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Computing Fundamentals 1 2010

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Computing Fundamentals 1 2010 Powered By Docstoc
					Computing Fundamentals
Unit 1- Types of Computers
Project
   Taxonomy of IT

   T/F Statements
You’ll learn…


   Quick History of Computers

   Identifying types of computers
Computer has a broad meaning



What is a
 computer?


A computer is a person, instrument, or
machine that gathers, processes, and
stores information.
Binary Numbering
   The use of the binary number system
    with two values: 0 and 1.
   1= ON
   0= OFF
What Counting to Ten Looks Like

Decimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10


Binary: 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000,
  1001, 1010
Charles Babbage-
 the “father of computing”
                     Designed a
                      steam-powered
                      calculator called
                      the Difference
                      Engine in 1821.
                     His next idea was
                      the Analytical
                      Engine (1856),
                      designed to
                      perform any kind
                      of mathematical
                      calculation.
The British Colossus decoded
messages during WWII
   In 1943, the British built the first
    “Colossus” computer.
   Used to decipher encrypted teleprinter
    messages sent by the Germans during
    World War II.
Integrated circuits brought “chips”
to computers
                     One major step in
                      computer development
                      was the integrated
                      circuit
                         A group of tiny
                          transistors and electric
                          wires built on a silicon
                          wafer, or “chip.”


                     Over the years, IC’s
                      have continued to get
                      smaller in size but
                      larger in their capacity
                      to function.
The Altair was a computer
individuals could afford
   The first computer that most individuals
    could afford was the Altair 8800, built in
    1975 by MITS.
   No keyboard or screen
       Information was entered by clicking switches
Apple created the first user-
friendly personal computer




   Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created the first
    user-friendly personal computer, called the
    Apple, with a built-in keyboard, display screen,
    and storage unit.
   The term personal computer refers to a computer
    designed to be used by one person at a time.
The IBM PC gave way to many
clone “compatibles”
   In 1981, IBM introduced
    its version of the personal
    computer—the IBM PC.
   IBM made the general
    design available to
    competing companies,
    resulting in many clones
    or “compatibles.”
   Today, the term PC often
    refers to computers
    running Microsoft’s
    Windows operating
    system.
Desktop Computer
 Personal computer (PC) or MAC
 AKA Microcomputer
   Individual user
Laptop or Notebook
 PC or Mac
 Portability
 Touchpad
Netbook
 NOT laptop replacement
 Made for travel
 Basic
     Check email
     Web
     Office
     No Multitasking
Netbook
 Lightweight &
  smaller
 Less powerful than
  laptop
 Small Screen
 Longer battery
 No CD/DVD
 Low in RAM (1GB)
 Windows XP/7 Basic
Tablet PC
 Form of
  notebook
 Swivel Screen
 Handwriting
  Stylus
Workstation
 Multiple CPUs, lots of RAM, multiple,
  high-capacity drives
 Video Editing, CAD, Animation,
  Scientific, CSI, X-Ray
Server
   Performs functions for computers on
    a network
     Hold Data
     Handle Email
     Web Site
Hand-Held
   PDA / SmartPhone
     Personal Digital Assistant
     AKA Pocket PC
     Windows or Palm OS
     Touch Screen
     Can do email, web,
      Office, etc.
Terminal
   Data entering
   Keyboard &
    Monitor
   “Dumb” Terminal

   Only performs
    functions when
    connected to larger
    system
Mainframe
   Connected to terminals

 Bulk data processing
 Banks, statistics
 Hundreds of thousands $
 Large institutions & govt.
 Airlines
Supercomputers
 Large & fast
 Perform BIG calc’s
 Volumes of data
 Millions of $$$
 Government
 Military
 Research Labs
 NASA
Other Types of Computers
   Poster of “other” types of computers
    you have come across

   Name, where found, info, etc.
Review
   Managing an airline reservation &
    ticketing system would be best
    performed by which class of
    computer?
       Mainframe
   Which computer only performs when
    connected to a larger computer?
       Terminal
   What’s another name for a desktop?
       Microcomputer
Review
   What’s the biggest advantage of
    using a notebook?
       Portability


   T/F. A server is dedicated to sharing
    resources & data.
Computing Fundamentals
Unit 2- Computer Hardware
Motherboard
 Circuit board/Different sizes
 Connects components
     CPU
     Memory
     Expansion ports/slots
     Bus
CPU
 Microprocessor “Brain”
 Hertz (MHz & GHz)
 Control unit
  reads/interprets
  instructions
       Performs calculations to
        complete tasks
 1979= 8 MHz
 1993= 200 MHz
 2010= 3 GHz
RAM
   Active programs/data are held
       Stores what you are creating
 Volatile (Temporary)
 Measured in bytes
       MB or GB
Memory Size
 1’s & 0’s
 Bit
 8 bits = 1 byte


 KB
 MB
 GB
 TB
ROM
 BIOS
 Has instructions to boot your
  computer
       Read only- no store data
 Non-volatile
 On motherboard
Boot Process
   Start PC
     ROM BIOS looks for OS
     Loads OS into RAM
     OS Starts
     You log in
Review
   What is a CPU measured in?
       MHz or GHz
   Which memory is volatile?
       RAM
   Which is the largest?
     3GB
     3MB
     3KB
Storage- Hard Drive
   Hard Drive- Magnetic
   MB or GB
       320GB
       1TB
Storage- CD
   Optical (laser)
       CD-ROM, DVD-ROM
       CD-R, DVD+/- R
       CD-RW, DVD+/- RW

   ROM= Read Only
   R= Record Once
   RW= Rewritable

   CD= 80 min./ 700MB
   DVD= 2 hrs./ 4.7GB
Storage- Floppy Disks




  8-inch                 5 ¼”   3 ½”
      Magnetic Storage
Storage- Flash
   Flash
       No moving parts
Review
   T/F. Hard drives are used to
    temporarily store what you are
    creating.
      False
   Which removable storage would you use to
    copy pictures from on Pc to another?
   Which optical storage would be used to
    store music and then later erased to store
    photos?
       CD-RW
Input Devices
   Allow data IN the
    computer
Mouse- Input
   Ball
   Optical
   Laser
   On-screen arrow is
    pointer
       Pointing
       Clicking
       Dragging
       Double-clicking
       Right-clicking
Voice Recognition- Input
   Speak commands into PC & enter text
   Software must be installed
   Disabled people use
Are these input devices?
Output Devices
   Data comes OUT of
    the computer
   Name some
PC Connections
USB Ports
   PnP “hot swap”
   Handles up to 127
    devices
   Speeds up to
    480mbps (40MB)
   A to B connections

           B             A
PS/2 Ports & VGA Port
   PS/2              VGA
   Purple            Blue
       Keyboard      Monitor
   Green             15 pin female
       Mouse
   6 pin
Parallel & Serial
   Parallel                Serial
       25 port female          9 port male
       IEEE 1284               RS-232
       Old Printers            Old modems &
                                 mice
Parallel & Serial Devices
   Parallel      Serial
NIC & Modem
   NIC          Modem
   RJ45         RJ11
   100Mbps      Phone/Line Jacks
                 56kbps
Sound Card
   Line Out
       Headphone
       Speakers


   Line In

   Microphone
Other Ports
 S-video
 HDMI
 DVI
 Firewire
Review
   Which part of the computer performs
    calculations and controls processes?
       CPU
   What is it called when people can
    speak into a PC and have it perform
    those commands?
       Voice recognition
   Which type of memory is volatile?
       RAM
Review
   Which software translates speech into
    text?
       Voice recognition
   What is the name of the path that
    data travels on a motherboard?
       Bus
   Which type of storage device has no
    moving parts?
       Flash/USB drive
Computing Fundamentals
Unit 3- Maintaining & Protecting Hardware
Evaluating Components
   Buying
       List the tasks,
        software
          Check
          requirements
     Portability or not
     MAC or PC
     Storage devices
     Peripherals
Evaluating Components
   You could upgrade
     Add RAM
     New keyboard, mouse (connections)
     Drives/Cards
         May   require pro to install
Routine Maintenance
   Visual Inspection
       Check cables
          Plugged  in
          Good condition
          Inside computer too
Routine Maintenance
   Dust
     Clogs fans
     Fans cools parts down
     Overheat= shutdown
     Compressed Air
Dusty!
Routine Maintenance
   Wipes
     For monitors
     No tissues or towels (lint/scratch)
     No glass cleaners
Troubleshooting Example
   On boot, message popup
       Unable to load library wxfw.dll.
        Attempted to load <Key not
        found>\wxfw.dll.Error code:126
 Search online for wxfw.dll
 Found it was from a Desktop Weather
  Program
 Found program & uninstalled
 Reboot & no error
Troubleshooting
1.   Recognize you have a problem
2.   Replicate the steps to the problem
3.   Check Basic Solutions
        Cables, restart
4.   Look or research for help & support
5.   Talk to a technician
6.   Follow their instructions
7.   Confirm it’s fixed
Troubleshooting Scenarios-
Check the basics
   The entire computer has completely
    frozen up. I can't click anywhere on
    the screen. I can't even use the Start
    button to shut it down.
       Ctrl + Alt + Delete


   I press print & the printer does not
    respond at all.
       Check the cables
Protect from Theft & Damage
   Protect Hardware
       Power surge or
        spike
       Power outage
       Theft


   Protect Files
       Online backup
       CD/DVD backup
What’s a surge?
   An increase in voltage significantly above
    the designated level




   Surge Protector diverts extra voltage like
    a valve
Surge Suppressor
   AKA Surge
    Protector
     Different from
      Power Strip
     Check Joule
      rating
         More joules
         better protection
     Has warranty $$
     Noise Filter
UPS
   Uninterruptable
    Power Supply

   Battery backup
    & surge

   Will power equip
    until you can
    save & shutdown
Protect From Theft
   Laptop Locks




   Padded Bags
Care for Removable Media
   Keep away from electrical fields
    (TV/monitor)

   Avoid extreme temperatures

   Don’t touch media surface

   Hold optical disks at edges

   Keep disks in case when moving them
Review
   Which device protects a computer
    from electrical surges?
       Surge suppressor

   Which component has an RJ11 jack?
       Modem

   Which component has a 15 pin
    female connector?
       VGA
Review
   A legacy printer would be plugged
    into which port?
       Parallel

   When troubleshooting, what would a
    basic solution be?
       Checking the cables

   What is the last step in
    troubleshooting?
       Confirm the problem is fixed
Computing Fundamentals
Unit 3a- Looking at More
Printers
   Output device
       Dpi & ppm
 Ribbons
 Ink Cartridges
 Toner
 Resolution
Printers
   Dot Matrix
     Pins hammer into ink
     Not good quality



   Inkjet
     Nozzles spray ink
     Good quality
Printers
   Laser
     Laser writes to drum
     Toner
     Thousands of pages



   All-In-One

   Plotter
       Large paper
More About Printers
   Networking on
    some



   Make money from
    ink & toner
Monitors
 Measured in pixels
 Resolution 1024 x 768


   CRT
       Big & bulky
   LCD
     Thin
     Less energy
Review
   For faster printing would you use a
    dot matrix or inkjet?

   Look up your ink or toner.
Computing Fundamentals
Unit - Computer Softwware & OS
Operating Systems
   Controls the way the computer
    interacts w/ parts & users
     Windows
     MAC
     Unix
     Linux
Windows Vista Screenshot
MAC OS Screenshot
UNIX
   More for programming
Linux
 Free
 Open to coding
Software
   Program that functions when loaded
    into RAM
     Created by programming
     Tested by beta users (beta testing)
     Final version released
How to Get Software
   Purchase license to use it
     CD or DVD, download
     Get a key
     Site license for many in one place

   Shareware
       Free trial version
   Freeware
       Free & can share with others
   Bundled with PC
Upgrading Software
   Updates/Patches
     Fix errors
     Change minor
      features
 Get from
  manufacturer’s web
  site
 Wait to see if update
  affects other’s
Application Programs
 Performs a specific function
 Word Processing
       Word, Word Perfect
   Spreadsheet
       Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Quattro Pro
   Presentations
       PowerPoint, Corel Presentations
   Database Management
       Access
Graphics
 Pictures
 Photoshop
 Formats
     Tiff, jpg, gif, bmp
     Each has different
      qualities
             BEST but not
         Tiff
          browser
          compatible
Other Software
   Multimedia- Video, Music, Animation
       Mpg, mp3, wav
   Email
     Windows Mail/Outlook
     Eudora (one of the 1st)

   Browser
       IE, Opera, Firefox
   Utility- Anti-Virus
       Norton, AVG
Computing Fundamentals
Unit - Networks
Computer Networks
   Computers need to communicate with
    each other

   2 or more connected devices
       Share files & resources


   Standards allowed them to “speak the
    same language”
Network Benefits & Features
   Central Storage of files

   Share files, resources, printers

   Maintain network centrally

   Secure

   Backup
How Networks work
   Computers connect
    to one another
   Usually a server
Connecting
   How do you connect to
    a network?
   NIC, Router
Networks
   LAN
     Local Area Network
     Devices connected in small area
     This classroom, this school, your house
Networks
   WAN
     Wide Area Network
     Connects LANs
     Over a large geographic area
Internet
   Originally for government

   Largest network

   What’s the most commonly used
    feature on the Internet?
     Email
     Email is stored on a server
         NOT   ON PC
Intranet
   Looks like Internet

   Only works w/in company network
       Great security


   Handbooks, forms, news, policies
Intranet Screenshot
Extranet
   Allows outside organization to access
    internal info
       Extension of intranet

   Outside suppliers

   Employees

   Strict security
       Username & password
Extranet Screenshots
Review
   A room of 5 connected computers
    describes a…
       LAN
   To connect to a network, your PC
    must have a…
       NIC
   This type of “Internet” is for internal
    use only within a business.
       Intranet
                   End of Day Two

				
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