Employee Life Cycle Flowchart

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					                  The Life Cycle Management Navigator
                          Life Cycle Assessment
                                              Training Session 9




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 1                        CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                        What?
What is Life Cycle Thinking?



      • Requires a shift in the conventional strategic thinking of a
        company!

      • Accepting that the company creates impacts not only through
        its own processes but along the life cycle of a product, and
        taking action.

      • Life Cycle – from raw material extraction to final disposal!




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 2       CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                      What?
What is Life Cycle Thinking?


                                                     • Includes
                                                     environmental, social,
                                                     and economic impact
                                                     of product
                                                     • Aims to reduce
                                                     product„s resource
                                                     use and emissions

                                                     • Aims to improve
                                                     product„s socio-
                                                     economic
                                                     performance


                                                     Source: UNEP, 2007, LCM Guide

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 3   CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                         Example
Life Cycle of Jeans


     Cultivation of Cotton Transport                   Processing
         in Country A                             at the spinning mill      Transport
                                                      in Country B

                                                                    Jeans manufacturing
            NATURE                                                      in Country C

                                                                             Transport
             Dumping or
              Recycling
                                          Collection by              Marketing and Sales
                                     the second-hand shop               in Country D
                                           for re-use


         Waste Collection             Transport
                                                        Use
                                                     Source: by
                                                    the Consumers

                                                                         Source: UNEP, Wuppertal Institute

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 4                     CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                    What?
What is Life Cycle Thinking?

    The „6 RE philosophy“

          RE-think the product and                RE-use. Design the product for
          ist functions. For example,             disassembly so parts can be
          the product may be used                 reused.
          more efficiently.

  RE-pair. Make the product easy                      RE-duce energy, material
  to repair e.g. via modules that can                 consumption and socio-economic
  easily be changed.                                  impacts throughout a product„s
                                                      life cycle.

          RE-place harmful
                                              RE-cycle. Select materials
          substances with safer
                                              that can be recycled.
          alternatives.
                                                                   Source: UNEP, 2007, LCM Guide

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 5                 CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                          What?
What is Life Cycle Assessment?

 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a
 decision making tool to identify and
 analyse the environmental burden of a
 product throughout its life cycle.

                                          • Consideration of multiple life cycle stages
                                          • Consideration of multiple environment and
                                          resource issues
                                          • An assessment or interpretation of the
                                          significance of the results

  Helps the companies to decide to what extent the
  environmental problems associated with the final product
  outside the organization should be integrated into the
  internal decision-making process.
                                                        Source: WBCSD, 2006, eco-efficiency Learning Module
Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 6                    CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                 Where?
Areas of Application

   LC thinking...
   ... is influental in product related decisions
   ... helps to decide about the compilation and evaluation
   of inputs and outputs
   ... helps to evaluate the potential environmental impacts

   ... helps to decide about
  - which products to manufacture;            - management of the waste generated;
  - the types of raw materials to be          - the content of the instructions /
  used;                                         information given to the consumers;
  - the sources of energy to be used;         - the relevant Environmental
  - the type and amount of packaging;           Performance Indicators;
  - design of the products;                   - the marketing strategy


                                                              Source: UNEP, 2007, Trainer Manual

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 7             CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                    Where?
Areas of Application
  LCA can help decision-makers to
  • Identify unintentional impacts of actions (e.g. upstream GHG emissions that
  may offset perceived benefits of a new technology)
  • Ensure consideration of all environmental media across the life-cycle (e.g.
  equal consideration of emissions to air, water and land during project
  construction, operation and decommissioning)
  • Avoid shifting problems from one life-cycle stage to another, from one
  geographic area to another and from one environmental medium to another
  (e.g. ensuring an air pollution mitigation measure does not create a water
  pollution problem elsewhere in the system)
  • Identify opportunities to improve the environmental and economic
  performance of the technology, project, product or service in question (e.g.
  identifying “hotspots” that need to be addressed)
  • Communicate more effectively with stakeholders on the system wide
  consequences of project or technology options (e.g. to communicate full
  impacts and/or benefits of changes to a product system)
                                                  Source: WBCSD, 2006, eco-efficiency Learning Module

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 8               CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                Where?
Who is active in Life Cycle Thinking?




                                          DAIMLERCHRYSLER




                                                            Source: UNEP, 2007, LCM Training Kit

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 9           CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                Why?
Benefits


  • Resource savings/ Margins
        • Reduced  resource use, emissions and waste
        • Derive increased value from money, time, and
            materials invested

  • Continual improvements/ Reputation
        • Improved relationships with external stakeholders
        • Better management of supply chain

  • Competitive advantage/ Revenues
        • Accessibility to wealth, health, safety conditions
        • Fewer environmental impacts

                                               Source: UNEP, 2007, Life Cycle Management ,
                                                             2004, Why take a life cycle approach?


Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 10         CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                           How?
How to apply


      • Initially, understanding of life cycle thinking by the company
        is crucial!

      • For practical purposes, start by simple tools such as


            -   product life cycle mapping;
            -   identification of inputs and outputs along the life cycle;
            -   checklists;
            -   streamlined Life Cycle Assessments.




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 11         CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                            Exercise
LCA Tool - Life Cycle Mapping
                    Raw            Manu-       Packaging   Distribution      Use          Disposal
                    Material       facturing
                    Extraction
                    and Supply
   Low Energy
   Efficiency
   Low Materials
   Efficiency
   High Water Use
   Hazardous
   Materials in
   Product
   High
   Generation of
   Waste
   High
   Generation of
   Effluents
   Emission
   High Chemical
   Use
   Employee
   Expertise

     Employee                                              Source: adapted from UNEP, Wuppertal Institute, 2000
     Security
Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 12                     CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                        How?
How to apply


         Get familiar with the common LCA methodology...

    The ISO guidelines for example...
    • aims to assess associated environmental aspects and the
      potential impacts with a product;
    • has three main stages:

          1. Compile a list of relevant inputs and outputs of a system;
          2. Evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated
            with those inputs and outputs;
          3. Interpret the results with respect to the aim of the LCA
            study.



Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 13      CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                              How?
ISO Methodological Framework



          Life Cycle Assessment Framework
        Goal and Scope
          Definition                                   Direct Applications:
                                      Interpretation   • Product development
            Inventory
             Analysis                                    and Improvement
                                                       • Strategic planning
                                                       • Marketing
            Impact
          Assessment




                                                                           Source: ISO, 1997


Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 14           CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                                                                                       Example
ISO Methodological Framework Application


                What is the environmental impact of a PET bottle?
                  Which is better; PET bottles, glass bottles or
                                 aluminium cans?


             e.g. in order to compare and decide on the
              environmentally least impactful packaging
              option, LCAs are applied in Denmark.

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Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 15                                              CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                      Example
ISO Methodological Framework Application

      GOAL & SCOPE DEFINITION
          Purpose:               Update LCA comparing potential environmental
                                 impact of packaging systems
          Application:           Basis for decisions on packaging systems in
                                 Denmark
          Functional             Packaging and distribution of beer or softdrink
          unit:
          Systems                • Bottles and cans that are filled and sold in
          boundaries:            Denmark
                                 • Secondary packaging (boxes, pallets, etc.)
                                 • All processes contributing significantly to the
                                 life cycle impacts




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 16                    CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                 Example
ISO Methodological Framework Application

      INVENTORY ANALYSIS
          • Draw flowchart of product system
          • Collect data of resource use and emissions of all processes
          • Data resources: LCS databases, reports, scientific papers, on-
            site investigation, expert knowledge, qualified guesses
          • Build system model (computerized in e.g. generic LCA tool,
            excel, other)
          • Calculate resource use and emissions of studied product
          • Present results in charts and tables
          • Iterative procedure!
          • Inventories of refillable glass bottles, disposable glass bottles,
            aluminum cans, steel cans, refillable PET bottles and
            disposable PET bottles.




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 17               CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                      Example
ISO Methodological Framework Application

      IMPACT ASSESSMENT
          Classification:             Sorts inventory parameters according to type of
                                      environmental impact
          Characterisation:           Translate inventory results (emissions, resource
                                      use) to potential environmental impact
          EDIP (Danish                Includes global warming, ozone depletion,
          Method)                     acidification, eutrophication, photochemical smog,
                                      ecotoxicity (water chronic(acute, soil), human
                                      toxicity (air, water, soil), waste (bulk, hazardous,
                                      radioactive), slags/ashes, resources
          Example:                    1 CH4=25 CO2 equivalents
                                      1 N2O=320 CO2 equivalents
                                      1 CO=2CO2 equivalents



Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 18                    CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                          How?
Material Intensity per Service Unit (MIPS)

      A simplified LCA methodology...



                MI                      Reduce Material Input


                S                       Increase Service Units




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 19        CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                     How?
Material Intensity per Service Unit (MIPS)



        Three “distribution scenarios”

        Physical Retail
                  CD is purchased by the consumer in a local CD
                  store.
        Online Shopping
                 CD is ordered online at an Internet shop and
                 delivered to the consumer.

        Digital Delivery
                   The consumer downloads the respective song(s) via
                   the Internet, instead of purchasing a physical
                   product (CD).

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 20   CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                     How?
Material Intensity per Service Unit (MIPS)



       Comparing three “distribution scenarios”


      Total sum                                abiotic (kg)   biotic (kg)     water (kg)
      Physical Retail Scenario                         1.56           0.09          39.25
      Online Shopping Scenario                         1.31           0.06          46.73
      Digital Delivery Scenario*                       0.67           0.00          23.31

     * Broadband connection assumed.




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 21                   CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                              How?
Material Intensity per Service Unit (MIPS)

       Share on total material intensity (%)


                                               Online shopping
                                       100




                                        50




                                          0
                                               Producer Retailer Consumer



                                                Virtualisation

                            Consumer Share of Material Intensity


Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 22                            CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                   How?
Social Life Cycle Assessment

 Approach to Social Life Cycle Assessment




                                               Source: Benoît et al. at LCM Congress, Zürich, Aug 2007

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 23           CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                                  How?
Social Life Cycle Assessment

  Approach to Social Life Cycle Assessment
                     Inventory                                      Impact Assessment
       Stakeholder                 Inventory                  Impacts                  Final indicator
                                                     =
        categories                 categories                categories
  - Relations                 - Human Rights             - Human Rights
  - Company/ Company          - Work conditions          - Work conditions
  - Company/                  - Health and safety        - Health and safety
  Employees                   - Cultural aspects         - Cultural aspects             Fair relations
  - Company/                  - Governance               - Governance
  Community                   - Socio-economic           - Socio-economic
  - Company/ Society          repercussions              repercussions
  - Company/                  - Value and impatcts       - Value and impacts
  Consumers                   of the product             of the product




                                                              Source: Benoît et al. at LCM Congress, Zürich, Aug 2007

Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 24                          CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                        How?
Social Life Cycle Assessment

  Procedure for a Social Life Cycle Assessment


            1. Conduct a hot spot analysis within the product chain
                          (to identify major aspects)



             2. Identify indicators for these hot spots based on the
                   stakeholder information (e.g. NGO claims)




                                               Source: Draft of "Code of Practice for a social-economical
                                               LCA (seLCA)", UNEP/DTIE Publication, Paris, 2008


Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 25               CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                                            How?
Social Life Cycle Assessment

  Examples of Indicators for Social Life Cycle Assessment

             ‘employee’                                                         ‘consumer’
          e.g. forced labour                                                  e.g. transparent
                                                                            business information
                                               Indicators
                                            for Social Life
                                           Cycle Assessment

              ‘company’
            e.g. corporate                                                     ‘local community’
          social responsibility                                                  e.g. community
                                                                                  engagement

                                                  ‘society’
                                          e.g. public commitments
                                           to sustainability issues
                                                                                           Source: CSCP.



Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 26                          CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME
Life Cycle Assessment
                                                                       Tips
Tips for Action!


      • Do not forget that you are part of a big system!


      • Remember, to undertake a full LCA is a very
        complex, time-consuming and expensive
        experience for everyday use.

      • Use life cycle mapping as a starting point!


      • A streamlined LCA can be the key for what your
        customers or suppliers are looking for!




Life Cycle Management Navigator: 9_PR_LCA 27     CSCP, UNEP, WBCSD, WI, InWEnt, UEAP ME

				
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