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AH End of WW1 033010 by liwenting

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 48

									           Bell Work:

        SSR: 10 Minutes

This should be completed silently.
 Monday:
   4th Quarter Project


 Tuesday/Wednesday:
   The War at Home


 Thursday/Friday:
   No School:
 WWBAT explain how business and
  government cooperated during the war.
 WWBAT show how the government
  sold the war to the public.
 WWBAT describe the attacks on civil
  liberties that erupted once war was
  declared.
 WWBAT summarize the social changes
  that occurred among African Americans
  and women as a result of the war.
Monday:

Tuesday/Wednesday:
 Current Events

Thursday/Friday:
 Bell Work/TIH


 Current Events


 The Home Front and Peace
  Notes and Discussion
• 1917~1918: Patriotism is at an all-time high.
• The American Gov’t wanted NO internal
  opposition/enemies.
• Native-born American attacked immigrants
  because of nationalities.
• African American’s moved to other Jobs.
• Women filled jobs vacated by men.
• To win the war – the ENTIRE economy must
  mobilize ~ Consumer Goods or Weapons?
• Congress gave President Wilson almost Carte
  Blanch Power
  • The power to fix prices and regulate war-related industries
-1917: Gov’t encouraged companies to use Mass
  Production Methods.
  -Eliminate waste by standardizing products
  -Set production Quota’s

-The Gov’t allocated Raw Materials
-The Gov’t helped people find the “Right Job”

-Under the “WIB”, U.S. production rose 20%
WOMEN’S CLOTHING

-Corsets no longer made with steel ribs
    -Steel sent to shipyards
-Leather Boots no longer tall
    -Extra leather used for soldiers boots
-Skirts became shorter
    -Extra fabric used for soldiers uniforms
WOMEN’S CLOTHING

-Corsets no longer made with steel ribs
    -Steel sent to shipyards
-Leather Boots no longer tall
    -Extra leather used for soldiers boots
-Skirts became shorter
    -Extra fabric used for soldiers uniforms
FUEL ADMINISTRATION

 -Organization monitored Gasoline and Heating Oil
 consumption
     -”Gasless Sundays”
     -”Lightless Nights”

 -1918: Daylight Savings Time
     -Put into action
     -Proposed first by Ben Franklin
FOOD ADMINISTRATION

 -No “Rationing”
 - “Clean Plate Gospel”
 -Weeks of Sacrifice:
       -One Day: Meatless (No Beef)
       -One Day: Sweetless (No Sugar)
       -Two Days: Wheatless (No Bread)
       -Two Days: Porkless

 -Restaurants:
       -No Sugar bowls tabletop
       -Bread with 1st course only

 -Victory Gardens
       Grow your own Vegetables!
FOOD ADMINISTRATION
“It is not an army we must shape and train for
  war, it is a nation” – President Woodrow Wilson

 -Soldiers need to be trained in battle
 -Nation needed to sacrifice for it’s soldiers
 -Serious propaganda was used to sell the war
 effort
 -Propaganda Posters
     -Promoted Patriotism
     -Manufactured Hate
“It is not an army we must shape and train for
  war, it is a nation” – President Woodrow Wilson

 -Soldiers need to be trained in battle
 -Nation needed to sacrifice for it’s soldiers
 -Serious propaganda was used to sell the war
 effort
 -Propaganda Posters
     -Promoted Patriotism
     -Manufactured Hate
United States: $ 33 Million on War Effort

 1/3 ~ TAXES – Income Tax
               War Profit Tax
               Luxury Item Tax
               (Tobacco)

 2/3 ~ WAR BONDS
“Only a friend of Germany would refuse to buy em’!”
                -William G. McAdoo
-Used   to directly Popularize the War
-1st National propaganda committee
-Head of CPI: George Creel
  -Mobilized Artists, Graphic Designers
  -Created thousands of Propaganda Posters
  -Created a force of 75,000 “4 Minute Men”
       -These men would deliver brief, uplifting speeches about:
               The Draft
               Rationing
               Bond Drives
               Victory Gardens
               “Why we are fighting”
               “Maintaining Morals and Morale”
               “The Meaning of America”
~By the end of the war: 7.5 Million speeches to 314 Million
  listeners.
~Published 7 Million copies of “How America Came to
  War” complete with Wilson’s War Message

 -Published in: English
               Swedish
               Polish
               Italian
               Spanish
               Czech
               Portuguese
~Anti Immigrant Hysteria

 -Attacks on German and Austria-Hungarian
 Immigrants, German Americans, Austria-
 Hungarian Americans.
 -People w/German names lost their jobs
 -Orchestra’s refused to play: Mozart
                               Bach
                               Beethoven
                               Brahms
~Anti Immigrant Hysteria
 -Towns with German names changed
 -Schools stopped teaching German language classes
 -Libraries removed books with German authors
 -Physical violence began against Germans
     -Flogging (Whipping)
     -Tarring and Feathering
     -Lynching (Extreme Cases)
 -Names with “German” in them changed
     -German Measles: “Liberty Measles”
     -Hamburger: Salisbury Steak, “Liberty Sandwich”
     -Sauerkraut: “Liberty Cabbage”
     -Dachshunds: “Liberty Pups”
~1917: Espionage Act
~1918: Alien and Sedition Act

 -Under these acts a person could:
     -Be fined up to $10,000
     -Sentenced to 20 years in jail

 -People were sentenced because
     -Interfering with the draft
     -Obstructing the sale of Gov’t bonds
     -*SAYING ANYTHING CONSIDERED: Disloyal
                                             Profane
                                            Abusive
            about the American Gov’t or the war effort
~6,000 (ish) arrests for (loosely) defined Anti-War Activities
~1,500 convictions

~Loss of Mailing privileges' for newspapers and magazines
  that opposed war or criticized the Allies.
  -By 1918: New York Times, Saturday Evening Post

~ Congress refused to seat a Socialist from Wisconsin
~Columbia University fired a distinguished professor who
  opposed the war.

             ~Umm… 1st Amendment much?
~6,000 (ish) arrests for (loosely) defined Anti-War Activities
~1,500 convictions

~Loss of Mailing privileges' for newspapers and magazines
  that opposed war or criticized the Allies.
  -By 1918: New York Times, Saturday Evening Post

~ Congress refused to seat a Socialist from Wisconsin
~Columbia University fired a distinguished professor who
  opposed the war.

             ~Umm… 1st Amendment much?
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~African American’s and WWI

 -According to Du Bois, African Americans
 should support President Wilson because it
 would lend strength to the call for racial
 justice.

 -Others like William Monroe Trotter said the
 victims of racism should not support a racist
 Gov't.

 -Most African American’s supported the war
 effort.
~The Great Migration

 -Large scale movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern
 African American’s to cities in the north.
 -Reasons:
      -An escape from racial discrimination in the south.
      -Ruined crops in 1916 (Floods, Drought, Boll Weevils)
      -1914: Ford opened the assembly line to African
 Americans
      -Outbreak of war ~ increased factory jobs

 -Outcome:
     -Living and Working conditions reminiscent of
 Immigrants in the Gilded Age.
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~Women and WWI

 ~Jobs that were held by men before the outbreak of war were now held by
 WOMEN!
       -Cab/Delivery Truck drivers
       -Railroad Workers
       -Cooks
       -Dock Workers
       -Bricklayers
       -Coal Mining
       -Shipbuilding
       *Nurses, Clerks, Teachers*

 ~Volunteers:
      -Red Cross
      -Selling War Bonds
      -Growing Victory Gardens
      -Working for the Peace Movement
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~Women and WWI

~Pres Wilson decided after the War:
“The Service of women during the supreme
crisis have been of the most single usefulness
and distinction; it is high time that part of our
debt be acknowledged”
    -No Equal Pay for Equal Work
    *THE 19th AMENDMENT*
    *WOMEN GET TO VOTE!*
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~Wilson at Versailles

 Jan 18, 1918
    -Pres Wilson gives the 14 Point Plan
 to Congress
    -Points Divided into three groups.
~Wilson at Versailles
  First 5 Points

  1) Nations should engage only in open (public) treaties. No secrets
  2) Freedom of the seas for all
  3) Tariffs and other barriers should be lowered to foster free trade
  4) Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with
  domestic safety”
  5) Colonial policies should consider the well being of the colonies, not
  only the Imperial powers

  6-13) Boundary Changes
  14) Creation of a “League of Nations”
~Wilson at Versailles

 -Allies at Versailles: “Umm… let me think
 about that…. NO!!!”

 -Versailles convention only consisted of the
 “Big Four” nations: U.S., France, Britain, Italy

 -Wilson dropped most of the points in order
 to get the League of Nations
~African American’s and WWI

 -Divided feelings on the war
 -W.E.B Du Bois said African American’s
 should support the war effort.
     “That which the German power
 represents today spells death to the
 aspirations of Negroes and all darker races
 for equality, freedom, and democracy…. Let
 us, while this war lasts, forget our special
 grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
 shoulder with our own white fellow citizens
 and the allied nations that are fighting for
 democracy.” “Close Ranks”
~Treaty of Versailles

 -Established 9 new nations, including
 Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.

 -Parts of the Ottoman Empire were given
 to Britain and France as colonies
 (Modern-Day: Iraq, Syria, Lebanon,
 Jordan, Israel)
~Treaty of Versailles: GERMANY

 -Germany was demilitarized

 -Germany had to pay France for
 damages

 -War Guilt Clause: Germany alone had to
 admit it was responsible for the War.
~Treaty of Versailles: Ramifications

 -The Treaty humiliated Germany (Would eventually
 help lead to WWII)

 -Bolshevik Government fell in Russia. Later became
 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic’s)

 -International Instability of Control of International
 Colonies.

 -*Ignored Colonies desire for self-control*
~Foreshadowing the Future

 -Ho Chi Min was at the Treaty at Versailles,
 appealing Pres Wilson for support for
 Vietnamese rights in French controlled
 Vietnam.

 -Ho Chi Min was not considered, went back to
 Vietnam and founded the
 Indochina Communist Party (Vietnam War!)
~Wilson, Treaty of Versailles, and U.S.

 -Many people opposed the treaty
 -The League of Nations caused most of the
 opposition
     -Senators thought it threatened U.S. foreign
 policy

 -Wilson knew that Congress would not approve it, so
 he went to the American public

   *The United States NEVER signed the League of
                    Nations Treaty*
~Legacy of War

 -War ended with a German-driven Armistice
 -Germany left as the losers of this massive
 confrontation and the country was in bad shape
 -This would eventually lead to a WWI corporal
 blaming the loss of the war on the Jewish and
 Socialist population of Germany.
 -1933: Hitler and the Nazi party gained control of
 Germany and headed straight to WWII
 -1920’s America: We were getting back to normalcy
 and didn’t want to deal with Europe at this point.
~Legacy of War

 - World War I obviously had an enormous impact on the world.

 - Of all of issues we have examined today, which do you think has
 had the most lasting effect on our world today?

 - Which of the issues still has real world ramifications?

 - Please answer this is in 1-2 paragraphs, linking one of the ideas in
 the notes to something modern.
 (Example: Anti-German Hysteria vs. Reaction and Negativity
 toward French after 9/11).

 -This is due at the beginning of class tomorrow!
~What did we say we would do today?
~Did we do that?

~Do you have homework?
~What is that homework?

      Have an excellent weekend!

								
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