Dr David Horner 3 February 2007 SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT by ChrisU

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									COMPARISON1 OF THE ÉDUCATION NATIONALE
SYLLABUSES FOR TROISIÈME (TAUGHT IN THE FINAL
YEAR OF COLLÈGE) AND SECONDE (TAUGHT IN THE
FIRST YEAR OF LYCÉE2) AND THE SYLLABUS AND
ASSESSMENT OF CAMBRIDGE ESOL’S PRELIMINARY
ENGLISH TEST (PET)

            Dr David Horner                              3 February 2007

                      SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

    1. The PET syllabus essentially covers those for troisième and seconde.
       There is a remarkable similarity between the two. Given that Common
       European Framework of Reference (CEFR) B1 is the goal in these
       schools and Cambridge ESOL exams are so closely aligned to the CEF,
       this not surprising.
    2. The only major discrepancy is in the existence of the cultural strand
       within the French syllabus. However, the Syllabus guidelines state
       explicitly that cultural content is to be passed on within a framework of
       comprehension of documents used in class. In other words, although
       there are specific elements related to this syllabus, it does not need to
       be tested in terms of content and cultural knowledge as such is not
       tested: it is enough to use texts using such content as reading
       comprehension and/or in the speaking tests.
    3. The programme emphasises the importance of developing the speaking
       skill. Valid and reliable evaluation of speaking and oral interaction is
       provided in PET.
    4. Only slight discrepancies are to be found elsewhere:
       in the Speaking test, there is no reading aloud. However, because
       pronunciation is explicitly dealt with by the analytical scales in PET, this
       is not a problem.
       in the PET Writing paper there are no reduction exercises (e.g. summary
       writing) or biographies, and the overall length of text required by PET is
       less than that of the programme.
       in the PET Reading paper there are no fictional texts.

    Broadly, it can therefore be seen that teachers and students preparing for
    PET are covering the national syllabus of 2de and 3ème and those covering
    the national syllabus are ipso facto preparing for PET.


1
  The essential selected contents of the programmes nationaux and their translations have
been placed in boxes. The relevant sections from the PET handbook have been placed
immediately afterwards. Anything especially important has been put in bold type.
2
  In fact, as noted later, the seconde syllabus is a consolidation of what was taught in collège,
which means that in practice we are talking about the same content.
There now follows a detailed comparative study.

OBJECTIFS DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT DE L’ANGLAIS EN CLASSE DE SECONDE LV1 ET LV2
(OBJECTIVES OF ENGLISH TEACHING (AS A FIRST AND AS A SECOND FOREIGN
LANGUAGE) IN SECONDE)
La finalité de l’enseignement de l’anglais au lycée demeure la formation à la communication et
la formation générale de l’individu (the ultimate objectives of English teaching in the lycée
remain those of training pupils to communicate and individual personal development)

In real life, language is used in context, and the forms of language vary according to that context. The
assessment aims of PET and its syllabus are designed to ensure that the test reflects the use of
language in real life. The question types and formats have been devised with the purpose of fulfilling
these aims. PET corresponds closely to an active and communicative approach to learning English,
without neglecting the need for clarity and accuracy. Candidates who are successful in PET should be
able to communicate satisfactorily in most everyday situations with both native and non-native
speakers of English. This aim corresponds to the recommendations of the Council of Europe’s
Threshold Specification.

Les objectifs de l’enseignement de l’anglais au lycée s’inscrivent dans la continuité de ceux poursuivis
au collège. Ils se décomposent en trois volets interdépendants :
- consolider et enrichir les savoirs et les savoir-faire linguistiques ;
- accroître la formation culturelle, intégrée à l’enseignement de la langue et construite sur le mode
d’une complexification progressive;
- développer les méthodes personnelles de travail, indissociables de l’apprentissage, pour rendre les
élèves de plus en plus autonomes.
La classe de seconde a pour objectif prioritaire de consolider les connaissances et compétences
acquises au collège.

The objectives of English teaching in the lycée follow directly on from those in collège. They can be
divided into three interdependent parts:
- consolidate and enrich linguistic knowledge and know-how
- increase the cultural training as an integrated part of the language teaching
- undertake learner training with a view to developing learner autonomy.

The priority in seconde is to consolidate the linguisitc knowledge and skills acquired in collège.




I - OBJECTIFS LINGUISTIQUES (LINGUISTIC OBJECTIVES)
A - Les quatre compétences (the four skills)
Le professeur renforcera les savoir-faire des élèves dans les quatre compétences : compréhension de
l’oral et de l’écrit, production de l’oral et de l’écrit en variant les tâches et en graduant les exigences. Il
cherchera à développer les capacités cognitives des élèves (savoir anticiper, émettre des hypothèses,
les vérifier, inférer, mettre en réseau et tirer des                conclusions) et à mettre en évidence
l’interdépendance des quatre compétences.

The teacher will seek to reinforce their pupils’ abilities in the four skills: oral and written
comprehension, and oral and written production by varying tasks and gradually increasing demands.
S/he will seek to develop their pupils cognitive abilites (anticipating, hypothesising, checking, inferring,
and concluding), and emphasise their interdependence.

La compréhension orale et la production orale seront privilégiées. Elles devront faire l’objet
d’un entraînement régulier, structuré et graduel tant en réception qu’en production. (Oral skills
– both written and spoken – are to be the priority, targeted for regular training and gradually
increasing in difficulty.)
Compréhension
Trois niveaux de compréhension peuvent êtres définis selon que les supports seront exploités pour
leur contenu informatif ou de façon plus approfondie :
- compréhension globale
- compréhension sélective
- compréhension de l’implicite.

Three levels of comprehension can be defined according to whether the texts are used to extract
information or for more complex understanding.
- global understanding
- detailed understanding
- implicit understanding.

Compréhension de l’oral (Listening comprehension)
L’objectif sera de faire comprendre l’essentiel d’un document audio ou vidéo court (d’une à deux
minutes) faisant intervenir un, deux ou plusieurs locuteurs. L’élève est amené à faire appel à certaines
capacités cognitives qui concourent à faire émerger des sens. Parmi elles, citons :
- anticiper sur ce qui va être entendu à partir des données de la situation antérieure à l’écoute
proprement dite ;
- discriminer sons et schémas accentuels caractéristiques de l’anglais oral pour activer la
reconnaissance du connu ;
- émettre des hypothèses pour compenser le mal perçu à partir du contexte ;
- segmenter les éléments constitutifs du message de façon à ordonner le flot sonore continu ;
- identifier les divers types de message (déclaratifs, interrogatifs, injonctifs) et identifier leur fonction
(descriptive, narrative ou informative);
- repérer les indices de cohérence (repères spatio-temporels, articulations logiques) afin d’affiner la
compréhension du message ;
- extraire les mots porteurs de sens et les éléments expressifs du message oral, de façon à construire
le sens du message sous forme d’hypothèses au fil de l’écoute ;
- inférer le sens de ce qui n’est pas connu en prenant appui sur le contexte ou en se référant à son
expérience du monde ;
- classer et mettre en relation les éléments-clés du message pour opérer le traitement de l’information,
de façon à les mémoriser et vérifier les hypothèses émises et parvenir ainsi à la compréhension ;
- résumer régulièrement ce qui vient d’être entendu afin de stocker en mémoire le message en
construction ;
- analyser la portée de certains éléments linguistiques et supra-segmentaux pour accéder, le cas
échéant, à l’implicite du message en interprétant les attitudes, les réactions et les sentiments ;
- faire la synthèse pour appréhender la situation et ses enjeux.

Par ailleurs, en classe de seconde, on peut commencer à sensibiliser les élèves à la grande diversité
des accents nationaux et régionaux de l’anglais et à prendre conscience de l’importance des niveaux
de langue dans les relations sociales. Il s’agira également d’amener les élèves à percevoir, au-delà
des variations phonétiques et mélodiques, la cohérence du système d’intonation et d’accentuation de
l’anglais.

The objective is to understand the gist of an audio or video or text of one or two minutes which
features one, two or several speakers. To do so, the pupil will need to (amongst others):
- predict what will be heard from what has been heard
- identify the characteristic sounds and stress patterns of spoken English so as to activate what is
known
- use the context to guess what was not heard well
- extract the words carrying the meaning so as to reconstruct the meaning of the message while
listening
- through the context and one’s own experience of the world, infer the meaning of unknown words
- use the relatonships between the key elements of a message to process the information in order to
remember it to be able to check predictions and arrive at understanding
- regularly summarise what has been said in order to remember the message being constructed
- analyse the range of linguistic elements and supra-segmentals in order to understand the implicit
meaning of a message by interpreting attitudes, reactions and feelings;
- extract the essential facts in order to understand the situation and the issues.

Moreover, in seconde, pupils can begin to be sensitized to the great diversity of regional and national
accents in English, and become aware of the the importance of register. Pupils will also need to
beome aware of the systems of intonation and stress.

EXEMPLES DE CONTEXTES ET SUPPORTS (EXAMPLES OF CONTEXT AND MATERIALS)
- comprendre un document audio ou vidéo court - chansons, extraits de pièces de théâtre, de films,
d’1 à 2 minutes portant sur des domaines étudiés ; d’œuvres de fiction lues, poèmes... ;
- comprendre un dialogue de la vie courante ;
- comprendre l’essentiel d’une conversation entre plusieurs personnes sur un thème étudié. - extraits
de débats télévisés, de reportages radiophoniques.

- understand a short audio or video extract of one or two minutes – songs, plays, films on areas
studied - fiction, poems, etc.
- understand a dialogue relating to everyday life
- understand the gist of a conversation between several people on a subject studied - extracts from
debates, radio reports, etc.




The kinds of listening texts the learner needs to understand are announcements made at railway
stations and airports, traffic information given on the radio, public announcements made at sporting
events or pop concerts and instructions given by police or customs officials. At this level, candidates
need to be able to not only pick out facts, but also to understand opinions, attitudes, moods and
wishes.

Paper    Listening    30           Four parts ranging       Assessment of candidates’ ability to
2                     minutes      from short exchanges     understand dialogues and monologues in
                      (approx.)    to longer dialogues      both informal and neutral settings on a
                                   and monologues.          range of everyday topics.

Part 1 texts, which may be monologues or dialogues, are short extracts taken from daily life. They
may include, for example, conversations at home or between friends, radio announcements, parts of
talks, exchanges in shops, etc. The task requires candidates to listen for specific information in the
text which will answer the question.

In Part 2 of the test candidates listen to a longer text which may be either a monologue, or an
interview with questions from a radio presenter. Texts are taken from a range of contexts, and will be
largely informational in focus. Some may be informational monologues, such as radio announcements
and recorded messages, providing information about places and events, whilst others may be extracts
from talks or radio programmes, in which people are talking about their lives, interests or experiences.
Most questions require candidates to locate and understand specific information from the text,
although occasionally a question may focus on a very clearly stated attitude or opinion. To arrive at
the correct answer, candidates will need to understand the detailed meaning of the text.

In Part 3 of the test candidates listen to a longer text which will take the form of an informational
monologue. Texts are taken from a range of contexts, and may be radio announcements and recorded
messages, providing information about places and events, or they may be extracts from talks or radio
programmes, in which people are talking about courses, trips or holiday activities. Candidates should
make predictions about the sort of language and information they are going to hear, which will help
them to feel prepared for the answers when they come. The task requires candidates to locate and
record specific information from the text, whilst ignoring other parts of the text that include redundant
information.
In Part 4 of the test candidates listen to a longer text which will take the form of an informal dialogue,
usually between two people of similar age and status. There is generally one male and one female
speaker to aid identification and the conversation typically focuses on everyday concerns that affect
the speakers. The conversation is informal in nature and generally involves speakers discussing their
attitudes and opinions on a given topic, as they agree and disagree on certain points. The task calls
for an understanding of the gist of a conversation containing less formal language and the correct
identification of attitudes, opinions and agreement. Candidates will need to locate and understand
detailed meaning in order to make the correct choice for each question.

Compréhension de l’écrit (Reading comprehension)
Le travail devra s’appuyer sur des documents très variés. Tout document susceptible d’être rencontré,
utilisé, lu dans la vie courante d’un pays anglophone convient - panneau explicatif, brochure, texte
publicitaire, bandes dessinées ou cartoons - aussi bien qu’extraits de romans, nouvelles, poèmes,
scripts, articles ou textes de chanson. La recherche documentaire sur l’internet donnera également de
multiples occasions de lire/déchiffrer de l’anglais.

A wide variety of documents will be used : anything that a pupil might be expected to come across in
everyday life in an English-speaking country – signs, brochures, ads, cartoons; extracts from novels,
short stories, poems, scripts, articles, lyrics or documents found on the internet.

L’élève est amené à mettre en œuvre certaines stratégies de lecture efficaces, parmi lesquelles :
- repérer les éléments pertinents de la mise en page (pagination, ponctuation, etc.) pour identifier la
nature du document écrit ;
- identifier les éléments périphériques (auteur, source du texte, date de publication, titre, nombre de
paragraphes) ;
- anticiper un contenu à partir du titre, de la première phrase ou du premier paragraphe en émettant
des hypothèses qu’il s’agira de vérifier en cours de lecture ;
- repérer les articulations logiques du discours (mots de liaison, enchaînement, reprises
anaphoriques) pour émettre des hypothèses de sens;
- identifier les valeurs exprimées par les formes grammaticales (comparaison, modalité, passivation,
etc.) pour faire des suppositions et vérifier leur justesse en cours de lecture et - retrouver la cohérence
du texte à partir des indices pertinents ;
- partir du connu pour compenser l’inconnu ;
- inférer le sens des mots inconnus en se fondant sur le contexte et/ou sur les procédés de formation
des mots dérivation/composition, etc.);
- opérer le traitement de l’information : éliminer les éléments non pertinents et établir des liens pour
construire du sens au niveau de l’explicite, et le cas échéant, à l’implicite (procédés ironiques, etc.).

The pupil will learn to use certain efficient reading strategies, including:
- identifying relevant elements of the layout (page numbering, punctuation, etc.) to identify the type of
document
- identify peripheral elements (author, source, publication date, title, number of paragraphs)
- anticipate the contents from the title, first sentence or first paragraph, and make predictions that can
be checked while reading
- identify discourse markers (conjunctions, sequences, anaphoric reference) to be able to predict
meaning
- identify the values expressed by the grammatical forms (comparison, mood, passivisation, etc.) to
make assumptions to be checked while reading
- use relevant clues to identify the coherence of a text
- use the known to compensate for the unknown
- use the context and or word-formation processes to guess the meaning of unknown words
- process the information by eliminating the irrelevant and establishing links to construct explicit – and
where necessary implict – meaning.


Un véritable entraînement mettra en place des stratégies de lecture adaptées au type de document
rencontré : repérage de l’agencement argumentatif dans les textes discursifs, de la trame narrative
dans les récits, des points d’ancrage de la communication dans les publicités et les brochures.
Thorough training will create reading strategies which are adapted to the different types of document
which pupils come across: identification of the argument structure in discursive texts, the narrative
structure in stories …

EXEMPLES DE CONTEXTES ET SUPPORTS (EXAMPLES OF CONTEXTS AND MATERIALS)
- comprendre des documents authentiques simples - publicités, prospectus, informations
touristiques... ayant trait à la vie quotidienne ;
- comprendre des textes rédigés dans une langue courante; - articles de presse, pages web, extraits
de contes,
- comprendre des textes narratifs, discursifs ou de nouvelles, de romans, poèmes d’une longueur
maximale de 300 mots;
pratiquer une lecture “extensive” de textes longs. de pièce de théâtre, scripts de documents vidéo ou
audio…

- understand simple authentic everyday documents – ads, brochures, leaflets, tourist information, etc.
- understand texts written in everyday language – press articles, web pages, extracts from tales, etc.
- understand narrative or discursive texts or extracts of up to 300 words from short stories, novels or
poems
- undertake extensive reading of plays and scripts of audio or video recordings.



The text types which can be handled by the learner at this level include street signs and public notices,
product packaging, forms, posters, brochures, city guides and instructions on how to do things, as well
as informal letters and newspaper and magazine texts such as articles, features and weather
forecasts. At this level, candidates need to be able to not only pick out facts, but also to understand
opinions, attitudes, moods and wishes.

Candidates should be able to understand public notices and signs; to read short texts of a factual
nature and show understanding of the content; to demonstrate understanding of the structure of the
language as it is used to express notions of relative time, space, possession, etc.; to scan factual
material for information in order to perform relevant tasks, disregarding redundant or irrelevant
material; to read texts of an imaginative or emotional character and to appreciate the central sense of
the text, the attitude of the writer to the material and the effect it is intended to have on the reader.

Paper     Name         Timing         Content                      Test Focus
Paper     Reading/     1 hour 30      Reading: Five parts          Assessment of candidates’
1         Writing      minutes        which test a range of        ability to understand the
                                      reading skills with a        meaning of written English at
                                      variety of texts, ranging    word, phrase, sentence,
                                      from very short notices to   paragraph and whole text
                                      longer continuous texts.     level.



To prepare for the Reading component, students should be exposed to a variety of authentic texts,
drawn from newspapers and magazines, non-fiction books, and other sources of factual material, such
as leaflets, brochures and websites. It is also recommended that students practise reading (and
writing) short communicative messages, including notes, cards and emails.

Part 1 tests the candidate’s understanding of various kinds of short texts: authentic notices and signs,
packaging information (for example, instructions on a food package or a label on a medicine bottle),
and communicative messages (notes, emails, cards and postcards).

Part 2 tests the candidate’s detailed comprehension of factual material.

Part 3 tests the ability to work with a longer, factual text, looking for precise information. The
information to be found is usually practical in nature, resembling the type of task with which people are
often confronted in real life. Frequently, these texts take the form of brochure extracts, advertisements
in magazines and website information. In this part, candidates may well meet some unfamiliar
vocabulary. However, they will not be required to understand such vocabulary in order to answer a
question correctly. When they meet an unfamiliar word or phrase, therefore, they should not be put off,
and should concentrate on obtaining the specific information required from the text.

Part 4 presents candidates with a text which goes beyond the provision of factual information, and
expresses an opinion or attitude. Candidates will demonstrate whether they have understood the
writer’s purpose, the writer’s attitude or opinion, or an opinion quoted by the writer, and both the
detailed and global meaning of the text. This part requires candidates to read the text very carefully
indeed.

In Part 5, candidates read a short text containing ten numbered spaces and an example. There is a
four-option multiple-choice question for each numbered space, given after the text. The spaces are
designed to test mainly vocabulary, but also grammatical points such as pronouns, modal verbs,
connectives and prepositions.


Production orale (Speaking)
Une attention particulière sera portée à la maîtrise de la langue orale. Il faut insister sur, d’une part,
l’importance d’une pratique soutenue de la langue orale.

Special attention will be paid to mastering speaking. Teachers must emphasize the importance of
regular speaking practice.

L’enseignant se fixera comme objectif d’apprendre aux élèves à prendre la parole en continu (dans le
cadre d’une présentation d’un compte rendu, d’un exposé ou d’une argumentation) et sous forme
dialoguée dans une langue simple, dans la langue d’aujourd’hui, telle qu’elle est pratiquée dans les
situations courantes de communication. L’élève est amené à mettre en œuvre certaines stratégies,
parmi lesquelles :
- reproduire un énoncé ou un message en respectant schémas accentuels et intonatifs (poème,
chanson, etc.)
- reformuler le contenu d’un message simple de façon intelligible, c’est-à-dire en respectant les types
d’énoncés (déclaratifs, informatifs, injonctifs), les schémas accentuels et intonatifs et en réalisant
correctement les phonèmes;
- mobiliser ses connaissances lexicales, grammaticales, phonétiques et culturelles de façon
 pertinente ;
- produire des énoncés complexes pour argumenter son point de vue;
- avoir recours à des stratégies de compensation en faisant appel à des périphrases qui lui permettent
de dire ce qu’il veut dire avec ce qu’il peut dire ;
- contrôler son expression a posteriori et la corriger en cas d’erreur ;
- reformuler ce qui vient d’être dit de façon appropriée pour assurer la compréhension mutuelle;
- le cas échéant, demander de l’aide à l’interlocuteur ou faire preuve d’initiative dans l’échange avec
un interlocuteur.

The teacher will set the objective of teaching the pupils to speak in extended discourse (eg a
summary, a presentation or a line of argument) and to participate in dialogues using simple language
as used in everyday situations. The pupil will learn to put into use certain strategies, including:
- reproduce an utterance or message while maintaining the intonation and stress patterns – poem,
song, etc.
- reformulate a simple message intelligibly – i.e. by respecting the type of utterance (statement,
informative, order) and maintaining the intonation and stress patterns and pronouncing the phonemes
clearly
- use his/her lexical, grammatical and phonological knowledge relevantly
- produce more complex utterances to support one’s point of view
- use compensation strategies to rephrase language to enable him/her to say what they want to say
with what they know how to say
- monitor one’s speech and correct it as necessary
- feformulate what the other speaker has said in order to ensure mutual comprehension
- if necessary, request the other speaker’s help or take initiatives.
EXEMPLES DE CONTEXTES ET SUPPORTS ( EXAMPLES OF TEXTS AND MATERIALS)
- demander et apporter des informations dans le cadre de la vie quotidienne ; - conversation
téléphonique, discussions, débats,
- prendre part à une conversation ou un débat pour échanges portant sur la compréhension d’un
document en classe ;
- en argumentant pour justifier sa position ou réfuter celle de l’interlocuteur, réagir aux propos tenus
par les autres élèves ; -
- rendre compte de façon organisée du travail fait sur un document, présenter en continu un petit
commentaire;
- effectuer une présentation orale (et non d’écrit oralisé) de 1 à 2 minutes face à un groupe ;
- lire à voix haute un texte connu de manière compréhensible;
- réciter un court texte de façon expressive.

- request and supply information in everyday situations – phone call, discussions, debates, etc.
- take part in a conversation or debate concerning the understanding of a document used in class
- in a discussion, supporting one’s own position or refuting the other speaker’s, and reacting to other
speakers’ statements
- provide an extended organised summary based on a document
- make an oral presentation of one or two minutes
- read a continuous text out loud comprehensively
- recite a short text with expression.

Students should be able to express themselves in order to fulfil the functions in situations which
simulate authentic communication. They should be able to ask and to understand questions and make
appropriate responses, and should be able to talk freely in order to express emotions, reactions, etc.

Paper    Speaking    10–12          Four parts: In Part 1, candidates     Assessment of candidates’
3                    minutes        interact with an examiner; In Parts   ability to express themselves
                     per pair of    2 and 4 they interact with another    in order to carry out functions
                     candidates     candidate; In Part 3, they have an    at Threshold level. To ask
                                    extended individual long turn.        and to understand questions
                                                                          and make appropriate
                                                                          responses. To talk freely on
                                                                          matters of personal interest.




Part    Task Type and Format                   Task Focus                             Timing
1       Each candidate interacts with the      Giving information of a factual,       2–3
        interlocutor. The interlocutor asks    personal kind. The candidates          minutes
        the candidates questions in turn,      respond to questions about
        using standardised questions.          present circumstances, past
                                               experiences and future plans.
2       Simulated situation. Candidates        Using functional language to           2–3
        interact with each other. Visual       make and respond to                    minutes
        stimulus is given to the candidates    suggestions, discuss alternatives,
        to aid the discussion task. The        make recommendations and
        interlocutor sets up the activity      negotiate agreement.
        using a standardised rubric.
3       Extended turn. A colour photograph     Describing photographs and             3
        is given to each candidate in turn     managing discourse, using              minutes
        and they are asked to talk about it    appropriate vocabulary, in a
        for up to a minute. Both               longer turn.
        photographs relate to the same
        topic.
4       General conversation. Candidates       The candidates talk together            3
        interact with each other. The topic    about their opinions, likes/dislikes,   minutes
        of the conversation develops the       preferences, experiences, habits
        theme established in Part 3. The       etc.
        interlocutor sets up the activity
        using a standardised rubric.


Part 1: The test begins with a general conversation led by the interlocutor, who asks the candidates
questions about their personal details, daily routines, likes and dislikes, etc. Candidates are addressed
in turn and are not expected to talk to each other at this stage. At an appropriate point, candidates are
asked to spell all or part of their name. The purpose of this conversation is to test the language of
simple social interaction, and to enable each candidate to make an initial contribution to the test, using
simple everyday language. As they are talking about themselves using familiar language, this
conversation should help to settle the candidates, enabling them to overcome any initial nervousness.

Part 2 of the test takes the form of a simulated situation where the candidates are asked, for example,
to make and respond to suggestions, discuss alternatives, make recommendations and negotiate
agreement with their partner. Candidates are expected to engage with the task independently,
negotiating turns and eliciting opinions from each other. A sheet of visual prompts is given to the
candidates which is designed to generate ideas and provide the basis for the discussion. Candidates
may, however, introduce their own ideas if they wish. Candidates are assessed on their ability to take
part in the task, rather than on the outcome of their discussions, and so it is not necessary for them to
complete the task in the time given. Candidates are assessed on their use of appropriate language
and interactive strategies, not on their ideas.

In Part 3 of the test, each candidate is given one colour photograph to describe. The photographs will
depict everyday situations and candidates are asked to give a simple description of what they can see
in their photograph. This part of the test allows candidates to demonstrate both their range of
vocabulary and their ability to organise language in a long turn. Their descriptions are expected to be
simple, however, and candidates at this level are not expected to speculate about the context or talk
about any wider issues raised by the scenes depicted.

In Part 4 of the test, the candidates speak to each other. The interlocutor sets up the task, then takes
no further part. The theme established in Part 3 is now used as the starting point for a general
conversation in which the candidates discuss their own likes and dislikes, experiences, etc.
Candidates are expected to engage with the task independently, negotiating turns and eliciting
opinions from each other Candidates should be able to talk about their interests and enthusiasms and
give reasons for their views and preferences.

The interlocutor awards a mark for global achievement, whilst the assessor awards marks according to
four analytical criteria: Grammar and Vocabulary, Discourse Management, Pronunciation and
Interactive Communication.



Production écrite (Writing)
En classe de seconde, les activités proposées devront amener les élèves à mettre en oeuvre les
éléments grammaticaux et lexicaux étudiés au collège, ainsi qu’à produire des énoncés d’une
complexité croissante. Elles seront de nature différente, réduction (résumés, comptes rendus, voire
prise de notes), expansion à partir de notes ou pourront faire appel à l’imagination (narrations, articles
de type journalistique et dialogues) et à la réflexion des élèves (descriptions et analyses de
documents iconographiques simples).

In seconde the pupils should be able to use the lexical and grammatical knowledge they learned in
collège to produce increasingly complex writing: reduction (summmaries, note-taking); expansion from
notes, including, possibly, creative writing (narrative, newspaper articles, dialogues); and reflection
(description and analysis of simple pictures).

On attendra des élèves qu’ils soient capables de construire des paragraphes et au final de rédiger des
productions de 150 mots environ. Pour cette compétence, qu’il s’agisse de la rédaction d’énoncés
simples ou d’une production écrite plus complexe, l’élève est amené à mettre en œuvre certaines
stratégies productives, parmi lesquelles :
- analyser, identifier le sujet ;
- mobiliser les savoirs adaptés à la tâche et aux valeurs que l’on veut exprimer;
- utiliser ses connaissances pour dépasser les obstacles (chercher des périphrases ou des
formulations approximatives) ;
- sélectionner les mots de liaison afin de structurer les paragraphes et de créer la cohérence de
l’ensemble de la production ;
- complexifier et enrichir le discours pour exprimer une pensée argumentée, étoffée et nuancée ;
- contrôler la production en utilisant ses connaissances pour identifier et corriger ses erreurs.

Pupils will be expected to construct paragraphs and produce texts of up to about 150 words. To do so,
they will need to use certain strategies, including:
- analysing and identifying a subject
- using knowledge appropriate to the task and to the values one wishes to express
- use communication strategies to overcome obstacles (eg rephrasing or simplification)
- select discourse markers to structure paragraphs and create coherence
- complexify and enrich the text to express expanded or qualified arguments
- monitor writing to identify and correct errors.

La rédaction de textes plus personnels, pour décrire une expérience ou donner un avis, peut
permettre d’aller vers une expression écrite plus libre.
Writing more personal texts to describe an experience or give an opinion gives pupils the opportunity
to do freer writing.

EXEMPLES DE CONTEXTES ET SUPPORTS (EXAMPLES OF CONTEXTS AND
MATERIALS)
- rédiger des messages de la vie courante ; - cartes postales, lettres... ;
- prendre part à un échange épistolaire ; -
- rédiger un texte court à caractère narratif, - récit, compte rendu, ‘letters to the editor’,
ou développant une argumentation (biographies, articles courts,
- rédiger des dialogues ou de courts textes de fiction ; de réduction à partir de textes longs.
- rédiger un essai de 150 à 200 mots.

- write everyday messages – postcards, letters, etc.
- take part in an exchange of letters
- write a short narrative – story, summary, letter to the editor, or develop an argument – biographies,
short articles
- write dialogues or short fictional texts or reductions of longer texts
- write an essay of 150-200 words.

Students should be able to give information, report events, and describe people, objects and places as
well as convey reactions to situations, express hopes, regrets, pleasure, etc. They should also be able
to use the words they know appropriately and accurately in different written contexts, and be capable
of producing variations on simple sentences.
Paper    Name         Timing       Content                Test Focus
Paper    Reading/     1 hour 30    Writing: Three         Assessment of candidates’ ability to
1        Writing      minutes      parts which test a     produce straightforward written English,
                                   range of writing       ranging from producing variations on
                                   skills.                simple sentences to pieces of continuous
                                                          text.

Part 1 focuses on grammatical precision and requires candidates to complete five sentences, all
sharing a common theme or topic. For each question, candidates are given a complete sentence,
together with a ‘gapped’ sentence below it. Candidates should write between one and three words to
fill this gap. The second sentence, when complete, must mean the same as the first sentence.

In Part 2 candidates are asked to produce a short communicative message of between 35 and 45
words in length. They are told who they are writing to and why, and must include three content points,
which are laid out with bullets in the question. To gain top marks, all three points must be present in
the candidate’s answer, so it is important that candidates read the question carefully and plan what
they will include. Candidates are also assessed on the clarity of the message they produce; minor,
non-impeding errors are not penalised.

Part 3 offers candidates a choice of task: either a story or an informal letter may be written. Both tasks
require an answer of about 100 words. For the story, candidates are given either a short title or the
first sentence. The answer must be recognisably linked in content to the title. For the informal letter,
candidates are given an extract of a letter from a friend of theirs, which provides the topic they must
write about: for example, a couple of questions may be included, to focus their ideas.



B - Savoirs linguistiques (Linguistic Knowledge)
Lexique (Lexis)
L’individu (sa description, ses repères, sa perception, ses activités intellectuelles, ses projets, son
caractère et ses réactions affectives) ;
. son environnement (environnement animé, environnement inanimé, société et institutions) ;
. ses activités (vie quotidienne, fêtes, déplacements et voyages, monde du travail, écologie).
- enrichir le lexique dans le cadre de la composante culturelle de la classe de seconde
. mémoire (l’histoire, la chronologie, les causes, le passé, la notion de patrimoine, le souvenir, le
témoignage, la lettre...) ;
. échange (le commerce, la consommation, influences culturelles et linguistiques, le tourisme, le
voyage, les traditions, les transports...);
. lien social (le sport, l’école, le multiculturel, les communautés, les fêtes, les célébrations, le travail, la
vie sociale, la vie associative, la convivialité, la religion, les tensions sociales, les partis politiques, les
drapeaux...) ;
. création (le théâtre, la peinture, la sculpture, la littérature, la poésie, la chanson, la musique, les lieux
de culture ; réactions affectives et esthétiques...).

The individual: description, references, perceptions, intellectual activites, plans, personality,
friendships
Environment: living and inanimate, society and institutions
Activities: daily life, holidays, travel and holidays, work, ecology
Cultural component:
- memory – history, chronology, causes, the past, heritage, memory, accounts, letters
- exchange – trade, consumption, cultural and linguistic influences, tourism, travelling, traditions,
transport
- social life – sport, school, multicultural, communities, holidays, celebrations, work, social life, clubs,
friendships, religion, social tensions, political parties, flags
- creation – theatre, painting, sculpture, literature, poetry, songs, music, buildings linked to culture;
friendships, esthetics.


Le programme lexical fera apparaître les spécificités culturelles en suspens dans les mots et le
rapport au réel qu’elles expriment (suburbs, inner city, downtown, skyline, home, cosy, nice, etc.).
The lexical programme will bring out the cultural specificities behind the words and the real
relationships they express.

Le programme lexical devra également fournir aux élèves l’occasion de réfléchir sur les phénomènes
lexicaux, ce qui permettra de les amener à découvrir le sens des mots par inférence. L’enrichissement
du lexique passe aussi par l’analyse et un début d’appropriation des processus de dérivation et de
composition si productifs en anglais, ainsi que par l’étymologie, stratégies transférables d’un
document à l’autre. Rappelons enfin que, dans le cadre du cours, les besoins lexicaux des élèves
sont de trois ordres :
- ce qui est nécessaire pour comprendre les documents étudiés ;
- ce qui est nécessaire pour en rendre compte et donner un point de vue;
- ce qui est nécessaire pour prendre une part active au cours qui se déroule en anglais, sans recours
inutile au français.

The lexical programme will also enable pupils to reflect on lexis, which willl in turn enable them to work
out the meaning of unknown words: word formation, etymology. The lexis required by pupils is of three
orders:
- that which is needed to understand the documents studied
- that which is needed to talk or write about the documents
- that which is necessary to take an active part in class.

Topics
Clothes, personal identification, daily life, places and buildings, education, relations with other people,
entertainment and media, transport, environment, services, food and drink, shopping, free time, social
interaction, health, medicine and sport, exercise, the natural world, hobbies and leisure, travel and
holidays, house and home, weather language, work and jobs, people, personal feelings, opinions and
experiences.

Lexis
The PET examination includes items which normally occur in the everyday vocabulary of native-
speakers using English today. Candidates should know the lexis appropriate to their personal
requirements, for example, nationalities, hobbies, likes and dislikes.

Greeting people and responding to greetings (in person and on the phone); introducing oneself and
other people asking for and giving personal details: (full) name, age, address, names of relatives and
friends, occupation, etc; understanding and completing forms giving personal details; understanding
and writing letters,; giving personal details; describing education, qualifications and skills; describing
people (personal appearance, qualities); asking and answering questions about personal possessions;
asking for repetition and clarification re-stating what has been said; checking on meaning and intention
helping others to express their ideas; interrupting a conversation starting a new topic; changing the
topic; resuming or continuing the topic; asking for and giving the spelling and meaning of; counting
and using numbers; asking and telling people the time, day and/or date; asking for and giving
information about routines and habits; understanding and writing diaries and letters; giving information
about everyday activities; talking about what people are doing at the moment; talking about past
events and states in the past, recent activities and completed actions; understanding and producing
simple narratives; reporting what people say; talking about future or imaginary situations; talking about
future plans or intentions making predictions; identifying and describing accommodation (houses, flats,
rooms, furniture, etc.); buying and selling things (costs, measurements and amounts); talking about
food and ordering meals; talking about the weather; talking about one’s health; following and giving
simple instructions; understanding simple signs and notices; asking the way and giving directions;
asking for and giving travel information; asking for and giving simple information about places;
identifying and describing simple objects (shape, size, weight, colour, purpose or use, etc.); making
comparisons and expressing degrees of difference; talking about how to operate things; describing
simple processes expressing purpose, cause and result, and giving reasons; drawing simple
conclusions and making recommendations; making and granting/refusing simple requests; making
and responding to offers and suggestions; expressing and responding to thanks; giving and
responding to invitations; giving advice; giving warnings and prohibitions; persuading and
asking/telling people to do something; expressing obligation and lack of obligation; asking and
giving/refusing permission to do something; making and responding to apologies and excuses;
expressing agreement and disagreement, and contradicting people; paying compliments; criticising
and complaining; sympathising; expressing preferences, likes and dislikes (especially about hobbies
and leisure activities); talking about physical and emotional feelings; expressing opinions and making
choices; expressing needs and wants; expressing (in)ability in the present and in the past; talking
about (im)probability and (im)possibility; expressing degrees of certainty and doubt.


Grammaire (Grammar)
Le programme grammatical de que la classe de seconde doit s’appuyer sur le programme de la
classe de troisième., et ce, dans le cadre d’une grammaire de l’énonciation (voir L’élève a appris que
tout énoncé est le résultat des choix opérés par celui qui parle en fonction du contexte, de celui à qui il
parle et du message qu’il veut transmettre. Cette approche, initiée au collège, permet d’affiner l’étude
et la pratique de certains domaines-clefs de la grammaire anglaise: le temps, l’aspect et la modalité, la
détermination du nom. On s’attachera en priorité, toutefois, à ce que les élèves maîtrisent un nombre
limité de points essentiels garants d’une correction minimale de la langue. Ceci concerne notamment:

- le choix des déterminants ø, a, the, much/many, (a) little/ (a) few, every, some, any, no ;
- les accords de nombre (déterminant/nom et sujet/verbe) ;
- la place et l’invariabilité de l’adjectif ;
- le choix des temps et aspects (oppositions : présent simple/présent (+ be -ing, simple past/présent +
have -en);
- la construction et l’emploi à bon escient des modaux ;
- les constructions négatives et interrogatives ;
- le discours rapporté.
Il conviendra aussi, bien entendu, de consolider les connaissances syntaxiques en ce qui concerne :
- la phrase simple : l’ordre des mots, notamment la place des adverbes, la construction et l’emploi des
verbes prépositionnels et à particule, la complexification du groupe nominal ;
- la phrase complexe, essentiellement au niveau de l’écrit : coordination, V + (that)/V + to/V + -ing/,
subordonnées circonstantielles, etc.;
- les reprises par auxiliaire, si caractéristiques de l’anglais parlé (isn’t it ?, yes, he does, so/neither do
I, etc.).

The grammatical syllabus of seconde is a revision of that of troisième, based on the theory of
enunciation3. This enables pupils to refine their understanding of tense, aspect, mood and
determination. Priority will be given to a limited number of essential points which will enable the pupil
to produce relatively error-free language :
- determiners : ø, a, the, much/many, (a) little/ (a) few, every, some, any, no
- number agreement : determiner/noun, subject/verb
- the invariability and position of the adjective
- tense and aspect
- modals
- negatives and interrrogatives ;
- reported speech.
It will also be necesary to consolidate syntactic knowldege:
- the simple sentence: word order (especially adverb position, multi-word verbs and the complex noun
phase)
- the complex sentence (especially for writing): coordination ; verb + that/to/ing, subordination, etc.
- tag questions.




3
    A French linguistic theory which dominates pedagogical thinking in schools.
Inventory of Grammatical Areas
Verbs
regular and irregular forms

Modals
can (ability; requests; permission)
could (ability; possibility; polite requests)
would (polite requests)
will (offer)
shall (suggestion; offer)
should (advice)
may (possibility)
might (possibility)
have (got) to (obligation)
ought to (obligation)
must (obligation)
mustn’t (prohibition)
need (necessity)
needn’t (lack of necessity)
used to + infinitive (past habits).



Tenses

Present simple: states, habits, systems and processes (and verbs not used in the continuous
form)
Present continuous: future plans and activities, present actions
Present perfect simple: recent past with just, indefinite past with yet, already, never, ever; unfinished
   past with for and since
Past simple: past events
Past continuous: parallel past actions, continuous actions interrupted by the past simple tense
Past perfect simple: narrative, reported speech
Future with going to
Future with present continuous and present simple
Future with will and shall: offers, promises, predictions, etc.

Verb Forms
Affirmative, interrogative, negative
Imperatives
Infinitives (with and without to) after verbs and adjectives
Gerunds (-ing form) after verbs and prepositions
Gerunds as subjects and objects
Passive forms: present and past simple
Verb + object + infinitive give/take/send/bring/show + direct/indirect object
Causative have/get
So/nor with auxiliaries.

Compound Verb Patterns
Phrasal verbs/verbs with prepositions.
Conditional Sentences
Type 0: An iron bar expands if/when you heat it.
Type 1: If you do that again, I’ll leave.
Type 2: I would tell you the answer if I knew it.

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that again.

Simple Reported Speech
Statements, questions and commands: say, ask, tell
He said that he felt ill.
I asked her if I could leave.
No-one told me what to do.
Indirect and embedded questions: know, wonder
Do you know what he said?
I wondered what he would do next.

Interrogatives

What, What (+ noun) Where; When Who; Whose; Which How; How much; How many; How often;
How long; etc. Why (including the interrogative forms of all tenses and modals listed).

Nouns
Singular and plural (regular and irregular forms) Countable and uncountable nouns with some and any
Abstract nouns Compound nouns Complex noun phrases Genitive: ‘s and s’ Double genitive: a friend
of theirs.

Pronouns
Personal (subject, object, possessive)
Reflexive and emphatic: myself, etc.
Impersonal: it, there
Demonstrative: this, that, these, those
Quantitative: one, something, everybody, etc.
Indefinite: some, any, something, one, etc.
Relative: who, which, that, whom, whose.



Determiners
a + countable nouns the + countable/uncountable nouns.

Adjectives
Colour, size, shape, quality, nationality Predicative and attributive Cardinal and ordinal numbers,
Possessive: my, your, his, her, etc. Demonstrative: this, that, these, those Quantitative: some, any,
many, much, a few, a lot of, all, other, every, etc.
Comparative and superlative forms (regular and irregular): (not) as . . . as, not . . . enough to, too . .
   . to
Order of adjectives
Participles as adjectives
Compound adjectives.
Adverbs
Regular and irregular forms
Manner: quickly, carefully, etc.
Frequency: often, never, twice a day, etc.
Definite time: now, last week, etc.
Indefinite time: already, just, yet, etc.
Degree: very, too, rather, etc.
Place: here, there, etc.
Direction: left, right, along, etc.
Sequence: first, next, etc.
Sentence adverbs: too, either, etc.
Pre-verbal, post-verbal and end-position adverbs
Comparative and superlative forms (regular and irregular).



Prepositions

Location: to, on, inside, next to, at (home), etc.
Time: at, on, in, during, etc.
Direction: to, into out of, from, etc.
Instrument: by, with
Miscellaneous: like, as, due to, owing to, etc.
Prepositional phrases: at the beginning of, by means of, etc.
Prepositions preceding nouns and adjectives: by car, for sale, at last, etc.
Prepositions following (i) nouns and adjectives: advice on, afraid of, etc. (ii) verbs: laugh at, ask for,
   etc.

Connectives
and, but, or, either . . . or when, while, until, before, after, as soon as where because, since, as, for so
that, (in order) to so, so . . . that, such . . . that if, unless although, while

Note that, in PET, students will meet forms other than those listed above, on which they will not be
directly tested.



II - OBJECTIFS CULTURELS (CULTURAL OBJECTIVES)
Les élèves sont de plus en plus sollicité par la culture et la langue du monde anglophone. De
cette mission éducative découle la nécessité d’intégrer au programme d’anglais une dimension
culturelle sans laquelle aucun apprentissage linguistique à long terme ne peut se faire.
Pupils are increasingly assailed by the culture and language of the English-speaking world. Hence the
need to integrate into the English syllabus a cultural dimension.

Intégrer une composante culturelle dans l’enseignement de l’anglais ne signifie ni faire un cours
magistral de civilisation ni reproduire un cours d’histoire, de littérature ou d’art. Il s’agit de mettre en
évidence, dans le cadre d’activités de compréhension et d’expression, les particularités de la culture
des pays anglophones et les contrastes avec la culture maternelle Il s’agit aussi de donner aux élèves
un système de références culturelles propres à chacun des pays anglophones dont une langue
officielle est l’anglais afin de leur permettre d’accéder à une meilleure compréhension de leurs
habitants et des œuvres artistiques majeures. L’on ne saurait non plus occulter le poids de la culture
américaine dans ce processus de transmission parallèle, sans y voir nécessairement l’expression d’un
modèle ou d’une hégémonie.

Integrating a cultural dimension does not mean lectures on culture, history, literature or art. It means
bringing out the particularities of English-speaking countries and comparing them with France while
teaching understanding and production. It means providing then pupils with a system of cultural
references in order to enable them to better understand the inhabitants of these countries and their
major artistic works. Without giving it a dominant position, American culture cannot be avoided.

Contenu culturel : “vivre ensemble en société”
Dans la pratique le programme culturel s’organise autour de quatre notions qui sont autant de façons
d’appréhender la réalité de la vie au sein d’une communauté culturelle donnée. Ces quatre notions
sont la mémoire, les échanges, le lien social et la création. Ces notions, qui forment l’armature du
contenu culturel, deviennent pleinement opératoires lorsqu’elles s’incarnent dans des thèmes précis
(par exemple, la notion de lien social illustrée par le thème du multiculturalisme).

1 - Mémoire
Par “mémoire”, on entend tout ce qui a construit l’histoire et le passé d’une culture. Exemples de
thèmes et, éventuellement, suggestions de villes ou lieux pouvant illustrer ces thèmes : l’empire
britannique (Delhi, Hong Kong), émigration et immigration (New York, Dublin, Liverpool, Bradford,
Sydney, etc.), les fêtes calendaires, etc.
2 - Échanges
Par “échanges”, il faut comprendre tout ce qui a trait aux échanges économiques et à leurs
implications sociales. Exemples de thèmes et, éventuellement, suggestions de villes ou lieux pouvant
illustrer ces thèmes : le commerce, le tourisme, le jeu (Las Vegas, Atlantic City, Blackpool, les parcs
nationaux, les parcs à thème, etc.), la mode (Londres, New York, etc.), l’industrie cinématographique
(Hollywood), le monde du spectacle (le West End, Broadway), etc.
3 - Lien social
Il s’agit ici de décliner tout ce que “vivre ensemble” signifie. Exemples de thèmes et, éventuellement,
suggestions de villes ou lieux pouvant illustrer ces thèmes : le multiculturalisme, les divisions
communautaires (Belfast, Brixton, Miami, Los Angeles, Soweto, etc.), l’explosion urbaine (Lagos), la
violence (Washington, Los Angeles, Brixton, etc.), le fait religieux (Canterbury, la Pennsylvanie, Salt
Lake City, etc.), les fêtes calendaires, etc.
4 - Création
Ce terme englobe toutes les formes de création. On prendra soin de ne pas en donner une vision
stéréotypée ou trop limitative. Exemples de thèmes et, éventuellement, suggestions de villes ou lieux
pouvant illustrer ces thèmes : le roman policier, la mode (Londres, New York, etc.), la peinture, la
sculpture, l’architecture (Manhattan, Washington, Chicago, Bath, Londres, etc.), le jazz (La Nouvelle
Orléans et le French Quarter, New York et Harlem), la country music (Nashville), le reggae (Kingston
et la Jamaïque), le cinéma, la télévision, la bande dessinée, la culture hip hop, les festivals
(Édimbourg, le carnaval de Notting Hill), etc.




EVALUATION (ASSESSMENT)
L’évaluation intervient à trois moments de l’apprentissage :
- avant, pour dresser un bilan des acquis des élèves en termes de savoirs et de savoir-faire ;
- pendant, pour réguler le projet d’apprentissage :
- après, pour mesurer la plus-value apportée par l’enseignement et les apprentissages mis en œuvre.

Assessment occurs at three points during learning:
- before: to establish what the learners know and what skills they have
- during: to monitor learning
- after: to measure what has been learned as a result of the teaching.



Thus, passing PET can be seen as falling into the final category, since it also
measures the success of the learning in terms of the objectives set by the
Programmes nationaux.

								
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