Endocrine System Control of Our Bodies Homeostasis Engage • You will be viewing some video clips from Sideshow: Alive On The Inside. Within these clips you will see various types of endocrine disorders. • If you are interested in viewing more endocrine system oddities, you can read the book Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit by Robert Bogdan. Explore • Explore 1 • Using your text and other resources, you will familiarize yourself with the endocrine glands and their functions by completing the endocrine system worksheet. • Explore 2 • Role Play: The Rise and Fall of Glucose Explain Section 39-2 The Endocrine System regulates Calcium Water Response Growth Reproduction Metabolism and glucose balance to stress levels by means by means by means by means by means by means of the of the of the of the of the of the Pituitary Testes Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Ovaries Parathyroids Explain • List 4 types of endocrine glands and give their function. • What is the overall function of the endocrine system? • With what other systems does the endocrine system interact? Exocrine or Endocrine • Exocrine – release products (enzymes) into ducts – Ex) Sweat, tears, digestive juices • Endocrine – directly to bloodstream; NO DUCTS – Ex) Hormones Endocrine System • Glands – release products to bloodstream directly. • Horomones – products deliver messages to body • Target cells – have specific receptors for specific hormones Endocrine Glands Section 39-1 Hypothalamus Pineal gland The hypothalamus makes The pineal gland releases melatonin, which hormones that control the is involved in rhythmic activities, such as pituitary gland. In addition, it daily sleep-wake cycles. makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland. Thyroid Pituitary gland The thyroid produces thyroxine, which The pituitary gland produces regulates metabolism. hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands. Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, which Parathyroid glands regulate the level of glucose in the blood. These four glands release parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of calcium Ovary in the blood. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is required for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for the development of eggs. Thymus Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg. During childhood, the thymus releases thymosin, which stimulates Tcell development. Testis The testes produce testosterone, Adrenal glands which is responsible for sperm The adrenal glands release production and the development of epinephrine and nonepinephrine, male secondary sex characteristics which help the body deal with stress. Pituitary Gland • Master gland – Controls the other endocrine glands • Growth Hormone (GH) – Too much – gigantism – Too little – dwarfism • Antidiuretic (ADH) – Stimulates kidneys to keep water Hypothalamus • Part of brain and attached to pituitary • Controls pituitary secretions Thyroid THYROID GLAND • Regulates – Metabolism and energy balance Thyroid Hormones • Thyroxine – Regulates body energy usage • Calcitonin – One hormones that regulates calcium and phosphate in blood Questions • What are the two hormones that the thyroid secretes? • What is the function of thyroxine? • What is the function of calcitonin? Parathyroid Calcium Regulation PARAthyroid Glands • PTH-Parathyroid hormones • Increases calcium, phosphate, and magnesium absorption in intestines. • Causes bones to release calcium and phosphate • Causes removal of calcium and magnesium from urine by kidneys • Increases the making of Vitamin D in body Negative Feedback Mechanism • Our body uses feedback mechanism to maintain homeostasis within our body. • Regulation of calcium is one example of this process. • Can you think of another one? Hint: Role Play Activity Questions • PTH cause the small intestine to absorb more calcium, _____ and _____. • What does PTH cause the bones to release? • What do the kidneys do because of PTH? Adrenal Gland • Releases hormones to deal with stress Adrenal Gland Cont. • Cortex – Produces more than 2 dozen steroid hormones – corticosteriods • Medulla – “fight or flight” – Epinephrine and norepinephrine Glucose Regulation Two Ways: 1. Eating Regularly 2. Hormone Adjustments Pancreas: Endocrine and Exocrine • What did the pancreas do in digestion? Secreted Enzymes Pancreas also secretes hormones Endocrine glands - ductless organ that releases hormones DIRECTLY into the bloodstream. Questions • What do exocrine glands secrete? • What do endocrine glands secrete? Blood Glucose Level • Pancreatic Hormones regulate blood sugar level before and after meals. • Islets; clusters of cells in pancreas – Alphasecrete glucagon – increases sugar – Beta secrete insulin – decreases sugar What Happens? • Between meals Blood glucose lowPancreas secretes glucagonLiver changes glycogen to glucoseglucose sent to target tissues • After a meal Blood glucose highPancreas secretes insulinGlucose goes to the Liver(Glygogen) and goes to Target tissues Questions • What organ regulates glucose in blood? • When we eat our blood glucose level is high or low? • In between meals our blood glucose level is high or low? • When our blood glucose is high the pancreas secretes ___________. • When our blood glucose is low the pancreas secretes ___________. • What mechanism allows our body to control the glucose level in our body? Diabetes • Diabetes – High sugar levels in blood – Do not produce enough insulin to control blood sugar – Some take insulin injections to regulate Reproductive Glands • Production of gametes • Secretion of sex hormones • Female – Ovaries - Estrogen • Males – Testes - Testosterone Elaborate • You will perform various investigations with plant hormones to better understand human hormones. You will be working with hormones that stimulate and inhibit plant growth.
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