Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School

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					Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School
Crawford Bay, British Columbia

Executive Summary
Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School is designed to accommodate up to 200 students
from Kindergarten to Grade 12, and replaces the existing school, which was built in various
stages beginning in 1946. Additionally, the community raised $850,000 to add to the school’s
program with a community tness centre, a pre-school/daycare facility, and a number of
multi-purpose rooms.

Located in Crawford Bay on the shores of Kootenay Lake in the southeastern corner of British
Columbia, the new school serves the East Shore communities, a population of approximately
1500. Crawford Bay is a small rural community and with the exception of electricity has no
Municipal services. Hence the new school had to be almost completely self-su cient (o the

Kootenay Lake is well known for its natural beauty, and environmental awareness ranks
high among priorities of local residents, who demanded the new school be designed to an
advanced level of sustainable design. The primary design considerations were identi ed early
on, and included the following:

1. Preserve Natural Site Features and Vegetation.
2. Integrate School and Community, Recognizing the Unique Qualities Inherent to a Small
    Rural K-12 School
3. Create a Healthy Environment for Learning, Working, and Recreation, in a Friendly, Non-
    threatening Atmosphere.
4. Social Justice – creating employment for local residents.
5. Resource and Energy E ciency.
6. Building Longevity and Economy of Maintenance.

The new community school is designed to achieve LEED® Gold Certi cation, and incorporates
leading-edge sustainable design strategies. As a true community based project, the
construction was carried out almost entirely by local labour.
1. Strategic Decisions
The building is designed as an all-wood structure in recognition of the importance of timber and a history of logging in this
community, using native local species as much as possible. As well, the local Artisans were invited to include their products and
creations in the building.

Objective: Design the building to maximize opportunities for local employment.
   Response: Maximum use of Wood materials;
               Simple geometries, repetitive glue-lam structural grid
               Construction management with “hire local” mandate

Objective: Healthful Learning Environment maximizing access to daylight and views
   Response: Large expanses of glass to all occupied areas, including circulation spaces, classrooms, social spaces, o ces, and
               the gymnasium.

Objective: Energy E ciency
   Response: Passive solar heat gains through the strategic use of glazing to capture low sun angles, deciduous trees that shade
               in summer and allow solar gain in the winter months. Large roof overhangs provide shading to prevent glare and
               overheating in the summer.

                                                                                                                                    1    LOBBY
                                                                                                                                    2    ADMINISTRATION
                                                                                                                                    3    LIBRARY
                                                                                                                                    4    COMPUTER LAB
                                                                                                                                    5    STUDENT COMMONS
                                                                                                                                    6    COUNSELLING
                                                                                                                                    7    SERVICE ROOM
                                                                                                                                    8    STORAGE
                                                                                                                                    9    ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM
                                                                                                                                    10   KINDERGARTEN
                                                                                                                                    11   PRE-SCHOOL
                                                                                                                                    12   COVERED PLAY AREA
                                                                                                                                    13   SPECIAL ED.
                                                                                                                                    14   COURTYARD
                                                                                                                                    15   FLEX CLASSROOM
                                                                                                                                    16   GYMNASIUM
                                                                                                                                    17   GYMNASIUM ANCILLARY
                                                                                                                                    18   GYM LOBBY
                                                                                                                                    19   COMMUNITY ROOMS
                                                                                                                                    20   PERFORMING ARTS (STAGE)
                                                                                                                                    21   MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM (AUDIENCE)
                                                                                                                                    22   FOODS LAB
                                                                                                                                    23   SERVERY
                                                                                                                                    24   CLASSROOM (HIGH SCHOOL)
                                                                                                                                    25   SCIENCE LAB
                                                                                                                                    26   SCIENCE PREP
                                                                                                                                    27   VISUAL ARTS
                                                                                                                                    28   INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
                                                                                                                                    29   IND ED. ANCILLARY
                                                                                                                                    30   IND. ED. COVERED WORK AREA
                                                                                                                                    31   COMMUNITY FITNESS CENTRE
                                                                                                                                    32   PERF. ARTS MEZZANINE
                                                                                                                                    33   TEACHER PREP ROOM
2. Community                                                                             Courtyard

Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School is the quintessential community
project. It is the embodiment of the adage “it takes a village to raise a child.” In a
small community the school is the heart of the community, and the new school
is the most important event that happened to this community in decades. As a
testament of their grass-roots commitment, local residents raised an astounding
$850,000 to add community facilities to the project, including a family tness
place, a pre-school, and several multi-purpose rooms. The school serves the
entire community from infants to senior citizens.

Community involvement took place at all levels. The architect was a former
student, and graduate of the old Crawford Bay school. The construction manager
is a local builder and resident of Crawford Bay, and much of the school was built
with local labour.

The new school is centrally located to serve all of the communities that comprise
the East Shore equally, thus minimizing travel distances. There are no local
parking by-laws, but the parking lot was designed to meet but not exceed the
need for sta and community needs. Bicycle parking facilities and shower rooms
are provided to promote the use of alternative transportation.

 Community Fitness Centre                                                                            Gymnasium
3. Site Ecology
The 14 acre site was formerly used as a logging            1 SCHOOL
equipment storage and maintenance compound.                2 COURTYARD
                                                           3 MAIN ENTRANCE
Accordingly, there was contamination in the form           4 COVERED PLAY AREA
of hydrocarbons, as well as general debris including       5 AMPHITHEATRE
                                                           6 TECH ED COMPOUNT
old vehicle bodies, rubber tires, among others buried      7 PRESCHOOL PLAY AREA
and/or strewn over the much of the site. The new           8 OUTDOOR CLASSROOM
                                                           9 DROP OFF ZONE
school development included restoration of the site        10 PARKING
including decontamination, and habitat restoration.        11 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
                                                           12 SENIOR PLAYFIELD
The removal of natural vegetation was minimized, and       13 JUNIOR PLAYFIELD
care was taken to t the new building, parking areas        14 WALKING TRAIL
                                                           15 TOBOGGAN HILL
and play elds into the site with a minimum of earth        16 NATURAL WOODED AREA
movement and other site disturbance.                       17 BIOSWALE

Landscaping strategies include the planting of native,
and drought resistant plant species. Natural vegetation
was preserved, and habitat maintained at the perimeter
of the site where a jogging trail was created to gently
meander through the trees.

The site is almost entirely self-contained. Water for
domestic use and re-protection is take from two wells
that were drilled for the new school. (A local resident
provided “witching” services). Rain water from the
roofs is directed onto landscaped catchment zones
on the ground by a series of ornamental scuppers
that add a delightful visual and sound e ect at times
of rain. Excess rain water is collected by a sub-surface
collection system and piped into a cistern to be used
for irrigation of play eld.

General storm water is absorbed by a series of bio-
swales from where it is in ltrated back into the ground
to re-charge the aquifer that feeds the wells, and the
cycle is thus completed.

Sewage e uent from the school is treated to tertiary
standards. This process culminates in six constructed
wetland zones where natural vegetation and wood
cellular bre remove any remaining nutrients from the
liquid, which then percolates back into the ground.

The school uses site ecology as a teaching tool,
including sustainable silviculture, composting program
and organic worm farm.
4. Light and Air
The basic plan organization is two single-         D Y           AL                   I            G                                         H                        T       I   N
loaded parallel corridors that serve the edu-
                                                   1     .       c         l   a          s                    s             r           o                   o        m
cational and communal spaces of the school.        2     .   p   t    er       ea         pc                    .h               e                   r        s       ’
Large expanses of glass located at the exte-       3     .       c         o          r        r               i         d               o               r
rior walls in conjunction with high clerestory     4     .       c         o          u                r             t       y                   a            r   d
windows located on the interior classroom
walls allow deep and even daylight penetra-
tion to instructional spaces. Corridors are
                                                                                      1                    2         3               4                        3   2
fully glazed on the exterior side to provide                                                                                                                              1
natural light to circulation and social areas.
Even the gymnasium including the tness
centre mezzanine are provided with glazing
to the full length of two opposing exterior
walls. The common washrooms in the centre
of the school also have access to daylight by
high clerestory windows.

Operable windows at the exterior walls in
combination with operable windows at the
overhead clerestory windows, create a chim-
ney e ect to facilitate natural ventilation. The
building’s mechanical system is controlled to
be shut down when natural ventilation is in
use. Furthermore, the opening vents at the
outside wall of the single-loaded corridors
allow natural cross-ventilation through the
classrooms and interior spaces.                                       Multi-purpose

The narrow, elongated oor plates are de-
signed so that nearly 100% of the occupied
  oor area is located within 7m of an operable
window. The gymnasium by virtue of its size
is the biggest exception to this.

Arti cial lights are controlled by daylight sen-
sors which are set up to progressively reduce
lighting levels depending on the intensity of
the natural light that enters the room. Total
electricity use of the school (including energy
for HVAC equipment and geothermal pumps)
is 90kwh/m2/year.

5. Water Conservation

also lls separate reservoir for re ghting, sprinkler system.

collection system and stored in a cistern for irrigation of play elds.
6. Energy Present and Future
The main energy source for the mechanical HVAC system is a closed loop geo-exchange system that involves 28,000 feet of
horizontal piping placed beneath the school’s play elds. A series of heat pumps placed along a “Utilidor” located beneath
the oor slab of the school. A propane red back up system is only used for peak loads during the coldest times in the winter.
Heat pumps and fans are powered by Hydro electricity (Electricity is provided by Fortis).

Passive Strategies:
The building’s HVAC system does not include mechanical air conditioning. The design allows passive cooling by means of
cross-ventilation provided by opening window vents through the school wings. See diagrams provided.

Large roof overhangs shade exterior walls and reduce solar gain during the summer months. In the winter, low angle sunlight
is permitted to enter the building through large expanses of glass. The concrete slab oor acts as a thermal mass that helps to
balance the temperature of the spaces.

The projected annual electricity consumption for the entire building is 366MJ/m2/year.

Future considerations:
The building is not reliant on fossil fuels with the exception of a back up system for peak-load demands, which could
alternatively be handled by expanding the geothermal eld. The low-slope and at roofs of the building allow for the addition
of photovoltaic panels that could reduce or eliminate the need for grid-supplied electricity.
                                                                                                                           Geoexchange installation


7. Materials and Resources
Occupant comfort and a healthful learning envi-
ronment were of paramount importance in the
design for this school. All materials used in the
building are LEED compliant in conformance with
the IEQ credits for low emitting materials. Floor
  nishes are linoleum, polished concrete, rubber,
porcelain tile, and maple hardwood for the gymna-
sium. Wall nishes are low VOC paints on drywall,
Larch wood slats over mineral wool acoustic
insulation, low voc MDF board, and some Tectum
acoustic panels. Ceilings are tectum panels, ex-
posed wood structure, Larch-wood slatted panels.

Sealants and nishes are non-toxic and low VOC.

The majority of structural and nishing products
are wood based, and/or include a recycled
content. As much as possible locally/regionally
manufactured and or harvested products were
sourced. As Crawford Bay is a logging and lumber
producing community, and the majority of the
wood products used in the structure and nishing
products, including the larch exterior siding and
wood slats used throughout the school were
locally grown, harvested, and milled!
8. Life Cycle Considerations
The anticipated service life of this building is a minimum of 50 years. The regular grid of
post and beam glu-lam structure allows ultimate exibility for future changes in use, as
all interior partitions are non-load bearing and can easily be modi ed and relocated.

Furthermore, bolted connections of the timber superstructure allow the entire building
skeleton to be disassembled and relocated, or components thereof to be reused.

As a school building, ease of maintenance and longevity requires a robustness of
 nishes. The corridor walls are designed to withstand a higher than usual wear and tear
as can be expected in a school environment. MDF panelling is used on lower surfaces,
capped by a solid wood chair rail, while upper regions of the walls are nished with slats
of larch wood, spaced and backed by acoustic insulation for an attractive nish and
functional acoustic treatment.

Corridor oors are concrete, that has been nished by a local craftsman to a nely
polished surface resembling terrazzo. Thus they are virtually maintenance free,
requiring only wet mopping (no wax required). Classroom oors are nished with
linoleum, which contains only natural products.
9. Education and Information Sharing
Crawford Bay Elementary Secondary School is the rst
school in BC to open that has been designed to LEED Gold
Certi cation standards, and is expecting to be certi ed in
the near future. As such it is receiving wide-spread attention
from both clients and the design industry. Already, a very
prominent architectural rm that “specializes” in green
design has indicated an interest in visiting the school.

As mentioned previously, the community has a keen
awareness of environmental issues, and the new school has
been published and written about in local media.

Moreover, the school will serve as a learning tool for
students and visitors. Graphic displays and educational
material will serve to educate visitors and remind students
and teachers of the green aspects of the school building.
Teachers will be encouraged to incorporate real examples
from the building in their course materials and exercises to
provide students with a tangible learning tool.