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Employee Turnover Project by yqi14576

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									Employee Selection Protocol to Improve
 Child Welfare Retention and Practice
             Alberta J. Ellett, Ph. D.
              UGA School of Social Work
                  aellett@uga.edu

               Chad D. Ellett, Ph.D.
            CDE Research Associates, Inc.
                cderesearch@att.net

                 Betsy Lerner, MS
      DFCS Education & Training Services Section
             cblerner@dhr.state.ga.us

              Scaling the Summit, Denver
                    August 6, 2008
           Workshop Overview

• Need for Employee Selection Protocol
• Overview of Employee Selection Protocol
• View Realistic Job Preview Video
• Take Self-Assessment
• Pilot & Next Steps
• Importance of recruitment & selection: Recent GA
  IV-E findings
               Need for Project

• National turnover rates are high, 20% (APHSA)
• Georgia turnover rate in 2000, 44% (DHR)
• Georgia turnover rate in 2004, 66% (DHR)
        As high as 100% in some counties
• Title IV-E Agency/University Partnerships only
  retention program in 2000
    Problems Created by Turnover


• Interferes with continuity and quality of services to
  children/families & loss of federal dollars
• Lost human and financial investments in education,
  training, and expertise (1/3 of employee’s salary)
• Weakens professional organizational culture and
  morale
 Problems Created by Turnover cont.

• Places additional burden on remaining staff
• High turnover breeds more turnover
• 2 year lag time for new employees to dev.
  essential knowledge, skills, & abilities (KSAs)
• Delays in replacing staff send negative messages
  to the clients, courts, public and staff
   Why Employee Retention Matters

• Leads to a stable and competent workforce
• Leads to continuity in planning and quality of
  services
• Leads to better client outcomes for safety,
  permanence and well-being
• Lowers caseloads
• More cost effective
• $ for in-service training for experienced staff
Employee
Selection               External
                                               Employee     Client
                                               Retention   Services
                     Child Welfare
                       Employee

                      Organization

                      Environment



                                                Employee
                                                Turnover

                                                           Preventable
                               Unpreventable



                                               Desirable

            Conceptual Framework
 General Purpose of the ESP Project

The purpose of the project was to develop a
standardized, research-based employee
selection process (ESP) to select applicants for
employment with the requisite knowledge,
skills, abilities and values for a career in child
welfare, rather than hire and train large
numbers of employees who are not suited for
this work and leave within one year.
                Research Base

• The Georgia 2003 Retention/Turnover Study
• Review of CW literature
• Review of literature on realistic job preview videos
• Review of core CW knowledge, skills, abilities and
  values
 Synthesis of GA 2003 Survey Findings

• The most important predictor of intent to remain in
  CW was professional commitment of the human
  caring measure
• The second most important predictor of intent to
  remain, was supportive supervision
• Those with social work degrees and IV-E were
  more inclined to remain employed in CW than those
  with other degrees
2003 GA CW Committed Survivors Study

• Organizational Reminiscence
  • Public image
  • Competitive Salary
  • Job security
  • Lower caseloads
  • Were valued
  • Mentored by supervisor
  • Clinical supervision vs compliance or task supervision
  • Caseworker discretion
2003 GA CW Committed Survivors Study

• Societal Reminiscence
   • >guns, drugs, violence, STDs, single parents, etc.
   • >employee turnover, far fewer employment to retirement
   • More litigious
• Personal Characteristics
   • Committed to clients and profession
   • Non-judgmental
   • Compassionate with firmness
   • Strong self-efficacy beliefs
   • Problem solving skills
   • Time management & organizational skills
   • Life outside of CW
   • Sense of humor
   2003 GA CW Committed Survivors Study
               Core Themes
• Personal
   • Movement w/i and beyond CW agency
   • Goodness of fit with work assignment & w/i work unit
• Organizational
   • Supportive administration (knowledgeable and leadership)
   • Quality supervision (teaches practice knowledge,
     professional development, & caring)
   • Need to mentor new CW employees
• Societal
   • Administrators buffer bet. staff, state office, & community
Increases in the number of worker changes correlated
with decreasing achievement of permanency




Data reported represents 679 children who entered care in calendar year
2003 through September 2004 and exited within the same time period.
Data reported to review staff by the Bureau of Milwaukee Child Welfare.
(Flower, McDonald, & Sumski, 2005)
            Research:
   Realistic Job Previews (RJP)

• Employees feeling misled by recruiting
  strategies do not feel committed to
  accept a job and are more likely to leave
• RJPs may influence satisfaction and
  employees’ abilities to cope because
  they have information before
  employment
    Organizational/HR Research:
    Realistic Job Previews (RJP)

• Applicants’ decisions to become employees
  are based upon the degree to which the job
  meets their needs
• RJPs are most effective in situations that
  have the highest employee turnover and the
  lowest pay
       Organizational/HR Research,
                continued

• The energy expended to apply for a job increases
  commitment
• RJP lowers turnover rates
• Increases selecting out by job candidates ill-suited
  for CW
• Increases job satisfaction (expectations aligned
  with actual job demands)
                                     46, 9%


                      90, 17%


 ESP targets early
 turnover to decrease the
 number of new-hires
 leaving during the                                                 388,
 training period before                                             74%
 certification
                     Completed Training
                     Self-selected out
                     Terminated or separated by DFCS
GA DFCS Metro Centralized Hiring data as of 10/31/06, reflects first year of project
              Total Hired between 03/16/05 through 3/31/06: 524
     Job-Related Validity, Frequency
          and Criticality Study:
• Developed 33 core KSAV items
   • Maintain a commitment to protect children & preserve
     families
   • Demonstrate evidence of CW knowledge &/or experience
• 98 supervisors & administrators rated criticality to
  client safety (do no harm) and frequency
• All deemed critical and frequently used in CW work
• Used these 33 KSAVs to frame the ESP
• Established job-related validity of the ESP
 Employee Selection Protocol Step: 1

Applicant On-line orientation & self-selection
• Read overview of agency & child welfare work
• View job preview videotape
• Complete & receive feedback on job-related self
  assessment
• Verify completion of all tasks
          Overview of Agency &
        Child Welfare Work: Task 1
• DFCS and the roles of child welfare professionals
• CW employee qualifications & pre-service training
• Challenges & personal rewards of child welfare work
• A typical day as a social services case
• Frequently asked job benefits questions
• Characteristics of successful CW employees
• Organizational Supports
• Piloted with IV-E applicants, SW students, new hires
      Realistic Job Preview: Task 2
• Solicited respected/competent workers and
  supervisors
• Interviewed over phone
• Selected based on demeanor, proportionality, stories
• Video-taped 10 workers & 2 supervisors
• Edited for personal rewards and challenges of work
• Piloted with IV-E applicants, SW students, new hires
• Identified background for interest
• Prepared captions of sections and credits
          Self-Assessment: Task 3
• Items from IRE, Professional Commitment & work
  realities & piloted with IV-E applicants & new hires
   • I can’t imagine enjoying any profession as much as public
     CW
   • I intend to remain in child welfare as my long-term
     professional career.
   • Even though many DFCS clients live in disadvantaged
     and/or dangerous neighborhoods, I am willing to make
     home visits using my own automobile.
   • I am willing to be on call for work during evenings and on
     weekends if necessary, even though overtime pay is
     generally not allowed.
 Employee Selection Protocol Step: 2
       Employee Application
• Submits application letter with
   • motivation and career goals re public child welfare
   • personal characteristics and/or experiences that
     particularly merit selection (writing sample)
• Submits resume with education and work experience
  pertinent to CW + 3 professional references
• Submits Georgia Merit Application
• Makes transcript request
 Employee Selection Protocol: Step 3
    Agency Decision to Interview

• Screen application
• Phone interview
  • Web-based activities completed?
  • Collect additional information re communication skills
  • Answer questions about position, give county-specific
    information
  • Applicant wants to move forward with on-site interview?
  Employee Selection Protocol: Step 4
         On-Site Assessment
• Applicant complete in-basket task to assess
  analytical, organizational time management skills
• Respond to written question
• Panel preparation (2 demonstration interviews):
   • Review application packet
   • Assess response to written question
   • Assess in-basket assignment; follow-up questions?
• Trained team of 3 experienced DHR/DFCS
  professionals conduct semi-structured interview
   • Include behaviorally anchored questions
   • Consider KSAV assessment framework
Employee Selection Protocol Step: 5
      Employment Decision

Weigh all information gathered in Steps 1 through 4
   • professional judgment and decision-making
   • holistic assessment
   • objectivity
   • weighing evidence
   • independent assessments
Employee Selection Protocol Step: 5
      Employment Decision
• Collective assessments
   • juried process
   • fatal flaws
   • reaching consensus
   • personal (or collective) subjectivity and/or bias
   • employment decisions and consequences
• Check references
• Panel consensus and decision (goal is 100%
  agreement, but 67% OK with rationale)
                   ESP Flow Chart
• STEP 1. Attract/Recruit
   • IV-E stipends
   • Job fairs, employee referrals, posted ads, newspaper ads
   • Direct applicants to: www.dhrjobs.com
• STEP 2. Inform for self-selection
   • Applicant reviews Web Text, “Overview of Social Services
     Child Welfare Positions”
   • Applicant views Realistic Job Preview Video
   • Applicant takes Self-Assessment

                                                Yes
                     Applicant decision:
                Is this the right job for me?
            ESP Flow Chart, cont.
• STEP 3. Submit electronic application
   • Professional resume
     • educational background
     • work experiences
     • personal contact information
     • three professional references
  • Cover letter of application
     • motivation and career goals re public child welfare
     • personal characteristics and/or experiences that
       particularly merits selection
  • Georgia Merit Application
  • Transcript request
              ESP Flow Chart, cont.
• STEP 4. Screen application packet

                      Hiring Authority decision:    Yes
                      Appropriate education and
                             experience?


• STEP 5. Phone interview
   • Web-based activities completed?
   • Collect additional information re communication skills
   • Answer questions about position, give county-specific
     information
   • Applicant wants to move forward with on-site interview?
 ESP Flow Chart, cont.
• STEP 6. On-site interview, Phase I


              • Applicant:
                 • Respond to written question
                 • Complete in-basket
                   assignment
                ESP Flow Chart, cont.
            • STEP 6. On-site interview, Phase I
• Panel preparation:
   • Review application packet
   • Assess response to written question
   • Assess in-basket assignment; follow-up
     questions?
   • Assign selected questions
       • Include behaviorally anchored
       • Consider KSAV assessment framework
            ESP Flow Chart, cont.
• STEP 6. On-site interview, Phase II
  • Semi-structured interview
     • Establishing and communicating procedures
     • Interview questioning and demeanor
     • Terminating the interview
     • Legal guidelines
                  ESP Flow Chart, cont.
• STEP 7. Employment Decision
  • Weigh all information gathered in Steps 4 through 6
      •   professional judgment and decision-making
      •   holistic scoring
      •   objectivity
      •   weighing evidence
      •   independent assessments
  • Collective assessments                                    Hiring Authority decision:
                                                               Good match for SSCM?
      •   juried process
      •   fatal flaws
      •   reaching consensus
      •   personal (or collective) subjectivity and/or bias
      •   employment decisions and consequences
  • Check references
  • Panel consensus and decision
                Pilot & Next Steps
• Statewide advisory group from beginning
• Piloted with supervisors, county directors and
  regional administrators in 3 regions
• Pilot evaluation most positive
• Used to screen and select all IV-E applicants
• ESP not mandatory practice
   • Some elements used in pilot areas
   • Self-selection elements available on line
   • Estimate that 40% applicants view RJP video
               IV-E Turnover Stats
• ESP now used to screen and select all IV-E applicants
• IV-E Graduates YTD Turnover:

• Class of 2005 1st year = 2.2% and 2nd year = 8.0%
• Class of 2006 1st year = 1.2% and 2nd year = 16%

(year after commitment fulfilled):
       Class of 2005:                    12.5%
       Class of 2006:                    10.3%

• Overall SSCM YTD Turnover:             33%

								
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