Essentials of Business Research Methods

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					                               Data Collection Approaches
Chapter 5

            Learning Objectives:
            1.    Understand data collection principles and
                  practices.
            2.    Describe the differences between collecting
                  qualitative and quantitative data.
            3.    Understand the differences between
                  observation and survey methods.
            4.    Assess the use of questionnaires as
                  instruments for data collection.
            5.    Appreciate the role of the various interviewing
                  methods in obtaining data.

Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                            1
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                              Data Collection Approaches


                                      Data Collection



                Observation                             Survey Methods


                             Mechanical          Self -        Interviewer
          Human
                             & Electronic      Completion     Administered




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                 2
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                      Qualitative Research


                 Role of Qualitative Research
                   Search of academic, trade and professional
                   literature.
                   Use of interviews, brainstorming, focus groups.
                   Internalization of how others have undertaken
                   both qualitative and quantitative research.
                   Use of existing questionnaires/constructs.
                 Outcome of Qualitative Research
                   Improve conceptualization.
                   Clarify research design, including data collection
                   approach.
                   Draft questionnaire.

Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                3
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                    Quantitative Research


                 Role of Quantitative Research
                   Quantify data and generalize results from sample
                   to population.
                   Facilitates examination of large number of
                   representative cases.
                   Structured approach to data collection.
                   Enables extensive statistical analysis.
                 Outcome of Quantitative Research
                   Validation of qualitative research findings.
                   Confirmation of hypotheses, theories, etc.
                   Recommend final course of action.


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of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           OBSERVATION




                             Data are collected by systematically
                                  recording observations of people,
                                  events or objects. Observational
                                  data can be obtained by use of
                                  human, mechanical or electronic
                                  observation.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                              5
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                      ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH




                                     . . . a form of observational
                                        data collection in which
                                        researchers spend long
                                          periods of time with a
                                      respondent and then write
                                     narratives that describe the
                                         respondent‟s behavior.



Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                             6
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                       CONTENT ANALYSIS



                      . . . . obtains data by systematically
                      observing and analyzing the content or
                      message of written text.




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of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           Content Analysis Software:

           TextSmart is a software package that enables users to view,
   manipulate and automate the coding or categorization of responses to
   narative data. The ability to automate the examination and organization
   of narrative data is particularly helpful when a „large scale‟ survey is
   undertaken. It can be used to analyze any textual data, and its output
   can be exported to SPSS for further analysis. For example, you can do
   correspondence analysis* on a contingency table from a TextSmart
   analysis. For more information about TextSmart and related SPSS
   products visit the WWW site www.spss.com.

            QSR NUD*IST stands for Non-Numerical Unstructured Data
   Indexing and Theorizing. It is a popular computer software package
   used by researchers to analyze text from focus group or interview
   transcripts, literary documents and so on. It examines non-textual data
   such as photographs, tape recordings, films and so on. Users can to
   index and link several documents in a structured way to produce
   categorical data in a form amenable to further analysis. NUD*IST output
   can be exported to software programs such as SPSS and Excel. For
   more information about QSR NUD*IST and its related product NVIVO
   visit their website (http://www.scolari.co.uk/qsr/qsr_n4.htm).

Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                  8
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           SURVEY METHODS




                            . . . a procedure used to collect
                          primary data from individuals. The
                          data sought can range from beliefs,
                          opinions, attitudes and life styles to
                          general background information on
                           individuals such as gender, age,
                           education and income, as well as
                         company characteristics like revenue
                               and number of employees.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                           9
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                                SURVEY METHODS

Go On-Line
www.ropercenter.com


                                                Self-Completion




                                            Interviewer Administered



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 of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                  SELF-COMPLETION SURVEYS



                                           Mail
                                                  •   Regular
                                                  •   Fax
                                                  •   Overnight
                                           Electronic
                                                  •   Email
                                                  •   Internet
                                                  •   Diskette



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                            PURPOSE OF QUESTIONNAIRES




                      . . . . to obtain data that cannot be easily
                      observed or is not already available in
                      written or electronic form..




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                             12
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                           USES OF QUESTIONNAIRE DATA



                       Description
                       Explanation
                       Hypothesis Testing
                       Model Building




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                13
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                   PANELS


                    Panels are a special type of
                    survey method in which data is
                    collected from the same group of
                    respondents over a period of
                    time.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials               14
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           MAIL QUESTIONNAIRES



                   Good cover letter.
                   Anonymity.
                   Allows large samples with wide coverage.
                   Relatively low cost.
                   Low response rates.
                   Do not know who responded.
                   Requires highly structured questionnaire
                   with predominantly closed-end questions.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                         15
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           ELECTRONIC SURVEYS


            Administered electronically across network through
            use of e-mail or Internet.
            Relatively low cost.
            Easy to administer.
            Eliminates interview bias.
            Fast data collection and analysis.
            Sample restricted to users of network through use of
            e-mail or Internet.
            Complexity of designing and programming the
            questionnaire – cost in terms of time and money.


Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                           16
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                      INTERVIEWER ADMINISTERED SURVEYS


                                   Face-to-Face
                                           •   Focus Groups
                                           •   Mall
                                           •   In Home, at Work, etc.
                                  Telephone


                                  Computer Dialogue




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                17
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                              INTERVIEWS


                Interviews involve the researcher
               “speaking” to the respondent directly, asking
               questions and recording answers.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                       18
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                     TYPES OF INTERVIEWS

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www.ropercenter.com

                                             Structured


                                           Semi-structured


                                            Unstructured


Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                     19
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                TYPES OF INTERVIEWS


           Structured Interviews – the interviewer uses an interview
           sequence with predetermined questions that are asked in
           exactly the same way.
           Semi-structured Interviews – the researcher follows a
           predetermined structure and direction, but can ask
           related, unanticipated questions that were not originally
           included.
           Unstructured Interviews – the researcher does not follow
           an interview sequence and elicits information by
           engaging the interviewee in a free and open discussion
           on the topic of interest.

Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                               20
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           FOCUS GROUPS

              Semi-structured interviews that use an
              exploratory research design and are
              considered qualitative research.
              Informal discussions among 8 to 12
              respondents that share something in
              common.
              Guided by a moderator who encourages
              discussion and keeps the group “on
              track”.
              Random samples are not required.


Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                  21
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                     FOCUS GROUP MODERATORS



                  Personability.
                  Attentive.
                  Professional Training.
                  Organization.
                  Objectivity.
                  Listening Skills.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                      22
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                 UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS




                             . . . are conducted without the use of an
                                  interview sequence, which allows
                                  the researcher to elicit information
                                  by engaging the interviewee in free
                                  and open discussion on the topic of
                                  interest.




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of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           DEPTH INTERVIEWS




                             . . . . also referred to as “in-depth”
                                  interviews, they are an unstructured
                                  one-to-one discussion session
                                  between a trained interviewer and a
                                  respondent who has some
                                  specialized insight.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                 24
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           PERSONAL INTERVIEWS


            Approaches can vary from very informal to very formal.
            Expensive in terms of interviewing and travel costs.
            Expensive in terms of time to complete the process:
             • need to gain access.
             • training of interviewers.
             • co-ordination and supervision of fieldwork.
             • time for interview.
            Unlikely to be used with large samples.
            Problem of lack of anonymity.
            Opportunity to probe complex questions.
            Opportunity to record additional information.


Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                             25
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                     TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS:


       Low cost form of personal            Need to make sure that
       interviewing.                        interviewees are convinced
       Obtain information                   approach is genuine.
        quickly.                            Questions are short and focused.
       More costly than mail                If questions are open-ended, make
       questionnaires but less              sure question does not exceed 15
                                            words; interviewee should not be
       than personal interviews.
                                            expected to give lengthy answers.
       Administration relatively            For closed-end questions the
       easy.                                number of pre-coded options
       Interview bias less of a             should not exceed five.
       problem.                             Response rates can be a problem.
       Problem with unlisted
       numbers.

Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                                26
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                           COMPUTER DIALOGUE



           . . . the answering of questions online through
           the use of PC‟s. Typically, it involves an emailed
           questionnaire that facilitates discussion on a one-
           to-one basis or by a group.




Hair, Babin, Money & Samouel, Essentials                         27
of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                       Types of Errors


           Nonresponse = refusal or sampling.
           Response = respondent or interviewer.
           Data Collection Instrument:
                Construct Development.
                Scaling Measurement.
                Questionnaire Design/Sequence, etc.
           Data Analysis.
           Interpretation.



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of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                 DATA COLLECTION APPROACHES


   Go On-Line
   www.acnielsen.com




                   What is A. C. Nielsen saying about its
                   latest scanner technology?




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of Business Research, Wiley, 2003.
                                 DATA COLLECTION APPROACHES


   Go On-Line
   www.dssresearch.com/mainsite/surveys.htm




                  Review the surveys on this site and
                   complete two of them. How is the
                   information on this website valuable to
                   business researchers?




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