Table of Contents
Points of Interest…………………………………………....…………..19
Ticker Symbol: AAPL
For my theory in practice report I have decided to analyze Apple Computers. The
main reason that I am interested in analyzing this company is that I would like to invest
in the company‟s stock. I have been tracking this company for about six months,
watching the ups and downs of the company‟s stock, and trying to learn as much about
the company as possible. I have also studied this company‟s marketing process and
environment. My initial interest in Apple Computers began two years ago when I made
the switch from PC to Mac; upon making this switch, I realized that the Mac is a far
superior product. Since then I have watched as Apple Computers quickly gained brand
equity as well as market share. Now with the iPod phenomenon, Apple Computers is a
very unique company to observe.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created Apple Computers Inc. in 1977; their goal
was to make and sell personal computers. Today, Apple is still dedicated to this goal.
Apple‟s mission statement is: “Apple is committed to bringing the best personal
computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers
around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings”
(Apple Investor Relations, 2006). Apple has the belief that the computer can be the
digital hub of everybody‟s life, linking personal, school, and business.
Though Apple‟s initial intent was to sell personal computers, it has recently found huge
success with the iPod digital music player. The enormous success of this device has
shifted the focus of Apple‟s business toward maintaining dominance in the digital music
player market. Recently, the iPod‟s market share has been estimated at 92.1 percent and
rising (Becker, 2004). Apple had no idea that the iPod would be such a great success, so
this decision can be seen as an emergent strategy. Because Apple is the number one
producer of digital music players, it can use the iPod product to gain Apple brand
recognition. By using the iPod to gain brand recognition, Apple can increase sales of its
desktop and laptop computers. According to Forbes.com, 16-23% of PC users who own
iPods are estimated to switch to Apple computers this year (“Apple Could Grow Global
PC Market Share To 5% In 2005”, 2005). This strategy will help Apple gain market
share in the personal computer market. Currently, Apple‟s market share in the desktop
market is 2.88% domestic and 1.75% worldwide; in the laptop market Apple‟s market
share is 4.99% domestic and 2.93% worldwide (Dalrymple, 2005).
Apple Computers competes in a variety of different industries; however, its main
business operations are in the domestic personal computer assembly industry. This
industry includes the production of products such as desktop computers, laptop
computers, and portable computing devices.
The major players in this industry are Dell, HP, Gateway, IBM, Apple, Sony, and
Acer. These companies compete on a variety of levels. Strategic groups are formed
depending on the sales model the company uses (either direct, retail, or both) and the
standard it uses (either the Wintel standard or OS X). This division places Apple in its
own strategic group. The predominate mobility barrier is the incompatibility of operating
system standards; this prevents all other manufacturers from competing directly with
Five Forces Analysis
Threat of New Entrants
The threat of new entrants to the worldwide personal computer market is high.
Capital requirements are low; a company entering this market does not need a large
factory or a brick and mortar retail location to sell its computers. Michael Dell started
Dell Computers in his bedroom and used a direct sales model via the Internet. Computers
can also be assembled by an experienced third party, which also leads to low experience
curves. Incumbents‟ control of distribution channels is low; a new company can
distribute its product directly to the customer. Economies of scale are low; parts can be
purchased in small quantities at fairly low prices. Product differentiation is either high or
low, depending on the perspective. An Apple computer has a completely different
operating system than a Dell; this shows high differentiation. However, computers from
Dell, HP, Gateway, and Acer are practically identical; this shows low differentiation.
Switching costs for the buyers are also high and low. Switching from a Wintel standard
computer to an OS X standard is high but switching between two Wintels or two OS Xs
is low. Also, some hardware devices switch easily between operating systems, while
others do not. These factors tend to lead to an overall high threat of new entrants
Intensity of Rivalry
The intensity of rivalry in this industry is high. The number of competitors is
high, and power is not distributed equally. The top two competitors control 50% of the
market while all remaining competitors have between .15% and 8% market share
(Dalrymple, 2005). The industry growth rate has been high but has slowed down;
according to Standard and Poor‟s, the industry growth rate is expected to be about 9% in
2006 (Gardner, 2005). The ability to produce on demand and drop ship enables fixed
costs and storage costs to be low. As previously mentioned, product differentiation and
switching costs are both high and low. As a result of these factors, the intensity of rivalry
in this industry tends to be high (Meilich, 2006).
Power of Buyers
The buyer in this industry is typically the end user because most computer
manufacturers sell directly to the public; however, some companies deal with resellers as
well, so the buyer could potentially be a retailer also. The power of buyers in the
computer industry is high. The volume of purchase and total buyer‟s cost spent on the
industry is high, while product differentiation and switching costs are both low and high.
Buyers can easily purchase all of the components and produce their own computer; this
causes the threat of backward integration and the buyer‟s knowledge of the industry‟s
cost structure to be high. All of these factors lead to a strong buyer (Meilich, 2006).
Power of Suppliers
The suppliers of the computer industry are all the companies that produce the
individual components of the computer. The power of suppliers is both high and low.
The concentration of suppliers relative to the industry is low. There are many suppliers
compared to fewer producers of computers. Many suppliers are undifferentiated they
produce interchangeable standardized parts. However, there are also suppliers with
highly differentiated supplies, such as Intel or AMD microprocessors and Microsoft or
Apple operating systems. These supplies are also not interchangeable, causing high
switching costs. So, depending on the situation, availability of substitute supplies and
switching costs are both high and low. The importance of the industry to the supplier is
high; the industry is the major consumer of its products. The threat of forward
integration is also high. All of these factors cause the power of suppliers to be both high
and low (Meilich, 2006).
Power of Substitutes
In this industry, the power of substitute products is low. There are no good or
reasonable substitutes for a computer. The only possible substitutes are calculators,
typewriters, organizers, and using a pen/pencil, paper, and brain. These technologies,
while used often, in no way compare to the power or function of a computer.
Power of Complementors
The power of complementors in the computer industry is very immense. All
computer owners need computer software and peripheral devices. Because these
complementing products are so necessary for the products produced in this industry, it is
important to recognize their effects on the worldwide computer industry. If there were
drastic changes in the software industry, the computer industry would be affected and
vice versa. Killer applications have made and almost destroyed many companies.
Because of these factors, the power of complementary goods is very high (Meilich,
The computer assembly industry as a whole is not a very good industry (Meilich,
2006). This is caused by possibly high switching costs caused by incumbents locking in
customers, low product differentiation (with the exception of Apple), and a high threat of
forward integration. It is also difficult to compete in an industry where there are both low
cost leaders like Dell and differentiators like Apple.
Even though Apple is not the industry leader in terms of market share in the PC
assembly industry, Apple does have a distinct competitive advantage. Apple‟s primary
sources of competitive advantage are derived from quality and innovation. Apple has a
competitive advantage because it is a superior product to the Wintel industry standard.
Apple Computers products have always maintained the attribute of superior
quality. The Macintosh line of desktops and laptops are considered to be high-end
computers by the general public, and are know for their reliability. Apples products are
highly differentiated from their competitors. For example, the majority of competing
products utilize the Windows operating system, which runs on any hardware and also
causes many problems; Apple chose to develop its own OS X operating system, which
has proven to be much more stable because it runs on entirely compatible Apple
hardware. Apple computers are also priced higher than each of the different brands with
which they compete; this helps to differentiate the product and create a sense of quality
for the consumer.
Innovation is most likely Apple‟s best source of competitive advantage. From
day one, Apple as a company has been an innovator. Apple was the first company to
introduce the desktop personal computer, known as the Apple I. It was also the first to
introduce a graphical user interface (GUI), and to introduce a handheld computer, called
the Newton. Perhaps the greatest Apple Innovation has been the iPod; this product alone
has created great success for Apple. Since the introduction of the iPod, Apple has created
seven different versions, each with distinct capabilities. Apple will most likely continue
to lead the computer industry in innovation as it continues to unveil groundbreaking
Responsiveness to Customers
Apple has not ranked as high in customer responsiveness as it has in quality and
innovation. According to a survey by the Consumer Respect Group, Apple was ranked
below competitors HP, IBM, and Dell in customer responsiveness (Cohen, 2004). The
reason that it scored below the competition was that consumers found the Apple website
difficult to maneuver. This survey did say that Apple‟s responsiveness had been
improving, however. Apple‟s technical support is great; it offers easy-to-use support
over the phone, and in-store computer technicians, referred to as “Apple Geniuses.”
Apple will most likely continue to work on this block of competitive advantage.
Apple‟s efficiency is another strong point of its competitive advantage. Apple
also continues to be dedicated to having greater efficiency. According to Forbes, “Apple
is continuing to improve efficiency as supported by the fact that most products are being
shipped on the same business day as the day of the order placement” (“Apple Continues
to Boost Production Efficiency”, 2005). Efficiency in the computer industry is very
important; industry leader Dell uses this as one of its main sources of competitive
advantage. Because of this, Apple must continue to strive for excellence in this area.
Generic Business Strategy
Apple Computers‟s generic business strategy is wide differentiation. Apple
Computers offers many different product lines, each competing in a different market
segment, while all being high-end computer products. Apple offers desktop computers,
laptop computers, computer hardware, computer software, and digital music playing
There are many advantages to Apple‟s strategy of wide differentiation. Apple
customers are very brand loyal; this is due in large part to Apple‟s highly differentiated
products. Another big advantage for Apple is that a high cost of supplies is not much of a
problem, since it is able to pass the cost on to the consumer. Unlike the majority of the
PC industry, buyers of Apple computers are not strong buyers. This is because of Apple‟s
highly differentiated product. The last advantage of Apple‟s wide differentiation strategy
is a lower threat of substitute products than other firms operating in the same industry.
Apple‟s computers are much different than Dell‟s or Gateway‟s and, at the same time,
Dell‟s and Gateway‟s are very similar.
Although this strategy works well for Apple, it does have some disadvantages.
The first is that Apple may have difficulty maintaining its distinct differences from its
competitors. An example of this is that Apple recently switched from its own brand of
microprocessors to Intel microprocessors. Although seen as a positive move by the
company, this may actually work against Apple‟s strategy of differentiation because Intel
also supplies microprocessors to almost every other company in this industry. Another
potential problem is that Apple may have trouble maintaining its high prices. Market
leader Dell constantly drops prices because it operates under a strategy of wide cost
leadership; this has forced Apple to lower its price as well. Apple actually had to
introduce an entirely new computer line, the Mac Mini, to combat this.
Competitive Strategy and the Industry Environment
The personal computer industry is in a stage of growth. In this industry, new
products are constantly introduced and old products are quickly outdated. In a growth
industry, one of the main concerns for companies is crossing the chasm. Apple does this
successfully by constantly evolving and revolutionizing its products to fit customers‟
changing needs. For a company like Apple to stay competitive in this industry, it must
carefully manage its position by using appropriate strategies. As previously stated,
Apple‟s generic business strategy is wide differentiation; therefore, it would damage
Apple‟s brand image to use any kind of strategy that involves competing using a low
price. Apple must be different; it does this by connecting with the users of its products
and maintaining a commitment to designing innovative products that appeal to
innovators, early adopters, and the early majority. Apple competes in this environment
by using non-price strategies such as product differentiation, market penetration, product
development, product proliferation, and supply and distribution strategies.
Apple’s Competitive Strategies
Product differentiation has been one of the focuses of Apple computers since the
creation of the company in the late 70s. One example of Apple‟s ability to differentiate
was the idea to use a graphical user interface (GUI) on the original Macintosh; at that
time all other companies used a text-based interface. Today Apple continues this
tradition of differentiation with its sleek product design and easy-to-use products.
Market penetration is another strategy that Apple utilizes. This strategy is
basically gaining market share within its existing markets. Apple is able to achieve this
through its marketing campaigns. Through rigorous advertising, Apple has achieved a
“brand name as recognizable as Coca-Cola” (Fried, 2006).
Two similar strategies that Apple has used are product and market development.
Product development is the introduction of new products into existing markets; market
development is the introduction of existing products into new markets. Apple achieves
product development by offering new computers, iPods, and software. Apple has
achieved market development by offering the Mac Mini computer into the low cost
Product proliferation has been one of Apple‟s most successful strategies. This
strategy is the introduction of new products into new markets. Apple has successfully
done this with the introduction of the iPod. The iPod allowed Apple to enter a new
market, the portable music player market, with a brand new product, the iPod. Soon after
entering this market, Apple had gained market share of 92% (Becker, 2004).
The last strategy apple uses is carefully managing its suppliers and distribution.
One example of its supply strategy is its recent switch from Power PC chips to Intel
chips. Its supplier of Power PC chips was not meeting its expectations, so Apple
switched to Intel (Apple 10k, 2005). Apple has also recently changed its distribution
strategy; in 2001, Apple began to open retail stores across the county. Before this, people
could only obtain Apple computers through random resellers. Apple‟s reason for this
change was to hopefully gain market share by putting the products on display for
customers (Wilcox, 2001).
Strategies in High-Technology Industries
Apple Computers competes in the high-technology industry of personal
computers. In the late seventies, Apple Computers was the number one producer of
personal computers. After nearly going out of business by the nineties, Apple has made a
comeback by regaining market share and entering new markets. Apple‟s problems were
rooted in not managing strategies for high technology companies well. Its biggest
problem was losing a format war with competitor Microsoft. Apple has also faced first
mover disadvantages frequently.
Apple was almost put out of business largely in part to losing a format war with
Microsoft. Apple‟s problem was that it refused to license its operating system, and did
not have the killer applications that Windows had. Microsoft chose to license its
Windows operating system to IBM and other computer manufacturers. Microsoft did this
because it did not want to make computer hardware itself, but rather only software. In
the end, as more computer manufactures began producing computers, they used
Microsoft‟s Windows operating system. However, this was not only because Apple
refused to license its Apple OS, but also because Apple computers were not compatible
with many of the killer applications that Windows had. Lotus 123, for example, was a
spreadsheet program that was created for Windows; many businesses bought Windows-
based computer systems just for this program. Because the majority of manufacturers
were using the same Windows operating system, it became the standard for computers
and Apple lost the format war.
Losing this war resulted in a virtual lockout for Apple. As the standard of
Windows had been set, this in turn led to high switching costs for consumers who wanted
to switch from Windows to Apple OS. High switching costs resulted from three
predominate incompatibility issues between Windows-based systems and Apple OS-
based systems. First, Apple OS would not run on a Windows-based computer, so the
buyer would have to purchase a new computer if he or she wanted to switch operating
systems. Second, there were also incompatibility issues between software; the user could
not simple copy old files to the new computer, and so would need to re-input any data.
Third, external hardware such as printers were not compatible for both formats; this
meant that the user had to replace all of the old hardware. Apple realized this problem
and has recently made an effort to make software and hardware compatible with
Window- based systems, thus lowering some of the switching costs. However, Apple
still has chosen not to license its operating system to other computer manufacturers.
First Mover Disadvantages
Apple has been the victim of first mover disadvantages numerous times. Apple
faced this problem when it developed the graphical user interface (GUI). It developed
this interface for the Lisa and Macintosh computers. However, Apple spent so much
money developing this interface that it had to charge too high of a price for the computers
to cover research and development costs. When Windows-based systems were released
with a very similar GUI, they were much less expensive. Apple also faced this problem
when it developed its first palm-sized computer, the Newton. When Palm released its
Palm Pilot, the device was smaller and had a better operating system and applications.
Apple has learned from its mistakes; it was not the first mover into the portable digital
music player market with the iPod. With the iPod, Apple made corrections to the design
of other devices by adding features that customers wanted. This led to huge commercial
Apple Computers has diversified its business portfolio using the strategy of
related diversification. Apple has achieved related diversification by operating in
different high-tech industries. The industries Apple operates in are the following: the
personal computer assembly industry, the software development industry, the computer
peripheral production industry, the portable music player industry, and the music
download industry. By staying in high-tech industries, Apple is able to utilize core
competencies in research and development in each of its new business endeavors.
Apple has been in the software development industry as long as it has been in the
computer assembly industry. Apple initially made this choice so it could be the sole
supplier of one of the most important complementary products to its computers. This
was why Apple did not want to license or even allow others to develop applications for
its system; it basically gave Apple a monopoly. Now Apple does allow third party
development for its system; in fact, Apple even allows Microsoft to develop software,
such as Microsoft Office, for OS X. This decision also saved Apple when the Windows
standard was set. If Apple was depending on third party developers for software, the
company could have possibly been pushed out of business; many companies might not
have wanted to develop software that was not for the industry standard system. These
same reasons also apply to Apple‟s move into peripherals. If no third party had been
developing peripherals such as printers and monitors for its systems, it could have
possibly not had peripheral devices.
Apple‟s most successful diversification movement was its entry into the portable
digital music player and music download industries. Apple holds the number one market
share positions in both the portable digital music player and music download industries.
With this move Apple again created a new product, the iPod, and also became the
supplier of the most important complementary product, mp3 files. Apple was able to use
core competencies from computer hardware development to create the iPod, and core
competencies in software development to create iTunes, an interface for the mass
download of music files. These products have also enabled Apple to possibly entice
users of other PC brands to switch to Apple. Apple has truly found its cash cow with the
iPod and iTunes combination.
Apple has used corporate level strategies such as horizontal and vertical
integration and strategic outsourcing. All of these strategies have enabled Apple to
achieve higher profits and greater firm value.
Apple has used the strategy of horizontal integration to merge with other
computer companies in order to reduce costs, increase value, and manage industry
rivalry. An example of this was Apple‟s purchase of Steve Jobs‟ Next Computers in the
mid 90‟s. With this acquisition Apple was able to utilize technology developed by Next,
as well as return Steve Jobs to a management position in the company that he started
(Fried, 2006). Though Apple has used this strategy, its focus for corporate level strategy
is on vertical integration.
Apple uses the strategy of tapered vertical integration. This gives them the
advantages of vertical integration, along with the ability to also use outsourcing and
resellers. Vertical integration is what enables an Apple computer to work so much better
than rival PCs. All components are designed by or specifically for Apple; this makes
everything work perfectly, unlike a Windows-based computer that utilizes drivers to
make mismatched parts work together. Another way Apple has vertically integrated is by
opening retail stores. Apple started opening retail stores to directly sell its products to
customers and to offer in-store technical support (Wilcox, 2001).
Apple uses outsourcing for production of components, assembly, and phone
support. This year Apple announced that it would begin incorporating Intel
microprocessors into its systems (Fried, 2006). This is an example of Apple outsourcing
production of a component. Apple does this to utilize the competencies of Intel and its
production of high quality microprocessors. Apple also outsources most of its production
to China. Apple does this to exploit inexpensive labor and lower costs (“Outsourcing
Apple is „Symbol of US industry‟”, 2005). Apple also announced this year that it will
begin outsourcing customer service to India. According to Apple, it will set up a
technical support center in Bangalore, India and hopes to hire as many as 3,000
employees by the end of 2007 (Richardson, 2006). Again Apple believes that this will
help to lower costs. Though Apple believes it is lowering costs and improving quality by
utilizing others‟ core competencies, many consumers have voiced concerns about
Apple‟s outsourcing policies. Consumers blame Apple for eliminating production jobs in
the US (“Outsourcing Apple is „Symbol of US industry‟”, 2005) and many are also
concerned about the quality of customer service that will be received from India
Strategy in the Global Environment
Apple Computers has established itself as a global brand. Apple has a worldwide
presence and distribution system by selling its computers directly to the public via the
company‟s website/store. According to the company‟s website, “one half of all Macs are
sold outside the United States” (Apple Computers, 2006). The strategy that Apple
employs for the global environment is the Global Strategy. Apple uses this strategy
because it has high pressures for cost reductions but minimal pressures for local
responsiveness. This means basically that Apple minimally adapts its products and
advertisements/marketing for each region it serves.
The mode of entry that Apple utilizes for expansion into international markets is
wholly owned subsidiaries. Apple Computers owns each of the 13 international retail
locations in Canada, Japan, and the UK (Apple Computers, 2006). This strategy is the
riskiest mode of entry; however, it gives Apple the most strategic control and profit
potential, as well as protecting proprietary technology.
Apple‟s first major entry decision to make is which markets to enter. Apple has
worldwide coverage through its online store but has also opened retail locations in
Canada, Japan, and the United Kingdom, with plans to open more international retail
stores (Apple Computers, 2006). Apple also has a technical support center in India
(Richardson, 2006) and manufacturing facilities in China (“Outsourcing Apple is
„Symbol of US industry‟”, 2005).
Another important entry decision is the timing of entry. In the computer industry
timing is every thing; once customers choose a brand, switching costs lock them in. This
is why Apple chose to open retail stores in Canada, Japan, and the UK first. It expects
that the customers in these locations will respond the best to the Apple brand of
computer. Apple would not want to face first mover disadvantages by moving into a
location where the market for computers was nonexistent.
The scale at which Apple enters into international markets is also important.
Apple enters on both a small scale and large scale. It enters on a small scale through its
website. The website does not require much commitment to a specific area; however, a
customer anywhere in the world could purchase an Apple computer through it. Apple
enters on a large scale through locations where the company has opened retail stores.
This is a large commitment because opening retail stores can be quite expensive; it entails
many costs such as the build out, lease for the building, and employees.
The similarity I found between Apple and Timex was their use of different
distribution channels than the rest of their industry. Apple began opening retail locations
in 2001 when all other PC manufacturers were closing their retail locations and selling
only online and through re-sellers. This was similar to how Timex sold its watches in
drug stores while the rest of the industry was selling through jewelers.
The similarity between Apple and Honda is their use of emergent strategy. When
Apple realized how powerful of a product the iPod was, it began using it as a focus of
bringing new customers to the brand. This was very similar to what Honda did with its
Super Cub motorcycle.
The similarity between Apple and Coca-Cola is vertical integration. Apple
decided after many years of operation to vertically integrate by opening retail stores.
This strategy was very similar to how Coca-Cola vertically integrated by acquiring its
The link between Apple and Coors is negative commitment. Coors had negative
commitment by relying on a large regional factory; this made it very hard to take its
product national. Apple had negative commitment by refusing to license its operating
system, not allowing third party developers, and not making its computers compatible
The similarity between Apple and Dell is their online distribution systems. Both
companies have web-stores that allow them to sell custom-made computers to customers
around the world.
Apple and Harley Davidson are very similar; both companies have a product that
has a very strong brand identity behind them, which in turn creates very loyal customers.
People buy a Harley not because they want a motorcycle but because they want to be a
part of the image associated with Harley. The same can be said about Apple computers:
people buy Apple Computers because they want to have what Apple represents, which is
fun, reliable, and innovative. No other computer company has as strong of a brand image
as Apple, just like no motorcycle company has the image that Harley has.
Points of Interest
There are many interesting things about Apple; the three most interesting things
about Apple are some of its business strategies. The first is its strategy to convert Wintel
users to Mac users, the second strategy is its opening of Apple retail stores, and the third
is its refusal to license their operating system.
It is very interesting that Apple uses the iPod to sell computers. This strategy is
genius; Apple brings a new customer to the brand with a fairly low cost product, the iPod,
in an industry that it basically monopolizes. Once he or she has this little marvel, the new
customer realizes that if this device works well, the company‟s computers must also; the
customer then goes to the Apple store and tries one of the computers. Upon trial, the new
Apple lover quickly gets cash and buys an Apple. Apple is converting iPod users to
Apple computer owners at a rate of 16-23% (“Apple Could Grow Global PC Market
Share To 5% In 2005”, 2005).
Another very interesting strategy is Apple‟s decision to open retail stores. The
industry standard in the computer assembly industry is to make-to-order and sell
worldwide over the Internet. While Apple does this, it felt it would also be beneficial to
open retail locations so customers can try the product. I think this strategy works well for
Apple, because Apple‟s product is highly differentiated from the rest of the computer
industry (which is highly undifferentiated).
The last point of interest is Apple‟s refusal to license its operating system. If
Apple had done this in the early eighties, Apple could have become the standard and
Windows could have possibly never taken off. However, Apple chose to own the Apple
computer experience. This decision has helped Apple to maintain a superior computer
product, and avoid many of the problems associated with Windows.
“Apple 10K Report” 9/24/05 Yahoo 2/14/06 <http://yahoo.brand.edgar-
“Apple Continues to Boost Production Efficiency” 5/10/05 Forbes 3/9/06
“Apple Computers” 4/25/06 <www.apple.com>
“Apple Could Grow Global PC Market Share to 5% in 2005” 3/18/05 Forbes 3/8/06
“Apple Investor Relations” Apple Computers 3/8/06
“Outsourcing Apple is „Symbol of US industry‟” 6/6/05 MacWorld 4/22/06
Becker, David “It‟s All About the iPod” 10/12/04 C|net 3/8/06
Cohen, Peter “Customer Respect Survey Ranks Apple Site Below Average” 4/6/04
MacWorld 3/9/06 <http://www.macworld.com/news/2004/04/06/respect/>
Dalrymple, Jim “Apple Desktop Market Share on the Rise; Will the Mac Mini, iPod
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Fried, Ina “Celebrating Three Decades of Apple” 3/28/06 C|net 4/2/06
Gardner, David “PC Industry Growth Rate to Slow” 12/5/05 Personal Tech Pipeline
Meilich, Ofer “Matching Dell” Lecture, Cal State University San Marcos, 4/3/06
Richardson, Darcy “Will Apple Outsourcing to India Equal Lost Jobs and Frustrated
Customers in America?” 3/10/06 Apple Matters 4/22/06
Wilcox, Joe “25 Apple Stores to Sprout This Year” 5/15/01 C|net 4/2/06