the annual expenditure by tourists who have visited KNP, taking
                           into consideration motives and substitutes recognised by visitors to the
                          The project will also establish the relative contributions of various market
                           segments (corresponding as much as possible to those identified by the
                           NTTC) to generated expenditures and local economic impacts.
                          The project will make recommendations about methods available to attempt
                           to connect visitor expenditures to taxation yields for both the Australian and
                           NT governments and connect those to park management programs
Progress              Project complete. Technical report published.


Organisation          Curtin Uni, WA (with CSIRO, WA DEC)
Project Coordinator   Prof David Wood
Phone                 (08) 9266 4747
Fax                   (08) 9266 2594
States of focus       WA
Aims                  To produce a tourism destination model and associated environmental load
                      model that will support effective planning and management of resort
                      developments in sensitive natural areas
Progress              Project was launched November, 2006 as part of the CSIRO Ningaloo Cluster

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      Project, with the STCRC as an important collaborating institution. [Progress to
                      be inserted]


Organisation          Southern Cross University, NSW (with NSW NPWS – network project)
Project Coordinator   Dr Jeremy Buultjens
States of focus       NSW, Qld
Aims                      1. Identify the success factors and challenges involved in development,
                              management and operation of public-private relationships between
                              NSW NPWS and their on-park lessee visitor service providers
                          2. Develop a model for „best practice‟ relationship-building and
                              management between NSW NPWS and potential/existing on-park
                              private visitor service providers.
Progress              Interviews for case studies were conducted in South East Queensland,
                      Rockhampton, Airlie Beach and Cairns. Report being finalised following
                      feedback from IRG. Presentation(s) are planned to IRG and others on
                      completion of report.


Organisation          Griffith University, QLD
Project Coordinator   Dr Wade Hadwen
Phone                 07 3875 3987
Fax                   07 3875 7615
States of focus       Not specific
Aims                  Further develop methodology for „Tourist Pressure Index‟ scores to determine
                      thresholds for management action (the delivery of an easy to use and robust
                      predictive model of tourist visitation patterns in protected areas will enable
                      managers to proactively manage visitors (and their impacts) within their parks)
                      Produce, promote and distribute the TPI model and User Guidelines.
Progress              Project complete, with technical report submitted early 2007 and after review it
                      is now under revision, expected to submit final report by September 2007. In
                      addition a draft fact sheet has been produced, providing agency staff with an
                      outline of the model and how to use it in their protected area. After feedback via
                      monitoring project IRG, it is intended that this flyer will be distributed through all
                      levels of state-based protected area agencies, with flow on to lower levels
                      within agencies on the basis of identified field sites for implementation of field
                      trials and TPI on-the-ground assessments.

                      ADJACENT TO SKI RESORTS

Organisation          Griffith University, QLD (with NSW NPWS, Kosciusko NP – commissioned
Project Coordinator   Dr Catherine Pickering
Phone                 07 5552 8059

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
Fax                   07 5552 8067
States of focus       NSW
Aims                  This project would provide ski resorts and park agencies with methods to
                      assess the quality of habitat for key native fauna in and adjacent to ski resorts.
Progress              Completed full year of trapping, snow and vegetation data, analysed long term
                      data sets, entered abiotic data. Draft report examining role of ski resorts in
                      habitat modification of small mammals completed. Project due for completion
                      Jan 2008. May be delayed due to unfortunate death of one of key parks staff
                      involved in project.


Organisation          Southern Cross Uni, NSW
Project Coordinator   Ms Liz Hawkins
Progress              Fieldwork and analysis completed. Education materials in draft form.
                      Submitted technical report to CRC “Dolphin Tourism: impact of vessels on
                      behaviour and acoustics of inshore bottlenose dolphins”. Report includes
                      general info. on dolphin tourism industry and its management.


Organisation          University of Technology Sydney
Project Coordinator   Assoc. Prof. Stephen Wearing
Phone                 02 95145432
Fax                   02 95145195
States of focus       NSW
Aims                  Determine issues/ constraints/ trends/ experiences/ success factors relevant to
                      track/ trail usage.
                      Will include desk top review, discussion with PAMAs around Australia, case
                      study in NSW in context of Living Parks and State Plan framework.
Progress              Just commenced.

3. Extension activities


Organisation          Curtin Uni, WA
Project Coordinator   Prof David Wood
Phone                 (08) 9266 4747
Fax                   (08) 9266 2594
States of focus       Non specific
Summary of Project    The Valuing Places Toolkit will enable users to calculate the direct expenditure
                      of tourists in a region and to establish the direct expenditure of tourists due to a

            Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
                      particular resource (such as the natural attributes or heritage of a region). The
                      Toolkit will consist of a webpage that guide users through the process of
                      measuring tourists‟ expenditure. It will provide data through four stages of

                      In Stage 1 users enter the details of the study region and the visitor numbers.
                      Stage 2 enables users to quickly estimate the tourism expenditure in their
                      region through comparative tables.
                      Stage 3 equips users to adapt a survey for their study region, manage the
                      administration of the survey and to undertake data entry in order to generate a
                      series of tables and figures.
                      Stage 4 provides users with the option of purchasing professional reporting
                      services and higher order of analysis using SPSS.
End products          This project will produce a commercial product for measuring the expenditure of
                      a tourism region using the methodology developed by David Wood and Jack
                      Carlsen in conjunction with the STCRC. It will:
                      * be accessed through an online interface;
                      * calculate the attribution and substitution values for a particular feature of a
                      region (eg natural attributes, heritage);
                      * provide a customised survey for distribution in both hardcopy and online
                      * provide training for survey administors
                      * provide a print out with the key characteristics of tourists to explain tourist
                      expenditure; and
                      * provide data entry and data storage services on a fee-for-service basis; and
                      * provide professional reporting services on a fee-for-service basis.
Progress              Delayed due to practicalities associated with website design. The web-based
                      toolkit has been tested with 3 WA DEC employees and received positive
                      feedback and some suggested changes. Undertaking final development,
                      incorporating these suggestions. Liaising with CRC to organize payment system
                      and to organize transfer onto STCRC server (with back up to Curtin website).

TITLE                 EARTHCHECK

Organisation          STCRC
Project Coordinator   Melinda Watt

States of focus       Non specific
Summary of Project         now used in a wide range of sectors in over 30 countries
                           Earthcheck software being used for EMS reporting to NSW NPWS for
                          ski resorts (energy, waste, water)
                           NSW NPWS considering having Earthcheck develop specialised ski
                          resort indicators
                           Being trialled with households in Gold Coast
                          [Progress in last six months to be inserted]

           Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
B. Outputs
1. STCRC Technical Reports

A large number of technical reports on protected area tourism and related topics have
been published by the CRC. These are available through:
Most of these are now available free of charge as pdf versions, or can be purchased
as hard copies.

Executive summaries of relevant CRC reports, including those published or available
in draft form, as at June 2007, can be downloaded from:

In addition to reports listed in this executive summary file, the following relevant
reports have recently been published by the CRC and are available from the
bookshop address above:

      “Best Practice interpretation research for sustainable tourism: framework for a
       new research agenda”

2. Extension materials
      „Valuing Places Toolkit‟ – in publication via web
      „Interpretation Evaluation Toolkit – hard copy and CD
    „Promoting persuasion in protected areas: a guide for managers‟ – hard copy
   manual, in publication
      „Walking Track Assessment Manual‟ – draft hard copy
      „Visitor Information Center kit‟ – hard copy and CD
    Farm and country tourism on your property – stage 1 and stage 2 workbook,
   business facilitators‟ handbook – hard copies, workshops being run by CRC and
    Building and Sustaining Your Wildlife Tourism Business - Resource Kit: A
   guide for operators incorporating wildlife viewing into their business in prep.
   Currently available in part via web to members of Wildlife Tourism Australia, Inc. at
      Fact sheets relating to range of projects, final or draft
The majority of these are included in the report listings and executive summaries listed
under 1 above.

3. Recent draft reports or internal reports

For copies of internal reports listed in project progress summaries, please contact the
listed project coordinator.

For copies of the latest draft of reports submitted to the CRC but not yet published,
please contact Karen Higginbottom,

           Sustainable Resources Program Research Summary, August 2007/ K.Higginbottom
In addition to draft reports mentioned in the project progress summaries, the following
reports relevant to natural area tourism have recently been submitted to the CRC and
may be available in draft form:

      “Extreme natural events and their effect on tourism in central east coast of

4. Academic Publications

A large number of academic publications have been produced in association with
STCRC research under the Sustainable Resources Program. Many of these are listed
under „academic publications‟ at

C. Further information
 Further information on the Sustainable Resources Program is available at

If you would like to know more, please contact: Dr Karen Higginbottom, Sustainable
Resources Program Leader,, 07 5545 3498


To top