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									            GCSE Revision Guide – syllabus with accompanying case studies

                                     Exam Summary

                Duration       % of GCSE grade        Content

Paper 2           2 hours             50%             8 questions, 2 from each of the four Units.
TOPICS                                                You have to answer one from each Unit.
                                                      (see table below for topics within each unit)

Paper 4            1 hour             25%             2 skills-based questions, from varying parts of the
SKILLS                                                Units, likely to link Physical & Human.
                                                      You have to do both questions.

Paper 2 – Which topic is in which Unit?

Unit Number / Name                        Topics Included in Unit

1 People and the Physical World           Plate Tectonics, Rivers, Coasts

2 People and Places to Live               Population, Settlement

3 People and their Needs                  Quality of Life, Economic Activities (which includes agriculture,
                                          industry & tourism), Energy

4 People and the Environment              Quarrying, Rainforests, National Parks, Water Pollution, Acid
                                          Rain, Global Warming

Where can I find more details of these topics?

      Read on! Each Unit has its own A4 page, showing the key points and ideas that the OCR
       examiners will expect you to know about.
      In addition, these pages also show the CASE STUDY requirements, and the SCALE
       requirements, both vital considerations for geographers.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
                                    Unit 1 - People and The Physical World


Topic Content                                                                       Scale & Context
                                                                                    BOLD = compulsory
                                                                                    Italics = freedom of
The distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes related to plate margins              Global / International
  World maps of plate boundaries, recent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
                                                                                    Free choice of case
The causes and effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions                        Small / Local
  Convergent, divergent and transform margins                                       Regional / National
  Case studies of an earthquake and an eruption to illustrate physical causes
  and effects                                                                       Free choice of case
  How people responded to chosen earthquake & eruption                              studies

Why people live in areas of crustal instability                                     Free choice of scale
  Opportunities for economic activities
  Developments in technology and belief in prediction science                       Free choice of case
  Attitudes and values of people in such areas                                      studies

Mount St Helens

Mt St Helens, USA, south of Seattle , May 1982

    1 Mt St Helens was dormant for a long time but small quakes from 1980 suggested that the
        magma was moving
    2 On March the 18th a quake in the volcano of 4.2 on the richter scale signalled the
        volcanoes return to activity
    3 A large “bulge” on the side of the volcano signified a build up of magma.
    4 On May 18 at 8:32 a.m., a magnitude 5.1 earthquake centred directly below the north
        slope triggered that part of the mountain to slide this was on of the largest landslides in
        history, it moved at around 110 mph and it covered about 24 square miles
    1. This exposed the magma in the bulge and caused a huge explosion of molten rock and
        ash, this blasted a pyroclastic flow laterally which at one point was moving at the speed
        of sound.
    2. This flow caused devastation over a 19 mile radius, killing 57 people.
    3. It decimated trees and wildlife, obliterating anything in its path

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    4. Fifty-seven people were killed and 200 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles of railways and
       185 miles of highway were destroyed. U.S. President Jimmy Carter surveyed the damage
       and stated it looked more desolate than a moonscape.
    5. More than 4 billion board feet (14.6 km³) of timber was damaged or destroyed, mainly by
       the lateral blast.
    6. Early estimates of the cost of the eruption ranged from $2–3 billion. A refined estimate of
       $1.1 billion ($2.74 billion in 2007 dollars) was determined.
    7. In all, Mt. St. Helens released 24 megatons of thermal energy, 7 of which as a direct
       result of the blast. This is equivalent to 1,600 times the size of the atomic bomb dropped
       on Hiroshima

Kobe Earthquake - Tuesday January 17 1995


    1     Destructive plate boundary
    2     Pacific and Philippine plates (oceanic) subduct under Eurasian (continental) plate (10 cm
    3     7.3 Richter scale
    4     20 second earthquake
    5     716 aftershocks


    1     3-5% Japan‟s industry in region
    2     Population of Kobe (1995) = 1.5 million
    3     Largest earthquake in Japan for 47 years
    4     $200 billion damage caused
    5     Epicentre 32km from Kobe
    6     6 433 dead
    7     26 797 injured
    8     1/5 of cities population homeless
    9     More than 103 521 buildings destroyed
    10    Large % of population lost faith in technology (early warning systems)
    11    Government criticized for „not acting quick enough‟

Response – short and long term

    1     Hospitals struggled with demand for treatment
    2     Some operated on in waiting rooms/ corridors

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   3    1.2 million volunteers involved
   4    Rubber blocks installed under bridges (absorb shock)
   5    Buildings built further apart (prevent „domino‟ effect)

Why do people live in areas of crustal instability

   1    Opportunities for economic activities, developments in technology and belief in prediction
        science, attitudes and values of people in such areas

Case Study- Mount Etna

   1    At 3,274 metres (10,741 feet), Mount Etna stands on the point where, in geological terms,
        Africa meets Europe.
   2    The slopes of Mount Etna are scattered with villages and the city of Catania lies just
        26km away.
   3    25% of Sicily‟s population live on Etna‟s slopes.
   4    People live on its ski slopes which are covered in snow and ash.
   5    The ash is a very good fertiliser, making the areas around Mount Etna very good for
   6    They often don‟t have any choice.
   7    A lot of volcanic products can be used, e.g. sulphur in the ingredients of matches or
   8    The finer volcanic deposits, such as the gravels and sands found in rivers, can be used in
        building materials.
   9    Volcanoes provide energy, which can be converted into electrical energy, e.g. geothermal
   10   One of the people living around Mount Etna says that the volcano is "like a family
        member - we call her the Big Lady. She's always there and she talks to us so we treat her
        like a member of the family."
   11   There are often eruptions which are brief but violent but these mainly occur near the top
        of the summit, thus not affecting the people.
   12   Mount Etna has produced pyroclastic flows, ash falls, and mudflows, but the lava flows
        are the most dangerous, especially to the city of Catania.
   13   While the flows themselves usually do not move fast enough to threaten humans, they
        can cover large areas and destroy crops and buildings.
   14   The lava flows can however be diverted from important regions.
   15   Mount Etna had an eruption in 1979 which lasted for thirteen years.
   16   The latest eruption occurred in March 2007 and is still ongoing.
   17   There are many opportunities for economic development around Mount Etna.
   18   Volcanoes attract many tourists.
   19   Mount Etna has two ski resorts on it, providing a great benefit for the local economy.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                       Scale & Context

The hydrological cycle as a system with inputs, outputs, flows and stores           Global / International
  Global water stores and transfers system diagram
  Hydrographs to show how the cycle works and how it responds to changes            Context unspecified

River erosion, transport and deposition processes, and the features they            Small / Local
produce                                                                             Context unspecified
   Valley cross-sections, interlocking spurs, waterfalls, flood plains, meanders,
   ox-bow lakes, levees:
   River Tees – High Force waterfall and gorge; ox bow lakes, levees and
   meanders, near the Yarm in the lower course

The causes, effects and management of river flooding                                Small / Local
  an MEDC and an LEDC case study                                                    Regional / National
                                                                                    Global / International
                                                                                    Any MEDC

The hydrological cycle as a system with inputs, outputs, flows and stores

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
River erosion, transport and deposition processes, and the features they produce

The formation of Waterfalls

        1.Waterfalls are found in the upper course of a river. They usually occur where a band of
        hard rock lies next to soft rock. They may often start as rapids.
        2. As the river passes over the hard rock, the soft rock below is eroded (worn away) more
        quickly than the hard rock leaving the hard rock elevated above the stream bed below
        3. The 'step' in the river bed continues to develop as the river flows over the hard rock
        step (Cap Rock) as a vertical drop.
        4. The drop gets steeper as the river erodes the soft rock beneath by processes such as
        abrasion and hydraulic action. A plunge pool forms at the base of the waterfall.
        5. This erosion gradually undercuts the hard rock and the plunge pool gets bigger due to
        further hydraulic action and abrasion.Eventually the hard cap rock is unsupported and
        collapses. The rocks that fall into the plunge pool will continue to enlarge it by abrasion
        as they are swirled around. A steep sided valley known as a gorge is left behind and as
        the process continues the waterfall gradually retreats upstream.

Meander formation

    1. Meanders form due to the greater volume of water carried by the river in lowland areas
       which results in lateral (sideways) erosion being more dominant than vertical erosion,
       causing the channel to cut into its banks forming meanders.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
  1. Water flows fastest on the outer bend of the river where the channel is deeper and
  there is less friction. This is due to water being flung towards the outer bend as it flows
  around the meander, this causes greater erosion (through abrasion and hydraulic action)
  which deepens the channel, in turn the reduction in friction and increase in energy results in
  greater erosion. This lateral erosion results in undercutting of the river bank and the formation
  of a steep sided river cliff.

  2. In contrast, on the inner bend water is slow flowing, due to it being a low energy zone,
  deposition occurs resulting in a shallower channel. This increased friction further reduces the
  velocity (thus further reducing energy), encouraging further deposition. Over time a small
  beach of material builds up on the inner bend; this is called a slip-off slope.

   1. A meander is asymmetrical in cross-section (see diagram). It is deeper on the outer
      bend (due to greater erosion) and shallower on the inside bend (an area of

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Ox Bow Lakes

Over time meanders gradually change shape and migrate across the floodplain.
As they do so meander bends becomes pronounced due to further lateral erosion and eventually
an ox-bow lake may form.

Ox-Bow Lake formation

   2. As the outer banks of a meander continue to be eroded through processes such as
      hydraulic action and abrasion, the neck of the meander becomes narrow and narrower.
   3. Eventually due to the narrowing of the neck, the two outer bends meet and the river cuts
      through the neck of the meander. The water now takes its shortest route rather than
      flowing around the bend.
   4. Deposition gradually seals off the old meander bend forming a new straighter river
   5. Due to deposition the old meander bend is left isolated from the main channel as an ox-
      bow lake.
   6. Over time this feature may fill up with sediment and may gradually dry up (except for
      periods of heavy rain). When the water dries up, the feature left behind is known as a
      meander scar.

Levee formation

   1. By the time it reaches the lower course the river is wider and deeper and may contain a
      large amount of suspended sediment.
      When the river floods over the surrounding land it loses energy and deposition of its
      suspended load occurs.
   2. Regular flooding results in the building up of layers of nutrient rich alluvium which forms a
      flat and fertile floodplain.
   3. When the river water bursts its bank, the shallower depth of water flowing over the
      surface results in frictional drag and a consequent reduction in velocity (speed) of flow.
   4. This results in the loss of energy and therefore deposition occurs.
   5. The heaviest materials are deposited first as these require the most energy to be
      transported and therefore build up around the sides of the river forming raised banks
      known as Levées (click on diagram above).
   6. Finer material such as silt and fine clays continuing to flow further over the floodplain
      before they are deposited.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Floodplain - the area of land around a river channel which is formed during times of flood when
the amount of water in a river exceeds its channel capacity and deposition of rich silt occurs.

Levées - a raised river bank (can be natural features formed by deposition or artificial structures
built to increase channel capacity and reduce flood risk)

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
The causes, effects and management of river flooding

Bangladesh Floods – 98 and 07

Physical causes:

    2      The country mainly consists of floodplain and a huge river delta.
    3      70% of the total area if less than 1 metre above sea level.
    4      10% of the land area is made up of lakes and rivers.
    5      Melting snow from the Himalayas adds water to the Ganges and Brahmaputra, rivers
           flowing through Bangladesh.
    6      Monsoon rains were extremely heavy from July to September.

Human causes:

           1   92% of the drainage basins that feed water into Bangladesh are in other countries.
           2   Deforestation in Nepal and the Himalayas contributes to deposition and flooding
               downstream. It also leads to a decrease in interception and transpiration.
           3   The Ganges has been diverted to bring water to fields of crops however this has
               removed the silt from the load and so when it floods further downstream it no longer
               builds up the floodplain by depositing silt.
           4   There is no money available for flood protection due to the country‟s debt. For
               examples poorly maintained levees leak and collapse in times of high discharge.


    1      Water supplies were contaminated for quarter of a million people due to polluted wells,
           sewage and floating bodies of dead cattle and people. This caused serious illness and
           250, 000 people suffered from diarrhoea.
    2      Huge damage to communication links: main port of Chittagong was closed and roads and
           railways were cut off. This meant it was harder to bring aid to people
    3      400 clothing factories were closed, production was down 20% in Bangladesh‟s most
           important export industries- shrimp and textiles.

Flood abatement:

    1      Afforestation to increase the amount of rain intercepted, absorbed and transported by the
    2      New levees and other barriers built to stop the river bursting its banks.

Relief measures

    1      The construction of temporary barriers to contain the damage.
    2      350, 000 tonnes of cereal was used to feed people.
    3      1 million tonnes of international food aid was handed out.
    4      Free seeds were given to farmers.
    5      Machinery and man power was supplied to repair the city.
    6      Construction of temporary barriers to contain the damage.
    7      Construction of temporary shelters and the conversion of un-damaged buildings into

2007 flood:

    1      Since 1998 there have been several more big floods- the most recent was in 2007.
    2      298 people died and a total of 10,211,780 people were badly affected by it.
    3      58,866 houses were damaged by the floods up to 13 August 2007.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   4   It is thought that any previous flood abatement measures have not been successful.

Flood abatement since 07
    1 Build 7 large dams in Bangladesh to store excess water, will cost between $30-$40
       million and will take 40 years to complete.
    2 Build 5000 flood shelters.
    3 Build 350km of embankment, 7m high costing $6 billion to reduce flooding along the main
       river channels.
    4 Create flood water storage areas.
    5 Develop an effective flood warning system.

Boscastle – 2004

Physical causes:

   1. Boscastle is a small village on the north Cornish coast.
   2. Lying at the mouth of the River Valency, it is surrounded by fairly steep, wooded slopes.
   3. Just upstream from the village two steep-sided valleys meet, those of the Valency and
      the Jordan.
   4. A third stream, the Paradise, also flows through the village.

   1   Although the rock is sandstone which is permeable, earlier rain had infiltrated the ground
       high up on the grassy slopes behind Boscastle and by the start of the downpours it was
       saturated – creating a lot of overland flow.
   2   The overland flow reduces the lag time, therefore the residents/tourists in Boscastle had
       less time to react to the flooding.
   3   the River Valency basin around Boscastle is small and the neighbouring streams are
       close by – resulting in an even shorter lag time because rainwater is likely to reach the
       channel relatively fast due to the short distances. The basin is also round in shape,
       meaning that flow distances to the channel are minimised.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   4    50mm fell within 2 hours, and due to the state of the ground the water drained straight
        into the rivers.
   5    At the beginning of the flood, the surge through the village was reportedly 10 feet high
        (over 3 metres).

Human causes:

   1    The village car park lies at the top end of the main street – the cars here were one of the
        first objects to be washed through the village.
   2    A low bridge in the village caused one car to become trapped which led to even more
        material (branches etc) also becoming trapped behind it. Water began piling up and when
        the bridge gave way the surge was huge.
   3    The village consists of winding streets , causing cars and other objects to be thrown into
        the houses and shops – creating yet more debris.


   4    By the end of the floods, 50 cars ended up wrecked in the harbour, while others were
        dumped in the village main street.
   5    The water was so high people couldn‟t escape, so many of them had to be airlifted to
   6    The damage to the town (bridges, ditches and other infrastructure) was estimated at over
   7    The biggest loser was tourism because the town relies heavily on tourism, so when it was
        flooded less people wanted to come and as a result Boscastle could potentially be losing
        several millions of pounds.

Abatement/response – short term

   1)   Tree removal – damaged trees removed and more trees planted in their place
   2)   Relocation of fish due to contamination
   3)   Trial trenches
   4)   Footpath diversion around the car park

Since 2006:

   1    Excavation of the banks of the Valency, upstream of the car park to widen the channel
        along a 100- metre section.
   2    This is designed to slow flood flows so that silt and debris is deposited instead of blocking
        the channel downstream.
   3    Between the two bridges, excavation of the bed toof the river to a depth of about 750
        millimetres. This will enable the Valency to carry higher flows.
   4    All the rock dug up from the river bed is being taken to the car park and crushed. It is
        then used to raise the height of the existing car park above potential flood levels and
   5    a new area of parking which will be grassed over. Almost 5,000 cubic metres of gravel
        and other material from widening the river has been used on the car park.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                          Scale & Context

Coastal erosion, transport and deposition processes, and the features                  Small / Local
they produce                                                                           Regional / National
   Cliffs, headlands, caves, arches and stacks
   Longshore drift, beaches, spits, bars and tombolos                                  Must be UK

The causes, effects and management of coastal erosion                                  Small / Local
  a UK case study to illustrate                                                        Regional / National

                                                                                       Must be UK

Cliffs and headlands:
     1 The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than those of more
         resistant hard rock, such as chalk. This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea;
         this is called a headland. The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the
         headland, are called bays.

    2   Coasts where the geology (rock type) alternates between strata (or bands) of hard rocks
        and soft rocks is called a discordant coastline. Discordant coastlines will have alternating
        headlands and bays. Concordant coastline is where the rock remains the same along the
        coastline. Concordant coastlines tend to have less bays and headlands.

Example: Isle of Purbeck in Dorset (south coast of England), there are both discordant and
concordant coasts. The discordant coast has been formed into Studland Bay (soft rock), Ballard
Point (hard rock), Swanage Bay (soft rock) and Durlston Head (hard rock). After Durlston Head
the rock remains hard. This concordant coast has less features.

Caves occur when the waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. The water contains sand
and other materials that help to grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave.

If the cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through forming an arch.

The arch will gradually become bigger and bigger until it can no longer support the top of the
arch. When the arch collapses, it leaves the headland on one side and a stack (a tall column of
rock) on the other. E.g. Old Harry, Studland, Dorset

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
A bar is a long stretch of beach material (sand or shingle) that joins together two headlands. A
lagoon usually forms behind the bar. An example of a sand bar is Slapton Ley in Devon.

A tombolo is a stretch of beach material that connects an island to the mainland. An example of a
tombolo is Chesil Beach, connecting the Isle of Portland to the mainland of the Dorset coast.

Spits are created through the process of deposition. A spit is an extended stretch of beach
material that projects out to sea and is joined to the mainland at one end.
Spits are commonly formed where there is a prevailing wind and where there is a longshore drift.
An example of a spit is Spurn Head, found along the Holderness Coast in Humberside. It is over
3 miles (4.8 km) long, almost half the width of the estuary at that point, and as little as 50 yards
(46 m) wide in places.

Tip – learn your diagrams from the coloured handout for how features of
deposition and erosion form

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
The Holderness Coast – management case study


    1   The Holderness Coast is on the NE coast of the UK, facing the North Sea.
    2   The coastline is mainly made up of cliffs (20-30m high), consisting of soft, easily eroded
        boulder clay. Where the cliff line meets the Humber Estuary, a spit has formed due to the
        change in the direction of the coastline - Spurn Head.
    3   The cliff line is retreating at an alarming rate - greater than 1m / yr (fastest rate in Europe)
        - 4km of land have been lost since Roman Times, including many villages and farm
    4   Easington Gas Station (a North Sea Gas terminal) is situated on the cliffs top and its
        position is under threat.
    5   The village of Mappleton is greatly under threat by coastal erosion along the coastline
        and by 1998, the main road running through the village was only 500m from the cliff top;
        in places it is now only 50m. The village is under threat due to the easily eroded boulder
        clay (glacial till) which makes up the cliff line. The area suffers from erosion rates of up to
        2m per year.

Physical causes of rapid erosion

1. The cliffs are made up of Boulder Clay This is easily eroded by the waves and the cliffs are
easily undermined.
2. The Holderness Coast is very exposed, approaching waves have a long fetch over the North
3. The waves are mainly destructive - eroding the base of the cliffs (hydraulic action etc.)
4. Most of the Material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea, the rest is moved by rapid
longshore drift - the beaches are therefore narrow and do little to protect the coastline. (If the
beaches were wider, the waves would break on the beaches reducing their erosive power).
5. The coastline is threatened further by sea-level rise.

Human impacts of the erosion:

Mappleton: Supporting approximately 50 properties, the village has been subject to intense
erosion at a rate of 2.0m per year, resulting in the access road being only 50m from the cliff edge
at its closest

South of Mappleton:
Cliff House farm: pig farmers, unable to continue with business due to rapid rates of erosion
threatening the lives of their livestock. Losing 1m per month. Unable to get insurance for the
property so will lose everything.
Sue Earl lost 50% of her farm, including the main farm house.

This section covers 1km of eroding coastline in front of the Eastington and Dimlington Gas
These terminals account for approximately 25% of Britian's gas supply.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Management methods

    1   Use of groynes to trap moving beach material and provide a protective beach in front of
        the cliff – two rock groynes were installed at Mappleton
    2   the construction of sea walls and revetments as wave-resistant structures at the base of
        the cliffs e.g. a rock revetment was constructed at the bottom of the cliffs in Mappleton.
        (total cost of scheme in Mappleton = £2m)
    3   1km long sea wall used to protect Easington Gas Station (cost £4.5 million)
    4   Wooden groynes along Spurn Point top protect the lifeguard station

Other schemes considered:
Dump waste from coal mining off the coast in a series of banks to refract waves: this would form
hard stable banks, but would make the sea dirty and turn the beaches black.
Submerge a bank of tyres 1km off shore

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Rock groin and revetment
at Mappleton.

Easington gas terminal: close
to the cliffs.

Timber groin, destroyed by lowering of the beach – Spurn Point

Impact of coastal management schemes

   1. Saved the village and road. Mappleton row has a beach and a growing tourist trade. But -
      local downstream farmers (e.g. Cliff House Farm) are losing land at an even quicker rate.
      The farmers profits are being threatened.
   2. Withernsea, a large resort town, has now to spend millions to build toe revetment sea
      defences to protect the town. This is very costly.
   3. Industry at Easington is being threatened with the gas terminals coming too close to the
      sea. This is not only dangerous but could force the gas terminal to close with the loss of
      1000s of jobs
   4. Essential services at Spurn Point (Coastguard, Lifeboat) are now threatened as the spit is
      being starved of material.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    5. Wildlife to the rear of the Spit is losing a good migrating spot. These species are seen
       even less in the area.
    6. Long term effects on King' s Lynn and Amsterdam have yet to be analysed but they may
       need to take on extra sea defences
To counter this, local and regional authorities are nowadays trying set up integrated coastal zone
management programmes for the whole coastline.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
                                       Unit 2 - People and Places to Live


Topic Content                                                                       Scale & Context
                                                                                    BOLD = compulsory
                                                                                    Italics = freedom of
Factors affecting density and distribution                                          Global / International
  physical, economic and social, with reference to an area of high and an area      Local / Regional /
  of low density                                                                    National
                                                                                    Context unspecified
Variations in population structure between countries                                Regional / National
   implications of the proportion of population in young, adult & elderly groups.   LEDC
   Dependent population.                                                            Any MEDC

The causes and consequences of population change                                    Regional / National
  birth & death rates, international migration.                                     Global / International
  a case study of strategies to influence population change.
  a case study of international migration                                           LEDC
                                                                                    Any MEDC


    1   International Migration: The movement of people from one country to another.
    2   Emigration : When someone leaves a country.
    3   Immigration : When someone enters a country.
    4   Push Factor : A factor that encourages you to leave your home country.
    5   Pull Factor : A factor that attracts you to move to a new country.
    6   Brain Drain : When a country looses a significant amount of (highly) skilled workers.
    7   Refugee : Someone who flees for safety (from war, for food etc).

Factors affecting density and distribution

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Case study: Brazil, Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso.

   1   Sao Paulo is in the South of Brazil and Mato Grosso is in the North. Sao Paulo is very
       densely populated and Mato Grosso is not densely populated.
   2   Average population density in Brazil is 22 inhabitants per square kilometre.
   3   The South-East and the South regions dominate and together contain 70% of Brazil‟s
       total population on only 18% of the land area. Elsewhere the population is sparse, except
       in or near cities.

Sao Paolo reasons for high pop density:
   3 São Paulo, 17 million, density: 7,200/km2
   4 Used to be the capital city until the government decided it was getting too crowded so the
       capital was changed to Brasilia.
   5 São Paulo is 70 km far from the coast, 420 km from Rio de Janeiro, and 1,020 km from
       Brasilia, the capital city.
   6 It lies of the Tropic of Cancer.
   7 It also lies on a plateau 760 metres above sea level.
   8 It‟s altitude, along with being on a tropic gives it a subtropical climate.
   9 In subtropical climates the winters are moderately warm, but not as hot as summer.
       There is hardly ever frost or snow.
   10 Sao Paulo is considered the commercial and industrial centre of Brazil.
   11 It has some of the more expensive shops, but there are also „commercial districts‟ formed
       by cheap shops, and people from other places buy clothing, electronics and other stuff
       from these districts.
   12 It has three airports.
   13 Easily accessible port.
   14 Underground trains.
   15 City buses.
   16 Network of roads.

Mato Grosso – low density:

   1   Population: 2.8 million

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   2   Population Density: 3.2 /km2
   3   Mato Grosso has three different ecosystems: Cerrado, Pantanal, and the Amazon
   4   Cerrado – Climate is semi-humid with a dry winter from May to October. The soils are
       mostly very old, deep and naturally infertile. Pretty much worthless for agriculture.
       (Cerrado makes up the majority of the climate.)
   5   The capital of Mato Grosso is Cuiaba, which is the 33rd biggest city in Brazil. The rest of
       the town are very small.
   6   Largest floodable area for a region in the world.

Variations in population structure between countries

You need to understand population pyramids:

Key things to know about population pyramids
   1. The shape of a population pyramid gives us information about birth and death rates as
       well as life expectancy.
   2. A population pyramid tells us how many dependants there are living in an area. There are
       two groups of dependants; young dependants (aged below 15) and elderly dependants
       (aged over 65).
   3. Those of working age are classed as economically active. Dependants rely upon the
       economically active for economic support.
   4. Many LEDCs have a high number of young dependants, whilst many MEDCs have a
       growing number of elderly dependants.
How may a pyramid change over time?
   1. A population pyramid that is very triangular (eg Mozambique in 2000) illustrates a
       population with a high number of young dependants and a low life expectancy.
   2. A population pyramid that has fairly straight sides (more like a barrel) illustrates a
       population with a falling birth rate and a rising life expectancy.
   3. Over time, as a country develops, the shape of its population pyramid changes from a
       triangular shape to a barrel-like shape with straighter edges.
   4. Places that are experiencing an ageing population and a very low birth rate may have a
       population structure that looks a little like an upside-down pyramid.

The causes and consequences of population change

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Natural change:


Country      Birth-rates       Death-rates    Natural increase       Population growth-rate

UK           11                10             1                      0.1

Bulgaria     9                 14             -5                     -0.5


Country          Birth-rates    Death-rates       Natural increase    Population growth-rate

Botswana         31             22                9                   0.9

Zimbabwe         29             20                9                   0.9

International Migration – case study – Sudan

     1.    Largest African country.
     2.    Population of 40million with 66% living within 300km of the capital.
     3.    80% work in agriculture.
     4.    57.7% are adult literate.
     5.    It is an LEDC.
     6.    In 1956 Sudan became independent from UK and Egypt.
     7.    Refugee numbers at 4million in 2003, compared to 1.3million in 1983
     8.    Surrounded by NINE countries and Saudi Arabia over the Red Sea
     9.    Over 50 ethnic groups, split roughly North and South, this causes a lot of problems for
           Sudan (e.g. war and conflict)
     10.   Many national disasters (flooding, drought etc).
     11.   Poor Economic climate.
     12.   Disease.
     13.   Lack of food and water.
     14.   Poor Political Climate.
     15.   War (refugee).
     16.   High amount of Crime.
     17.   High amount of Unemployment.
     18.   Lack of Clean Water.
     19.   Regular Droughts.
     20.   Famine.
     21.   Desertification.
     22.   Soil Erosion.
     23.   Deforestation and loss of wildlife.
     24.   Civil War (1972 – 1982).
     25.   PERSONAL SURVIVAL 10,500 lost boys trekked from Sudan to Ethiopia to Kenya to
           escape Civil War in the South of Sudan.
     26.   40% of migrants are African.
     27.   1/8 of African migrants are Sudanese.
     28.   60% of Sudanese migrants were 15-44yrs; 46% were female.

Conflict – 03-06

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    •      Described as „Ethnic Cleansing.‟
    •      2 anti-Government groups wanted more power for the people.
    •      The Government responded using its own forces and Arab militia (Janjaweed).
    •      700 villages were attacked.
    •      400,000 people were killed.
    •      2 million migrated to refugee camps inside Sudan
    •      200,000 migrated to eastern Chad.
    •      The militia burnt abandoned villages to ensure the emigrants would not return.

Where do the Emigrants go?

    1.     Some tried to settle in the USA.
    2.     51% went to Saudi Arabia.
    3.     16% went to Libya.
    4.     11% went to Qatar.
    5.     They were all skilled workers.
    6.     Most migrants were 20 -39yrs
    7.     In 1996 on average they were sending home $100 a month to their own family.
    8.     Sudan experienced a BRAIN DRAIN.

Government involvement

    1. Between ‟89 and ‟04 they encouraged the displacement of people in Upper Nile and Blue
       Nile because of OIL RESERVES and GOLD.
    2. This is so they could build infrastructures to gain access to the black gold.
    3. They would use armed militia to destroy crops, steal livestock, abduct and threaten
       people to displace whole communities

Case study – strategies to influence population change


    1.  Chairman Mao says „a large population brings a strong nation‟.
    2.  In 1959 there was a mass famine – 20 million died.
    3.  Between 1960 and 1973 the population grew by 55 million each year.
    4.  In the mid 20th century China became worried about population growth – fertility rate was
The policy:

    1. In 1974 the slogan „Later, longer, fewer‟ was introduced. Lots of advertising
    2. In 1979 the one child policy was introduced
    3. Women heavily encouraged to use contraception
    4. Incentives included free education, better housing, healthcare. All lost if a 2 child born
    5. Couples had to get state approval to marry
    6. Enforced abortions and sterilisations were common: There were 20,000 forced abortions
       in Guangdong alone in 10 years.
    7. The policy was very successful in urban area; less successful in rural areas
    8. From 1990 onwards the policy was relaxed as socioeconomic effects of an ageing
       population were apparent. E.g. Second children were allowed in rural areas.


           1. By 2006 annual growth rate fell to 0.6%
           2. Fertility rate was at 1.6

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
      3. It is thought to have prevented 350 million births in its 30 years.
      4. "China still has one million more births than deaths every five weeks."
      5. There are still six hundred million people in China living on less than two dollars a
      6. Fertility rates cut from 3.2 to 1.6.
      7. Growth from 55 million per year to 12 million per year.
      8. Economy has been stabilised.
      9. Improved public healthcare service.
      10. Families have more money to spend – better quality of life.
      11. Disturbing effect of female infanticide.
      12. „Spoilt little Emperor‟ syndrome.
      13. There is potentially great pleasure lost by only having one child.
      14. There are great implications of having an ageing population.
      15. Disproportionate number of boys to girls. 118:100 ratio for boys to girls in China.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                      Scale & Context

Causes & consequences of rural-urban migration                                     Small / Local
  LEDC case study to illustrate push & pull factors                                Regional / National
  shanty town development, and the impact on rural areas
  strategies to improve the quality of life, and sustainability in shanty towns    LEDC
  the significance & effects of the values and attitudes of those involved

The characteristics of land use zones                                              Small / Local
in urban areas
   a UK case study to illustrate the characteristics of the CBD, inner zones &     Must be UK
   outer suburbs, and the rural-urban fringe

Strategies to improve the quality of life in urban areas                           Small / Local
   how considerations of sustainable development affect planning &                 Regional / National
   a case study of urban traffic management                                        Any MEDC
   a case study of urban regeneration

Provision of services in urban &                                                   Small / Local
rural areas                                                                        Regional / National
   the interdependence of a town and its surrounding area to illustrate the
   hierarchy of settlements and services, out of town centres, neighbourhood       Any MEDC
   centres and service provision in villages

Changes in rural areas                                                             Small / Local
  causes & consequences of urban-rural migration                                   Regional / National
  impact of second homes
  social & economic changes to village populations                                 Must be UK
  the significance & effects of the values and attitudes of those involved

Causes & consequences of rural-urban migration

Rio de Janiero:
Push from countryside (also see Matto Grasso/Sao Paolo – population section)
Pressure on fertile land esp in Matto Grasso region where much of the land is unfertile
Unemployment in countryside – high, due to above + limited employment options
Sanitation – no running water, plumbing etc
Hardship – A harsher climate inland away from the coast
Education – v little
Disaster – drought, famine and flooding, esp with climate change

For pull, see Sao Paolo/Matto Grasso

Consequences in Rio – development of favelas due to limited housing supply and pressure on

       1. 500,000 homeless in Rio.
       2. >1,000,000 people live in favelas.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
          3. 1,000,000 in low quality authority housing
             Favela= residential area which lacks basic services e.g. water & electricity + no legal
             right to the land
          4. Often built on steep slopes from any available materials.
          5. Flash floods and mudslides can carry houses away after heavy rainfall. 200 people
             were killed after storms in 1988.
          6. Attempts have been made to clear the favelas in the past, but the evicted returned
             and rebuild.
          7. Local authorities now accept the presence of the favelas and work with the residents
             to improve them.
    1. Associated with organised crime, violence and drugs. Favelas are areas of high crime
       rates, but are becoming safer places as community spirit increases.
    2. Wealthy residents are moving out of Rio to safer areas.
    3. Tourists told not to take valuables e.g. jewellery to beaches.

    1. Surrounding mountains don‟t allow the city to expand. Little space for improving the traffic
    2. = traffic congestion, pollution and large amounts of noise during much of the day/night.



          1. Water is accessed by tapping into a water main that runs near the favela.
          2. This is near the bottom of the hill and means for an incredibly difficult journey for
             those living at the top.
          3. Only about 50% of residents have access to an in-house toilet facility.
          4. From these facilities sewage runs through open ditches and eventually ends up at
             street level – major health implications.
          5. Rubbish is usually incinerated on the hill as the authorities refuse to take it away.
          6. This causes major respiratory problems and also poses a fire hazard as many
             houses are made from wood.
          7. The electricity company just supplies a few metered houses and the rest „tap‟ this
             resource illegally. Most lines are over-tapped which is both dangerous and


          1. Most people in Piquiri work in informal employment.
          2. A big source of work is collecting and selling paper to the authorities where they can
             earn a few pence for a big bundle.

          1. Favela Piquiri is illegal and all residents live in fear that one day there homes could
             simply be „removed‟.
          2. This happened in Favela Catacumba in 1970 when it was razed to the ground.

Improvements to favelas - La Roçinha:

          1. There are some signs of hope for the favelas.
          2. La Roçinha was created in the 1950s and now has a population of 160,000 making it
             the largest favela in Rio.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
      3. It has become so established that it has 2 newspapers, a radio station, its own waste
          disposal service, a local doctors and dentists (at minimal price) and even a
      4. La Roçinha also makes much of its money from the tourism business, showing
          tourists around the „favela experience‟!
      5. The Favela-Bairo programme was set up in 1995 by the government to target 300 of
          Rios favelas for improvement.
      6. It has spent $500,000 to try and improve infrastructure and services.
      7. La Rocinha was one of these settlements – It has a state-funded school, rubbish
          collection service, youth centre, employment advice centre.
      8. The government is realising that by doing a little they can help people to help
      9. Just by giving them legal ownership it can help increase the sense of pride and
      10. A pipeline has been built beneath the rock face. This is connected to drains to
          remove excess water from the Roçinha's slopes during times of heavy rain.
      11. This should hopefully prevent a repeat of the 1988 tragedy when a build-up of water
          in the underlying weathered rock led to a landslide that killed 277 people and left
          another 13,000 homeless.
      12. Government re-housing schemes: In some areas the government has gone a step
          further and built new homes for the residents.
      13. This has happened in parts of the La Rocinha complex.
      14. Little more than concrete shells with a basic water supply, toilet and sewage disposal.
      15. Afro Reggae was a scheme set up by favela inhabitants to improve the QOL through
          music. They were given a USA record contract in 97 and are now operate musical
          education schemes in 1/3 of all favelas.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
The characteristics of land use zones in urban areas

a UK case study to illustrate the characteristics of the CBD, inner zones & outer suburbs, and the
   rural-urban fringe NB you can use your coursework case studies!


        1. Highly accessible (has a train station and 2 main roads running
           through it)
        2. High bid price due to the accessibility
        3. High order shops (contains some 450 shops, department stores,
           the largest market in Wales, many small specialist shops. Some
           high order goods are not available anywhere else within 50km.)
        4. Oldest commercial area is High Street (mostly pedestrianised)
           includes The Quadrant Centre opened in 1979 (an undercover
           area linked with a multi-storey car park)

Inner Zone
    1. Terraced housing (before the Industrial Revolution, Swansea
        was a trading port at the mouth of the River Tawe. Its
        population was 6000. As the area developed into the world‟s
        major producer of copper, new docks were built and the
        population grew twenty fold. This increased the need of
        housing in the area and lead to a massive increase in terraced
        housing to accommodate the new inhabitants.)
    2. Many of the previous building have been destroyed as many of
        them were meant for temporary use and were too old or too
        costly to bring up to modern standards. Terraced houses have
        little or no garden, 2 bedrooms upstairs and two rooms below.
        Often the ground floor extends back into the garden, to provide
        a kitchen, coal shed, and toilet.
    3. Some terraced housing still survives and continues to be used
    4. Some parts of Swansea‟s inner zone have replaced terraced housing with flats (They
        seemed to offer higher living standards at the time however they are unpopular for
        these reasons:
     1. They lack gardens and garages
     2. Some are noisy
     3. Lifts are sometimes vandalized
        5. Residents feel trapped
        6. There are few places for children to play in safely
        7. Harder to build a sense of community)
    5. 2 area of Swansea have seen major changes. Between the CBD and the river is the
        Parc Tawe development which is a mixture of shopping and leisure uses which
        include a cinema, ten-pin bowling, and Plantasia (a giant glass house containing a
        rainforest experience) Parc Tawe Phase 2 is redeveloping the east of the river.
    6. The South Dock, originally a prosperous area of ship warehouses and coal hoists
        until 1969 when it closed, was bought by the Swansea council and has become a
        Maritime Village with hotels, shops, and restaurants. There are 1500 new homes
        (mostly apartments) overlooking the old dock (now a yachting marina) one of the old
        warehouses has even been transformed into a Maritime Museum. With a Leisure
        Centre next to it has become the most visited tourist attraction in Wales.
   7. So far £500million have been spent on the Maritime Village (including grant aid from
       the EU)

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
       1. The suburb of Swansea called Townhill was built by the council in the 1920s on
          steep slopes.
       2. Currently long-term unemployment is high at about 45%.
       3. Townhill has a young population (almost half of the total 13500 residents are
          under 30)
       4. 40% of households with children are single-parent families, most relying on
          state benefit.
       5. Crime rates are high and there are few recess areas for children. School
          truancy is the highest in Wales and many 16-year-olds expect never to have a
          full time job.
       6. At the moment £9million is being invested in Townhill (half from the EU) to
           improve the environment. (the „Greening Programme‟) this provided 5 local jobs
           and increased pride in the community. Some of the money has been used to
           improve the road networks. These include; speed bumps and chicanes to slow
           traffic, new pedestrian crossings and better street lighting. These improvements
           have made Townhill safer.
       7. Local colleges are offering training and providing crèches to reduce
       8. Local businesses are given grants to give job interviews to Townhill residents.
       9. There are plans to give business advice and support local employment on
           Paradise Park on the top of Townhill. (one of the few flat areas and is used for
       10. In Upper Killay (another suburb of Swansea) ribbon development has taken
           place. (This is where tentacles of housing are put up in the countryside along
           the main roads damaging the ecosystem and invading farmland.) To prevent
           this the government sets up green belts (areas in which new buildings are not
           allowed to be built).

Strategies to improve the quality of life in urban areas
   a case study of urban traffic management
   a case study of urban regeneration


      1. Birmingham first developed from 1750-1860.
              a. Industries = guns, toys, jewellery and metalworking.
      2. Early 1960s -
              a. Inadequate housing (poor sewage and no hot water).
              b. Council replace houses with tall blocks of flats.
      3. Late 1960s –
              a. decision to redevelop city centre (removal and replacement of many
              b. Ring road built to reduce congestion.
              c. Rotunda Tower, Bull Ring, market, bus station built
   1. 1990s –
         a. original city centre poorly designed, only access by foot to centre was by under
              pass (fear of being mugged).
         b. Remodelling of „concrete collar‟ established new shops, bars and cafes. The
              station was restored in 1930s style.
         c. Millennium Point – science museum.
   2. 2003 –

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
            a. New Bull Ring (size of 24 football pitches), cost £530 million. Largest indoor city
               shopping centre in Europe (140 shops), hosted concerts + created over 8,000
               jobs so far.
            b. Rotunda Tower transformed into luxury flats.
            c. 1,000 creative businesses (17,000 employees) in Birmingham – software design,
               publishing, broadcasting.
            d. Grants of £500 to expand premises.

Traffic management – Bristol:

    1.   Population of 406,000.
    2.   over 500,000 cars per day in the city centre.
    3.   Light Rapid Transit (LRT) links north city to central city.
    4.   Electronic tagging road pricing scheme planned – a charge of between £1.20 and £1.80
         would reduce traffic by up to 20%.

Traffic management – London – the congestion charge:

            1. The Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003 and the western
                extension was launched on 19 February 2007. The charge was originally £5 and
                rose to £8 in July 2005
            2. The Sixth Annual Impacts Monitoring report for the congestion charge - 2009:
            3. Traffic entering the western extension has been cut by 14 per cent (30,000 fewer
                cars a day)
            4. A 21 per cent reduction in traffic entering the original charging zone has been
                maintained (70,000 fewer cars a day)
            5. Despite initial falls, congestion in both the original and western charging zones
                has returned to pre-charging levels, due to reductions in road space from
                increase in road works. However, congestion would be significantly worse
                without the sustained traffic reductions brought about by the charge
            6. There has been a 6 per cent increase in bus passengers during charging hours
                and a 12 per cent increase in cycle journeys into the western extension
            7. However, the report also reveals that in both the original and western zones has
                caused congestion to return to levels experienced before the charge was
            8. The Congestion Charge generated provisional net revenues of £137m in 2007/08
                which will be spent on further improvements to transport across London.
            9. The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, said: 'I have always thought that the
                Congestion Charge is a blunt instrument. 'I am therefore introducing a more
                comprehensive approach to easing congestion in London, one that gives greater
                consideration to how all transport measures impact on the movement of traffic on
                our roads.
            10. 'I have scrapped the CO2 Charge that risked thousands of small cars flooding
                central London, and have asked Transport for London to bring forward a range of
                measures to turnaround the trend and halt the squeezing of road space that has
                continued to worsen congestion.
            11. 'These include re-phasing traffic signals, working with utility companies to
                minimize the impact of their works, and securing powers to fine those that mess
                up our roads.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Provision of services in urban & rural areas
   the interdependence of a town and its surrounding area to illustrate the hierarchy of
   settlements and services, out of town centres, neighbourhood centres and service provision in
And… Changes in rural areas

                 Hierarchy of Settlements
                                    For Example…

                                                 Specialised services / High order goods / airport /
                                    London       hospitals / shopping centres (e.g. The Oracle –
                                                 Reading) / regional offices of large companies /
                                                 Business Parks (e.g. Green Park – Reading) / football
                                    Reading      stadiums (e.g. Madejski - Reading)…

                                    Bracknell           Leisure Centre / Cinema / offices / library /
                                                        community centres / shopping centre /
   Increase in                      Wokingham           restaurants…
   size of
   settlement,                                          Post office / smaller shops (e.g. Tesco
                                    Crowthorne          Express) / other convenience stores / pubs…
   population                       Stratfield Saye                Very few, if any services…
   and more
   services…                        ?

Case study – Swanage, the Isle of Purbeck
   1. The Isle of Purbeck forms the south-eastern part of the Purbeck District in Dorset.;
   2. It is an area of about 200km2.
   3. The area is classed as a remote rural district.
   4. It has only 1 town, Swanage, a seaside resort, and a number of villages, Corfe Castle
       being the largest.
   5. The A351 runs from Wareham south through Corfe Castle and then to Swanage. This
       road provides a direct link to the Poole-Bournemouth conurbation – population almost
   6. This has a significant influence on Isle of Purbeck – has developed an important
       dormitory function.
   7. The resulting commuter traffic at peak periods presents particular problems in the area.
   8. The population of the area has increased over the last 40 yrs. – reaching 44,400 in 2001.
   9. In comparison with the UK, Purbeck‟s average population is considerably older…
            – this is because it is a very popular area for retirement…
            – And there is out-migration of young adults in search of economic opportunities
                and lower-cost housing.

Hierarchy on the Isle of Purbeck:

    1. Here the rural settlement is concentrated in clustered villages, with Corfe Castle being
       the largest.
    2. Although these villages are set in a network of isolated farms and houses, there are
       relatively few hamlets in the region.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    3. Lower-order urban services are provided by the towns of Swanage and Wareham, with
       higher-order urban services being found in the Bournemouth-Poole conurbation, as it has
       increasingly become known in the region.
    4. However, Wareham is just north of the River Frome and is therefore considered outside
       of the Isle of Purbeck.

Rural service decline:

    1. The Dorset Rural Facilities Survey (2002) found a continuing decline in rural services in
       the Isle of Purbeck and throughout Dorset…
    2. A sharp decline in the number of shops selling general produce, whether in a post office,
       petrol station or a stand-alone general store.
    3. 3 out of 4 villages had no general store (including 4 villages with a population of over
    4. 38 rural post offices have closed since 1991
    5. since 1991, 8 villages have lost their only public house
    6. 35 rural petrol stations have closed since 1991

However, the survey also noted some positive points:

    1. 6 village-based doctors‟ surgeries opened since 1991
    2. No rural school / village hall closures
    3. The number of Dorset villages with village halls has remained constant over the last two
    4. Over three-quarters of villages with a resident population of 100 or more have a village
       hall - the village hall acts as a focal point for many rural communities, providing a venue
       for a wide range of activities.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
                                         Unit 3 - People and Their Needs


Topic Content                                                                           Scale & Context
                                                                                        BOLD = compulsory
                                                                                        Italics = freedom of
Imbalances in the quality of life between countries                                     Global / International
  QoL indicators - GDP, life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy, nutrition and      Context unspecified

Imbalances in the quality of life between countries

Definition of QOL - Quality of life indicators are statistics that measure a countries quality of life –
how good/happy the people are/should be.

E.g.s of QOL Indicators

    1. Gross Domestic Product: The size of the economy. The total value of goods and services
        sold within that nation / total population. UK – US$27.700; Brazil US$7600; Sudan
    2. Annual energy consumption million tonnes of oil equivalent: UK – 161; Brazil 156; Sudan
    3. Literacy Rate: The percentage of the population 15 years and older who can read and
        write. UK: 100%; Brazil: 88%; Sudan 60%
    4. Life Expectancy: The age people in that nation are likely to live to: UK: 77; Brazil: 69;
        Sudan 58;
    5. Doctors per 1000 population: UK: 2; Brazil: 1.27; Sudan: 0.09
NB Think about why these indicators are imperfect. Also consider the value of the UN HDI
(United Nations Human Development Index).

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Employment structure as an indicator of economic development                    Regional / National
                           sty  ndy  rdy
  Proportions employed in 1 , 2 & 3 sectors                                     LEDC
  Contrasts between countries, and changes through time                         Any MEDC

Employment structure as an indicator of economic development

   1.   Indicator of quality of life.
   2.   Measured by percentages of employment in primary/secondary/tertiary industries.
   3.   Can be shown on triangular graphs.
   4.   This varies between LEDCs and MEDCs as shown in the Rostow model of economic

E.g. LEDC – Bangladesh:
       1. Highest percentage of employment is in primary (58%)
       2. 13% employment is in secondary industry.
       3. 28% employment is in tertiary industry.
       1. Lack of skills and education required for tertiary industry.
       2. Low GDP per person ($240 in Bangladesh) results in lower demand for tertiary
           industry as people do not have the money to spend on entertainment etc.
       3. Not enough jobs in primary and secondary industries for high population growth (1.0).
           People rely on primary sector to make a living.

E.g. MEDC France:
       1. Highest percentage of employment is in tertiary industry (62% in France)
       2. 29% in secondary industry.
       3. Very low percentage in primary industry (9%)
       1. High GDP per person ($20,580 in France) means people have more disposable
          income to spend on entertainment, education, tourism, healthcare. This results in a
          higher demand, so the majority of jobs are in tertiary industry.
       2. More education available gives people the required skills for tertiary industry.
       3. More advanced technology allows for a lot of entertainment, tourism and healthcare.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Rapid industrial growth                                                             Regional / National
  a case study of an industrialising LEDC to illustrate causes and                  Global / International
  consequences                                                                      LEDC

Causes of growth:

    1. From the beginning of the 1950s to the end of the 1970s, China was a highly centralised,
       planned economy in which industries were controlled and given targets by the central
    2. Starting in the 1980s, a series of reforms was introduced.
    3. One of the most important was the establishment of Development Zones to stimulate
       industrial growth in specific regions, and to enable these areas to act as „gateways‟ into
       China. This would also encourage trade with other countries.
    4. E.g. of a v successful Decelopment Zone is Pudong nr Shanghai - The local economy
       has grown at an annual average rate of 20% over the last 10 years. Of the world‟s largest
       500 companies, 98 of them have invested in 188 projects in Pudong, making it a
       production base for many world-famous brand names including Philips, Coca-Cola,
       Siemens, IBM.
    5. 1992 these Development Zones became more important when the Party Congress
       officially approved a shift to a free market economy in key areas, where firms would be
       allowed to run themselves.
    6. The Zones have been designed to encourage investment from large enterprises and
       companies in many countries world-wide.
    7. Between 1996 and 2000, the Chinese decided to introduce changes to the way their
       economy was run, with the theme of enterprise at the centre.
    8. The main policies aimed to:
            a. establish a modern enterprise system and reform state-owned companies
            b. make income distribution more even
            c. set up a new social security system of pensions, healthcare and unemployment
            d. open up the country to the outside world
            e. enact new laws to guarantee the establishment of a socialist market economy.
    9. New measures have been taken to tackle the inefficiency of many of its state-organised

Positive consequences of change:
   1. Over the past 15 years, 113 of the world‟s top 500 multinationals have come to China,
        including many household names such as IBM, Panasonic and even McDonalds!
   2. Some US$31 billion of foreign funds have been invested in these Development Zones,
        making them an important force in the world market.
   3. Despite setbacks, with the Asian stock market fall in the late 1990s and severe floods
        which caused massive damage in 1998, China‟s economy grew by 7% in 1999 and its
        foreign reserves (used to back up its currency) rose to a record US$155 billion.
   4. China ranks first in the output of many industrial and agricultural products. These include
        grain, meat, eggs, coal, cement, cotton and silk fabrics, clothing, knitwear, bicycles,
        washing machines and TV sets.
   5. The country has the world‟s third largest economy overall, and it is the fifth largest trading
   6. Social impact – more open and liberal e.g. the one-child policy, which was established in
        1979, has been relaxed, allowing most Chinese in both urban and rural areas to have two
        children instead of one.

Negative impacts

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   1. Unequal regional distribution of wealth – In comparison with other countries its GDP per
       capita (average per person) is low (ranked 122 in the world at $US5000 vs UK
   2. Inequalities between rich and poor mean that China has one of the highest kidnapping
       rates in the world and the rich feel vulnerable.
   3. Suffers from a general lack of investment in its own industries, so more vulnerable to
       impact of economic downturns elsewhere in the world
   4. Many companies are still reluctant to invest because of their perception of its lack of
       respect for human rights.
   5. State-run companies such as the Chinese banks are often overstaffed and
       uncompetitive, so they are unprofitable.
   6. China has been built under the communist system of government control.
   7. With this control reduced, China‟s political stability may be less certain.
   8. Many former farmers now work either in factories or in service industries, since their land
       has been taken over for other uses: this means China is increasingly reliant upon imports
       from other countries of food.
   9. Global recession - impact on manufacturing because MEDCs cannot afford to buy as
       many products, so demand has decreased.
   10. Environmental impact – 16 of the world‟s top 20 most polluted cities are in China!

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                       Scale & Context

Commercial and subsistence farming systems                                          Small / Local
  The interaction of factors affecting agricultural land use                        International / Global
  A case study from the UK or EU                                                    UK or EU
  A case study from an LEDC                                                         LEDC

How farming is changing                                                             Small / Local
  Examples from the UK or EU to illustrate set aside, milk quotas, hedgerow         Regional / National
  removal, diversification                                                          UK or EU

Commercial and subsistence farming systems

UK case study - Thorn Park Farm, N Yorkshire: focus on interaction of factors

    1. Thorn Park Farm is a commercial farm to the West of Scarborough.
    2. Located in an undulating valley floor, surrounded by hills – provide shelter from prevailing
       winds which blow off North Sea.
    3. The farm is run by the Wilson family – they rent the land.
    4. Main farm is 72 ha in size, further 36 ha rented at Irton, 8 km away.
    5. They have a herd of 110 Friesian dairy cows.
    6. Each cow produces an average of 7000 litres of milk per year.
    7. There is one full time employee as well as the four family members.

Physical inputs – why dairy?
   1. Climate is too wet for arable
   2. Soil is too heavy for arable
   3. Too small to grow crops profitably
   4. Good grass growing area

Inputs – outputs - labour/products etc
    1. Cows must be milked twice a day, at 0600 and 1700 hours, everyday, every year!
    2. Milking session takes about 2 hours
    3. Milk must be stored in 2 large refrigeration tanks and collected by bulk tanker every
    4. Plenty of other jobs too: grass cut for silage in April to November for example
    5. Cut grass needed for feed in winter or buy which reduces profits
    6. Late Oct-Nov, grass loses quality, cows eat Kale. Supplements are needed to maintain
        quality of milk
    7. Income mainly comes from milk, obviously, but a by-product is manure. This can be
        collected and spread over fields but can also be sold.

Changes and impacts:
   1. EU Milk quotas were introduced in 1984 to cut down on over production in Europe
        i. Farms were only allowed to produce 90% of the production from the year before.
       ii. So a dairy farm which produced 300,000 litres of milk was then granted a milk quota
           of 270 000 litres.
      iii. There have been further reductions of 9%
   2. A disease called BSE - beef prices fell dramatically and haven‟t fully recovered.
           a. The EU imposed a strict export ban on British beef and related products in 96.
               Cattle over the age of 30 months banned for human consumption in the UK since
           b. UK's beef industry suffered huge losses from which it has still not recovered.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
            c.   For Thorn Park: During the calving time 60-70 calves were sold, during the BSE
                 scare there was no market for these culled calves.
            d.   9% of the Wilson‟s output used to come from the sale of these calves
            e.   Further 10% from cows culled from the herd
            f.   Price for calves has fallen by 90% in three years
            g.   Price for culled cows has fallen by 50%
            h.   Price for milk has fallen by 37%
            i.   Cost of inputs on farm have either gone up or stayed the same

Response to the changes:

   1. Sell up and leave the farm and farming. Little profit would be made from the sale of
       animals, and the land is rented from the local Scarborough Borough Council.
   2. Diversify into non-farming activities. The Wilson‟s investigated setting up a caravan site
       on the land.

   1. Try to last out the crisis, while other dairy farmers went bankrupt, hoping there would be a
       shortage of milk, forcing up prices.
   2. Bought more milk quota and increase the herd to 160 cows.
   3. Make farm processes more efficient to cope with the increase, they should eventually
       make a profit.

Other e.g.s of where farming is changing in the UK:

    1. Grain farmers in E Anglia: Many hedgerows removed for combine harvesters – E.g.
       parish of Wivenhoe, north-east Essex, U.K - Between 1938 and 1980, 50% of hedgerows
       were removed
           a. Many birds/insects/animals lost habitat inc threatened species: insects like the
                brown hairstreak butterfly, birds like the cirl bunting and mammals like the
           b. Soil erosion increased as the strong winds that blow across E Anglia were no
                longer slowed by hedges.
    2. Industrialisation of farming – agribusiness: mechanisation, technology, fertilisation etc.
    3. Increase in organic farming and reduction in wheat and other products containing gluten
       due to increased awareness of gluten/wheat intolerance.

   •     Britain joined the E.C. in 1973, we came under the CAP.
   •     CAP aimed to make Europe self sufficient in food & increase reliability if farming
        Intervention Price
   •     If the world price fell below the Intervention price then the EC would buy their food
   •     For the first time farmers had a guaranteed minimum income = encouraged them to
        produce more.
        Grants & Subsidies
   •     For modernising farms (draining wetlands, removing trees, new buildings, infilling ponds,
        fertilizers & other chemicals, machinery etc. all attracted money).
   •     Production grew in Europe the farmers were guaranteed that the EU would buy all their
        produce = SURPLUS
   • Farms ↑ in size as small unprofitable farms have been amalgamated into larger farms.
   • Hedgerows removed to make larger more profitable fields

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    •   Mechanisation = number of farm workers ↓ (1941, 9% of the UK in Agriculture, by 1991
    • Wildlife habitats & numbers ↓.
    • The EU is self sufficient in many foods (eg. Cereals 109%, Wine 101%, meat 100%,
        cream 102%).
    • Surpluses of many foodstuffs (eg. Barley, Butter, Milk, Wheat & Beef)
    • Surpluses are expensive to store.
    • The CAP now takes up 40% of the EU budget.
1992 Reforms of the CAP = DIVERSIFICATION
Quotas - farms given a quota as to how much milk they could produce. Fined if > quota. The
result was a drastic reduction in herd size & lots of farmers selling off excess cattle cheaply. This
increased the “Beef Mountain”.
Set-Aside - Farmer forced to take between 10 – 20% of their land out of cultivation. This land
could be used but not for food production, housing or industry. Set-aside has very important
environmental benefits
Diversification - New ways of making money eg. Tourism (camping, bed & breakfast, open
farms, go-karting, pony trekking), other crops & animals (deer, Llamas, Ostrich, Oil seed Rape,
Linseed), Forestry, Organic farming.

Subsistence farming in an LEDC – India – rice (good for a q on changes in an LEDC)

    1. India grows 20% of the world‟s rice
    2. Rice is the staple diet of 65% of the total population of India, forming 90% of the country‟s
    3. Agriculture is the main industry, providing 70% of jobs.

Physical inputs:
   1. Dry, sunny weather for ripening and harvest phases
   2. Flat land which will stop water draining away, allowing the rice to grow in it
   3. Plenty of moisture for growth – India has up to 200mm/month
   4. 18oC for growing (3 months) and 24oC for ripening


   1. The Green Revolution is the name used to describe changes in farming over the last 50
   2. In the 1960s there were fears that not enough food would be grown for the growing
   3. MEDCs (e.g USA, UK, Australia) provided money to develop a high yield variety (HYV) of
   4. In 1965, a new strain called IR-8 led to an increase in yield of 300%.This led to lower

Advs of HYVs:
   1. The new crops have become more resistant to disease.
   2. The HYVs have also a shorter, thicker stem so they have become more resistant to the
        wind and rain.
   3. Farmers who can afford to buy and sustain HYVs have benefited as their yields have
   4. This has created a surplus of production, meaning that the farmer can sell in the cities.
   5. This has increased the farmers‟ QoL.
   6. Machinery can be purchased which means that less labourers have to be employed.
   7. Overall, the farmer becomes richer.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Disadvs of HYVs:
    1. They require large amounts of fertiliser and insecticides and are therefore costly to
    2. Using chemicals has meant that the farming has become far less sustainable as a result
       of soil erosion.
    3. Many poor farmers cannot afford the new variety and some have borrowed money that
       they cannot repay to buy them. This has forced some off their land and into the cities.
    4. Therefore, rural inequalities have increased.

   1. MEDCs imported machinery (e.g. tractors) to be used instead of water buffalo.
   2. Only the wealthy farmers had enough land and enough money to be able to afford them
      to improve farm processes.
   3. Many farmers, however, could not afford this and so this has increased the rural

     1. Monsoon rains are vital for the rice crops, but can sometimes be unreliable.
     2. HYV seeds need more water than normal rice.
     3. Therefore, it was important to begin to irrigate the land.
     4. Now, there are about 45 million ha of land irrigated in India.
     5. Traditionally, wells are dug to reach the water table and the water is brought up by hand,
          but the Green Revolution is changing the old methods and providing them with electrical
          or diesel pumps.

LEDC Kuna Indians, Panama– good for interaction of factors/sustainability and stewardship/TRF:

    1. They live in the Comarca de San Blas forest on the northern slopes of the mountains of
    2. 60,000 Kuna live in about 60 villages
    3. They live in either the forest or small islands
    4. They grow their food in the forest among the trees so the trees are not destroyed.
    5. They grow: Maize, Coffee, Cocoa, Chilli pepper, Pineapples, Bananas, Other fruit


    1. The Pan-American highway has been built and so now the area is more accessible.
    2. Farmers go there and cut down the trees to make space for their crops.
    3. They plant rice, manioc and bananas.
    4. The soil is not very good as it used to be the forest floor and so the topsoil is lost easily.
    5. This means that the crops do not grow very well after 3 or 4 years
    6. They sell this land to cattle ranchers who graze cattle on it until the land is completely
    7. This destroys the Kuna Indians‟ environment.
    8. The Kuna originally thought that the highway would be good as it would be a method to
       trade, but they were also afraid of what the new settlers would do to the land.


    1. The Kuna Indians managed to persuade the authorities to make this a National Park.
    2. This protected the area and so now it is a major study area for tropical forest research.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Location of manufacturing and distribution industries                              Small / Local
  The interaction of factors affecting the location of industry                    Regional / National
  A case study of manufacturing industry location
  A case study of distribution industry location                                   Must be UK only

Location of manufacturing and distribution industries

Location of a manuf ind - Alcan smelter, Lynemouth, Northumberland

        1. The smelter was opened in 1974 at a cost of £54 million.
        2. Owned by the Canadian aluminium company, Alcan, who are now known as Rio
            Tinto Alcan.
        3. Large area of flat land available
        4. Lynemouth is central for supplying aluminium for firms in the UK, Ireland and
            Northern Europe.
        5. There is a port, originally built for using coal, only 13km from Lynemouth and there is
            a direct rail route between Blyth and Lynemouth.
        6. To avoid disrupting locals, the company bought the land from the local farmers.
        7. Alcan now own over 4,500 acres of land.
        8. Cheap power = important: To produce 1 tonne of aluminium uses as much electricity
            as a family uses in 20 years.
        9. There is a power station alongside the Lynemouth smelter.
        10. And next to that is a coal mine, supplying the power station directly.
        11. Employment: The government was concerned about unemployment and it gave a
            grant of £28 million to create jobs here.
        12. For years coal mining was the main employer here but the mines shut down.
        13. Many of the smelter‟s workers are former coalminers.
        14. This means they are used to heavy work.

Location of a dist ind – Argos, Acton Gate, Stafford, 1998

    1. They chose a site alongside junction 13 of the M6, where the A449 trunk road crosses it
    2. Easy access to the motorway was the most important factor
    3. The warehouse is in central England so it can deliver overnight to all eleven regional
       bases within drivers working hours
    4. The company also had a workforce at Penkridge within 5km so they were able to retain
       their workforce as well as take employee from the town of Stafford
    5. Flat Greenfield land and therefore easy to develop.
    6. However it was not a perfect location as it is too small and there is no room to expand

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Tourism and its effects                                                             Small / Local
  Two case studies of the development, benefits, problems, interdependence          Regional / National
  and management of tourism for sustainability                                      One EU (not UK)
                                                                                    One LEDC

Tourism and its effects

Kenya – LEDC


    1. One reason for the boom in 70s and 80s was the release of the film “Born Free” and “Out
       of Africa”
    2. 80s larger aircraft brought long haul travel prices down, making Kenya more accessible
    3. In 1995 there were 34,211 hotel beds with 44% occ rate
    4. In 1996 850,000 tourists visited
    5. In 1997 only 750,000 tourists visited due to the Kenya tourist crisis ethnic unrest in the
       coastal areas and the Asian economic downturn
    6. In 2000 there were >1million
    7. In 2006: 1,600,000 tourists visited
    8. First National Park est in 1946 Nairobi National Park

Positive impacts:

    1. Accounts for over 750,000 jobs (Kenya Ministry for Tourism)
    2. Stimulates growth in other industries e.g. farming, manufacturing etc = multiplier effect
    3. One of the main pull factors = wildlife, so many National Parks have been created to
       preserve this and reduce poaching
    4. Construction of new houses/hotels and businesses creates jobs for local people and
       develops skills.
    5. Also encourages the improvement of the infrastructure, particularly the roads linking
       Nairobi to the National Parks, such as the Masai Mara and Nairobi international airport
       has been developed as a main international hub
    6. Generates US$ 500million and 10% of the GDP for Kenya

Negative impacts:

    1. Maasai tribes were forced away from their grazing area by the Maasai Mara National
       Park Authority
    2. Safari minibuses often disturb natural animal behaviour and can scare them, affecting
       their mating patterns e.g. there may be 30-40 minibuses surrounding one animal
    3. This also causes soil erosion and interferes with the functioning of the ecosystems
    4. Local people living around tourist areas rarely receive full economic benefit due to
       leakage. E.g. in the Masai Mara <2% of the money spent benefits the local
    5. Hot air balloons disturb animals due to the shadows they cast and the noise of their
       burners e.g. Maasi Mara
    6. Coastal envts such as in Mombassa ar being damaged e.g the coral reef is stepped on
       by tourists and parts are removed, damaging thie fragile ecosystem
    7. The political unrest in 07-08 caused the tourism to reduce by 54% in the first quarter of
       2008. It is now recovering.
    8. Safari minibuses should stay 25m from animals; if the animals start to reduce in numbers
       this will have a serious impact on tourism as this is Kenya‟s most important primary
    9. Role of national parks in sustainability is questionable as it increases the number of
       tourists in a limited area

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   10. Tourism in Kenya is concentrated around honeypots/hot spots; this means that it is
       vulnerable e.g. in 97 the ethnic clashes meant that there was a dramatic drop in tourist
       revenues and therefore also GDP

Management for sustainability:

   1. Kenya‟s govt have a plan called “Vision 2030”. Tourism has been id‟d as one of the key
      drivers in achieving this vision.
   2. In 97 they set up Kigio Conservancy, which is a sustainable tourist destination, built using
      local methods and resources and without modcons, such as electricity, aiming to provide
      a natural wildlife experiences.
   3. Ecotourism is growing in Kenya. Activities include: conservation activities which are
      becoming more popular with tourists e.g. re-location of a giraffe in 03 from the Karen
      Blixen Giraffe Orphanage in Nairobi.
   4. Many of the lodges are introducing water conservation schemes by restricting water
      pumping to certain times of the day, installing low pressure showers.

MEDC - Mallorca

   1. Mallorca is the biggest island off the coast of Spain.
   2. The island main source of income used to be farming; it also used to be the poorest place
      in Europe until 40 years ago; when the island began to be a popular tourist destination.
   3. It has a population of 700, 000 people but 11 million visit each year.


   1. Mallorca started to become a popular tourist destination in the 1950s when there first
      started to be package holidays.
   2. Air travel was also developing and it became a lot quicker and cheaper to go on holiday.
   3. Mallorca was a popular spot as it was close to the UK (so not too expensive) but also had
      a lot of sun.

Environmental impact:

   1. When Majorca first became popular as a tourist destination there was a rush to develop
      the coast so it could accommodate as many people as possible. This resulted in vast,
      ugly hotels being built, that are really just big concrete blocks.
   2. At the moment there is a big demand for more villas and flats to be built as a lot of people
      want to buy second homes.
   3. The beaches are also under threat from erosion as they are so over-crowded; the sand is
      mostly being carried away by people.
   4. The island has the highest amount of cars per person in Europe and this leads to a lot of
      pollution and lots of traffic jams. This is because of the poor public transport and cheap
      car rentals.
   5. The tourist boom has resulted in too much waste being produced on the island and the
      amount of waste is increasing by 10-15% each year.
   6. There is also a shortage of water, which means that water has to be shipped to the island
      and this is a factor which limits the amount of tourists that can visit the island.
   7. People on holiday tend to give little consideration to the environment as they are only
      there for a short amount of time.

Economic impact:

   1. 85% of the island‟s income is from tourism.
   2. It gone from being one of the poorest areas in Spain to being one of the most affluent.
   3. Tourism has almost destroyed farming, once the islands main source of income.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    4. People have deserted their farms where they once grew olives and reared sheep and
        have abandoned them for easier jobs in tourism.
    5. Only 2% of the islands GDP now comes from farming.
    6. This has resulted in a loss of economic independence and a mono-economy (an
        economy that depends on one thing).
    7. There is a big demand for second homes and they are taking over villages which
        damages the local community and culture.
    8. Out of 250,000 second homes, 50,000 are owned by Germans.
    9. There is a large demand for more houses to be built but as it is a relatively small island
        this would make a big impact.
    10. Many second homes have been built with „Black Money‟ (money that hasn‟t been
        declared to a taxman).
    11. Property prices have increased by 30% within a year. This means that many locals,
        especially first time buyers can‟t afford to buy houses.
    12. Also local culture dictates that young people can‟t get married if they don‟t have a house
        to live in- which means they can‟t get married.
    13.      -This leads to locals being hostile towards foreigners. This is a bad thing for the island
        as 30,000 foreigners live there all years round and it is not good for there to be a big
        division in society.

Social/cultural impact:

    1. Lots of places along the coast have been taken over with British restaurants and bars.
       This means there is no atmosphere of being in a foreign place as it is rare to hear
       Spanish being spoken or to find Spanish food. There is also little evidence of Majorcan
       culture along the coast because it is mainly full of foreigners.
    2. Inland people tend to cling to their cultural identity and have their own local dialect to
       keep local traditions alive.
    3. Most foreign visitors have little interest in the Majorcan culture.
    4. There is a tendency among German homeowners on the island to form ghettos, which
       separates them from the local people.
    5. It is becoming increasing difficult to preserve culture when it is based on the land. The
       landscape that was created by man to make it suitable for farming over many generations
       is collapsing as it is not being restored and it will only take a generation for it to be
       completely destroyed.
    6. Some people fear that the culture (such as traditional songs and dances) are only being
       reserved for special occasions and that it is becoming too artificial.

Sustainable tourism

    1. Sustainable means that something is being persevered so that it can continue for future
        generations without consequence.
    2. Calvia is creating a model for sustainable tourism based on local Agenda 21.
    3. This has three main objectives:
    4. -To foresee and plan for the future and to improve and make the most of the islands
        culture and heritage.
    5. -To redevelop and rehabilitate the worst places in the town.
    6. -To diversify- move the economy away from being completely dependent on tourism.
    7. They have taken action against over developments. By blowing up hotels and
        demolishing the worst eyesores and replacing them with green, open areas.
    8. They are promoting off peak holidays to avoid the summer rush.
    9. They introduced an eco-tax in 1999 and charged tourists an extra euro per person per
        night but this was abandoned in 2003 because locals complained it was damaging
    10. They are also encouraging Agro-tourism where tourists go and stay on farms. This
        encourages the tourists to be interested in the Majorcan culture and brings the farmers a

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
       much needed extra source of income. It also means that the money goes directly to local
       people and into the local economy. It encourages „low volume, high quality‟ tourism as
       this kind of holiday encourages people who will spend more money and are not just
       interested in the cheap sun and fun. It also takes pressure of the more crowed coastal
       areas. The only problem with this scheme is that many farmers don‟t want tourists staying
       on their farms.
   11. Many people want to encourage more tourists to visit in the winter but this could mean
       that there are the same amount in the summer, extra in the winter which results in more
       tourists overall.
   12. The biggest opposition to Local Agenda 21 is the locals who work in the established
       tourists business and make a lot of money. Many believe that without the young British
       tourists the industry would collapse as they are prepared to spend a lot of money to have
       a good time.
   13. Many people think it is important to make sure they don‟t lose tourists completely or get
       rid of what attracts them to the island.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                     Scale & Context

The changing importance of fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative            Regional / National
  the reduction in coal production, and increasing use of natural gas             Must be UK
  the nuclear debate
  opportunities for, and consequences of the development of alternative
  strategies for sustainability

Consequences for communities as energy supplies change                            Small / Local
  a case study of the effects on economic activities and communities of
  changes in energy production                                                    Any MEDC

Reduction in coal and increase of natural gas/oil:
   1. UK coal industry has been in decline since 1920s when competition ->loss of world
   2. During 30s, lack of investment and strikes threatened the industry
   3. In 1948 coal industry nationalised
   4. Govt modernised pits and supported mining communities
   5. Numerous smaller pits closed to be replaced by „super pits‟
   6. Coal failed to make a profit despite this, esp due to industrial disputes e.g. in 1984
   7. In early 90s, govt decided to close many pits in preparation for privatisation
   8. The “sell off” took place in 94 and since more unprofitable mines or those wth geolog
       problems, e.g. thin seams have closed.
   9. In 1950 – 220mn tonnes of coal mined in UK by 688,000 miner. In 2000, 43mn tonnes by
       7000 miners
   10. Decline happened because it became harder to sell coal
   11. Most sold to power stations, but they chose to import cheaper coal and build new gas fire
       stations that use natural gas.
   12. Environmental concerns over the damage caused by mining and clean air legislation
       affected coal‟s image
   13. International agreements about pollution and the threat of acid rain/climate change led to
       strict limits on CO2 and SO4.
   14. Competition from oil:
            a. UK has extensive oil fields in the North and Irish Seas –
            b. Oil was cheap and in demand from industry and transport
   15. Competition from gas:
            a. Large reserves of gas were discovered in the NBorth Sea in 1965
            b. Consumption of natural gas has increased yto 32% of UK‟s energy from about
                 5% in 1955
            c. “Dash for gas” happened in the 1990s as power stations chose gas over coal
            d. It is cleaner than coal
            e. Large reserves meant it was cheaper than coal
   • The British government is ploughing £100m into the country's coal industry, in order to
       save the remaining pits from closure.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Consequences for communities as energy supplies change

Holmewood – decline in coal and development of alternative sources:

   1. Holmewood is on N Derbyshire coalfield
   2. Most houses built here between 1901-1908 for miners
   3. Population of 776 in 1901 trebled by 1911 due to the expansion of the mine.


   4. Pit closed in 1970 and the area lost 2299 mining jobs
   5. In 1985, 34% of people who lived in NE Derbyshire still depended on the mining industry
       for employment
   6. Since then, all of the deep mines have closed
   7. Many more jobs have been lost in other traditional industries such as iron and steel,
       chemicals, engineering and railways
   8. Few alternative jobs to turn to
   9. A few miners were redeployed to collieries outside the region
   10. Indirectly, jobs were lost in the supporting industries – estimates say for every 100 mining
       jobs lost, a further 50 jobs were also lost – negative multiplier effect.
   11. E.g. in NE Derbyshire, British Coal was supplied by over 60 firms in the Chesterfield
   12. In 1987 Holmewood had an unemployment rate of 18% vs UK – 10%
   13. Long term male and youth unemployment has remained higher than national average
       since the pit‟s closed
   14. Loss of shops and services dus to drop in income
   15. Substandard infrastructure and poor housing without amenities -> are unattractive to new
   16. Mining left spoil heaps of waste rock, subsidence where the land had sunk and pollution
   17. Local councils had limited resources to make improvements – e.g. Lanwith colliery closed
       in 1978, but reclamation work didn‟t begin until 1986.
   18. Many impacts of unemployment – e.g. lowered mental and physical health, less car
       ownership, more children on free school meals etc


   1. Local authorities used a range of grants and initiatives to revitalize the area
   2. Industrial estates located in enterprise zones encouraged new industries to the area
   3. The Holmewood enterprise zone is linked to M1 and has improved infrastructure
   4. Offers financial and tax incentives e.g. no rates to pay for 10yrs, fast track planning and
      administration procedures
   5. The landscaped area has purpose built units. The aim was to create 60 jobs per Ha
   6. The industrial estate is growing, but Holmewood itself only provides 23% of the national
   7. Recent private housing has been bought by commuters who work in Sheffield,
      Chesterfield and Nottingham.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
The nuclear debate:

       1. Supplies of oil and gas are running low
       2. Relatively safe form of energy
                         i. No-one in Britain has died as a result of a radiation-related accident in 35
                        ii. Chernobyl produced more deaths than all the deaths in history from
                             nuclear accidents put together.
       3. The reliability of nuclear power will reduce our dependence on gas from Russia and oil
          from the middle east – delivery of which cannot be guaranteed.
       4. Nuclear power is much more efficient than fossil fuels
       5. 1 KG of uranium produces 3.7 million times more energy than 1 Kg of coal
       6. Nuclear power emits no greenhouse gases once built.
       7. by 2030, world CO2 emissions are estimated to be 62% higher than today, hence the
          importance of energy that doesn‟t emit Greenhouse gases
       8. very quiet…No columns of smoke
       9. Therefore less impact on local community and birds.


       1. Expensive compared with other alternatives
                          i. Nuclear power/Kwh costs £3-4
                         ii. Onshore wind/Kwh costs £1.5-2.5
       2. Nuclear power stations are an obvious target to terrorists.
                          i. A terrorist attack on the scale of 9/11 could potentially kill 20 million
                             people in heavily populated area e.g. Kobe
       3. Waste is extremely expensive to dispose of and takes tens of thousands of years to
                          i. It costs 70 billion dollars to clear up 10 years worth of nuclear waste.
       4. Nuclear stations have to be constantly monitored for safety reasons.
       5. With our current technology, the uranium we have will last about 30-60 years, depending
           on the demand, but in theory we can last 3 millenniums with the amount of radioactive
           material in the earth‟s crust.
       6. If you doubled nuclear power use in the UK you would reduce CO2 emissions by only
       7. Oil and gas are not only used for energy but also for making materials especially plastics.
           Nuclear cannot replace this.
       8. Nuclear reactors are expensive to build and they only last about 40-50 years.
           Decommissioning and refitting will cost $200-500 million and is an important aspect of
           planning for the use of nuclear power.
       9. Nuclear reactors are unsightly and scar the land.
       10. The radioactivity of the area caused by the reactor can be bad for the people around it
           and give them diseases like cancer.
       11. Large amounts of water are needed to cool them down
       12. Power plants that are left and not decommissioned can leave lava (radioactive material).

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
The development of alternative forms of energy:

The government has pledged that 10% of the UK's energy will come from renewable energy
sources by 2010 - a promise backed up by a £100m boost announced by Prime Minister Tony
But at present less than 3% of Britain's electricity comes from alternative sources and to Ian Fells,
Professor of Energy Conversion at Newcastle University, achieving the target by 2010 would be

Hydroelectric power
Almost all the UK's electricity generated from renewable sources comes from the two
hydroelectric dams in Scotland.
Benefits: Very powerful. A tried and tested form of energy production which has already proved
Problems: Requires a dam to be built which environmentalists say risks disturbing river or
estuarine ecosystems. The structures are also large and expensive to build.
"We have run out of space for large hydro," says Ian Fells, (Professor energy conservation)

One of the world's fastest growing energy technologies.
There are about 60 wind farms around the UK and the first off-shore farm was opened last year
off Blyth, Northumberland.
However, just 0.25% of the Britain's energy needs are currently met through wind power.
Benefits: The UK is one of the windiest countries in Europe so it makes sense to harness the
According to Mark Johnston, energy specialist, the UK has the potential to provide three times its
current energy requirements with wind power.
It is also cheap to harness.
Problems: Each wind turbine is large - about 70m across - and some people object to the idea of
them dotting the landscape.
They generate a relatively low amount of power and Professor Fells reckons 1,500 turbines would
have to be built by 2010 for 2.5% of our energy to come from the wind.
The wind does not blow all the time so we would need to use a battery technology to store the
energy, which is expensive to do.

Tidal and wave energy:
Waves can be used to turn a generator or turbine - as on Islay where the UK's first, and only,
commercial wave power station was opened in 2000.
Tides can also be used to fill a hydroelectric dam.
Benefits: As an island nation, Britain has a huge coastline which it could use for these forms of
The UK's coastline could be harnessed
A US company is considering building a plant to harness tidal power off the Welsh coast, using
the aggregate from slag heaps to build a "hollow island" which would have its own regular tides.
"This would benefit the environment in two ways: by clearing up the Welsh countryside and by
providing clean reusable energy," says Mark Johnston.
Problems: The Islay power station only generates 500kw - a relatively low rate of power.
Ian Fells says 10,000 such stations would be needed around the Scottish coast to create as
much power as the two nuclear power stations in Scotland.
There are few sites with a great enough difference between low and high tides to make
harnessing tidal power possible.

Energy from the sun can be harnessed in solar cells - also called photo-voltaic cells. These can
be small enough to meet specific energy needs such as heating a house's water or grouped
together in large banks.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Benefits: While solar energy is expensive to harness at present, it is rapidly coming down in price.
Mark Johnston says it should be as cheap as wind within a decade.
We could rely on this source more in the summer although at least one company has developed
a cell which can be used in low light and possibly even moonlight.
Problems: It is expensive to harness so it would need a high level of subsidy to make it viable.
As with wind, this is an intermittent source of energy which might need a battery technology to
make it reliable.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
                                     Unit 4 - People and The Environment


Topic Content                                                                    Scale & Context
                                                                                 BOLD = compulsory
                                                                                 Italics = freedom of
The extraction of raw materials by mining or quarrying                           Small / local
  A case study to illustrate opportunities, conflicts and environmental costs    Any MEDC

Tropical rainforests, a fragile ecosystem                                        Small / local
   the global distribution of TRFs                                               International / global
   how the ecosystem operates at a local scale
   local consequences of change                                                  LEDC
   stewardship and sustainable development
   the significance and effects of the attitudes and values of decision-makers

National parks, land use conflicts                                               Small / local
  a case study to illustrate a variety of conflicts                              Regional / national
  strategies for conservation
  the significance and effects of the attitudes and values of decision-makers    Must be UK

Water pollution in a river, lake or sea                                          Scale unspecified
  the causes and effects of pollution
  strategies for sustainability                                                  Context unspecified
  a case study

The extraction of raw materials by mining or quarrying

Peak District – Derbyshire

A case study to illustrate opportunities, conflicts and environmental costs

    1. The Peak district (in Derbyshire) has the largest area of limestone quarrying in the UK.
    2. Limestone is used mainly in construction industry (cement, bricks, roads)
    3. There are 12 main quarries in the Park. The largest quarries are:- Hope, Tunstead/Old
       Moor, Ballidon, Darlton and Eldon Hill.
    4. Limestone from the Peak District is supplied to the East Midlands, North Western and
       Yorkshire regions
    5. Limestone has been extracted since the Roman times and in the 20th century, extraction
       increased from 1.5 million tonnes in 1951 to 8.2 million tonnes in 1991
    6. During the 20th century, the amount of limestone quarried in the Peak District gradually
    7. It went from 1.5m tonnes in 1951 to 8.2m tonnes in 1991
    8. This was because the demand increased to build roads and buildings.

Making cement:
   1. Cement is a mixture of limestone and shale which are both mined in the Peak District.
   2. The cement works at Hope, the largest quarry, supplies 10% of Britain with cement, using
       1,730,000 tonnes of local limestone and 305,000 tonnes of local shale a year.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
    3. It employs 200 people and is the largest single local employer.

Other products:
   1. Fluorspar – a product used in refrigerators, solvents, aerosol propellants and
   2. Typical annual output = 60,000 tonnes
   3. Barytes - a mineral which uses include gas drilling and paint manufacture.
   4. Typical annual output = 20,000 tonnes
   5. Calcites – a mineral used for ornamental finishes, chippings for flat roofs and in wall
        surfaces. They give the white paint on the roads a sparkle.

   1. Quarrying provides jobs for the local people and accounts for 10% of male employment in
        rural areas.
   2. In some cases, quarrying and environmentalists work together to minimise damage and
        preserve natural wildlife by giving the land back to nature when they are finished with it.
   3. The land is often turned into reservoirs which are used by tourists for recreation.

Negative impacts:
   1. There is noise pollution as the explosions used are very loud.
   2. There is blight on the land because the quarry makes a white scar on the land.
   3. Lorries transporting for the quarries cause problems in small rural roads, causing
       congestion and also problems for tourists which affects the tourism industry.

   1. National Parks were set up to preserve the area of beauty and at the same time preserve
         economic activities in the areas.
   2. Authorities find it difficult to find a balance between the two, leading to conflict.
   3. The quarries were set up before the area became a national park and so they have rights
         to stay there until 2040.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
National parks, land use conflicts

Peak District

    1.   North England east of Manchester, west of Sheffield.
    2.   Area of 1438km2.
    3.   Established in 1951 – oldest national park in Britain.
    4.   Aim is to protect the scenery including several honeypot sites, and custom such as dry-
         stone walling and well-dressing.

Land uses and conflicts:

Conservation and farming
   1. Intensive farming reduces the diversity of grassland wildlife (through fertilising, ploughing
       and reseeding) and can pollute the water supply (through the use of chemicals and
       farmyard slurry).
   2. Extensive farming reduces the need for drystone walls that are of landscape and historic
       interest, and which may then be neglected or removed.

Strategy – conservation/V and As
    1. The Authority's Farm Conservation Scheme encourages farmers to manage land in
        traditional ways that compliment the National Park Authority's own conservation aims.
    2. It also co-ordinates schemes to provide grants for conservation work.

Water supply, recreation and conservation
   1. There is a great demand for water sports facilities on the many reservoirs in the Park e.g.
       Longdendale Reservoir and Ladybower Reservoir.
   2. However, recreational use may pose a threat to the purity of the water supply as well as
       to the conservation of wildlife and landscape.
   3. Farming around reservoirs may also cause pollution through the use of chemicals and
       through farmyard slurry and silage making.

Strategy – conservation/V and As
    1. The Authority limits recreation to fishing on 12 reservoirs, sailing on 5 reservoirs and
        occasional water ski-ing on the Longdendale Reservoir.
    2. Past applications for a further sailing club on Ladybower Reservoir have been turned
    3. The use of power boats is generally restricted to rescue vessels.

Tourism and conservation
   1. 22 million visitor days per year, the most visited national park in UK.
   2. Provides jobs and income.
   3. Large numbers of walkers using the footpaths in popular areas such as the Pennine Way
       or Dovedale, cause erosion of the vegetation and soil.
   4. Climbers on the gritstone edges or large parties of walkers on the moorland may disturb
       wild birds.

Strategy – conservation/V and As
    1. More robust paths are constructed using stone or even artificial materials.
    2. Hard surfaced tracks along redundant railway lines provide alternative walking routes as
        well as routes for cyclists and horse riders.
    3. The siting of car parks and visitor facilities can help to spread visitors over a wider area.
    4. Rangers give help and information to visitors.

Mineral extraction, conservation and quiet enjoyment
   1. Extraction of limestone leaves large unsightly quarries.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
   2. There is much pollution of the air from dust and traffic.
   3. Quarry traffic causes congestion in villages and also damages the roads and the
      foundations of village buildings.
   4. The processing of fluorspar needs fine grinding to separate out impurities and involves
      the dumping of large amounts of waste in artificial lagoons.

Strategy – conservation/V and As
    1. The Park Authority insist that landscape schemes for screening and restoration are
        undertaken as part of the process of mineral extraction. New proposals are judged
        against these criteria:
            a. The national and local need for the mineral.
            b. The lack of practicable alternative available sources.
            c. The extent to which the proposal would affect the landscape and environment of
                the Park.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Water pollution in a river, lake or sea

USA – Exxon Valdez oil tanker

    1. On 24 March 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker grounded on a reef in Prince William
       Sound, 40 miles (65 km) off the Alaskan coast. Worst in US history
    2. It dumped 11 million gallons (41.8m litres) of crude oil into the waters and contaminated
       about 1,300 miles (2,080 km) of coastline .
    3. Its captain, Joseph Hazelwood, admitted drinking vodka before boarding the vessel, but
       was acquitted of operating a ship while intoxicated
    4. The Exxon Valdez spill was not the biggest in the world, but was by far the deadliest to
       wildlife :
    5. It killed an estimated 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbour seals, 250 bald
       eagles, up to 22 killer whales, and an unknown number of salmon and herring
    6. Twenty years on, Prince William Sound looks back to normal, but local fishermen and
       environmentalists say it is crippled
    7. Only two species, bald eagles and river otters, have recovered from the spill, according to
       government scientists who work for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council
    8. Exxon, now Exxon-mobil - which has established a $900m fund to settle government
       damage claims - says the area has suffered no lasting damage.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Tropical rainforests, a fragile ecosystem

The global distribution of TRFs – Equator. Minimum normal annual rainfall between
1,750 millimetres (69 in) and 2,000 millimetres (79 in) occurs in this climate region!

How the ecosystem operates at a local scale

An example of sustainable use + stewardship of TRFs – Kuna Indians Panama:

        1. The Kuna Indians live in the Cormarca de San Blas forest, on the northern slopes of
           the mountains of Panama.
        2. There are a total of 49 Kuna communities.
        3. 60,000 Kuna live in 60 villages in the forest.
        4. The Rainforest in Panama carries over 10,000 different varieties of plants, over a
           1,000 species of birds, some of them which are totally alien to North America and
        5. They grow maize, coffee, cocoa, chilli pepper, pineapples, bananas and other fruit.
        6. They grow these crops among the trees, so the forest is not destroyed.
        7. A new road has made the area accessible to settlers from the rest of Panama via the
           Pan-American Highway.

Problems: The New Settlers: Local consequences of change

        1.   Settlers clear large areas of forest and plant crops of rice, manioc and bananas.
        2.   These grow well for 3-4 years before the soil becomes infertile.
        3.   They then sell the land to cattle ranchers who graze cattle until the land is useless.
        4.   The soil then gets washed off the unprotected slopes by the heavy rain. (over 6000
             mm each year)

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
        5. Increase in noise and air pollution from machinery
        6. Destruction of animal habitats and rare plant species used by locals for medicinal
        7. Impact of external influences on community and culture of Kuna Indians
        8. Also consider the multiplier effect – negative and positive

Solution / Sustainable Development:
        1. The Kuna Indians persuaded the authorities to make their part of the forest into the
             Udirbi National Park. It is now a major study area for TRF research and study how to
             farm tropical forest areas - more than 30% of Panama‟s national territory is now
        2. Experts agree that by leaving the rainforests intact and harvesting its many nuts,
             fruits, oil-producing plants, and medicinal plants, the rainforest has more economic
             value than if they were cut down to make grazing land for cattle or for timber.
        3. The latest statistics show that rainforest land converted to cattle ranching yields the
             land owner $60 per acre and if timber is harvested, the land is worth $400 per acre.
             However, if these renewable and sustainable resources are harvested, the land will
             yield the land owner $2,400 per acre.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

Topic Content                                                                       Scale & Context

Acid Rain                                                                           Global / International
   the causes & physical processes
   the consequences                                                                 UK and EU
   strategies to alleviate, including the importance of global citizenship and
   international co-operation

Global Warming                                                                      International / Global
   the causes & physical processes
   the consequences                                                                 Unspecified
   strategies to address the effects
   the challenges of global interdependence and responsibility, including
   sustainable development and Local Agenda 21

Global Warming

The causes & physical processes

        1.    Global warming is the warming of the atmosphere worldwide
        2.    Greenhouse effect:
        3.    This is a naturally occurring regulation of the earth‟s temperature, and gases.
        4.    Water vapour, methane and CO2 form a natural blanket of air around the earth
        5.    Short wave radiation hits earth: some reflected by ozone/absorbed by ozone
        6.    Short wave reflected off earth as long wave
        7.    Long wave is then either absorbed by greenhouse gases/ trapped in ozone reflecting
              back endlessly, and causing the earths temperatures to rise
        8.    However the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has led to a massive increase in
              the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere
        9.    We are also releasing larger quantities of other greenhouse gases, such as methane
              and nitrous oxide
        10.   If the Earth didn‟t have an atmosphere, its surface would on average be as cold as
              the moon, about -18c
        11.   Greenhouse gases exist naturally, heating the earth by trapping energy from the sun
        12.   In the last 2000 years mankind has disturbed the natural greenhouse effect
        13.   The main cause of global warming is the increase in the greenhouse effect
        14.   CO2 is produced when fossil fuels are burned
        15.   Methane is produced as the decay of our waste material
        16.   Water vapour is adapted by the water cycle, deforestation and urbanisation

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Implications of global warming:

        1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – this suggests that human
           activity affects global warming, particularly the release of greenhouse gases and
        2. Scientists estimate temperatures to rise between 1.4 and 5.8c in the next 100 years
        3. LEDC‟s developing also poses a threat, because they would use more fuel etc.

            1. Some researchers argue that global warming may already have had a significant
                effect on the climate in the UK. Four of the five warmest years for more than
                three centuries have occurred in the last 10 years.
            2. By the 2050s, annual temperatures in the south east of the country could be on
                average more than 2C warmer than they are now - 30 years later that may rise to
                more than 3C.
            3. As well as hotter, we are also likely to get much wetter, both through increased
                rainfall and rising sea levels, due to melting ice caps.
            4. Predictions by the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia put
                global sea level rises between 12cm and 67cm by 2050.
            5. By far the worst effects will be felt in low-lying areas of countries like Bangladesh
                and Pakistan - but there will also be some serious consequences for the UK.
            6. The recent floods and storms in the UK could also be part of a pattern of more
                extreme weather occurring as a result of climate change.
            7. But Prof Phil Jones, of the Climatic Research Unit, is keen to point out that, as a
                single event, the floods do not have much significance, instead long term trends
                will have to be studied.
            8. Studies of long term trends at the Climate Research Unit have found that winter
                precipitation could increase by more than 20% by the 2080s.
            9. By contrast, in summer, central and southern UK could be much dryer than it is
                now with up to 18% less rainfall by 2080s.
            10. With hotter weather, the demand for water would increase significantly as would
                evaporation from reservoirs.
            11. It is possible that the gulf stream could slow down or move further south and this
                would mean that the UK could end up with a climate more like that of
            12. Research also suggests that the varieties of plants grown in the UK will also be
                affected by global warming.
            13. Maize could become more widely grown in the UK
            14. If we got a couple of degrees warmer our current range of arable crops would
                shift northward and maize, more often grown in Southern Europe and North
                America, would become more popular in the south and the midlands.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
             15. Fruits that are also associated with warmer climates, like peaches and
                 nectarines, would also be grown more widely. And the hot summers could also
                 be a real boost to the British wine industry.
             16. Warmer seas around the UK are likely to attract fish that, up until now, have
                 favoured more southern waters. Recently fishermen have reported seeing
                 surprising numbers of mullet, anchovies and various species of shark.
             17. Insect-borne diseases could become more common
             18. Farmers fear the destructive Colorado beetle could get more of a foothold if the
                 weather warms. In residential areas cockroaches could become more common
                 along with fleas and mites.
             19. Bloodsucking ticks, scorpions and poisonous spiders and even malaria carrying
                 mosquitoes all might become a feature of life in a hotter UK.
             20. And of course if we don't cover up in the sun, increased levels of skin cancer and
                 cataracts are also a possibility.
             21. But whatever climate change occurs in the UK we can be sure that other parts of
                 the world will be far worse off.


             1. New types of energy are needed – renewable
             2. Sustainability is to manage resources or run projects or industries for future
             3. Walking/cycling – not cars
             4. Less aircraft journeys
             5. Smaller/more efficient cars
             6. Recycle
             7. Energy-efficient light bulbs
             8. Insulating houses/double glazing/
             9. Renewable energy – e.g. solar panels/ wind energy

The challenges of global interdependence and responsibility, including sustainable
development and Local Agenda 21

E.g. Kyoto Protocol:

    1. After seven years of debate between leaders, politicians and scientists, on 16th February
       2005 the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to control climate change finally became international law.
    2. The Protocol was drawn up in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 to implement the United Nations
       Framework Convention for Climate Change
    3. Industrialised nations who sign up to the treaty are legally bound to reduce worldwide
       emissions of six greenhouse gases (collectively) by an average of 5.2% below their 1990
       levels by the period 2008-2012.
    4. For the protocol to come fully into force, the pact needed to be ratified by countries
       accounting for at least 55% of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions.
    5. With countries like the US and Australia unwilling to join the pact, the key to ratification
       came when Russia, which accounted for 17% of 1990 emissions, signed up to the
       agreement on 5th November 2004.
    6. The final ratified agreement means Kyoto will receive support from participating countries
       that emit 61.6% of carbon dioxide emissions.
    7. The protocol is officially the first global legally binding contract to reduce greenhouse
    8. Most of the countries in the pact agree that it will be a difficult task to meet their Kyoto
       targets; already nations are falling behind their targets.
           a. Spain and Portugal in the EU were 40.5% above 1990 levels in 2002.
           b. Canada, one of the first countries to sign, has increased emissions by 20% since
                1990, and they have no clear plan to reach their target.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
           c.   Japan is also uncertain about how it will reach its 6% target by 2012.

Local Agenda 21: E.g. Calvia Mallorca

                1. At the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, the United Nations agreed that the best
                   starting point for the achievement of sustainable development is at the local
                2. In fact, two thirds of the 2500 action items of Agenda 21 relate to local
                3. Each local authority has had to draw up its own Local Agenda 21 (LA21)
                   strategy following discussion with its citizens about what they think is
                   important for the area.
                4. The principle of sustainable development must form a central part of the
                5. LA21 regards sustainable development as a community issue, involving all
                   sections of society, including community groups, businesses and ethnic
                6. LA21 follows the principles of sustainable development and the goal of
                   ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, both now and in the future.
                7. Calvia, Mallorca have developed its own targets to achieve LA21

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Acid Rain

Causes & physical processes

   1. Acid rain has a pH of less than 5.6
   2. It can be caused Naturally by gasses emitted from volcanoes and those from biological
      processes that occur on the land, in wetlands, and in the oceans.
   3. Acid rain can be produced Artificially by things such as:
   4. Electricity generation, factories, and motor vehicles and Coal power plants emitting
      sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
   5. Coal power plants are one of the most polluting. The gases can be carried hundreds of
      kilometres in the atmosphere before they are converted to acids and deposited. In the
      past, factories had short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems locally;
      thus, factories now have taller smoke funnels. However, dispersal from these taller stacks
      causes pollutants to be carried farther, causing widespread ecological damage.


       1. Acid rain in water can damage or kill aquatic creatures (such as fish)
       2. At pHs lower than 5 most fish eggs will not hatch and lower pHs can kill adult fish.
       3. This is very widespread: The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)
          website states: "Of the lakes and streams surveyed, acid rain caused acidity in 75
          percent of the acidic lakes and about 50 percent of the acidic streams".
       4. Soils can be seriously damaged by acid rain. Some key microbes are unable to
          tolerate changes to low pHs and are killed.
       5. High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as they are often surrounded by clouds
          and fog which are more acidic than rain:
       6. Acid rain can also cause damage to certain building materials and historical
          monuments. This results when the sulfuric acid in the rain chemically reacts with the
          calcium compounds in the stones (limestone, sandstone, marble and granite) to
          create gypsum, which then flakes off.
       7. This result is also commonly seen on old gravestones where the acid rain can cause
          the inscription to become completely illegible. Acid rain also causes an increased rate
          of oxidation for iron. This has affected the Taj Mahal in India quite famously
       8. Annual cost of damage from acid deposition in Europe is estimated at US$0.5-3.5

Case study

      Ever since the 1980‟s, Great Britain has been a leading emitter of Sulphur dioxide and
       Carbon Dioxide, which all contribute to making acid rain, and Global Warming.
      However emissions of sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen have since been reduced,
       although the UK still remains a considerable producer of acidic pollution compared to
       other European countries such as Germany and France.
       Most of the UK sulphur dioxide comes from power stations (65% in 1999) and other
       industries (22% in 1999) whilst the largest source of nitrogen oxides is road transport
       (44%) and power stations (21%).
      Freshwater acidification is a serious problem in susceptible parts of the UK. These
       include central and southwest Scotland, the Pennines, parts of Cumbria, central and
       North Wales and parts of Northern Ireland.
      Many historic monuments and buildings are affected by air pollution in the UK, in
       particular York Minster and Westminster Abbey.
      Greater use of natural gas instead of coal has led to a drop in acid rain
      Some of the UK's most environmentally sensitive upland lakes and streams are
       recovering from the impact of acid rain, the government has said.

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
         Acidic sulphur in Britain's water has generally halved in the last 15 years, the Department
          for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said research showed.
         Since 1970 there has been a 74% decline in sulphur dioxide emissions from 3.8 million
          tonnes to one million tonnes in 2002, and a 37% decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides.
         Natterjack toads in the south of England may have died out due to the acidification of
          their spawning grounds, while salmon and trout fisheries in small Welsh rivers have also
          suffered significant declines.
         The research, by University College London, is based on 22 of the most sensitive waters
          in the UK, which have been monitored continuously since 1988.
         In some sites, acid-sensitive mosses and other aquatic plants were found for the first time
          in 15 years.
         And at three of the most acidic sites identified, juvenile brown trout have recently been
          found for the first time since 1988.

Strategies to alleviate, including the importance of global citizenship and international co-

          1. In the United States, many coal-burning power plants use a “wet scrubber” which is
             commonly used in many other countries.
          2. A wet scrubber is basically a reaction tower equipped with a fan that extracts hot
             smoke stack gases from a power plant into the tower. Lime or limestone in slurry
             form is also injected into the tower to mix with the stack gases and combine with the
             sulfur dioxide present. The calcium carbonate of the limestone produces pH-neutral
             calcium sulfate that is physically removed from the scrubber. That is, the scrubber
             turns sulfur pollution into industrial sulfates.
          3. In some areas the sulfates are sold to chemical companies as gypsum when the
             purity of calcium sulfate is high. In others, they are placed in landfill.
          4. A number of international treaties on the long range transport of atmospheric
             pollutants have been agreed e.g. Sulphur Emissions Reduction Protocol under the
             Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
          5. In 1990 the Clean Air Act Amendments were passed. The overall goal of the Acid
             Rain Program established by the Act is to achieve significant environmental and
             public health benefits through reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
             oxides, the primary causes of acid rain. To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to
             society, the program employs both regulatory and market based approaches for
             controlling air pollution.

Paper 2

Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09
Katy Granville-Chapman – Mar 09

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