"Ecological Risk Models Model Agency Year Main Medium Ecosystem classification Environmental stressors Spatial Scale Species"
Ecological Risk Models Model Agency/ Year Main Medium Ecosystem classification Environmental stressors Spatial Scale Species Input parameters Company Aquatox EPA -- OST Release 2 aquatic freshwater: vertically- constant or dynamic, stream to watershed scale Aquatic plant, animal, and Requires extensive data collection and Jan 2004 stratified lakes, rivers and point or non-point source of plankton species inputs from the user regarding: streams, "experimental" pollutants to ecosystem. Up to -nutrient, sediment and toxic chemical ponds 20 organic toxicants loadings to the waterbody simultaneously. -habitat (stratified lake, stream, etc) -chemical characteristics (e.g.toxicity, fugacity, etc) of up to 20 organic toxicants -biological characteristics including food consumption, growth and reproduction of the plants and animals of interest Default data on biological characteristics is included for some species. (Libraries are incomplete, but constantly being updated.) RAMAS Ecotox Applied Ecotox terrestrial and Any ecosystem is feasible. any chemicals for which there Local / Regional / National Any species (aquatic or Parameters input by user: Biomathematics Version 1.0a - aquatic are toxicity data and dose- (known case study is done at terrestrial), with: -initial abundance/biomass 1998 response models Regional level, but if -known population abundance -survival for each age group population data is available at -available data on effects from -overall fecundity larger/national scale, these the chemical stressor of -toxicity data from standard lab bioassays data can be input too) interest. (Note: Toxicity data for selected chemical on individual-level may also be extrapolated from endpoints: mortality, growth, and data for a related species if reproductive effects that is all that is available.) Parameters in the model: -choose among several models of density dependence (none, logistic, Ricker, or Beverton-Holt) -choose a dose-response model (Weibull, probit, or logit functions) -choose from 3 models of chemical-uptake (first-order kinetics with mass balance, unbalanced first-order kinetics assuming a large pool of the chemical, or equilibrium concentration) RAMAS Metapop/ Applied Metapop has been used Any ecosystem is feasible. Stressors related to habitat Local / Regional / National Any species (aquatic or Minimum parameters input by user: RAMAS GIS Biomathematics Version 4.0 - in both aquatic size and quality are directly terrestrial) with known -initial abundance/biomass 2002 and terrestrial incorporated; chemical population abundance. Case -survival and fecundity of the population(s) settings stressors can be incorporated studies include plants, (Note: To incorporate effects of a chemical indirectly. (Any chemicals, invertebrates, fishes, stressor, additional parameters for survival including toxic chemicals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and fecundity in presence of the stressor could be incorporated if mammals. are also needed) individual-level effects, e.g., Optional parameters input by user: growth, reproduction, and -survival for each age group survival, are known.) Example -fecundity for each age group stressors: habitat loss, -density-dependence parameters fragmentation, diseases, -GIS maps of habitat variables important chemical pollution. for the spp -home range size -dispersal distance -distribution of habitat types and resources -location of immigrant pop's Model Agency/ Year Main Medium Ecosystem classification Environmental stressors Spatial Scale Species Input parameters Company Level II models EPA -- Office of 2004 terrestrial and Agricultural fields, affected Pesticides, chemical toxins Local area of application of a Uses exposure and Chemical attributes: type of chemical Pesticide aquatic waterways pesticide, field-level physiological attributes of applied, timing and amount of pesticide Programs species of interest when application available or "generic species" Physical conditions: runoff and erosion (for based on most sensitive contamination of waterbody) species. Used for birds, and Toxicity to species of interest (or generic fresh- or saltwater fish. species) as defined by no-observable adverse effects levels on survival, reproduction and growth at different life stages; routes of exposure (dermal, ingestion, inhalation); elimination rates If data is sufficient, a sensitivity distribution for toxicity is used based on 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles Matrix Models EPA, DOE, and -- Any medium is Any ecosystem is feasible. Toxic chemicals Local / Regional Any species (aquatic or Potential Input Parameters: unaffiliated feasible. terrestrial), with: -Toxicity data for chemicals of interest researchers -known population abundance -initial abundance/biomass -available data on effects from -survival for each age/stage group the chemical stressor of -fecundity interest. (Note: Toxicity data -toxicity data from standard lab bioassays may also be extrapolated from for selected chemical on individual-level data for a related species if endpoints: mortality, growth, and that is all that is available.) reproductive effects Ecosystem Diagnosis Mobrand 2003 aquatic freshwater streams physical and chemical stressor stream Chinook, coho, and chum Stream characteristics: and Treatment Biometrics such as salmon, and steelhead trout. -channel stability -water withdrawals Currently being developed for -sedimentation -presence of metals in water or bull trout, cutthroat troat and -cover and structure soil rainbow trout -habitat type -predation -temperature -fish pathogens Environmental quality: -confinement -dissolved oxygen -metals in water -turbidity -water withdrawals Biological characteristics of focal species -inter-species competition -intra-species interaction -food availability -life stages -survival factors Salmon population NOAA 2004 aquatic freshwater and marine physical - biological (surface salmon migrational territory Salmon Salmon population demographics: modeling (information is temperatures, plankton (from freshwater to open seas) -feeding patterns current) availability) - hundreds to >1000 miles -life history -reproductive factors -migratory patterns Stream/ocean temperatures and currents Biological affectors -food availability -loss to predators Program to Assist in EPA Version 1.0.8 terrestrial several types of forest, Territorial size and population Territorial size of one Territorial and migratory large GIS information on ecosystem, life history Tracking Critical Habitat Jan 2004 logged- and untouched pressures. (Allows community (herd) of a large terrestrial vertebrates of species of interest, location of breeding (PATCH) specification of a minimum vertebrate species sites, initial population size, movement area required for breeding.) parameters (territorial travel per year), growth parameters for survival and fecundity (exponential vs linear vs no growth) Model Agency/ Year Main Medium Ecosystem classification Environmental stressors Spatial Scale Species Input parameters Company Integrating ecological ORD 2003 aquatic Watershed areas -Land use changes in Individual watershed area Any aquatic species in a Ecological risk component: risk assessment and watershed areas (This guidance emphasizes watershed area Use any available data to determine risk economic analysis in -Chemical stressors input of affected communities, (e.g., watershed characteristics, pollutant watersheds: A which limits size of study area) loading, changes to land use, species conceptual approach richness, community structure, etc.) Economic/Sociocultural component: Use any available data on possible changes to water uses and land uses from different management alternatives Natural Resource NOAA Feb-00 aquatic Coastal & Marine Point source chemical spill Marine and Great Lakes Wide array of marine and Local physical characteristics (air and Damage Assessment Environments (CME) or "provinces" such as Great Lakes species including water temperature, wind and current Model (NRDAM) Great Lakes Environment Puget Sound plants, fish, birds, and marine speed) (GLE) Bering Sea Shelf mammals Nature of spill (date, amount, toxicity) Tampa Bay Biological characteristics of species included in model (reproductive rate and food chain) National Water Pollution ORD/OW Version 2.1 - aquatic Inland U.S. surface waters -Nutrient and conventional State / Regional / National Recreational fish species - Parameters input by user: Control Assessment (devpd by 2003 (does not include coastal loadings (point and nonpoint level inland water systems Effects are incorporated Additional pollutant loadings data Model (NWPCAM) Research waters, Great Lakes, large sources) indirectly, because water Triangle estuaries) -Toxic pollutants (point quality measures are linked to Parameters built in: Institute) sources only) economic values associated -River reach files for almost all inland U.S. with change in recreational water bodies (location, dimensions) uses, including fishing. -National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) -Pollutant loadings data from EPA (Note: Effects to any particular databases (GAGE data, PCS, NEEDS, species effects are not IFD, and STORET) incorporated directly. However, the model evaluates (Note: NWPCAM is designed for analyzing water quality, which would change in water pollution control policies, affect species health.) so input is generally defined by change in permitted releases of a regulated pollutant.) Acid Deposition Impacts Abt Associates 2002 aquatic Appalachian mountain Acidic stresses from Streams in the Northern Brook trout Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of on Brook Trout Fishing Inc. streams atmospheric deposition, Plateau, Blue Ridge, and streams from the Model of Acidification of precipitation and groundwater South regions of the South Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) ; contamination Appalcian Region Number of stream miles for each ANC category (i.e., chronically acidic, episodic acidic, and etc.) by SAMI region. Categorical dose-response of brook trout abundance to pH changes Recreational usage of streams Economic value of species of interest (brook trout) Model Agency/ Year Main Medium Ecosystem classification Environmental stressors Spatial Scale Species Input parameters Company Superfund Risk EPA 1997 aquatic or Can be applied to any Single or multiple point source Site of chemical spill or larger Can be applied to any species Contaminant parameters and Assessments terrestrial ecosystem chemical spill industrial site with multiple for which information on environmental setting: spills sensitivity to toxics is available -type of facility -suspected contaminants and amount released -neighboring habitats (esp. water bodies and wetlands) -soil and water types, land uses, dominant vegetation -local animal species Exposure parameters: -area-use factor (how much of habitat is within contaminated area) -bioavailability -most sensitive life stage for species of interest -body weight/ingestion rates -bioaccumulation -exposure pathway Dose-response information including no- observed-adverse-effects-level (NOAEL) for chemical spilled Framework Modeled endpoints Current links to Comments/ Case Studies economic valuation Limitations Simulates fate and transport of biomass, energy, Spatial and temporal distribution of None Very data intensive and chemicals within an ecosystem. chemicals within the ecosystem Environmental fate includes nutrient cycling, Changes in population biomass (day to oxygen dynamics, toxic organic chemical phases day) and bioaccumulation Biological effects include food consumption, growth and reproduction, natural mortality, acute and chronic toxicity to plankton, aquatic plants, and functionally defined fish populations (I.e. forage, game, and bottom fish) 1. US EPA, Office of Water, 2000. 2. Mauriello and Park, 2002. Uses lab assay data on individual-level effects of Endpoints are for single species at None RAMAS Ecotox is a slightly a toxic chemical to determine population-level selected chemical concentrations: older program, and does not effect with a deterministic life stage matrix model, -Growth rate appear to be widely used. and compares this result to population model -Population size However, it directly results for a control (unaffected) population. It -Risk of extinction incorporates toxicity data, uses differential equations and treats uncertainty while the Metapop and GIS by using a Monte Carlo framework. programs do not. It is flexible, Spencer and Ferson, and allows for different dose- 1998 (Note: It is part of response models; population the User's Manual for growth models; and chemical the software, to which uptake models. we do not have access. We have materials that reference and summarize it.) The model is not widely known in academia, and few publications cover the model. Spatially structured life stage matrix model/ Intermediate endpoints: None To incorporate toxic effects, Metapopulation model. Model runs multiple -Rate of dispersal need additional steps to simulations, automatically changing parameters -Subpopulation characteristics (#, location, estimate toxic chemical to analyze the sensitivity of risks to input data. 1 size, carrying capacity) impacts to the habitat and to to 500 populations of a single species can be -Correlation of species population size with demographic parameters, and modeled. each habitat variable (e.g., habitat size, then input these values into quality, location, etc.) the model. Final endpoints: -Risk of extinction -Abundance & distribution of individuals in the metapop USEPA Region 1, 2003 Framework Modeled endpoints Current links to Comments/ Case Studies economic valuation Limitations A fate and transport model determines the spatial Spatially and temporally explicit effects of None distribution of chemical contamination. Acute chemical on species of interest. This toxicity, i.e mortality, for a species is obtained includes acute and chronic effects such as through probabilistic modeling of exposure and mortality (percent of species killed in initial sensitivity. Random values are chosen for event) and indirect effects on survival, exposure parameters or pathways and dose- reproduction, and growth rate (population response model for sensitivity to determine a estimates based on mortality in specific life hazard quotient. Multiple iterations determine stages) what percentage of a population will die given the application of pesticide in question. Similar probabilistic methods are used for chronic effects on survival, reproduction and growth at different LaPoint et al., 2001 life stages (incorporates 2 case studies) Matrix models project population size using Population size in a specified time period. None fucntions based on initial population size, growth rate, reproduction, and mortality. They can be age or life stage structured, including different numbers of stages based on the species. Toxic effects are incorporated by inputting the model 1.U.S. DOE, 2001 with values for growth rate, reproduction, and 2.Kuhn, A. et al. (EPA, mortality as changed by the toxic stressor. Atlantic Ecology Division), 2001 3. Crutchfield and Ferson, 2000 This model uses a diagnostic species to rate the This model establishes "habitat value" None Primarily uses inputs to rank ecological health of a river. Diagnostic species based on biological performance, i.e. streams in terms of their include any one of chinook, coho, or chum biological productivity and carrying quality for fish species. Does salmon, and steelhead trout, with potential for capacity of the stream for a focal species. not explicitly deal with toxicity. bull trout, cutthroat trout and rainbow trout. A life Life history diversity (numbers of stage model is used to predict biological individuals in each life stage), productivity performance for the target species. The (breeding rate) and capacity (maximum difference between estimated potential sustainable population) is calculated for productivity and actual productivity is used to different portions of the stream and identify management actions to help achieve compared against a baseline without higher population levels for the focal species. environmental stressors. Mobrand Biometrics, 2001. Uses a life stage model to predict future Spatially-explicit patterns in salmon None Species-specific; Designed for No case studies population patterns demographics: Pacific region, but may be -migratory patterns adaptable for other regions. -growth rate -mortality at different life stages -productivity Risk of extinction or endangerment (reaching below replacement level population numbers) Life stage Spatially-explicit population dynamics of None Essentially for modeling No case studies territorial terrestrial vertebrate species migration and breeding including detailed GIS maps of all output patterns of single species. No components. toxicity component. Model is -Number of births still under active development -Number of deaths as of January 2004. -Emigration/Immigration to territory -Number of individuals in each life stage Framework Modeled endpoints Current links to Comments/ Case Studies economic valuation Limitations Guidance for ecological risk assessment that Appropriate measures of ecological Various forms of This framework for incorporates stakeholder values endpoints based on data avail, e.g. Index economic valuation can approaching integration of of Biotic Integrity, species richness, water be applied: preference economic analysis quality, etc. surveys of local affected emphasizes stakeholder input Appropriate measures of economic population (WTP); at all levels of risk assessment endpoints based on data avail, e.g., change in income; and valuation; probably best qualitative description of change to qualitative analysis of used for local-scale studies. employment or beneficial water uses, or economic impacts. 3 case studies are quantitative WTP for land management incorporated in this alternatives guidance document. Environmental fate (Physical Fates Submodel) -Physical Fates Submodel: Distribution and Damages from injury to (1) Designed specifically for Life stage/ Food chain (Biological Submodel) concentration of pollutants on the surface, included species; lost marine and great lakes Direct cost of clean-up (Restoration Submodel) along shorelines, in the water column, and recreational use of environments; (2) The Indirect cost (Value Submodel) in sediments beaches and economic studies used in this -Biological Submodel: Number of species fishing/hunting grounds model are dated (conducted lost: (1)direct losses (mortality) from short- (if beach closure and before 1996) and applicable to term exposure to spill; (2) indirect mortality fishery closure relatively few selected species from food web losses information is available); that have recreational uses. -Restoration Submodel: Recommended cost of clean-up restoration activities (e.g., restoration/clean- measures up, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of equivalent), cost of restoration activitieis Ando et al., 2004 -Value Submodel: Value of lost use of (incorporates 3 case resources for hunting, fishing, birdwatching studies) and beach visitation Models pollutant transport in surface water to -Instream pollutant concentration across Estimates annualized (1) Only uses one study determine water quality; Instream pollutant river/stream system (translates the benefits of various CWA- (Carson and Mitchell 1993) for concentration across river/stream system are concentration into a water quality index related policies. Links WTP values. (2) Limited ability translated into a water qulity index value; water value) pollutant concentration to value changes in toxic quality index determines designated use support -11 water quality parameters (including results to changes in pollutant concentrations; of the affected waterbody; Toxic pollutant Biological oxygen demand, Dissolved recreational uses concentrations are compared with AWQC for oxygen, Total organic nitrogen, Chlorides, (boating, fishing, aquatic species; Changes in designated stream Fecal coliform, Algae, Total suspended swimming), and applies uses are also linked to valuation study of water solids, etc.) valuation data (WTP) on quality -Instream flow and velocity these uses along with -Changes to the supporting uses (boating, Census data to fishing, swimming) of the water bodies determine economic resulting from changed water quality benefits. (specifically, total stream miles that would support each beneficial use) -Annual economic benefits of defined 1. USEPA, Office of policy scenarios Water, 2002. A regression model links brook trout biomass to pH level of stream Uses a benefit valuation Location specific. Currently No additional case stream's ANC. Brook trout abundance function from a study by focused on one species (brook studies. Changes in monetary value of brook trout Ahn (1997) to estimate trout), but may be adaptable to fishing due to changes in brook trout the change in the value other trout species. populations under different atmospheric of brook trout fishing deposition scenarios under different acid deposition scenarios. Framework Modeled endpoints Current links to Comments/ Case Studies economic valuation Limitations Conceptual models designed on a case by case -Survival, growth and reproduction of Economic cost is Superfund does not have one 1. Johnston et al., 2002 basis species of interest, esp. whether these are calculated based on model to perform ecological 2. Johnston et al., 2001 -Fate and transport to identify major exposure at a rate sufficient for population remediation costs of risk assessment. It has 3. Brauner, D. Personal pathways to released chemical sustainability returning ecosystem to guidelines for assessing risk, communication. -Effect on susceptible species is hazard quotient- -Other demographic characteristics such non-toxic levels but these simply outline what based as diversity and abundance of species to consider such as different -Hazard quotient based on NOAEL and exposure pathways and dose- LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse effects response levels. level) for a given chemical and species Measurement endpoints are (All measures are example measures with not specified, but rather case-dependent specifics. No particular depend on "how many and measures are recommended for all cases.) which lines of evidence are needed to support risk- management decisions." Ecological Risk Case Studies Model Case Study (Title) Author Year Ecosystem Environmental Spatial scale Affected species Modeled endpoints classification stressors RAMAS Ecotox RAMAS Ecotoxicology, Version Spencer and 1998 Aquatic - Mirex (organochloride Regional - fathead minnow Probability of % population decline (predicts 1.0a. User's Manual. Vol 2: Ferson freshwater insecticide) Midwestern Lakes (Pimephales probabilty for 0% decline to 100% decline, in Ecological Risk Assessment for promelas) intervals of 2%,e.g. chance of 2%, 4%, 6%, Structured Populations. etc decline) RAMAS Metapop A Stochastic Population Model U.S. EPA, 2003 Vernal pools PCB's Local - wood frogs (Rana -Population size in 10 years (population size Incorporating PCB Effects for Wood Housatonic River sylvatica) is predicted using vital rates for an Region 1 Frogs (Rana sylvatica) Breeding in unaffected population, and size is predicted Vernal Pools Associated with the using vital rates for an affected population) Housatonic River -Risk of population extinction (using vital Pittsfield to Lenoxdale, rates for an unaffected and affected Massachusetts population) Level II -- EPA, OPP Probabilistic Models and T. LaPoint, P. 2001 Agricultural field Pesticide (ChemX) Local -- within a generic bird species Acute mortality in birds after field is treated Methodologies: Advancing the Mineau, and M. treated field with pesticides Ecological Risk Assessment Newmoan Process in the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs: A Probabilistic Model to Assess Acute Lethal Risk to Birds Level II -- EPA, OPP Probabilistic Models and T. LaPoint, P. 2001 Freshwater pond/ Pesticide (ChemX) Local -- farm pond Bluegill, sunfish, Acute mortality in freshwater fish after field is Methodologies: Advancing the Mineau, and M. small stream or stream within rainbow trout and an treated with pesticides Ecological Risk Assessment Newmoan pesticide treated extrapolated generic Process in the EPA Office of area species Pesticide Programs: A Probabilistic Model to Assess Risks to Aquatic Organisms NRDAM Loon Mortality in New England: I.F. Sidor, 2003 Freshwater lakes Lead Regional - New Loon Annual mortality in loons Mortality of the Common Loon in M.A. Pokras, A.R. England lakes New England, 1987 to 2000 Major, K.M. Taylor, R.M. Miconi NRDAM Natural Resource Damages: A.W. Ando, 2004 Estuarine island/ Landfill leachate: Local: Tulalip (no species targeted) Cost to replace the habitat services of the Methods and Cases M. Khanna, wetland anthracine, landfill on North 147 acres of wetlands A) Tulalip Landfill Superfund Site A. Wildermuth, benzopyrene, chrysene, Ebay Island S. Vig fluorine, naphthaline, arsenic, lead, chromium NRDAM Natural Resource Damages: A.W. Ando, 2004 Freshwater river PCBs from a paper mill Local: Lower Fox Birds (terns and bald Cost to restore habitat for terns, bald eagles Methods and Cases M. Khanna, River eagles) and and mink, as well as cost of lost recreational B) Lower Fox River A. Wildermuth, contaminated by mammals (esp. mink) services from fish advisories S. Vig paper facility NRDAM Natural Resource Damages: A.W. Ando, 2004 Estuarine lake Crude oil spill Local: Lake Barre Birds and marine Cost of lost biomass of marine organisms Methods and Cases M. Khanna, in the Terrebonne organisms (measured and birds C) Lake Barre. Texaco A. Wildermuth, estuary region of simply as biomass for Cost of restoration and/or replacement of S. Vig Louisiana each) habitat Cost of lost recreational use EDT -- Mobrand The EDT Method as Applied to Mobrand 2001 Freshwater rivers Confinement, Regional -- Pierce Salmon (chinook and Productivity: reproductive rate measured Pierce County Biometrics and streams obstruction, flow County coho) over a full generation variation, pH, metals, watersheds Capacity: maximum population size for one "miscellaneous toxic or more life history segments pollutants", temperature Life history diversity: represented by an index of the percentage of possible life cycle pathways having a productivity greater than 1. Aquatox Validation of AQUATOX Version US EPA, Office of 2000 Freshwater Agricultural runoff: Local: Coralville Algae, diatoms, Biomass for fish an invertebrates 1.66 with Data from Coralville Water reservoir fertilizer, pesticides, Reservoir (24800 phytoplankton, Concentrations of nutrients Reservoir, Iowa sediment, animal waste acres maximum, buffalofish, bluegill, 1820 acres bass minimum Aquatox An Adaptive Framework for David A Mauriello 2002 Freshwater Pesticide (dieldrin) Local: Coralville Largemouth bass Bass biomass Ecological Assessment and Richard A Park reservoir Reservoir (24800 Dieldrin risk to bass (as measured in Management acres maximum, probability of reduction in biomass) 1820 acres Concentration of dieldrin in bass minimum Watershed Analysis Evaluating Development US EPA, Office of 2003 Freshwater rivers Land use: high density Regional: Big (Not the focus of this Willingness to pay for economic and social -- EPA, ORD Alternatives for a High-Quality Research & and streams development, low Darby Creek study) services and environmental quality (local Stream Threatened by Urbanization: Development density ranchettes, low watershed (across income base, distance to employment, open Big Darby Creek Watershed density clusters, all six Ohio counties) space, proximity to police and fire services, agriculture indexed quality of stream) Watershed Analysis Valuing Biodiversity in a Rural US EPA, Office of 2003 Freshwater rivers Toxic chemicals, Regional: Clinch Native fish and Willingness to pay for complete recovery, -- EPA, ORD Valley: Clinch and Powell River Research & and streams sedimentation, exotic and Powell River mussel species partial recovery, or continued decline of Watershed Development species, watershed (9971 native species overexploitation sq km) NWPCAM Environmental and Economic U.S. EPA, 2002 Aquatic - surface Nutrient loadings from National - All 7 benefits studies NWPCAM was used for only 1 of 7 benefits Benefit Analysis of Final Revisions freshwater animal wastes/manure surface were conducted as studies conducted. NWPCAM was used to Office of Water to the National Pollutant Discharge streams and at regulated animal freshwater part of this report. model: Elimination System Regulation and rivers in feeding operations systems in The study involving -Monetary value of resulting improvement in the Effluent Guidelines for contiguous U.S. contiguous U.S. NWPCAM does not water quality (based on change to water Concentrated Animal Feeding consider species quality index, miles of water with improved Operations. effects. 2 other water quality, and willingness to pay for benefits studies degrees of improved water quality.) evaluate effects on fish, and shellfish. Other benefits studies modeled monetary value of: -reduced fish kills -improved shellfish harvest -reduced nitrate contamination of private wells -reduced contamination of animal water supplies -reduced public water treatment costs Matrix Models Estimation of Potential Population U.S. 2001 Ecosystem is not Toxic chemicals Local / Regional Selected bird and Population size for individual bird species Level Effects of Contaminants on specified. mammal species for after 100 years. Department of Wildlife which data were Energy collected (report does not specify particular species) Matrix Models Evaluation of the efficacy of Kuhn A, Munns 2001 aquatic chemical stressor - para- Local - Lab-scale Opossum shrimp Population size and growth rate of extrapolation population modeling to WR Jr, Champlin nonylphenol (organic study (Americamysis bahia) Americamysis bahia after more than 3 predict the dynamics of D, McKinney R, compound, suspected generations Americamysis bahia populations in Tagliabue M, endocrine disruptor) the laboratory Serbst J, Gleason T. Matrix Models Predicting recovery of a fish Crutchfield J and 2000 Aquatic - cadmium Local - part of the Bluegill sunfish Population size by age group, within and population after heavy metal impacts Ferson S freshwater Hyco Reservoir (Lepomis after 2 years (North Carolina) macrochirus) Matrix Models Projecting population-level response Gleason T R, W R 2000 Estuary Lead Local - at a Purple sea urchin Population growth rate at 4 different of purple sea urchins to lead Munns, and D E Superfund site (Arbacia punctulata) concentrations of lead in suspended contamination for an estuarine Nacci sediment ecological risk assessment Superfund Screening Level Ecological Risk James Chapman 1995 Wetlands Chromium, lead, Local - 20 acre Animals: Bald eagle, Hazard quotient Assessment of the Camp Perry mercury, copper landfill in Port american bittern, Landfill, Port Clinton, OH leached from the landfill Clinton, OH least bittern, king rail, black tern Plants: Southern wapato, slender goosefoot, smith's bulrush Superfund Elliott Ditch/Wea Creek Ecological David Brauner 2001 Freshwater 18 pesticides, 23 Local - creek Shellfish: fanshell, Hazard quotient Risk Assessment stream inorganics (metals), and running through ring pink, rough 30 other organics several urban and pigtoe, pyramid including PCBs rural residential pigtoe, rabbitsfoot areas Fish: bluebreast darner Superfund Final Baseline Human Health and RETEC, Inc. 2002 Freshwater several PCBs, dioxins, Greater local -- Fish: walleye, carp Hazard quotient Ecological Risk Assessment: Lower stream furans, DDT and approximately 40 Birds: common tern, Sediment Quality Threshold (SQT) Fox River and Green Bay, metabolites, and three miles of Forster's tern, doublt- Wisconsin metals (arsenic, lead, streambed crested cormorant, mercury) bald eagle Mammals: mink Superfund Pelagic species (phytoplankton, mussels, sea urchin, Endpoints were evaluated for representative winter flounder), species in each affected species community. Epibenthic species For animal species, endpoints included (lobster, mussels, tissue concentration, species density, algae), Benthic richness, evenness, biomass, abundance, community organism body size, mortality, and dietary (amphipods), exposure. For plant species, endpoints Johnston R K, W Local - nearshore Eelgrass plants, Salt included plant morphology, biomass, tissue R Munns, P L depositional area marsh community concentration, and species cover. Exposure Tyler, P Marajh- off a naval (Spartina, amphipods, endpoints also modeled, including Weighing the evidence of ecological Whittemore, K shipyard (Clark mollusks, contaminant concentration in sediment and risk from chemical contamination in Finkelstein, K Cove, at gastropods), Avian water. Levels of risk (high, medium, and low) the estuarine environment adjacent Munney, F T Portsmouth Naval species (Canada were assigned by a combination of: to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Short, A Melville, Shipyard, goose, black duck, -Hazard Quotient Kittery, Maine, USA and S P Hahn 2002 Estuary Lead Superfund site) osprey, herring gull) -Weight of evidence Superfund Local - nearshore -Probability of an effect (greater than 1% depositional area reduction in biological response e.g. off a naval fertilization, survival), given the probability of Multiple contaminants - shipyard (Clark exposure; Lead, metals, Cove, at -Probability of tissue or sediment/water Johnston R K, W pesticides, PAH, Portsmouth Naval contaminant concentration exceeding the A Probabilistic Analysis to Determine R Munns, D E fluorine, organic Shipyard, benchmark (probabilistic hazard quotient Ecological Risk Drivers Nacci. 2001 Estuary chemicals Superfund site) Mussels, sea urchins endpoints) Superfund Plants; soil invertebrates; hebivores: meadow vole, northern short- tailed shrew, mice, deer; Avian species: graniverous birds, warbler, hawks, owls, American robin, rails, cranes, ducks; amphibians; Carnivores: snakes, -Hazard quotient endpoints (e.g., chemical [summary of coyotes; Freshwater concentration in sediment and tissues, Assessment benthic community; compared to benchmark concentrations). Endpoints Fish: Northern pike; -Additional endpoints to be collected include: obtained from snapping turtles, benthic invertebrate community structure David Brauner, Not Freshwater otter, mink, osprey, relative to reference areas; chemical St. Regis Paper Company Site and EPA Region 5 availabl aquatic and Multiple contaminants - belted kingfisher, bioavailability analysis for metals; sediment City Dump Pit Site, Cass Lake, MN Superfund] e terrestrial metals, other chemicals Local great blue heron ingestion rates Recommended for Benefits Assessment x x x x