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									                     2008 White Paper On Taiwan Industrial Technology




Part II. Development of Industrial Technology in Taiwan
Chapter 6     Energy and Environmental Protection

  Section 1               Energy Technology

1. Low Cost Silicon Solar Cell Technology
    Photovoltaic (PV) is a renewable energy technology that has received strong government
support. Owing to growing international consciousness of environmental protection, industries
related to solar cells have enjoyed strong growth in Taiwan. However, recently the
development of the solar cell industry has been threatened by a serious imbalance in the
supply of poly-silicon. And the shortage of poly-silicon has become the key barrier to industry
development. To increase its independence in silicon feedstock techniques and reduce
restrictions from overseas countries by 2010, Taiwan should establish technologies to
self-provide high purity silicon materials. By combining technologies of material refining,
powder production, solidification and casting, the Industrial Technology Research Institute
(ITRI) which is supported by the Ministry of Economics Affairs (MOEA) has developed
technology to manufacture low-cost 5~7N poly-silicon via a multi-step purification process.

    This technology is designed to minimize harmful transition metals and group-III&V
impurities in silicon using a 10~150kg grade home-made purifying system together with
metallurgical thermodynamics and metallurgic extraction techniques. And optimized
directional casting technologies can achieve solar-cell-class ingot. Furthermore, the
influences of impurities on ingot properties can be further clarified by examining various
defects sites such as grain boundaries. and the concentration of impurities can be reduced by
combining gettering and plasma-immersion-ion-implantation techniques.

    High performance silicon solar cell can be obtained based on the resulting. The cost of
the high value-added Solar-grade poly-silicon is estimated to be less than US$ 20 per
kilogram, and Taiwanese firms in related industries to overcome dependence on a small
number of foreign poly-silicon firms.

    In 2007, the global production of the Solar Cells was ca. 4.3GW, of which over 3.8GW
were silicon wafer based solar cell. The PV industry achieved strong YOY growth of 30~40%.
However, poly-silicon occupies 50~80% of the cell cost and which has obstructed PV industry
development. Consequently, Taiwan should attempt to develop low investment and low waste
silicon materials related technology to improve the stability of poly-silicon supply. Using the
advanced Solar Cell efficiency technology already existing in Taiwan, it is possible to get rid of
the controls and limitations from the PV industry chain. Despite the sufficient supply of
Poly-Silicon materials, Taiwan also hopes to be able to cheaply manufacture poly-silicon



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materials for use in low cost Solar Cells. By solving fundamental problems involved in
expanding and popularizing Solar Cells, Taiwan can become major PV producer. The
following chart presents a roadmap of technological development.

    Recently, solar and related industries have gradually expanded as a result of strong
promotion from developed countries (such as Europe, the United States, Japan and Australia).
Domestic production of solar cells is approximately 350MWp, representing demand for
3,000~4,000 tons of high purity poly-silicon. Since firms involved in solar cell manufacture and
related industries are actively expanding, battery production in 2010 is expected to reach
10GW, or even more than 15GW, and the demand of poly-silicon will be as much as 10,000
tons.

    As a result, it is vital to develop technologies for the large-scale production of low-price
and high-purity solar-grade poly-silicon. In the foreseeable future, a pilot poly-silicon foundry,
invest approximately NT$ 500 million, with 500 tons annual production will be created and
contribute direct industrial efficiency over NT$ 1 billion.

2. Nano Printing Photovoltaic Technology
    The bottleneck associated with industrializing next generation film solar cells is the high
fabrication cost which is due to the need for physical vapor deposition techniques, and high
temperature selenization anneal requirements. It is the objective of this project to develop an
alternate, nanoparticles printing method in thin film CIGS process that would result in a
disruptive technology allowing: (1)Large area low cost deposition (process breakthrough);
(2)High materials utilization (lower raw materials cost); (3)High efficient low temperature
selenization process on flexible substrate. The key elements in material process are: the
development of new nano particles and the matching dispersing agent, and the printing
technology; and to develop a heat treatment process for rapid selenization and grain growth
from such precursors.

    Among the various technical choices in thin-film solar cells, CIGS is most promising with
a champion cell record of 19.9% (established at NREL). Some leading companies in Germany,
Japan and the United States have built up their first production lines in 2007, with combined
capacity exceeding 100MW. According to the industry analysis of Deutsche Bank in 2010
global production capacity of CIGS thin-film solar cells is expected to rapidly increase to 1GW,
with revenue exceeding US$ 500 million. However, nearly all of them adopted conventional
vacuum process technology. We expect that the nano-printing process technology will enter
the market owing to its combination of low cost and high efficacy. After meeting grid parity
goals, overwhelming expansion of solar system installation is expected without the need for
incentives from government subsidy policies. Since the nano-printing of the CIGS absorber
layer is based on a well-established solar cell structure, Breakthrough of applying




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nano-printing technology to industrialization will create a new wave of growth and further
strengthen the position of Taiwan in photovoltaic technology.

    NREL, a well-known research institution in the United States, issued a report on the cost
structure of various thin-film solar cell technologies in 2005. The report noted that the cost of
CIGS active material for the nano-printing process is about half of that for the vacuum process.
This difference occurs mainly because costs of materials and equipment required for the
printing process are at 50~60% lower than for sputtering. The report estimated that the
material cost for preparing nano-particle powder is less than half that required for sputtering
targets (also due to the high material utilization rate of more than 95 percent). Since the
efficiency of CIGS cells is higher than that of CdTe or a-Si cells, CIGS solar cells made by
nano-printing ink process are undoubtedly the most competitive and best alternative in thin
film technology. Adopting this technology thus can more quickly achieve electricity generation
costs of below US$ 0.05/kWh.

    In the current era of high oil prices and growing concern with environmental issues, solar
cells have become the favored renewable energy option. However, global adoption of solar
energy remains well below 1% of total energy consumption. Therefore, the development of
low-cost solar cell production technology is a crucial issue that requires urgent attention.
Nano-printing solar cell technology is expected to achieve the cost objectives of third
generation solar cells which are based on the framework of the second generation of solar
cells. Nano-printing technology thus has potential to become a low-cost, high-output key
technology.

3. DMFC Technology
    Facing rising energy prices and growing environmental pollution, the development of
clean energy has become increasingly important to national competence. Taiwan enjoys a
competitive edge in the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) industry, specifically
in the areas of mechanical/electrical integration ability, global cost management, and the
establishment of a complete upstream and downstream supply chain. These strengths
represent positives for fuel cell development in Taiwan, especially for Computer,
Communication, Consumer Electronics (3C) applications. The widespread application of fuel
cells can overcome numerous limitations of present 3C design and increase the
competitiveness of the system industry. These applications of fuel cells will help reduce the
costs of fuel cells and establish a local fuel cell industry. Table 2-6-1-3-1 compares various
fuel cell technologies. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), which has the highest energy
density, at 4,800Wh/l, and easy refueling characteristics offers the most promise as a portable
power supply unit.




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                    2008 White Paper On Taiwan Industrial Technology




           Table 2-6-1-3-1     Comparison of Various Portable Fuel Cell Technologies




 Source: MCL/ITRI.JUNE 2008.

    Taiwan plans to accelerate DMFC development by leveraging the existing strengths of
Taiwanese materials or energy industry and establishing new industries and enterprises
related to the Taiwan 3C and battery industries. Developments in this area can focus on
DMFC key materials and components for both active and passive systems, respectively.
These technologies include: (1)DMFC system design/assembly technology; (2)Balance of
Plant (BOP) devices; (3)MEA key material manufacturing technologies. Target applications
include sub-100W systems for notebook, PDA, cell phone s and other portable applications.
The development of these basic technologies can help Taiwan establish a strong fuel cell
industry to help it enter next generation hydrogen energy generation technology.

    The key problems in fuel cell commercialization are cost, optimization and durability. To
facilitate the commercialization of DMFC technology, the Ministry of Economics Affairs (MOEA)
is actively developing various key technologies, including an automated continuous
production process for mass production of Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), a low cost
fuel cell stack, and an autonomous platform for system operation, testing and assessment.
The roadmap of technology development for DMFC commercialization is as follows. The first
stage of development will focus on developing active DMFC systems and components to
meet the higher power requirements of portable systems. Meanwhile, the second stage
(2009~) will focus on developing high energy density low BOP and lower power system for
development of small applications.

    The application of DMFC in portable 4C devices can not only provide energy to portable
systems, but can also provide systems with a larger energy budget capable of offering
additional functions. Such application of DMFC thus can increase system value. Additionally,
a valuable application of fuel cells lies in helping reduce fuel cell manufacturing costs and
establishing complete application knowledge, helping establish domestic fuel cell and
hydrogen energy industries.

4. Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell
    Owing to the shortage of solar-grade silicon wafer in the PV market, many firms around
the world have developed thin film photovoltaic technology. According to the report of the




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Photonics Industry & Technology Development Association (PIDA) of Taiwan for 2008, the
global sales of the thin film solar cell in 2007 was totaled US$ 860M, representing 10% of the
PV market. Amorphous silicon and compound materials each represented roughly 50% of
total sales. Compared with bulk poly-silicon solar cells, thin film possesses the advantage of
being cost effective. It has the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells, from
US$ 2.5~3.0/Wp to US$ 1.0/Wp. The main goal of this project is to develop technology of
CuIn(Ga)Se2 and extra-high efficiency solar cell (GaAs, InGaN), which is forecast to be
capable of producing electricity at costs of US$ 8~10 cent/kWh by 2012.

    Compound semiconductor solar cells mainly contain CdTe, CuIn(Ga)Se2 and GaAs
mainly. The first CdTe has the lowest cost advantage, but Cd element is an environmental
threat. Therefore, according to technology maturity, this project will focus on CuIn(Ga)Se2
solar cells. The next step will be to develop flexible substrate for CIGS, for example stainless
steel foil and polyimide. Once again, two methods exist for reducing the total cost, the first is
to develop Roll to Roll (R2R) manufacturing process to increase production volume, though
naturally the technology required to do this is challenging to develop. The other method is to
reduce equipment capital through non-vacuum screen printing. Both these approaches can
reduce solar module costs to below US$ 1.0/Wp. If these two cases developed successfully,
the price of electricity generated by solar cells will reduce to close to that of conventionally
generated electricity, i.e. US$ 0.1/kWh, 1/3 of its current level. This price equalization is
predicted to occur in 2012.

    Owing to its complete Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)/Light Emitting Diodes (LED) industry,
Taiwan enjoys an advantage in possessing high reliability instruments for thin film compound
solar cell manufacturing. Research on sputtering and epitaxy processes of CIGS, InGaN, and
GaAs solar cell can assist traditional industry firms in Taiwan in entering the compound
semiconductor solar cell market, creating new business valued at approximately NT$ 5 billion
for the renewable PV industry during 2012.

5. Technology for Developing High Capacity Hydrogen Storage
   Alloys
    Hydrogen storage is a crucial issue in the use of the clean energy "hydrogen" for the
application of hydrogen as a clean energy for mobility and transport applications. Safety
issues are especially important in relation to using hydrogen as an alternative energy source,
because hydrogen has exceptional buoyancy, can migrate through very small channels, and
is highly combustible. Storing hydrogen in its affinitive alloys is safe and efficient when
compared to the method of pressurizing hydrogen gas into high-strength alloy container. The
use of a hydrogen storage alloy is an ideal method of achieving compact, safe hydrogen
storage, because the volume density of hydrogen is higher than that of liquid hydrogen.




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    The capacity of presently available hydrogen storage alloys, mainly AB5 or AB2 type
based on rare earth element, is only sufficient to satisfy Ni-H batteries for Computer,
Communication, Consumer Electronics (3C) products; however, it is not high enough (over
2.0 mass%) for use in fuel cell car. Consequently, the technology aims to develop advanced
hydrogen storage alloys with high gravimetric densities.

    Many alloys and intermetallic compounds combine strong hydriding elements to form
alloys. Among these, the Ti-V-Cr based solid solution alloys, which possess a Body-Centered
Cubic (BCC) structure, are chosen as the near-term potential candidates for hydrogen
storage. Since these alloys can store and have a reversible capacity exceeding 3.6 and 2.2
mass% hydrogen, respectively, at 40~100℃. For long-term development, the project will
focus on magnesium/lithium based hydrogen storage alloys, since such alloys are lightweight
and reported to store over 7 mass% hydrogen at 200~350℃, thus meeting future capacity
requirements. Finally, to achieve these stringent goals, micro-structural control through zero
contamination smelting and quenching treatment, as well as complex activation and
solid-state direct synthesis technologies will be built up.

    The potential value of hydrogen lies primarily in providing a versatile energy carrier that is
non-polluting, and moreover is highly efficient in certain applications. R&D on this area is
made challenging by the long-term nature of the development of hydrogen technology.
Nevertheless, this year scientists and engineers from BMW and Toyota have overcome
obstacles and demonstrated both hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine and hydrogen
powered fuel cell cars from the laboratory to the showroom, and finally to on-road testing.
Allied Business Intelligence (ABI) optimistically estimates that the fuel cell market will grow to
US$ 18.6 billion in 2013, and that the market for fuel cell products will exceed US$ 350 billion
within the next 15 years. Finally, before reaching an economic scale, the consistent
development of high capacity hydrogen storage alloys via this research project will enhance
the global competitiveness of the small business oriented domestic industry, and open up
numerous future business opportunities.

6. Technology for the Exploitation of Granite Precision Plates
    Stone is currently the best foundation for the precision machinery as it is chemically inert,
is not easily broken down, and combines a stable shape and low level of heat expansion
together with high shock absorbency. These qualities mean that using stone in plates for high
precision processing can not only resolve current problems in precision processing, such as
slow vibration attenuation rates, low thermo stability and easy machine corrosion, but can also
significantly improve the self-supply ratio of Taiwan in processing equipment for the
semi-conductor and precision processing industries. Such applications also offer potential to
free the stone industry from its existing role as a supplier of traditional building materials,
enabling it to become a supplier of materials to the hi-tech industry potentially increasing



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added value by over ten-fold.

    Moreover, according to reprocessing factories that use traditional stone materials in
modern buildings, the high accuracy cutting technologies derived from precision plate
production can increase cutting machine accuracy. The resulting stone products meet design
size specifications and increase construction accuracy. Stone engineering accelerates
construction, reduces damage and material costs, and enables design plans to be completely
realized. Without fully expressing the beauty of stone engineering, using high precision cutting
and milling processing equipment can help realize the design objective of "simultaneously
realizing both design and product".

    This technology aims to transform the stone industry into a hi-tech manufacturing
equipment industry by creating new stone surfaces and increasing added value through new
development of the industry. Starting with simple gauge components, and moving on to
integrated development and manufacturing of lock equipment and instruments, this
technology aims to overcome the technological limitations of precision boreholes, trench
processing, component assembly and mechanical and electric integration. Finally, precise
granite can combined with precise vibration insulation systems.

    Due to its superior physical properties, ability to withstand chemical corrosion and
resistance to deformation by the external environment, granite is an ideal material for use in
hi-tech precision machinery platforms. If domestic technology for smooth granite platforms
can achieve a breakthrough, it will become possible to apply granite in the manufacturing and
testing of instruments and equipment in the semi-conductor, photoelectric and precision
processing machinery industries, thus increasing the output value of the Taiwanese stone
industry to over NT$ 150 million.

7. Applied Technologies of Eastern Water Resource Objectives of
   Technological Research and Development
    The eastern water resource (deep sea water) is rich in nutrients, minerals, trace elements,
and has the characteristic of clean. Based on the experience of the Americans and the
Japanese, a third party should periodically perform water quality analyses and makes public
announcements to ensure the quality of the eastern water resource. To fulfill this role the
long-term monitoring database of the characteristics the eastern water resource
characteristics of this technological construct was established. Furthermore, by establishing a
long-term monitoring system for environmental hormones, consumer confidence in products
related to the eastern water resource can be enhanced.

    Domestically, several companies have already conducted some research on algae, but
no research has yet been done by specialized institutions focused on the development and
application of the eastern water resource and attempting to understand differences in algae



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cultivation. Although some time has already passed since the inception of algae research,
research on synergizing biological technologies and extracting the functional composition of
algae, and on exploiting algae to overcome the global energy crisis, has only just begun,
therefore, the application and development of the synergy between algae and the eastern
water resource represent future research direction with excellent potential.

    The analysis and monitoring technology of the eastern water resource can help establish
a solid foundation for qualitative analysis, and objective examination of eastern water
resource products by third party institutions can enhance consumer confidence; the result
also benefits the rapid development of this emerging industry.

    The key technology related to the eastern water resource can commercialize the eastern
water resource characteristics of constant low temperature, rich nutrients and minerals,
cleanness, and maturity; while combining the available biological resources of the eastern
water resource, it is also possible to develop other areas, including health care, food products,
and energy; and to implement value enhancements and innovative developments.




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