Earth Wind System Worksheet by wot19362

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									Investigating
    Earth
       Chapter One
                              Topic 1.1
                A New View of the Earth
Technological advances and
environmental incidents have
encouraged scientists to look at the
earth as a system. A system is a kind
of model that allows scientists to study
a process or phenomenon with time as
a variable. Because it exchanges little
matter with its surroundings, Earth is
an essentially closed system.
                               Topic 1.2
         The Earth System’s Four Spheres
The earth system includes four spheres: the
hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and
biosphere. The atmosphere is the gaseous
envelope surrounding the Earth. The
geosphere consists of all the physical
features on Earth except water. The earth’s
water makes up the hydrosphere. Living
things, including plants, animals and
people, make up the biosphere. The
spheres interact and change constantly.
                                   Topic 1.3
                        Cycles and the Earth
All water on Earth is continually moving
through the water cycle, which includes
evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration,)
and precipitation. A biogeochemical cycle
involves the movement of an element, such as
carbon, through the four spheres of the Earth
system. The Earth system has three energy
sources, solar energy, geothermal energy, and
tidal energy.
             Key Vocabulary
atmosphere       closed system
cycle            carbon cycle
biosphere        energy cycle
geosphere        hydrosphere
model            open system
solar energy     system
tidal energy     water cycle
geothermal energy
evapotranspiration
Earth system science
         1.1 A New View of Earth

There are four main branches to
Earth science. Each is connected to
the other. Because the field is so
large, a broad understanding of the
subject is useful, but specialization
in a particular area is important.
Oceanography             Meteorology
Geology                  Astronomy
                         Earth Science

  The study of Earth materials
  and processes.
Earth science is based on the assumption that the
 causes of natural phenomena can be discovered
 through careful observation and experimentation.
                                     geology

  The study of Earth’s surface
  and interior as well as all the
  forces that shape it.
This includes a study of the earth’s crust, the
 forces that shape it and how fossils are used to
 study the earth’s past.
                        oceanography

  The study of the oceans and
  seas.
3/4s of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
 Oceanographers study tides, currents, and waves.
 They look at the structure and minerals located on
 the ocean’s floor, and the plant and animal life.
                       meteorology
  The processes that govern
  Earth’s atmosphere.
The meteorologist observes the variations in
 the atmosphere that produce weather.
                          astronomy

The study of the universe.
The moon, planets, sun, stars and the
 universe are a constant and ever-changing
 area of study.
Observations made by earth scientists have
 contributed greatly to our knowledge of the world
 around us, enabling us to use resources wisely and
 increase the quality of our lives.
Technology has allowed scientists to see the earth in
 new ways. GPS, satellite imaging, NEXRAD
 RADAR, SONAR, and deep-sea submersibles are
 just some of the tools available today. The data
 gathered allow scientists to make models, or visual
 representations of a process or phenomenon. A
 system is a kind of model. It is a picture used to
 represent something that happens on earth. Systems
 can be open or closed. In a closed system, only
 energy is exchanged. In an open system, both
 energy and matter are exchanged.
              Closed System




Open System
             Homework



      Read Textbook pages 4 – 7.
Complete Worksheet A New View of Earth
    1.2   The Earth System’s Four Spheres

Earth is unique in the solar system. It is the
only planet known to support life. This is
due to the interaction of the four spheres.

Four spheres or areas are studied. They
include:
hydrosphere      lithosphere
geosphere        atmosphere
                             atmosphere
  The envelope of gas that
  surrounds the Earth. It is one of
  the 4 spheres.

It is composed of a mixture of gases that includes
 oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
 Changing these changes air pressure, wind,
 humidity, and temperature.
                                geosphere
  The rocks, mountains,
  lithospheric plates and other
  physical features of the Earth. It
  is one of the 4 spheres.
The ocean basins, the rock beneath the surface, and
 all the layers of the earth are included. Volcanoes,
 earthquakes deposition and erosion are some of the
 forces that shape the earth.
                          hydrosphere
  All the water in the Earth
  system. It is one of the 4
  spheres.
97% of our water is salty. Most of the remaining
 3% is frozen in the ice caps. Only about ½ of 1%
 is drinkable.
                                       biosphere

  All living organisms and their
  environments.
 The area of science in which biology and earth science are
  closely related is called ecology. It explores the relationship
  between the environment and the organisms that inhabit it. A
  community of organisms and the place in which they live is
  called their ecosystem. The words ecology and ecosystem
  come from the Greek word oikos meaning “house.” The
  largest ecosystem is called the biosphere. It encompasses all
  life on earth and the physical environment that supports it.
Ecosystems must be balanced in
order to survive. This can be
threatened by pollution, the
introduction of things harmful to the
environment. Some waste products
are biodegradable, which means that
they can be broken down by
microorganisms into harmless
substances.
Interactions among these four spheres
constantly change and shape the
earth. Change can occur quickly or
slowly. Cold can kill a corn crop,
volcanoes can destroy towns, and
hurricanes can wash away thousands
of people. These incidents happen
quickly. Erosion can take millions of
years, the formation of the Grand
Canyon is an example.
 A clear bag has been placed over the
 plant in the front of the room for the
 last two days. It has been secured
 with tape. Draw what you see in this
 box.

What is happening in the bag?
How does this connect the
 hydrosphere?
And the atmosphere?
Critical Thinking

Describe the interactions among the
 spheres that would occur during a spring
 rainstorm, here in Hyde Park.

Is the geosphere static?
 (Unchanging- it stays the same)
          Homework
  Read Textbook pages 8 – 12.
     Complete Worksheet
The Earth System’s Four Spheres
          1.3 Cycles and the Earth

A cycle is a series of events that
repeats itself. Some are short,
seconds, while others last millions
of years. In these cycles, the total
material is neither gained nor lost.
This is called the Law of the
Conservation of Mass. The water
cycle is an example.
evaporation + transpiration =
  evapotranspiration
               What form of
               energy drives
               the water cycle?
In a biogeochemical cycle, an element or
compound is changed as it moves
through the system. Carbon goes
through one such cycle, as does nitrogen.
Carbon is found as part of a gas in the
atmosphere, in organic matter (plants
and animals), is given off as organisms
decay, volcanoes erupt, and fires burn.
It enters the ocean as a dissolved gas,
plants as a photosynthetic gas, and the
atmosphere as animals exhale.
In an energy cycle, the
amount that enters must
equal the amount that
leaves. This is also
referred to as an energy
budget. There are three
main sources of energy
for earth’s energy
budget.
Sources of Earth’s Energy

 Solar
 1. Percentage of total energy (99.895%)
 2. comes from nuclear fusion reactions in the sun
 3. drives :
     a. winds
     b. ocean currents
     c. waves
Geothermal
1. Percentage of total energy (0.013%)
2. Comes from decay of radioactive materials
3. Drives:
    a. volcanoes
    b. geysers
    c. earthquakes
    d.movements in the Rock Cycle
Tidal
1. Percentage of total energy (0.002%)
2. Comes from pull of t he moon on Earth’s
      oceans
3. Drives:
      a. Slows down Earth’s rotation
The Law of Thermodynamics
has two postulates. The first
says that energy can never be
created or destroyed, only
changed from one form to
another. The second says that
when energy changes, it is
converted from a more useful
form to a less useful form.
Solar energy is a form of energy
that is affected by the surface that
it comes in contact with. Some is
absorbed, some reflected. This is
shown as a percentage, and is
called albedo. The forest has a
low albedo, ice has a high albedo.
Earth’s overall albedo is about
30%. Changes in the landscape by
natural and man-made events can
cause this percentage to change.
What has a higher albedo: (Circle one)
a. smooth, light surface
b. rough, light surface
c smooth, dark surface
d. rough, dark surface

Humans cut down a large tract of forest,
 burn the cut trees, and turn the land into a
 city. Predict what changes are going to
 result, based on our discussion about the
 carbon cycle, energy budget, and albedo.
             Homework
    Read Textbook pages 13 – 19.
Complete Worksheet Cycles and the Earth

								
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