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					Project Management
     Techniques

       Steve Snelling
     747 Industrial Engineering
   Boeing Commercial Airplanes
  stephen.r.snelling@boeing.com
                  My Background
• B.S. Industrial Engineering degree from Virginia Tech               &
  Co-Op student (7 work quarters)
     (Reynolds Aluminum Co. – Richmond, Virginia)
• Worked 5 years as an Area Industrial Engineer
     (Reynolds Aluminum Co. – Listerhill, Alabama)
• Worked 10 years as a Management Consultant
     (A.T. Kearney Inc. & Arthur Young Intl. – Chicago, San Francisco
      & Vancouver - worked in 22 states & Canada)
• Worked last 21 years as an IE - Process Improvement
  Engineer
     (Boeing - Everett site: 747, 767, 777, & 787 airplanes – currently
      on 747-8 program, some projects coaching & mentoring)
• Volunteer activities with IIE (nationally & locally)
  & PSEC (Puget Sound Engineering Council)

                                                                         2
   Presentation Outline

• Pictures of Boeing products &
  747 Freighter Assembly
• Types & Structure of IE Projects
• Five Project Stages
• Some Project Dangers
• Project Management Tips
• An Example Project
• Q&A


                                     3
Commercial Airplanes




                       4
Military




           5
Space




        6
Commercial Airplanes - Military Aircraft & Missiles - Space & Communications - Air Traffic
 Management - Boeing Capital Corporation - Shared Services Group - Phantom Works
                                                                                     7
  747 Final Assembly
at Everett, Washington




                         8
747 Freighter




                9
747 Freighter




                10
         Industries of IE Projects

•   Aluminum & Steel        •   Forestry & Logging
•   Materials Testing       •   Mining
•   Ceramics                •   Healthcare
•   Electronics Assembly    •   Banking
•   Aerospace & Airplanes   •   State & Federal
•   Plastics & forming          Government
•   Shipbuilding            •   Transportation
•   Entertainment           •   Oil & Gas
•   Military                •   Utilities
•   Construction            •   Insurance
•   Applied Research        •   Consulting
                                                     11
Types of IE Projects

    Process improvement
    Problem resolution
    Elimination of rework
    Cost analysis
    Facility layout
    Equipment justification
    Stand alone benchmarking
    Systems integration



                                12
                                Industrial Engineering
 Project Management             Functional Work Areas
                                                                                              Production Control
                                  Factory Operations
                                                                          Quality
                                                                                              - Product Mix Analysis
    - Project Planning
                                                                                              - Forecasting
    - Project Scheduling
    - Projects Coaching                                               - Chronic Rework
    - Risk Assessment                                                 - Supplier Quality
                                    - Production Scheduling
                                    - Lean Manufacturing
                                    - Systems Integration
   Material                                                                                         Costing
                                                              Product Engineering
                                      Facilities

- Supplier On-Site Visits                                                                   - Comparison of Alternatives
                                                               - Integrated Product Teams
- Supply Chain Management                                                                   - Cost & Savings Estimating
                                  - Layout Design              - Product Development
- Parts Storage & Movement
                                  - Process Flow Analysis      - Product Costing

                                                                                                 Training
      Safety                     Tooling
                                                              Transportation

                                                                                            - Training Presentations
                             - Machine Capacity                                             - Course Scheduling
- Safety Investigations                                       - Logistics Planning
                             - Tool Usage
- Ergonomic Evaluations                                       - Material Handling
                             - Tool Certifications                                                              13
                                                              - Alternative Methods
Logical Progression of a Project


                 Objectives


               Initial Findings


              Areas of Detail


        Cost Analysis of Alternatives


              Recommendations
                 Summary
                  Report &
                Presentation
                 Implementation
                      Plan

                                        14
   1
                    Five Project Stages
Start-up
Activities
                  2
                Process
             Documentation &
              Measurement
                              3
                      Develop & Evaluate
                          Solutions

                                           4
                                      Conclusions &
                                     Recommendations

                                                 5
                                           Implementation
                                                            Follow-up
                                                                   15
                                                                 1/31/2011
     1
                       Five Project Stages
  Start-up        Project Profile & Schedule,
  Activities      Feasibility Examination

                    2
                  Process            Historical Data, Observations, Flow
               Documentation &       Diagrams, Cause/Effect, Benchmarking
                Measurement
                                  3
                          Develop & Evaluate          Preliminary Solutions,
                              Solutions               Evaluation of Findings

                                                      4
                                                 Conclusions &        Final
Legend:                                         Recommendations       Presentation

  Outputs from each stage
                                                         5
                                                   Implementation           New Plan

                                                                     Follow-up
                                                                            16
                                                                             1/31/2011
        Five Project Stages

1. Project Start-up Activities

   – Project is authorized and assigned
   – Initial meetings with the project’s customer
   – Project Team is formed
   – Initial understanding about project
   – A feasibility study may be required before
     proceeding too far
   – Project Profile is prepared & reviewed with the
     project’s customer
   – Project Schedule is prepared & reviewed with
     the project’s customer



                                                       17
  Five Project Stages (continued)

2. Process Documentation & Measurement

  – Process flow charts are prepared, if applicable
  – Historical data is obtained & analyzed
  – New data is obtained & analyzed (e.g. Time
    Studies, direct observations)
  – Direct observations of current conditions
  – Digital pictures of current conditions
  – Interviewing for Information
  – Cause and effect diagrams, etc.
  – Possible Benchmarking tours




                                                      18
  Five Project Stages (continued)


3. Develop & Evaluate Solutions

   – Solutions are listed and organized
   – Additional benchmarking, if needed
   – Simulations (mathematical or using simulation
     software) are performed, if applicable
   – Evaluation criteria are determined and utilized
   – All viable solutions are evaluated




                                                       19
   Five Project Stages (continued)


4. Prepare Conclusions & Recommendations

  – Conclusions are documented and investigated
  – Final recommendations are documented
  – Final presentations are prepared, reviewed & given




                                                         20
 Five Project Stages (continued)


5. Implementation & Follow-up

  – Implementation items are planned and
    assisted
  – Follow-up is done as necessary
  – A large scale implementation may become a
    new project




                                                21
Some Project Dangers

   Vague commitment from customer
   Poor project description
   Undefined or unclear objective
   Unrealistic scope
   Unrealistic deliverables
   Poorly defined tasks
   Too tight a schedule
   Multiple customers not in agreement
   No safety margin for late tasks
   Key team members not available
                                          22
Some Project Dangers (continued)

    Poor communication with customer
    Poor data storage & sharing of files
    Late outside data sources
    Sub standard quality of data being used
    Bad team dynamics
    Non action-oriented report (or final
     presentation)
    Overlap with other project teams
    Legal issues



                                               23
    Project Management Tips

Project Profile & Scope

• Develop a good Project Profile with a descriptive
  objective
• Develop a realistic project Scope (the project’s
  “boundaries”)
• Develop a logical Statement of Work / Schedule
• Limit the simultaneous work you show in your
  project Schedule, if a small Team
• Show the entire project in the Project Schedule to
  complete all Deliverables
• Continually compare new action items against the
  original Scope & Deliverables
• Keep track of the Estimated Completion Date
  (ECD) - adjust to complete on time, if possible
                                                       24
   Project Profile
                                   Project Profile
Project #: PE- 0410                 Analyst:    Steve Snelling

Assignment Title:    747 T.O.C./Critical Chain Pilot Area

Customers:     Final Assembly General Supervisor
               A/C Bay Supervisor


Date Assigned: 4/1/2004                        ECD: 12/10/2004
Description:
 To determine if a pilot area for T.O.C. (Critical Chain) is viable for an area in FBJ
 systems. Then set up and run the pilot area for several airplanes.

Scope:
 FBJ Air Conditioning Installation area (~110 jobs).

Expected Benefits:
 Determine potential savings by using alternate scheduling methods.
 Determine if feasible. If there are measurable savings by this approach.

Statement of Work:
 Develop a project plan and schedule
 Learn from F-22 usage and 777 S&I pilot area
 Define the true Critical Chain (note: differs from the Critical Path, and also more
 detailed than current P-nets), including revised job times and buffers
 Investigate software options
 Get IE Resource Commitment
 Prepare report on turning on the pilot
 Decide to go or no-go
 Start up the pilot area

Deliverables:
 Detailed precedence networks
 Calculated (or estimated Project Buffer and Feeder Buffers)
 A detailed Critical Chain network that represents the entire pilot area (all skills)
 Sample management reports & tracking charts
 A recommendation to proceed or not to proceed with turning on the pilot
 A recommendation after running the pilot, to expand or not to expand it to other
 systems areas in Final Assembly
                                                                                           25
Schedule:        (see attached MS Project schedule)
                                                                                         1/31/2011
       Project Management Tips

Project Schedule

• I suggest taking an outline approach to building your
  project Schedule
• Most big & complex projects can be broken down into
  phases or smaller projects
• Make the project Schedule only as detailed and
  complex as the project requires
• The Schedule needs to be a useful and dynamic tool,
  and not a static one-time-use document
• Any Scheduling software cannot take the place of
  logical steps and good task time estimates



                                                          26
Project Schedule




                     27
                   1/31/2011
Project Management Tips (continued)

Project Phases

• Consider breaking larger projects into several
  phases
• Work on project phases sequentially as smaller
  projects, if enough resources are available
• Break out portions of the project, if necessary,
  due to delays in the project customer’s decision
  making
• Implementation and significant follow-up activity
  is commonly viewed as a separate phase of the
  project



                                                      28
Project Management Tips (continued)

Getting Help

• Look for ways of partnering with other individuals
  or groups on projects
• At Boeing, MR&D (now M&PT) has a variety of
  experts on call & may be able to purchase some
  inexpensive items for testing
• Also at Boeing, other groups of “Subject Experts”
  bring additional needed expertise
    – (e.g. Tool Engineering, Quality Engineering, Design
      Engineering, etc.)
• Most IE projects are collaborative
    – How well you coordinate with other groups is critical
      to a project’s success


                                                              29
Project Management Tips (continued)

Project Communication

• Use a variety of medium to communicate with your Team
    – (meetings, e-mail, digital pictures, file servers, white board
      discussions, Web Ex, etc.)
• Ask for reviews during the project
    – Don’t wait for everyone to chase you down to find out how
      it is going
• Regularly communicate with your project’s customer
    – The more frequent - the less “forced” the final presentation
      will seem


• A positive & team-focused “Attitude” is critical to today’s
  project communications
    – A “bad attitude” is rarely tolerated for long

                                                                       30
Project Management Tips (continued)

Data Analysis & Measurement

• Understand what data is needed, then develop
  your collection plan
    – (both historical & new data)
• Use data to verify and help investigate findings
• Utilize good statistical analysis skills, and check
  all calculations
• Link data to actual observations, when possible
• Set up lab tests and mathematical models
• Constantly do “reality checks” with your subject
  experts




                                                        31
Project Management Tips (continued)

 Benchmarking

 • Benchmarking is mainly on-site tours of other
   similar facilities for best practice comparisons
 • Do the main benchmarking only after you fully
   understand your current process
     – If done too early, you are not ready
     – If done too late, the benchmarking can’t properly
       influence the solution development
 • Utilize “white board” discussions (that are later
   typed up) to reach consensus with your Team
 • Try to include your project’s customer on some of
   the benchmarking tours



                                                           32
Project Management Tips (continued)

 Solutions & Evaluations

 • Write down alternative solutions throughout the project
     – Plan to research and investigate them
 • Be creative and comprehensive when developing
   initial solutions ideas
 • Develop an evaluation approach
     – (The criteria you want to use to determine which
       solutions are best)
 • Rank the most likely solutions
     – (The ranking may be based on cost, schedule, or risk
       factors)
 • Bring the project’s customer in on the selection
   process and to offer real applications information
     – (A “reality check”)
                                                              33
Project Management Tips (continued)

 Cost & Savings Estimates

 • Cost & Savings estimates are built up from a good
   detailed outline
 • Get a good Unit Cost estimate for anything very
   expensive or with a large number of occurrences
   (biggest impact items)
 • Get the owning organizations to confirm your Costs &
   Savings estimates
 • List one-time Costs & Savings separately from
   recurring Costs & Savings




                                                          34
      Cost & Savings Estimates


Initial Costs       Initial Savings




 Recurring            Recurring
  Costs                Savings

                                      35
Project Management Tips (continued)


 Conclusions & Recommendations

 • Research & investigate the most likely conclusions
   with the entire Team
 • Review the possible conclusions ongoing with your
   project’s customer
 • Take the best of the ideas and form a logical
   recommendation
 • Assess the Recommendations by cost & risk when
   presented
 • Time phase the recommendations, if needed




                                                        36
Project Management Tips (continued)


Presentations & Reports

• Review all final presentations (and final
  reports) prior to being given to the project’s
  customer
• Make sure all files (hard copies & electronic)
  are organized and stored properly at the
  conclusion of the assignment
• Make sure Implementation Plans are well
  organized and doable (Implementation may
  take much longer then the Analysis)




                                                   37
  Some Summary Comments

 Recognize when to use Project Management techniques
  on your IE assignments
 Form a good Team, with the needed Subject Experts
 Develop a good Plan, then work your Plan to a successful
  conclusion, with your Team
 Utilize good daily management and time management
  techniques
 Monitor progress (overall & to the assigned tasks) and
  make adjustments as required
 Keep your customer informed throughout the project
 Learn from your own project management experiences
  (both the good and the bad)


                                                             38
  A Sample Project


Flap Damage Reduction




                        39
           Flap Damage Reduction


•   The 747 Trailing Edge Inboard and Outboard
    Flaps were consistently being damaged (dents,
    scratches, punctures, etc.)
•   This caused major disruption to the shop &
    increased cost to the company
•   IE used a project approach to analyze the entire
    flap build-up & installation sequence
•   Developed improvement options working with the
    crew and tested & implemented them

                                                         40
                                                       1/31/2011
                                           Four Square Chart
                                      (Flap Damage Reduction)
Pictures                                                  Goals


                                                          - Reduce the amount of defects and damage related to Flaps
                                                          - Minimize disruption to the shop and to the supplier
                                                          - Improve customer satisfaction




Problem                                                   Schedule


  The 747 Trailing Edge Inboard and Outboard Flaps              Measure                 Improve          Implementation
                                                                July                    January          April
  were consistently being damaged, causing major
  disruption to the shop floor and our suppliers, while
  increasing cost to the company.

                                                           Define              Analyze        Control
                                                           June                November       February
Project Profile   (Flap Damage project)




                                          42
Project Schedule   (Flap Damage project)




                                           43
    Process Flow Chart                  (Flap Damage project)
                   FLAPS ARRIVE IN
                      TRUCKS.



                     FLAPS ARE
                                             Inboards
                    TAKEN OUT OF
                      TRUCKS.



                THEY ARE VERIFIED FOR
                 DAMAGE AND THE RAIL
                SHIPMENT PACKING SLIP
                      IS FILLED.



Outboards             THEY ARE
                   DRAGGED OUT
                   AND STAGED AT
                     40-55 YARD.



                YELLOW TAG IS PLACED
                  (WAITING FOR QA).



                QA VERIFIES THE FLAP
                 AND PLACE TAG FOR
                  READY TO MOVE.



                     FLAPS ARE
                  TRANSPORTED TO
                   FLAP BUILD UP.




                       FINISH
                                                                44
                                  Pareto Chart
                                   [Control Surface]
                            Pareto Chart of TYPE OF DEFECT
                     70
                                                                                                100
                     60

                     50                                                                         80




                                                                                                      Percent
                     40
Count




                                                                                                60
                     30
                                                                                                40
                     20
                                                                                                20
                     10

                      0                                                                         0
        TYPE OF DEFECT       t                   t                                       er
                           en        ch         ip
                                               in        kse
                                                         ug pl a
                                                                 te
                                                                        ug
                                                                          e
                                                                                ug
                                                                                  e
                          D        at     Pa  Ch       ar
                                                       o                               th
                               Sc
                                 r
                                                     lM
                                                   t/ G
                                                               t     Ga      Go       O
                                        o         n          Nu
                                     To        De         en
                                                       ok
                                                    Br
                 Count      37    9      5  3       2        2      1       1       1       3
                Percent   57.8 14.1 7.8 4.7 3.1 3.1 1.6 1.6 1.6                           4.7
                Cum %     57.8 71.9 79.7 84.4 87.5 90.6 92.2 93.8 95.3 100.0


                    • 72% of defects are due to dents and scratches
                    (2 of 10 defect categories, 20%)                                                            45
                                        Defect Locator (‘Measles’) Chart
                                                                             [Control Surface]


                                                                               2 DENTS               PAINT
              INBD AFT
                                                                              DENT AND GAUGE         DENT

                                                                                                                                                            WS
         WS 807                                                                   SCRATCH AND DENT                          WS 500
                                                                                                                                                           469.82


   10"                                                                                                                                       10"

                   4'-9"                                                                                                                             6"

                                        1                                                                                                5
                                                                                                                                                 9"
         7                                  3
                                                                                                                                     6
                                1'-8"




                                                                                                             1'-9"
1'-3"




                                                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                                 4




                                                                                                                                8"
                                                                                                                      6"
                                                                                                                                                             WBL
             WBL 445
                                                                                                                                                           128.4575
                                                                                                                                                 WBL 140


   OUTBD FORE
                                                DENT AND CRACKED

                                                CHIPPED            2 DENTS
             WS 1196                                                                                                                                                  WS 834.5




                                                                                                                                                           2"
                                                                                                                           25




                                                                                                                     5"
               3'-4"
                           26                                                                                              25




              WBL 822                                                                                                                        WBL 583                   WBL 515




                                                                                                                                                                        46
Cause & Effect Diagram   (Flap Damage project)




                                             47
                                                        5-Whys Analysis                                                                                          (Flap Damage project)

    Problem              1 Why                 2 Why                  3 Why                 4 Why               5 Why                6 Why            7 Why
                                                                                                                                                                    Three main causes:
                                                                Schedule incorrect         IE error                              Flap damage
                                                                                                                                   disruption

                                         PRE not installed
                                                                                                           Working too fast,



                                                                                                                                                                    -Ineffective use of PREs
                                             in time                                   Tired and lack of                          Not enough
                                                                                                           busy schedule,
                                                                                             focus                                 resources
                                                                                                              overtime

                                                                 Mechanic forgot
                                                                                                                                New mechanics
                                                                                         Awareness

                    Ineffective use of   PRE doesn’t cover
                          PRE            where the damage           Small PRE
                                            is ocurring
                                                                                       Insufficient work
                                                                                                              IP not clear



                                                                                                                                                                    -Dropping tools and screws
                                                                                         instructions


                                         PRE not installed
                                                                  Mechanic error      Lack of experience
                                            correctly


                                                                                       Lack of training



                                           PRE does not         Cannot withstand      PRE material not



  Aft/Mid Inboard
Flap Damage near
       SOB
                                              work               surface loads




                                                                  Pushing screws
                                                                                        adequate



                                                                                        Wrong screws
                                                                                                            Kitting process?
                                                                                                           (different screws’
                                                                                                              sizes mixed)


                                                                                                           Screws’ difference
                                                                                                             very small for
                                                                                                                                                                    -Walking on flaps
                                                                from inside the A/P                          mechanics to
                                                                                                             distinguished
                                                                                       Mechanic error
                    Dropping tools &                             No space to put
                                           Joins Process
                        screws                                      the tools                                Can’t have a
                                                                                          Very small        bigger platform       Joins & flaps
                                                                                                                                                    Scheduling
                                                                                           platform        because interfere    overlap for 1 day
                                                                  Lack of good                                 with flaps
                                                                access to the area


                                                                                       Lack of training

                                         Joins jobs behind
                                                                 New mechanics
                                             schedule
                                                                                         Awareness


                                          Using different         Landing gears       Joins jobs behind
                                             platform            installed (day 5)        schedule
                     Walking on the




                                                                                                                                Deep Root Causes:
                         flaps
                                                                 Flaps are in the        Joins & flaps
                                         Can’t use tiger lift                                                 Scheduling
                                                                     middle            overlap for 1 day




                                          Seal jobs & CIC          Scheduling




                                            SOB Panel



                                                                                                                                -Schedule overlap of jobs
                                                                                                                                -PRE doesn’t cover proper areas
                                                                                                                                -Side of Body Panel PRE is insufficient
                                                                                                                                                                  48 48
               Description of Solutions
                & Impacts to Process
     Solutions                          Impacts to Process
                            PRE will cover entire flap and is robust enough to prevent
1. New Hinged PRE           heavy damage. It is lightweight, durable, easy to install, and
                            will stay on flap through build sequence.
2.   Laser Measurement      Device will enable Functional Test to take measurements
     Device                 without walking on flaps
3.   Carriage Panel Screw   Supplier to relocate placement of screws on flap carriage
     Relocation             panels to areas with less risk to process
                            Improve process and protect area on flap that is volatile and
4.   Turn Buckle PRE        susceptible to damage through use of PRE
                            To be presented to shop crews to point out the fragile nature
5.   Awareness              of the flaps, the costs to the company due to damage, the
       Presentation         amount of disruption it causes, and best practices if working
                            near the area.
                            Reinstate and make available for use. Put processes in place
6.   Wing Boots and         to make items easy to obtain, apparent, and mandatory.
     Containment Trays      Boots provide clean surfaces. Trays used to place tools in
                            one area and not laying around on flap.
7.   Caution Notes on IPs   Place important notes on relevant IPs that warn mechanics
                            about fragility of flaps and to use PREs                  49
                    1. New Hinged PRE
• Will replace the current acrylic PRE (PRotective Equipment) which
  is small (doesn’t cover entire flap), has a slick surface, and is
  removed when inconvenient or during flap tests.
• The New Hinged PRE will be made of a new material, covers all
  three flap sections, and hinges at each section so that it will not
  have to be removed during flap test.
• PRE is robust enough to prevent heavy damage. It is lightweight,
  durable, easy to install, and will stay on flap through build sequence.




                                                                        50
          2. Laser Measurement Device
 • Concept is for the mechanic to use any such laser instrument
   to measure the gaps on the flaps without walking on the flaps
   themselves.

 • Exact device specifications still in work.

 • Use of scissor lift will also be necessary. Improve use of MIT.




              Panel to be measured              Current tool




Speed brake
                                                Flap

                                                                     51
   3. Carriage Panel Screw Relocation
• Supplier to relocate placement of screws on flap carriage
  panels to areas with less risk to process.

• Eliminates current process risks of hitting the fore flap with a
  tool during screw removal.




                             Leave it as is


                   Install Screw here

       Do not install Screw here                  Install Screw here


                                                       Do not install Screw here

                                                                            52
                    4. Turn Buckle PRE
• Use Elephant Hide on flap in between turn buckle in case tool slips
  away from mechanic when tightening.
• Other materials that are as thin as Elephant Hide but more rigid are
  being investigated and could be used in the future.
• Improve process and protect area on flap that is volatile and
  susceptible to damage through use of PRE.




                                                          PRE Implemented




                                                                         53
             5. Awareness Presentation
                    & Tipsheet
• Make Flap Damage Prevention Presentation and Tipsheet required
  training for all 747 mechanics.

• Describes the vulnerability of flaps to damage, description of the
  consequences of damage to company including total costs and
  disruption caused to manufacturing, explanation of the proper
  procedures when working on or around flaps, and repercussions of
  not following established procedures.

• Should be presented to crews at least once per year

  Awareness and education will prevent damage across the entire
  flap




                                                                   54
     6. Wing Boots & Containment Trays
• Reinstate and make available for use.
• Wing Boots should be placed over the mechanic's shoes every
  time they step on the flap to protect from debris that gets caught
  on the sole.
• Containment Trays should be used as a central storage to place
  tools in one area and not laying around on flap.
• Each mechanic who walks on the flap should have one. Put
  processes in place to make items easy to obtain, apparent, and
  mandatory.

                                                              Wing Boots required
                                                              on upper wing
                                                              surface




                                                                           55
              7. Caution Notes on IPs
• Place important notes on relevant IPs that warn mechanics
  about fragility of flaps, to contact appropriate personnel before
  accessing flaps, and to use PREs.

• Increases awareness and serves as reminder.

• Currently, only affected seal jobs have notes on them but IPs
  from other areas will also have notes.




                                                                      56
                            Any
            Project Management
                      Questions?



stephen.r.snelling@boeing.com
                                     57
                                   1/31/2011

				
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