Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School Crawford Bay, British Columbia Executive Summary Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School is designed to accommodate up to 200 students from Kindergarten to Grade 12, and replaces the existing school, which was built in various stages beginning in 1946. Additionally, the community raised $850,000 to add to the school’s program with a community tness centre, a pre-school/daycare facility, and a number of multi-purpose rooms. Located in Crawford Bay on the shores of Kootenay Lake in the southeastern corner of British Columbia, the new school serves the East Shore communities, a population of approximately 1500. Crawford Bay is a small rural community and with the exception of electricity has no Municipal services. Hence the new school had to be almost completely self-su cient (o the grid); Kootenay Lake is well known for its natural beauty, and environmental awareness ranks high among priorities of local residents, who demanded the new school be designed to an advanced level of sustainable design. The primary design considerations were identi ed early on, and included the following: 1. Preserve Natural Site Features and Vegetation. 2. Integrate School and Community, Recognizing the Unique Qualities Inherent to a Small Rural K-12 School 3. Create a Healthy Environment for Learning, Working, and Recreation, in a Friendly, Non- threatening Atmosphere. 4. Social Justice – creating employment for local residents. 5. Resource and Energy E ciency. 6. Building Longevity and Economy of Maintenance. The new community school is designed to achieve LEED® Gold Certi cation, and incorporates leading-edge sustainable design strategies. As a true community based project, the construction was carried out almost entirely by local labour. 1. Strategic Decisions The building is designed as an all-wood structure in recognition of the importance of timber and a history of logging in this community, using native local species as much as possible. As well, the local Artisans were invited to include their products and creations in the building. Objective: Design the building to maximize opportunities for local employment. Response: Maximum use of Wood materials; Simple geometries, repetitive glue-lam structural grid Construction management with “hire local” mandate Objective: Healthful Learning Environment maximizing access to daylight and views Response: Large expanses of glass to all occupied areas, including circulation spaces, classrooms, social spaces, o ces, and the gymnasium. Objective: Energy E ciency Response: Passive solar heat gains through the strategic use of glazing to capture low sun angles, deciduous trees that shade in summer and allow solar gain in the winter months. Large roof overhangs provide shading to prevent glare and overheating in the summer. 1 LOBBY 2 ADMINISTRATION 3 LIBRARY 4 COMPUTER LAB 5 STUDENT COMMONS 6 COUNSELLING 7 SERVICE ROOM 8 STORAGE 9 ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM 10 KINDERGARTEN 11 PRE-SCHOOL 12 COVERED PLAY AREA 13 SPECIAL ED. 14 COURTYARD 15 FLEX CLASSROOM 16 GYMNASIUM 17 GYMNASIUM ANCILLARY 18 GYM LOBBY 19 COMMUNITY ROOMS 20 PERFORMING ARTS (STAGE) 21 MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM (AUDIENCE) 22 FOODS LAB 23 SERVERY 24 CLASSROOM (HIGH SCHOOL) 25 SCIENCE LAB 26 SCIENCE PREP 27 VISUAL ARTS 28 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 29 IND ED. ANCILLARY 30 IND. ED. COVERED WORK AREA 31 COMMUNITY FITNESS CENTRE 32 PERF. ARTS MEZZANINE 33 TEACHER PREP ROOM 2. Community Courtyard Crawford Bay Elementary-Secondary School is the quintessential community project. It is the embodiment of the adage “it takes a village to raise a child.” In a small community the school is the heart of the community, and the new school is the most important event that happened to this community in decades. As a testament of their grass-roots commitment, local residents raised an astounding $850,000 to add community facilities to the project, including a family tness place, a pre-school, and several multi-purpose rooms. The school serves the entire community from infants to senior citizens. Community involvement took place at all levels. The architect was a former student, and graduate of the old Crawford Bay school. The construction manager is a local builder and resident of Crawford Bay, and much of the school was built with local labour. The new school is centrally located to serve all of the communities that comprise the East Shore equally, thus minimizing travel distances. There are no local parking by-laws, but the parking lot was designed to meet but not exceed the need for sta and community needs. Bicycle parking facilities and shower rooms are provided to promote the use of alternative transportation. Community Fitness Centre Gymnasium 3. Site Ecology The 14 acre site was formerly used as a logging 1 SCHOOL equipment storage and maintenance compound. 2 COURTYARD 3 MAIN ENTRANCE Accordingly, there was contamination in the form 4 COVERED PLAY AREA of hydrocarbons, as well as general debris including 5 AMPHITHEATRE 6 TECH ED COMPOUNT old vehicle bodies, rubber tires, among others buried 7 PRESCHOOL PLAY AREA and/or strewn over the much of the site. The new 8 OUTDOOR CLASSROOM 9 DROP OFF ZONE school development included restoration of the site 10 PARKING including decontamination, and habitat restoration. 11 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS 12 SENIOR PLAYFIELD The removal of natural vegetation was minimized, and 13 JUNIOR PLAYFIELD care was taken to t the new building, parking areas 14 WALKING TRAIL 15 TOBOGGAN HILL and play elds into the site with a minimum of earth 16 NATURAL WOODED AREA movement and other site disturbance. 17 BIOSWALE Landscaping strategies include the planting of native, and drought resistant plant species. Natural vegetation was preserved, and habitat maintained at the perimeter of the site where a jogging trail was created to gently meander through the trees. The site is almost entirely self-contained. Water for domestic use and re-protection is take from two wells that were drilled for the new school. (A local resident provided “witching” services). Rain water from the roofs is directed onto landscaped catchment zones on the ground by a series of ornamental scuppers that add a delightful visual and sound e ect at times of rain. Excess rain water is collected by a sub-surface collection system and piped into a cistern to be used for irrigation of play eld. General storm water is absorbed by a series of bio- swales from where it is in ltrated back into the ground to re-charge the aquifer that feeds the wells, and the cycle is thus completed. Sewage e uent from the school is treated to tertiary standards. This process culminates in six constructed wetland zones where natural vegetation and wood cellular bre remove any remaining nutrients from the liquid, which then percolates back into the ground. The school uses site ecology as a teaching tool, including sustainable silviculture, composting program and organic worm farm. 4. Light and Air The basic plan organization is two single- D Y AL I G H T I N loaded parallel corridors that serve the edu- 1 . c l a s s r o o m cational and communal spaces of the school. 2 . p t er ea pc .h e r s ’ Large expanses of glass located at the exte- 3 . c o r r i d o r rior walls in conjunction with high clerestory 4 . c o u r t y a r d windows located on the interior classroom walls allow deep and even daylight penetra- tion to instructional spaces. Corridors are 1 2 3 4 3 2 fully glazed on the exterior side to provide 1 natural light to circulation and social areas. Even the gymnasium including the tness centre mezzanine are provided with glazing to the full length of two opposing exterior walls. The common washrooms in the centre of the school also have access to daylight by high clerestory windows. Operable windows at the exterior walls in combination with operable windows at the overhead clerestory windows, create a chim- ney e ect to facilitate natural ventilation. The building’s mechanical system is controlled to be shut down when natural ventilation is in use. Furthermore, the opening vents at the outside wall of the single-loaded corridors allow natural cross-ventilation through the classrooms and interior spaces. Multi-purpose The narrow, elongated oor plates are de- signed so that nearly 100% of the occupied oor area is located within 7m of an operable window. The gymnasium by virtue of its size is the biggest exception to this. Arti cial lights are controlled by daylight sen- sors which are set up to progressively reduce lighting levels depending on the intensity of the natural light that enters the room. Total electricity use of the school (including energy for HVAC equipment and geothermal pumps) is 90kwh/m2/year. Circulation 5. Water Conservation also lls separate reservoir for re ghting, sprinkler system. collection system and stored in a cistern for irrigation of play elds. 6. Energy Present and Future The main energy source for the mechanical HVAC system is a closed loop geo-exchange system that involves 28,000 feet of horizontal piping placed beneath the school’s play elds. A series of heat pumps placed along a “Utilidor” located beneath the oor slab of the school. A propane red back up system is only used for peak loads during the coldest times in the winter. Heat pumps and fans are powered by Hydro electricity (Electricity is provided by Fortis). Passive Strategies: The building’s HVAC system does not include mechanical air conditioning. The design allows passive cooling by means of cross-ventilation provided by opening window vents through the school wings. See diagrams provided. Large roof overhangs shade exterior walls and reduce solar gain during the summer months. In the winter, low angle sunlight is permitted to enter the building through large expanses of glass. The concrete slab oor acts as a thermal mass that helps to balance the temperature of the spaces. The projected annual electricity consumption for the entire building is 366MJ/m2/year. Future considerations: The building is not reliant on fossil fuels with the exception of a back up system for peak-load demands, which could alternatively be handled by expanding the geothermal eld. The low-slope and at roofs of the building allow for the addition of photovoltaic panels that could reduce or eliminate the need for grid-supplied electricity. Geoexchange installation West East 7. Materials and Resources Occupant comfort and a healthful learning envi- ronment were of paramount importance in the design for this school. All materials used in the building are LEED compliant in conformance with the IEQ credits for low emitting materials. Floor nishes are linoleum, polished concrete, rubber, porcelain tile, and maple hardwood for the gymna- sium. Wall nishes are low VOC paints on drywall, Larch wood slats over mineral wool acoustic insulation, low voc MDF board, and some Tectum acoustic panels. Ceilings are tectum panels, ex- posed wood structure, Larch-wood slatted panels. Sealants and nishes are non-toxic and low VOC. The majority of structural and nishing products are wood based, and/or include a recycled content. As much as possible locally/regionally manufactured and or harvested products were sourced. As Crawford Bay is a logging and lumber producing community, and the majority of the wood products used in the structure and nishing products, including the larch exterior siding and wood slats used throughout the school were locally grown, harvested, and milled! 8. Life Cycle Considerations The anticipated service life of this building is a minimum of 50 years. The regular grid of post and beam glu-lam structure allows ultimate exibility for future changes in use, as all interior partitions are non-load bearing and can easily be modi ed and relocated. Furthermore, bolted connections of the timber superstructure allow the entire building skeleton to be disassembled and relocated, or components thereof to be reused. As a school building, ease of maintenance and longevity requires a robustness of nishes. The corridor walls are designed to withstand a higher than usual wear and tear as can be expected in a school environment. MDF panelling is used on lower surfaces, capped by a solid wood chair rail, while upper regions of the walls are nished with slats of larch wood, spaced and backed by acoustic insulation for an attractive nish and functional acoustic treatment. Corridor oors are concrete, that has been nished by a local craftsman to a nely polished surface resembling terrazzo. Thus they are virtually maintenance free, requiring only wet mopping (no wax required). Classroom oors are nished with linoleum, which contains only natural products. 9. Education and Information Sharing Crawford Bay Elementary Secondary School is the rst school in BC to open that has been designed to LEED Gold Certi cation standards, and is expecting to be certi ed in the near future. As such it is receiving wide-spread attention from both clients and the design industry. Already, a very prominent architectural rm that “specializes” in green design has indicated an interest in visiting the school. As mentioned previously, the community has a keen awareness of environmental issues, and the new school has been published and written about in local media. Moreover, the school will serve as a learning tool for students and visitors. Graphic displays and educational material will serve to educate visitors and remind students and teachers of the green aspects of the school building. Teachers will be encouraged to incorporate real examples from the building in their course materials and exercises to provide students with a tangible learning tool.