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					                                                          Evidence Log
                                                 N 360: Research and Informatics

        Article                      Sample                  Variables            Reliability and Validity         Findings
                                      n = 54
Camberg, L., Woods,
                           Where: Eastern             Independent Variable:       Reliability:               Direct Observations:
P., Ooi, W.L., Hurley,
                           Massachusetts,             Simulated Presence          Correlational analysis     SOAPD p= .967
A., Volicer, L., Ashley,
                           Southern New               Dependant Variable:         between SOAPD and          PARS p=.429
 J., Odenheimer, G.,
                           Hampshire                  Well Being                  AVAS, r= .91               FACE p=001
   and McIntyre, K.
                           Who: Residents with        Measurement: Well           Correlational analysis
        (1999).
                           documented ADRD,           being defined as lack of    between PARS and           Daily Staff
                           from nine different        agitation and withdrawn     WVAS, r= .94               Observation:
                           nursing homes.             behaviors.                  Correlational analysis     Agitation p= 001
                           Inclusion: Over 50         Measurement Tools:          between direct             Withdrawn behavior
                           years of age, medically    Scale for Observation of    observation and weekly     p=.001
                           stable, residing in        Agitation in Persons with   staff surveys, r= .51
                           nursing home for at        Dementia (SOAPD),           Validity:                  Weekly Staff Survey
                           least three months with    Agitation Visual Analog     The author stated that     SCMAI p=.021
                           no planned discharge,      Scale (AVAS),               there is multiple          MOSES p=.027
                           showing at least one       Philadelphia Geriatric      measurement tools used
                           agitated behavior per      Center Affect Rating        to enhance validity,
                           day and/or one             Scale (PARS),               although there are no
                           withdrawn behavior,        Withdrawal Visual           specific details or
                           must be able to verbally   Analog Scale (WVAS),        references to support
                           communicate.               Facial Diagrams of          this claim.
                           Exclusion: Severe          Mood (FACE), The
                           hearing impairment,        Short Form of Cohen-
                           history of psychiatric     Mansfield Agitation
                           illness, no tolerance to   Inventory (SCMAI),
                           headphone for five         Multi-dimensional
                           minutes                    Observation Scale for
                                                      Elderly Subjects
                                                      (MOSES).

                                                      These tools were
                                                      measured by direct
                                                      observations, daily staff
                                                      observation and weekly
                                                      staff surveys.
                                   n=18
 Vespa, A., Gori, G.,
                         Where: Daycare center     Independent Variable:    Reliability:               CMAI p<.001
 and Spazzafumo, L.
                         in Florence, Italy        Non-pharmacological      No r values or
       (2002).
                         Who: Level 6 dementia     interventions            coefficient alphas given   nAPB p<.02
                         patients, mean age 77.    Dependant Variable:      in study to support
                         Inclusion/Exclusion:      Antisocial behavior      reliability, although a    AVB p<.013
                         uknown.                   Measurement Tools:       post-test and pre-test
                                                   Cohens-Mansfield         was conducted which        AB p<.023
                                                   agitation inventory      showed significant
                                                   (CMAI), Subscales for    change.                    Cornell Depression
                                                   CMAI include non-                                   Scale p<.014
                                                   Aggressive physical      Validity:
                                                   behavior (nAPB),         The author stated and
                                                   Agitated Verbal          referenced that the
                                                   Behavior (AVB),          Cornell Depression
                                                   Aggressive Behavior      scale is validated,
                                                   (AB) and Cornell         although there is no
                                                   Depression Scale.        mention that CMAI is
                                                                            validated.


      Levels as presented in
Melnyk, B. M., (2004). Evidence Digest Column. Worldviews on evidence-based nursing, Second Quarter, 142-145.

* Complete reference to be provided on Reference page