PICT NEWSLETTER VOLUME 6_ 2010 by hjkuiw354



    PICT/CATR Book Launched at                               book provides a collaborative and multi-national
    CATR Conference in Manila                                analysis of a series of new and emerging
                                                             transnational threats, including terrorism, organised
    The Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter        crime, ideological/cultural radicalisation and
    Terrorism is pleased to announce the publication         environmental and demographic instability.
    of a new peer reviewed academic book Asian
    Transnational Security Challenges: Emerging Trends,      Asian Transnational Security Challenges was launched
    Regional Visions (Macquarie University, 224 pages,       on 29 October at the tenth bi-annual conference of
    2010).                                                   the Council for Asian Transnational Threats Research
                                                             in Manila, the Philippines. The launch was held as
                                                             part of a special International Forum on Asia Pacific
                                                             Security, co-organized by the Philippines Institute
                                                             for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research (PIPVTR),
                                                             CATR, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) and
                                                             the Asia Pacific Security Forum. PICT was represented
                                                             by its Director, Professor Peter Anderson, Adjunct
                                                             Professor Clive Williams, Shanaka Jayasekara and
                                                             Dr. Julian Droogan. At the Forum, PICT’s Shanaka
                                                             Jayasekara presented on Sri Lanka post the Tamil
                                                             war, and presentations were also delivered by
                                                             other CATR members including Hekmat Karzai from
                                                             Afghanistan and Dr. Katy Oh Hassig from the United
                                                             States. (For press coverage of the Forum click here)
                                                             The Forum and book launch were attended by
                                                             delegates representing government agencies, the
                                                             armed forces, the Diplomatic community, the foreign
                                                             press and academic institutions and research centres
                                                             from Australia, the USA and Asia.
                                                             Table of Contents:
                                                             1.   The Council for Asian Transnational Threat
                                                                  Research – Peter Anderson
    Edited by Dr. Caroline Zeimke-Dickens and PICT’s Dr.
                                                             2.   Afghanistan – Hekmat Karzai
    Julian Droogan the book is the result of a two-year
    research project coordinated by the Council for Asian    3.   Pakistan – Muhammad Amir Rana, Safdar Sial
    Transnational Threats Research (CATR) exploring          4.   Bangladesh I – ANM Muniruzzam
    Asia’s emerging threat landscape. Drawing on the
    work of some of Asia’s best regional security experts,   5.   Bangladesh II – Golam Mohammad, A. K. M.
    the volume explores the coming security challenges            Nasrul Islam et.al
    for ten key Asian nations at a time of rapid economic    6.   Sri Lanka – Rana Kalansooriya, Shanaka
    and strategic change, and considers how these                 Jayasekara et.al
    developments will affect the wider Asia region. The
                                                             7.   Malaysia – Kamarulnizam bin Abdullah

    8.   Singapore –Kumar Ramakrishna                      PICT Participates in IISS Country
    9.   The Philippines – Rommel C. Banlaoi               Dialogue in London
    10. Indonesia – Jamhari Makruf                         PICT Associate Lecturer Shanaka Jayasekara
                                                           participated at the Country Dialogue on Sri Lanka
    11. Australia – Milton Baar, Julian Droogan, Shanaka
                                                           held at the International Institute for Strategic
        Jayasekara et.al
                                                           Studies (IISS) in London on 19 October 2010. He
    12. Japan – Katsuhisa Furukawa, Naoko Noro             co-presented with Prof Rohan Gunaratna on the
    13. The Emerging Trends – Caroline Ziemke-Dickens,     topic countering terrorism and transnational fronts.
        Julian Droogan                                     The IISS country dialogues provide an opportunity
                                                           for detailed discussion on country specific issues
                                                           relating to political, social, economic and security
                                                           interests. The IISS is the primary source of accurate,
                                                           objective information on international strategic
                                                           issues for politicians and diplomats, foreign affairs
                                                           analysts, international business, economists,
                                                           the military, defence commentators, journalists,
                                                           academics and the informed public. The Institute
                                                           is independent, owing no allegiance to any
                                                           governments or any political or other organisations.
                                                           The IISS stresses rigorous research with a forward-
                                                           looking policy orientation and places particular
              CATR Delegates in Manila in October
                                                           emphasis on bringing new perspectives to strategic
    PICT has a limited number of complimentary
    volumes to offer to students and friends of the
    Centre. To order, direct your enquiries to:
    Dr. Julian Droogan - Julian.droogan@mq.edu.au
    Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter
    Terrorism (PICT).
    Telephone: 61 2 9850 1425
    Facsimile: 61 2 9850 1440

                                                            Shanaka Jayasekara (right) at the IISS Country Dialogue in
                                                                              London in October

    Public Seminar on Terrorism in                             development and peace building. CAPS produces
    the Philippines                                            a monthly newsletter providing in-depth analysis
                                                               of current issues in Afghanistan and its region. For
                                                               latest developments in Afghanistan, and a monthly
                                                               overview of recent news regarding Afghan security,
                                                               insurgency and conflict, log onto the CAPS website
                                                               at http://www.caps.af/. The Centre for Conflict and
                                                               Peace Studies and PICT are partner members of
                                                               the Council of Asian Transnational Threat Research

                                                               PICT Profile
                                                               Dr Ian Wells – Senior Lecturer
                                                                                          PICT would like to
                                                                                          welcome Dr. Ian Wells to
    Prof. Peter Anderson, Prof. Rommel Banlaoi, and Reverend                              the Centre. Ian joined PICT
                      Father Eliseo Mercado                                               on 21 June as Coordinator
                                                                                          of Learning and Teaching.
    On 30 September PICT hosted one of the world’s
                                                                                          He has taken on an
    leading authorities on Southeast Asian terrorism,
                                                                                          exciting role focused on
    Professor Rommel Banlaoi, who visited the
                                                                                          developing PICT’s
    centre to present a lecture on the ‘Private Armed
                                                                                          approach to learning and
    Violence and Terrorism in the Southern Philippines:
                                                                                          teaching with a particular
    Protecting Australia’s National Interests in a Troubled
                                                               aim of improving the Centre’s online delivery of
    Neighbourhood’. Professor Banlaoi’s lecture
                                                               courses. Ian is working with teaching staff to improve
    provided a useful and revealing update of the latest
                                                               assessment practices and PICT’s ability to support
    information on Islamic secessionist and terrorist
                                                               students studying at the Centre. Ian is also
    organisations such as the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) in
                                                               convening the Intelligence stream within the
    Western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, and
                                                               program and is currently immersed in reviewing
    what this means for Australia. The lecture was well
                                                               existing intelligence courses and developing new
    attended by Macquarie University academics, staff,
                                                               courses for offer in 2012.
    students and representatives from the government
    and private sector from both Sydney and Canberra.          Ian has had a long career in intelligence and
                                                               intelligence education. Prior to joining PICT he spent
    Keep Abreast of the Situation in                           ten years as a senior academic with the Queensland
    Afghanistan with CAPS                                      University of Technology (QUT). He developed the
                                                               postgraduate intelligence program, held a range
    Afghanistan is currently one of the most volatile          of senior service positions, including as Director of
    and fast changing regions in the global security           Undergraduate Programs in the QUT Law Faculty
    landscape, therefore reliable local sources are highly     and won appointment as a Teaching Fellow. Ian
    useful if one is to stay abreast of developments as        continues to hold an adjunct role at QUT and has
    they occur. The Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies      published on teaching in the online environment.
    (CAPS), based in Kabul, Afghanistan, under the             Prior to this Ian held a wide range of intelligence
    Directorship of Mr Hekmat Karzai, is an independent        appointments, including Principal Intelligence
    research centre that conducts action-orientated            Analyst with the Queensland Criminal Justice
    research aimed at influencing policy-makers in key         Commission and Coordinator Intelligence and
    areas including security, state building, governance,      Manager Asia Branch (Analysis) within the Australian

    Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO). Ian also      Each month the Asian Conflict Reports update
    served two terms as senior South Asia analyst with       readers on important emerging security issues from
    the Office of National Assessments. Ian was a senior     across Asia written by and for regional professionals
    policy officer in the Department of Defence in           and analysts.
    international relations and capability development,
                                                             June, 2010: Includes reports on China’s foreign
    at various times heading up the areas responsible for
                                                             energy quest and ASEAN, Six-Party Talks on North
    developing peacekeeping policy, counter terrorism
                                                             Korea, CBRN terrorist incidents in Japan, and the
    policy and major capability investment.
                                                             challenges for manpower export from Bangladesh.
    Ian’s current research interests include intelligence    Download here.
    ethics and governance, intelligence as a nascent
                                                             July-August, 2010: Includes reports on China, North
    profession and intelligence education. He currently
                                                             Korea-Iran Nuclear Axis, Muscular Secularism in
    supervises PhD students in a range of areas,
                                                             Singapore, Wahhabism in Sri Lanka, Privately Armed
    including futures of terrorism, intelligence systems
                                                             Groups in the Philippines. Download here.
    theory, airport security and intelligence and the
    media.                                                   September-October, 2010: Includes reports on
                                                             Maoism in India, Terrorism in Japan, Transnational
    Student Services Update                                  Security Threats to Bangladesh, and Secularism vs.
                                                             Radical Islam in Bangladesh. Download here.
    Semester two is fast coming to an end. PICT staff
    would like to wish everyone who is completing their
                                                             PICT and Australian Cybercrime
    program every success with their future endeavours.
    To continuing students we wish you all a safe and        Through September-October 2010 PICT Associate
    happy holiday and look forward to seeing you in          Lecturer Stephen McCombie presented on
    2011.                                                    cybercrime at a number of high profile Australian
                                                             crime conferences. Stephen is the coordinator of
    •	   Semester Two marks will be released on 17
                                                             PICT’s new Postgraduate Certificate and Diploma
         December and they will be available via
                                                             programs in Computer Forensics.
    •	   If you wish to obtain an official academic          The High Tech Crime Conference
         transcript please refer to: http://www.student.     https://www.ahtcc.net/Default.aspx
                                                             In Sydney, early September, Stephen presented on
    •	   Semester one enrolment information will be          ‘Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Honeynets’,
         sent out by email in January 2011.                  and on how a VOIP honeynet was used to study the
                                                             behaviour of hackers who are targeting VOIP systems
    CATR Asian Conflict Reports                              with specialised tools such as Sipvicious.

                                    PICT, in conjunction     The High Tech Crime Conference was hosted by the
                                    with the Council for     Australian Federal Police in conjunction with the
                                    Asian Transnational      University of Technology Sydney. The HTCC brought
                                    Threats Research         together domestic and international experts
                                    (CATR), offers you the   and leaders from the Judiciary, legal fraternity,
                                    opportunity to stay      government, law enforcement agencies, academia
                                    abreast of current       and the private sector. Through the HTCC, these
                                    developments in the      stakeholders shared information and knowledge
                                    security landscape of    in order to build Australia’s capability and response
    our region through links to the latest Asian Conflict    against this complex and pervasive form of
    Reports.                                                 criminality.

    National Identity Crime Symposium                          The International Anti-Money Laundering
    http://www.police.qld.gov.au/News+and+Alerts/              Forum 2010
    campaigns/synergy/hitechsymp/                              http://liquidlearning.com.au/documents/AML1010/
                               In Brisbane, late
                               September, Stephen              In late October Stephen presented on ‘Phishing and
                               presented on ‘Phishing and      Money Laundering’ at the International Anti-Money
                               ID Theft’. His presentation     Laundering Forum in Sydney. His talk explained that
                               argued that cybercrime          the easiest way to defeat phishing was treating it
                               groups have compromised         as a money laundering problem. The practical and
                               large numbers of personal       applied focus of Stephen’s presentation was part of
                               credentials including           the International Anti-Money Laundering Forum’s
                               millions of social              strategy to provide practical tools and strategies
                               networking site credentials     to improve program compliance, prevent money
                               which can be easily used to     laundering and create a culture around anti-money
                               commit ID theft.                laundering.
    The National Identity Crime Symposium explored the
    increasing influence and impetus of hi tech upon the       Conference Reviews
    identity crime movement. With leading experts from
    the field, this conference was designed to enable
                                                               AIPIO Forum, 15 October, 2010
    participants to gain insight into many domestic and
    international issues surrounding cyber crime and ID
    crime. The theme of the symposium was “Identity
    Crime in a Hi Tech World.”

    International Serious and Organised Crime
    Conference 2010
    In Mid-October Stephen spoke on ‘Russian and
    Ukrainian Cybercrime in Australia’ at the ISOC             Ian Wells and David Kimber, Australian Crime Commission,
    Conference in Melbourne. Stephen noted that when                          second and third from right
    international organised crime groups launched the
                                                               PICT Coordinator of Learning and Teaching Dr. Ian
    first wide-scale phishing attacks in 2003, their targets
                                                               Wells and Associate Lecturer Becky Mitchell attended
    weren’t the United States or the United Kingdom but
                                                               the inaugural Australian Institute of Professional
    actually the customers of one of Australia’s major
                                                               Intelligence Officers (AIPIO) “Forum”, held on the
    banks, the Commonwealth Bank of Australia. His
                                                               Gold Coast on 15 October. Dr. Wells was the keynote
    presentation was subsequently covered in a feature
                                                               speaker, delivering a presentation on “best practice
    article in the e-magazine Computerworld: The Voice
                                                               within intelligence”. The day included a half-day
    of IT Management (http://www.computerworld.com.
                                                               seminar of real-world intelligence case studies.
                                                               Other speakers included David Kimber from the
                                                               Australian Crime Commission regarding the ACC
                                                               Intelligence Fusion Project, a representative from
                                                               the AFP presenting a Child Protection case study,
                                                               a Queensland Police representative discussing
                                                               the Evolution of Criminal Intelligence, Janet Evans

    from the ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing
    and Security presenting her research on what
    makes an effective intelligence analyst, and a BAE
    Systems representative discussing Data Fusion in
    International Law Enforcement.

    Global Futures Forum (GFF), General
    Meeting, Singapore, October 2010
    Brigadier (retd) Vince Williams and Associate Lecturer
    Rebecca Mitchell represented PICT at a recent GFF
    General Meeting held in Singapore. The title of the
    meeting was “Building Resilience in the Face of          Rebecca Mitchell, Professor Kumar Ramakrishna and Vince
    Future Shocks.”                                                                   Williams

    The GFF describes itself as “a multinational,
                                                             Professor S. Jayakumar, Singapore’s Senior Minister
    multidisciplinary intelligence community that
                                                             and Coordinating Minister for National Security,
    works at the unclassified level to identify and make
                                                             opened the General Meeting and provided a
    sense of emerging transnational threats. Its primary
                                                             thorough outline of the four major trends facing
    goal is to foster the collaborative development
                                                             the globalized world (the multi-polar compact, the
    of insight and foresight through the exchange of
                                                             continued threat of violent, extremist, religious
    different perspectives.” The GFF achieves its primary
                                                             fundamentalism; climate change and the security
    goal by establishing a number of communities
                                                             of scarce resources). He outlined what initiatives
    of interest (COI), which address issues of specific
                                                             Singapore had taken to address these trends
    concern to GFF member states. These COI conduct
                                                             including establishing a Centre for Strategic Futures
    their business at general meetings, COI specific
                                                             and forming a whole of government Strategic
    meetings and through the GFF website. COI include
                                                             Futures Network in order to develop “resilience
    the following substantive topics: Radicalization and
                                                             frameworks, structures and processes.” The General
    Counter Terrorism, Illicit Trafficking, Emerging and
                                                             Meeting itself was conducted as a series of Panel
    Disruptive Technologies, Strategic Foresight and
                                                             Meetings, break out meetings, parallel COI sessions
    Warning, Practice and Organization of Intelligence,
                                                             and parallel sessions with keynote addresses at
    Proliferation and Human and Natural Resource
                                                             formal functions.
                                                             While in Singapore attending the Global Futures
    The US Centre of Excellence for National Security
                                                             Forum, Becky Mitchell also met with research
    (CENS) organized the General Meeting, with support
                                                             analysts at Rohan Gunaratna’s International Centre
    from the National Security Coordination Secretariat
                                                             for Political Violence and Terrorism Research
    (NSCS), the U.S. Department of State, the U.S.
                                                             (ICPVTR) at Nanyang Technological University for
    Department of Homeland Security, and the GFF
                                                             an afternoon of briefings. The briefings included
    Steering Group. The hosts of the meeting were the
                                                             an “Introduction to the ICPVTR”, “Political Violence
    Singapore Government and the S. Rajaratnam School
                                                             and Extremism in Southeast Asia”, “Threats to the
    of International Studies, Nanyang Univerity, headed
                                                             Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) in Pakistan”
    principally by PICT’s CATR colleague Professor Kumar
                                                             and “Terrorist Rehabilitation in Singapore.”
    Ramakrishna. Notable attendees at the GFF included
    Sir David Omand (King’s College London), Ms Melissa
    Applegate (National Intelligence Officer for Warning
    from the US Office of the Director of National
    Intelligence) and Professor Stephen Flynn (President,
    US Centre for National Policy).

    Hong Kong Independent Commission                          Executive Director, CACS, chaired a half-day meeting
    Against Corruption, Conference on                         of academics attending the Conference to explore
    Collaborative Governance and Integrity                    ideas for anti-corruption research and collaboration,
    Management, September 2010 - a report                     in which I also participated. It is not feasible to
    from Adjunct Professor John McFarlane.                    summarise all the issues that came out of this
                                At the invitation of Mr       conference, but the following points appeared to me
                                Gerry Osborn, Executive       to be of special significance:
                                Director, Centre of Anti-     -Corruption is becoming increasingly recognised as
                                Corruption Studies (CACS),    a major social, economic and criminal problem by
                                within the Hong Kong          many countries. The entry into force of the United
                                Independent Commission        Nations Convention Against Corruption in 2005 has
                                Against Corruption (ICAC),    provided a very useful guide for all countries seeking
                                Adjunct Professor John        to eliminate the scourge of corruption and abuse of
                                McFarlane attended a          authority in their own countries.
                                Conference on
                                                              -China is clearly taking corruption very seriously and
                                Collaborative Governance
                                                              is introducing a number of initiatives, many of them
                                and Integrity Management,
                                                              based on ICAC experience, to deal with this problem.
    held at ICAC Headquarters in Hong Kong. The CACS
                                                              China claims that is anxious to develop a fair and
    was founded in April 2009 to provide “resources for
                                                              efficient administration.
    the study and analysis of issues pertaining to the
    fight against corruption in Hong Kong and
    internationally.” The objective of this conference was
    to “examine the way various jurisdictions approach
    integrity issues within government institutions and
    the role played by different oversight bodies within a
    particular jurisdiction; identify and discuss any
    generic changes in behaviour of public employees;
    and examine whether there have been amendments
    in the law or imaginative use of existing laws to             Mr Gerry Warner, Executive Director, Centre of Anti-
    accommodate a broader range of offences                   Corruption Studies, ICAC; A/Professor John McFarlane, PICT;
    committed by public employees.”                            Dr Timothy Tong Hin Ming, Commissioner, ICAC; Mr Ryan
                                                                Wong Sai Chiu, Director of Investigations (Government
    This was an extremely interesting and well-                 Sector), ICAC; Deputy Commissioner Tim Godwin, Chief
                                                                      Operating Officer, Metropolitan Police, UK
    conducted conference. The papers delivered, the Q
    and A sessions, and the out of session discussions
                                                              -China has recently introduced a Code of Conduct
    were all valuable from the perspective of expanding
                                                              for Building a Clean Government which is now being
    our understanding of the nature and impact
                                                              implemented to prevent corruption.
    of corruption in the public sector, and various
    measures in place to deal with this problem. ICAC         -The recent revelations of corruption and malpractice
    Hong Kong is an extremely effective and interesting       by a number of members of the British Parliament
    organization, which has had a profound impact on          have not only led to a loss of public confidence
    corruption in Hong Kong. It is a model for other          in politicians, but more positively, has led to the
    countries to emulate, including Australia, when           introduction of an MP’s Code of Conduct and the
    establishing their own anti-corruption agencies and       establishment of an independent body to oversight
    devising appropriate local strategies to deal with this   future alleged infringements in this area.
    threat.                                                   -There is serious concern in the UK law enforcement
    In addition, on 18 September, Mr Gerry Osborne,           community about the impact of the forthcoming

    cuts to the police budgets. The cuts could be as         Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific (CSCAP). We
    much as 30% over the next five years. This will          went around the room inviting each representative
    inevitably lead to the retrenchment of a substantial     to nominate the three or four transnational crime
    number of police officers just at a time when the        types that most concerned his or her country. As a
    terrorist threats from both jihadi-inspired terrorists   result, we were able to come up with an agreed list
    and a resurgence of terrorist activities by dissident    of nineteen, roughly prioritized “crime types”, which
    elements of the Irish republican movement are            then became our menu for policy development
    assessed as serious threats to security.                 to counter the emerging regional transnational
                                                             crime threats. Corruption was not listed amongst
    -In the US, the Obama Administration takes the
                                                             these nineteen crime types, and when I suggested
    appointment of members of the Administration
                                                             that consideration should be given to corruption,
    very seriously, and unless cleared by the Office of
                                                             you could have heard the sucking of teeth from
    Government Ethics, the nomination will not go
                                                             Singapore to Sydney. No way, they said, that is an
    forward for Senate confirmation.
                                                             internal matter! Well, not any longer.
    -As a State Party to the United Nations Convention
                                                             Over the last few decades, increasing effort has been
    Against Corruption, 2005, the Commonwealth
                                                             given to devising means to counter the scourge of
    Government should establish a Commonwealth
                                                             corruption. The International Chamber of Commerce
    Anti-Corruption Agency, appropriately empowered,
                                                             Rules of Conduct, first issued in 1977; the OECD
    to proactively investigate and, where appropriate,
                                                             Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign
    prosecute, members of the Australian Parliament and
                                                             Officials in International Business Transactions,
    their staff, the lobby industry and Commonwealth
                                                             adopted in November 1997; and a number of
    departments and agencies, which may be involved
                                                             other valuable global and regional anti-corruption
    in corrupt or related behaviour. The Agency should
                                                             initiatives have all contributed to an environment in
    also have a public education role in relation to
                                                             which corruption in now very much on the agenda,
    damage caused by corruption. The Agency should
                                                             and is recognized as a potential threat to global,
    have the following powers: coercive information-
                                                             regional and national sovereignty and stability.
    gathering hearings and notices; telecommunications
    interception and data access; electronic surveillance;   This led to the development of the United Nations
    controlled operations and assumed identities; search     Convention Against Corruption which entered in to
    warrants, and; scrutiny of financial transaction         force in December 2005 and has been ratified by
    records.                                                 more than 145 countries, including Australia. In
                                                             spite of the lack of coercive powers, this instrument
    Recognising the Importance of                            is a major step forward for a number of reasons: It
    Corruption: The Inauguration                             complemented the important initiatives generated
    of the International Anti-                               by the UN Convention Against Transnational
    Corruption Academy                                       Organised Crime, and its three Protocols; It
                                                             was the first legally binding international anti-
    Adjunct Professor John McFarlane                         corruption instrument, which obliged its State
    Recognising the nature and importance of                 Parties to implement into domestic law a wide
    corruption in its various forms – bribery, extortion,    range of measures which have both domestic and
    nepotism, embezzlement, and so on – is a very            international implications.
    recent phenomenon. In February 1997 in Singapore,        However, the study of the phenomenon of
    I had the honour of chairing a regional working          corruption is still very limited, so we still have a long
    group comprising some 14 countries, all of which         way to go in understanding how good governance,
    were concerned about the emerging threat of              economic stability, sovereign state interests, and
    transnational crime. The working group was               corruption relate to each other. Fortunately, one
    established under the aegis of the Council for           useful initiative was taken recently in Vienna to

    contribute to closing this gap. On 2 September              other relevant regional and international treaties and
    2010, the Secretary-General of the United Nations,          conventions. In doing so it will observe geographical
    Ban Ki-Moon, opened the Inaugural Conference of             and cultural diversity, and seek broad partnerships
    an International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) in          with public and private sector institutions, including
    Vienna in front of some 800 ministers, ambassadors,         academia, civil society and NGOs.
    officials, members of international organizations,
    non-government organizations, the corporate                 Afghanistan and the Uruzgan
    sector, academics and other invited guests from             dimension
    110 countries. Unfortunately there was no official
    Australian representation at the conference - two           Adjunct Professor Clive Williams
    Australians attended in their private capacity: Mr                                     Much of the recent debate
    Barry O’Keefe, a former head of the New South Wales                                    about Afghanistan has
    Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC),                                      been misleading or
    and the author.                                                                        reflective of wishful
    The Academy, which is located in a beautifully                                         thinking on the part of
    refurbished 17th century building in Laxenburg,                                        both the Gillard
    just outside Vienna, is jointly sponsored by the                                       government and the
    United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (“as the                                      Opposition. A common
    guardian of the United Nations Convention Against           claim is that we need to be in Afghanistan to stop it
    Corruption”), the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF)         from becoming a safe haven for al-Qaeda. The
    and the Government of the Republic of Austria,              prospect of al-Qaeda re-establishing itself there
    with support from the International Criminal Police         seems low, and why would it need to, when it can
    Organisation (INTERPOL).                                    operate much more effectively from Pakistan or
                                                                Yemen/Somalia, and North Africa? South East Asia’s
                                                                extremists are unlikely to want to go to Afghanistan
                                                                for training when they can do so more conveniently
                                                                in Indonesia or the southern Philippines.
                                                                The complexities of Afghanistan are exemplified
                                                                by the situation in Uruzgan (or Oruzgan) Province,
                                                                where we have our major Australian Defence Force
                                                                (ADF) deployment. Uruzgan is about ten times the
                                                                size of the ACT, with a population of approximately
                                                                350,000, mainly Pashtun. More than 97% of the
                                                                population lives in rural areas. The literacy rate for
                                                                males is 10% and females 5%. Singesar village in
                                                                Uruzgan is the birthplace of Taliban supreme leader
                                                                Mullah Omar.
    In brief, the Academy will serve as a centre of
    excellence for anti-corruption research, degree-            Because of the geography of the province, which
    based learning and the development of policies              is divided by a mountain range, the “Kandahari”
    and procedures to prevent and combat corruption.            Taliban’s eastern and western networks reportedly
    This will involve internationally recognised scholars       have little contact, other than through the Quetta
    and professionals to provide hands-on instruction,          Shura in Pakistan. The reality on the ground in
    peer-to-peer training and investigative assistance,         Uruzgan, as elsewhere, is that local areas are
    whilst integrating geographical, cultural and gender        dominated by local leaders who may or may not
    diversity in its activities. The Academy will also assist   represent the Karzai government’s interests, and may
    countries with the implementation of UNCAC and              or may not be affiliated to the Taliban.

     When the Taliban were defeated after 9/11,               important part in local politics. In Uruzgan there
     most of the local Taliban made the traditional           is traditional enmity between the Pashtun Durrani
     accommodations with the winning side - which             and Ghilzai tribes. But there is also enmity between
     meant surrendering their weapons and being               some of the Durrani sub-tribes. The Durrani
     allowed to return home. However some of the local        Popalzai have most influence because of their links
     leaders in Uruzgan, who had been ousted by the           to fellow Popalzai, President Hamid Karzai. Much
     Taliban in the mid-1990s, saw this as an opportunity     of the local violence is due to competition for
     to seize power again and take their revenge. This        power and resources. Other factors that may affect
     in turn led to many former Taliban rejoining the         local alliances including marriage, shared combat
     insurgency in order to survive.                          experience, religious affiliations, and narcotics
                                                              trafficking interests.
     Today in Uruzgan the Taliban have set up a
     shadow government with their own administrators          The strongman in Uruzgan is Jan Mohammad Khan,
     and judges. The activities of Taliban leaders are        another Popalzai. He controls a power network well
     monitored by auditors from Quetta and if abuses          known for its brutality and involvement in narcotics.
     are reported by local villagers, the leaders are         Jan Mohammad had been governor before the
     supposedly called to account.                            Taliban takeover in 1994. He was jailed by the Taliban
                                                              and is strongly anti-Taliban. Hamid Karzai appointed
     Most of the legal disputes in Afghanistan are over
                                                              him governor in early 2002, when he was given
     land. Under the government adjudication system,
                                                              free rein to destroy rivals and appoint friends to key
     the outcome is likely to favour the party that can
                                                              positions. He was replaced as governor in March
     pay the most. By contrast, Taliban judges are not
                                                              2006 at the insistence of the Dutch commander
     financially motivated and are said to be fair in their
                                                              because of his human rights abuses (including
     judgements. The down side is that the Taliban
                                                              the rumoured murder of one of his wives) and
     still come with their repressive religious baggage
                                                              corruption, but he continues to exercise power
     and medieval mindset about female rights. But in
                                                              behind the scenes. Jan Mohammad loyalists hold
     Uruzgan, a fundamentalist Islamic lifestyle based
                                                              key government positions in Uruzgan. The current
     on Sharia law is more in line with local custom than
                                                              acting governor is Khodai Rahim Khan, a relative of
     would be the case in Kabul or most other Afghan
                                                              Jan Mohammad.
                                                              Another relative, Matiullah Khan, runs a powerful
     The “new” Taliban can still be brutal in their
                                                              2,000 strong militia that protects the highway
     exercise of power. They will kill anyone at a local
                                                              between Kandahar city and Uruzgan’s capital Tarin
     level believed to be cooperating with the Karzai
                                                              Kowt, a key logistics supply route for foreign forces,
     government or coalition forces. Unsurprisingly,
                                                              including the Australians. Matiullah Khan is said
     therefore Afghans who expect the Taliban to prevail
                                                              to earn at least US$ 1,700 per truck to ensure each
     in the longer term are cautious about assisting the
                                                              convoy arrives at its destination safely. With at least
     government or Australian forces. In Uruzgan, the
                                                              200 trucks a month using the road, it is a profitable
     Taliban now operate in smaller groups because
     coalition air strikes caused heavy losses to larger
     concentrations. The Taliban are now more reliant         Further complicating the local power mix is the
     on sniping and the use of IEDs. They know that           involvement of the International Security Assistance
     foreign forces are on the way out and there is not       Force (ISAF), Afghan National Army (ANA), Afghan
     much point in mounting costly large-scale attacks        National Police (ANP) and National Department of
     when time is on their side. They also understand         Security (NDS). Suspected Taliban fighters detained
     the impact in Western countries of causing a steady      by the ADF are handed over to the NDS which has a
     stream of Western casualties.                            reputation for torturing and mistreating detainees.
     Tribal affiliations and feuds continue to play an        Our main Australian focus in Uruzgan is on

     reconstruction, and training and mentoring the ANA         rights abuses, particularly against women. More
     4th Brigade. The reconstruction aspect is generally        broadly, security prospects for the south and east of
     welcomed by everyone, including possibly the               Afghanistan do not look favourable. The likelihood
     Taliban. On a visit to Kandahar Province I found that      of US and other ISAF combat forces leaving
     local Taliban fighters were working for a Canadian         prematurely, due to the financial and human cost of
     military reconstruction team building roads, which         counterinsurgency in Afghanistan, could mean that
     everyone there saw as beneficial. The workers were         our exit strategy will be determined for us.
     being paid US$ 10 a day, which was more than the
                                                                When we eventually draw down our forces in
     Taliban commanders were paying them. The typically
                                                                Uruzgan, we will also have to address the issue of
     Afghan arrangement was that the roads would not
                                                                Afghans who have cooperated with us in Uruzgan
     be tarred over because that would make it more
                                                                coming to Australia as asylum seekers.
     difficult for the Taliban to later plant improvised
     explosive devices (IEDs).                                  This is an edited version of an article that first
                                                                appeared in the Canberra Times, 27 October, 2010.
     The ADF and Australian Federal Police (AFP)
     have a deservedly good reputation for providing
     appropriate training to Third World forces
     internationally, but our training support in Uruzgan
     faces unusual difficulties. The high level of ANA
     desertion (as high as 40% of establishment strength),
     and the vulnerability of the ANP to Taliban pressure
     (several policemen die every day in Afghanistan),
     mean that it is difficult to achieve acceptable military     Contact Details:
     or policing standards. In any case, perhaps a more           Level Two, Building Y3A
     pressing requirement than police training is to sort         Macquarie University NSW 2109
     out the justice system. (Afghans joke about the UN           Ph: +61 2 9850 1420
     giving the Italians the job of reforming the justice         Fax: +61 2 9850 1440
     system when they have possibly the most flawed               Email: pict.info@mq.edu.au
     system in Europe.)                                           Web: www.pict.mq.edu.au
     There have been upbeat statements from the
     Australian Government about the improving
     readiness status of the 4th Brigade, but the ANA
     tendency elsewhere in Afghanistan is to re-assign
     soldiers once they have been trained to provinces
     closer to Kabul. If this is happening in Uruzgan, as
     seems likely, it means that the 4th Brigade may never
     be able to secure the province without outside help.
     There is insufficient information in the public domain
     to form a judgement about the effectiveness of
     ADF Special Forces operations - although they have
     apparently disrupted the Taliban’s activities and had
     an effect on Taliban morale, and created time and
     space for our other activities.
     It will take political manoeuvring and a long-
     term Australian commitment to achieve stability
     in Uruzgan. Inevitably, local governance will
     continue to involve crime, corruption and human

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