Employees Coments on Performance

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					Employee Attitudes
 and Their Effects
     Burak Cenk Adalan
              Chapter Objectives
   The Nature of Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

   The Relationship between Performance and Satisfaction

   Job Involvement and Organization Commitment

   Some Positive and Negative Effects of Employee Attitudes

   Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

   Benefits of Studying Employee Attitudes

   Design and Use of Job Satisfaction Surveys
               The Nature of Attitudes

   Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs that largely determine how
    employees will perceive their environment , commit themselves
    to intended actions and ultimately behave.

   Attitudes form a mental set that affects how we view something
    else ,much as a window provides a framework for our view into
    or out of a building.
                       Job Satisfaction

   Job satisfaction: is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and
    emotions with which employees view their work.Job satisfaction
    is an affective attitude a feeling of relative like or dislike toward

   Individual focus : Job satisfaction typically refers to the attitudes
    of a single employee but there’s an important thing like moral, it
    is for all group satisfaction.

   Stability of a Job Satisfaction : Attitudes are generally acquired
    over a long period of time.Similarly job satisfaction or
    dissatisfaction emerges as an employee gains more and more
    information about the workplace.
                            Job Satisfaction

   Environmental Impact: Job satisfaction is a one part of life
    satisfaction.The nature of a worker’s environment off the job
    indirectly influences his or her feelings on the job.Similarly , since
    a job is an important part of a life for many workers job
    satisfaction infuluence general life satisfaciton.

                          Job              Familiy

               Politics                        Leisure

                      Job Involvement

   In addition to job satisfaction, three other distinct but related ,
    employee attitudes are important to many employees. Job
    Involvement is the degree to which employees immerse
    themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them and
    view work as a central part of their overall lives.
           Organization Commitment

   Organizational commitment or employee loyalty is the
    degree to which an employee identifies with the
    organization and wants to continue actively
    participating in it.

 Work Moods: Employees also have feelings about thier
  jobs thatare highly dynamic :they can change within a
  day hour or minute.
These variable attitutes toward their jobs are called Work
           Effects of Employee Attitude
   Attitudes are reasonably good predictors of behaviors. They
    provide clues to an employee’s behavioral intentions or
    inclinations to act in a certain way.Positive jobs attitudes help
    predict constructive behaviors: negative job attitudes help predict
    undesirable behaivors.

   Employee Performance: Satisfied workers actually may be high ,
    average , or even low producers and they will tend to continue
    the level of performance that previously brought them
                   Effects of Employee Attitudes
         Turnover: As might be expected higher job satisfaction is
          associated with lower employee turnover , which is the
          proportion of employees leaving an organization during a given
          time period.

                             The Performance Satisfaction –Effort Loop
   Performance             Rewards              Perception of equilty         Satisfaction or
                           Economic             rewards                       Dissatisfaction
                           Sociological          Fair
                           Psychological        Unfair

                                                          Greater of lesser
Greater or lesser effort                                  Commitment
              Turnover and Absences

Relationship of job satisfaction to turnover and absences Figure




                     Turnover and Absences
               Absences and Tardiness

   Emplotees who have low job satisfaction tend to be absent more
    often.The connection is not always sharp , for couple of reasons.

   Theft: Some employees steal products.Others use company
    services without any authorization.These kind of things are called

   Violence: One of the most extreme consequences of employee
    dissatisfaciton is exhibited through violence.This violence source
    can be include customers or strangers
              Studying Job Satisfaction
   Management needs information on employee job satisfaction in
    order to make sound decsions , both in preventing and solving
    employee problems.

   Benefits of job Satisfaction Studies: If job satisfaction studies
    are properly planned and administered they will usually produce
    a number of important benefits both general and specific.

   Monitoring Attitudes: One benifit of attitude studies is that
    they give management an indication of general levels of
    satisfaction in a company.

   Additional Benefits: Surveys have many other benefits as
    well.The flow of communication in all directions is improved as
    people plan the survey.,take it and discuss it’s results.
       Use of Existing Job Satisfaction

      Examples of job satisfaction-related information avaiable in organization
            Medical records
                                                      Labor Turnover

                                 Sources                   Exit interviews
Waste and scrap repots

        Training records                               Quality records
           Survey Design and Followup

   General managers need to identify a purpose for attitudes
    assessment,obtain top management add union support and then
    develop the measurement instrument.
Major steps in a       Identify reason for survey

Systemyic          Obtain management commitment
                       Develop survey instrument
To conducting
survey                   Administer survey

                          Tabulate results

                           Analyze results

                   Provide feedback to participants

                       Implement action plan

                         Monitoring results
           Survey Design and Followup

   Closed -End Questions: These present a choice of answers in
    such a way that employees simply select and mark anwsers and
    these answers show their feelings.

   Opened –End Questions: Present a variety of topics but let
    employees answer in their own words.
                         Critical Issues

   Reliability: Is the capacity of a survey instrument to produce
    consistent result ,regardless of who administers it.

   Validity: In addition to reliability , studies of job satisfaction
    need validity or capacity to meansure what they claim to

   Social Desirability: The tendency of employees to have social
    desirability bias that’s importantance of challenge in their job.
              Using Survey Information

   Communicating the Results: The first step in using job
    satisfaction information is to communicate it to all managers so
    that they can understand it and prepare to use it.

   Comparative Data: In larger organizations comparisons among
    departments are an effective wat to encourage managers to sit up
    and take note of satisfaction data.
              Using Survey Information

   Employee Comments: Employee coments are very useful and
    this information often makes a greater impression on
    management that scores statistics and charts do.

   Feedback to Employees: When corrective action is taken as
    the result of a survey details of what was learned and what was
    done should be shared with employees as soons as possible.
          Changing Employee Attitudes

   Includeing attitude shifts is not always easy to but potential gains
    can make it worth while to try.If management desires to change
    employee attitudes in a more favorable direction there are many
    routes to pursue.

   Sometimes it’s advisable to get employee to change their
    behavior first and let the desired attitudes shift follow later.
Thank You For Listening

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