"Economic Development Records of Zimbabwe"
THE ZIMBABWE S & T STRUCTURE AND STATISTICAL SYSTEM • A report presented to the UNESCO Regional Workshop on Science and Technology Statistics in Entebbe, Uganda By Mr G. Sibanda (Research Council of Zimbabwe) and Mr P. Mawire (Central Statistical Office) OUTLINE A. Science and Technology Structure B. Specific Ongoing Projects C. Proposed Projects D. S & T Statistical Systems THE BACKGROUND • Ministry of Science and Technology Development administers the S & T Policy • Research Council of Zimbabwe developed the S & T policy • The S & T policy necessitated the formation of the Ministry of Science and Technology Development A. SECTORS IN THE S & T POLICY • Research and Development (R&D) for Industrialization • Agriculture, Food Security and Environmental Conservation • Mineral Resource and Earth Sciences • Education, Training and Manpower Development • Health • Energy • Transport • Information and Communications Technology • Housing • Biotechnology • Social Sciences • International Collaboration RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR INDUSTRIALISATION - Source for technological innovations - Builds country’s capabilities in S & T CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Reliance on external PROGRAMMES: technological and • Ensure products are locally engineering resources manufactured to meet • No meaningful R & D international standards. • Inadequate research • Full exploitation of Funding domestic resources • Lack of coordination and • Training of S & T cooperation among R & D manpower institutions • Sourcing of research funds for national R & D priorities AGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENT - Great strides in technological development - Advanced Wildlife Management - Fight against environmental degradation CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Infrastructure and PROGRAMMES: financial resources in • Sustainable use of natural communal lands lag behind resources • Resource depletion and • Agriculture and environmental degradation Environmental studies in • Water scarcity because of schools changing climatic patterns • New environmental management concepts • Cleaner production technologies • Identifying good water reserves MINERAL RESOURCES AND EARTH SCIENCES - Exploitation of mineral resources - Monitoring of deaths and injuries in mining CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING PROGRAMMES: • Continued export • New methods of of raw materials mineral processing • Brain drain and extraction • Environmental • New techniques in mineral resources degradation deposit locations EDUCATION, TRAINING AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT - Raising literacy and numeracy rates CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING PROGRAMMES: • Shortage of • In service training for qualified science teachers teachers • Provision of human • Brain drain resources to run all • Syllabus not sectors of economy relevant to • Programmes to environment popularise S & T • Lack of career guidance for pupils HEALTH - Assuring good health to the nation CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Health Services PROGRAMMES: expensive • Disease prevention • Diseases associated and health promotion with poor nutritional programmes sanitation • Locally manufactured • Increase in HIV medical equipment related diseases • Additional health research laboratories ENERGY - Production of energy from local resources CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING PROGRAMMES: • Deforestation due • Alternative sources of to use of fuel wood energy (renewable) • Importation of electricity and liquid fuels TRANSPORT CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Dependence on PROGRAMMES: imported vehicles • Local production of spare parts. • Zimbabwean vehicle • Road networking planning INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING PROGRAMMES: • Radical changes in • Training equipment in ICT software development HOUSING CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Rural to urban shift PROGRAMMES: • Shortages of • Production of local affordable housing building material • Provision of low cost housing BIOTECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Fast improving genetic PROGRAMMES: engineering • International • Controlling of harmful cooperation on safe GMOs use of biotechnology INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • Learning from other PROGRAMMES: countries on what • Experts, students and they have done information exchange SOCIAL SCIENCES CHALLENGES: PLANNED OR ONGOING • No clear appreciation of PROGRAMMES: economic factors linked to • Impact on society of S&T programmes and policies • Social and National Scientists collaboration • Determination of acceptability of new technologies • Political, economic and demographic factors of economic development B. SPECIFIC ONGOING PROJECTS 1. Affordable building materials production • Stabilised Soil Bricks • Micro concrete Tiles • Rammed earth technology 2. Value addition to Minerals • Ferrochrome alloy production 3. Food processing • Production of Soya beans milk • Production of fruit jams from wild fruits • Production of nutritious foods from indigenous crops C. PROPOSED PROJECTS Table 1: projects submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology Development D. S & T STATISTICAL SYSTEM • Central Statistical Office (CSO) collects, produces and disseminates national statistics • Individual organisations, NGOs and Institutions keep statistics as administrative records COLLECTION OF S & T STATISTICS CSO conducts census and surveys in: • Agriculture and livestock production • Labour force • Income consumption and expenditure • Business tendency • Population Instruments used • Questionnaires • Interviews • Telephones • Emails Challenges regarding S & T statistical system S & T statistical system not well defined. Reasons: • In adequate coordination, collaboration, networking and information • Information scattered in organizations Remarks: • Demand for S & T statistics has been low ever since • With the establishment of the Department of Science and Technology Development, the demand is increasing • To meet this demand CSO has engaged an international consultant to design the National Statistical System (NSS) • 4 main components of NSS have been identified. Components of NSS • Data users • Data collectors • Data suppliers • Research and training institutions EXPECTED BENEFITS FROM NSS • Better resource management and no duplication in collection of data • Better preparation and implementation of national strategy for the development of statistics • Better design and implementation of strategic statistical plans which can be integrated within national policies and cover all data sector and users • Allow for demand and user focus of national data needs Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION. SECTOR Name of Project Project Project Project Description Beneficiary Cost (estimate) Agriculture and E-Hurudza an electronic farm Government ZW$791m for ICT Import substitution management 58 computers value addition software package and 58 printers. Efficiency building Agriculture R & D Palletised Palletised Communal farmers ZW$1.1 Billion phosphate blends Phosphate Blends in areas where the Sponsor- UZ fertiliser Fertiliser is soils have become institute of Import Substitution produced using unproductive Mining Research the Dorowa rock phosphate Agriculture Organic resources Making better use Farmers ZW$2 498 R&D development of available but nationwide 438.80 Import substitution under-utilized Value addition organic resources Agriculture/Industr Soya beans Soya beans will be Farmers and ZW$1.1 billion y processing plants established in all society Import substitution 10 provinces Value addition Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION. Agriculture R&D Sunflower and Use of oilseed Nationwide ZW$1.19million groundnuts cake from scale Increased farmers for productivity poultry and Increased cash flows ruminat feed Employment creation Design and designing a low All farmers Could not specify development of cost seeding drill cost direct (planter) to be seeding drill used for direct Import substitution planting where there is zero tillage Multipurpose developing a low All farmers ZW$3.5 million plough cost plough that Import substitution tills, plants, and forex generation and saving fertilizes, covers the seed all in one operation Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION. Shelter/industry/agr Rammed Earth Commercialisation Nationwide and ZW$5 Billion iculture Technologies of appropriate support to the building materials Agrarian Reform technologies Programme Industry/ Silk Production Resuscitation of Farmers and ZW$2 Billion Agriculture and processing. the Silk society -Value addition, production and -Import substitution processing -Forex generation industry Industry – Mining/ Manufacture of Use ofaluminium Urban and town Water aluminium sulphate and centers sulphate and aluminium oxide aluminium oxide from flint clay Import substitution Value addition Health African Institute establishment of The whole society ZW$830million of BioMedical an HIV/AIDS S&T diagnosis (HIV/AIDS) treatment and Import substitution monitoring Value addition Institute Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION. Industry/ Energy bio-diesel fuel as Manufacturing The nation ZW$400million a substitute for biodiesel from mineral diesel locally available Import substitution raw materials. Value addition Forex generation Industry / Energy Production of 3.8million litres of Nationwide Capital – US$1.5 industrial fuels fuel can be Bilion from coal, produced per day Value addition and from 22000 Operating p.a Import substitution tonnes of locally US$220 Million available coal R&D for Production of Application of Nationwide R1.8m Construction quality, durable innovative (R400 000 Industry and affordable microwave available from roof tiles and technology to dry Royalties associated the tiles. earned by products using sponsor) Microwave technology for drying. Import substitution Value addition Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION Education Network of Users training in Professionals who ZW$850million of Scientific various areas work with Equipment in relating to scientific Eastern and scientific equipment. Southern Africa equipment (NUSESA) maintenance and management. Women in Science increasing women’s and girls’ Women and girls and Technology US$570 805. Alliance Trust participation in Building Efficiency S&T through advocacy, projects, training, networking, awards etc. Industry, quality Capital Equipment funding to acquire Community and USD437700.00 and standards for the Standards modern test industry excluding Association of equipment to installation and Zimbabwe undertake level commission fees. EveTy Technology testing and Import substitution calibration Value addition Table1. LIST OF PROJECTS SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF S&T DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION. Education / Establishing the Enhancement of The whole society US$231 846.78 Capacity building wireless e-learning, Demand for networking capacity building shelter to meet technology and provide demand very linkages with high. other institutions outside Midlands. Energy and Pilot project on Sawdust Leisure for all recreation sawdust utilisation utilisation in in Manicaland. Manicaland Import substitution Value addition Forex generation potential Energy saving Solar powered -LED light is pure Urban areas with ZW$162 Million technologies traffic lights using and colour signals a potential for LIGHT Emitting are sharper than external lighting Diode (LED): conventional for homes. ones. -Import Subs, -Energy saving -Environmentally friendly