Research methodology Scope of the study The study

Document Sample
Research methodology Scope of the study The study Powered By Docstoc
					     Chapter 1

Research methodology

1.1 Scope of the study:
The study would try to throw some insights into the existing services provided by the banks and
the gap between the customer expectations, perceptions and the actual state of performance. The
results of the study would be able to recognize the lacunae in the system and thus provide key
areas where improvement is required for better performance and success ratio.

1.2 Research Objectives:

(1) To find out the level of expectation and the level of perception of the customers from the
services offered by the banks.

(2) To compare the level of perception and expectation of the services offered by the banks.

(3) To know which service quality dimension the bank is performing well and in which
dimension it needs improvement.

(4) To know the preference towards the public sector and private sector banks.

1.3 Sampling Design:

    Targeted banks: ICICI,HDFC,SBI,BOB

    Sampling Frame: All the customers of four banks in Ahmedabad.

    Sampling Unit: Any customer of four banks in Ahmedabad.

    Sampling Area: Ahmedabad.

    Sampling Method: Non- Probability Convenience Sampling

   Sample Size: 200 Respondents

         Bank                      Respondents

         ICICI                               50

         HDFC                                50

         SBI                                 50

         BOB                                 50

1.4 Data Sources:

   Primary Data:

     It is collected through structured questionnaire by conducting survey.

   Secondary Data:

      Internet, journals, books, magazines, etc.....

1.5 Research Design:

     Our research is Descriptive in nature as the banking industry is well-developed in India
     and lot of research has already been done in this area.

1.6 Research tool :

   SERVQUAL Analysis.

SERVQUAL is an instrument for measuring how customers perceive the quality of a service. In
the mid-1980s Berry and his colleagues Parasuraman and Zeithaml began to investigate what
determines service quality and how it is evaluated by customers. As a result of their study they
developed the SERVQUAL instrument for measuring service quality, which initially included 10
service quality dimensions, which were later reduced to the following five: tangibles, reliability,
responsiveness, assurance and empathy.

The instrument is based on the idea of the disconfirmation model, in other words on the
comparison of customers‘ expectations with their experiences from the service. Usually, the five
dimensions of the instrument are described through the use of 22 attributes an ―respondents are
asked to state (on a seven-point scale from ―Strongly disagree‖ to ―Strongly agree‖) what they
expected from the service and how they perceived the service.‖

This instrument has been widely used by researchers, but still, there are some controversies in its
applicability across different service industries. In some studies the five dimensions of the
instrument (determinants) have been found to be unstable across different types of services.
Therefore, the SERVQUAL tool should be applied very carefully and the set of determinants and
attributes used should be adapted to the specific situation.

   Chi-Square test of independence

The test is applied when there are two categorical variables from a single population. It is used to
determine whether there is a significant association between the two variables. For example, in
an election survey, voters might be classified by gender (male or female) and voting preference
(Democrat, Republican, or Independent). We could use a chi-square test for independence to
determine whether gender is related to voting preference. This approach consists of four steps:
(1) state the hypotheses, (2) formulate an analysis plan, (3) analyze sample data, and (4) interpret

1.7 Hypothesis:

A chi- square test for independence has been conducted for knowing the relation between the age
group and the preference towards the two types of banks.

          Ho: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group are independent
             of each other.

          H1: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group are dependent of
             each other.

1.8 Limitations of the Study:

             Respondents may give biased answers for the required data. Some of the
              respondents did not like to respond.

             In our study we have included 50 customers of each bank because of time limit.

       CHAPTER 2


The world of commercial banking is undergoing a deep transformation as a result of marketable
instruments competing with loans and demand deposits. Because of this strong competition,
commercial banks are struggling to make acceptable margins from their traditional business
entering into investment banking.

Increasing competition has forced banks to search for more income at the expense of more risk.
Banks that lent heavily to Asia in search of better returns than those available in Western markets
are now being blamed for bad credit decisions. The Asian crisis has renewed interest on credit
risk management casting doubts on the effectiveness of current credit regulations. Technological
changes have also heightened competition by making it easier to imitate bank services. The
traditional advantage of physical proximity to clients given by extended networks of branches
has vanished. Banks have to compete with money market mutual funds for deposit business,
commercial papers, and medium-term notes for bank loans.

As margins are squeezed, commercial banks in the United States and Europe have been forced to
cut costs and branches while diversifying into pensions, insurance, asset management, and
investment banking. In the United States, many banks call themselves financial service
companies even in their reported financial statements. Diversification, however, has not always
proved to be an effective strategy, and many banks have had to revert to a concentrated business.
These examples illustrate how commercial banks are reinventing themselves, not just once but
many times. All these changes are creating an identity crisis for old-fashioned bankers, leading to
the key question, ―What is a bank today?‖ The question is difficult, but evidence suggests that
the concept of banking is being modified and the traditional barriers among financial service Sub
industries (retail banking, private banking, investment banking, asset management, insurance,
etc.) are vanishing. Illustrating what an entity does or serves for often is a useful way to define it.
The identity crisis of banks—especially commercial banks—stems from the deep and rapid
changes in their traditional body of activities (particularly retail and corporate banking). On the
other hand, investment banking, private banking, and banc assurance are the most profitable and
fastest growing segments of the financial service industry. As banks undertake new activities,
they also incur new risks. Since boundaries among sub industries are weakening, if not
vanishing, banks—like all other financial service companies—must redefine themselves in terms
of the products they offer and the customers they serve. The way banks pursue this redefinition is
through a strategic repositioning in the financial service industry. All these factors represent a
new challenge for commercial banks, provided this definition still has a unique meaning.
Increased competition, diversification, new products, and new geographic markets mean that
both the spectrum of risks and the risk profile for banks are dramatically changing.

                               DEFINING A BANK IN 2010

The scenario commercial banks face today differs greatly from that of the past. Diversification
among sub industries is defining an environment where banks compete with other financial-
service companies to provide mutually exclusive products and services to the same customers.
Traditional branch banking is under the threat of new competitors and technological innovation,
leading some analysts to wonder whether banks are dying. Most likely what is dying is the old-
fashioned concept of the bank and a new scenario is emerging. Banks are changing as economic
markets integrate, providing opportunities for diversification. Only 15 to 20 years ago, most
Western banks generated 90% of revenue from interest income. Now this percentage has fallen
to 60%, sometimes as low as 40%. New sources of income, such as fee-based income from

investment services and derivatives, are becoming increasingly relevant for the income
statements of commercial banks.

During the same period, the pattern of banking activities has changed through interactions with
the developing security markets. The well-known phenomenon of disintermediation that has
taken place in all Western countries since the 1970s has progressively reduced the monopoly of
banks over the collection of savings from customers. This has created much tougher competition
among financial service companies and has forced banks to find new and diversified sources of
income. The traditional core business of commercial banks has been retail and corporate
banking. As retail and corporate banking become less and less profitable, banks are diversifying
into new businesses to stop the decline of profits. Investment banking, for example, is estimated
to be worth US$14 million, with an annual growth rate of about 14% up to 2010. Derivative
based earnings for larger commercial banks now account for about 15 to 20% of the total
earnings. The drawback is that volatility of earnings has dramatically increased. The
management of these new types of risk—typically, market risk and credit risk on traded assets—
requires competence and expertise. Hence, the risk profile of commercial banks is changing as a
consequence of diversification. Capital markets are playing a key role in defining the bank of the
twenty-first century, but they are also making banks riskier. In fact, with a few exceptions, AAA
ratings for banks have disappeared and consequently the importance of market risk management
is being emphasized. Future competition will not be played in the classic retail banking industry
that, at least in continental Europe (but not in the United Kingdom), is only slightly profitable.
Global competition will take place in asset management and investment banking. Not casually,
huge U.S. investment banks are merging among themselves and with asset management firms.
Alliances and takeovers are occurring also on a transatlantic basis, confirming the global
characters of these two sub industries (the most related to global capital markets).

The following trends are affecting the banking industry and most likely will shape the
competition in the next several years:

• The market share for financial services that banks hold is declining, while securities firms,
mutual funds, and finance companies are getting a growing share of available customers. In the
United States, the share of total assets held by banks and other depository institutions relative to
all financial intermediaries fell from 56% in 1982 to 42% in 1991, and this downward tendency
is likely to continue. Banks will face growing competition from financial service companies and
nonbank firms.

• Disintermediation is making traditional banking less and less necessary, leading to
consolidation. The natural shrinkage of the market share held by commercial banks started this
process in the past decade, but it has dramatically accelerated in the past few years because of
global competition.

• To remain competitive, commercial banks will have to exploit new sources of income: Offering
new services (selling mutual funds or insurance policies).Charging customers with noninterest
fees. Offering new services through the phone and the web, Entering into joint ventures with
independent companies, Entering new geographic markets yielding higher returns.

• Banks will need more expertise to manage new sources of risk. Market risk management
models must become an integral part of a bank‘s risk management culture.

                                    RETAIL BANKING

The two main forces changing the competitive environment in retail banking are technological
change and aggressive new competitors:

1. Technological change is creating huge problems for traditional banks with extended and costly
branch networks. The major technological issues affecting the retail banking business are the rise
of telephone banking and the impressive diffusion of the Web-based banking. These innovations
make branch networks less important and national boundaries irrelevant. Computer banking,
either through the Internet or proprietary networks, is gaining a growing and growing

2. New unrelated competitors are entering the retail banking market. In the United Kingdom, the
country‘s two biggest retailers, Sainsbury‘s and Tesco, have gone into partnership with the Bank
of Scotland and the Royal Bank of Scotland, respectively. Sainsbury‘s Bank offers a savings
account, two credit cards, and personal loans and mortgages, with more services to follow. Tesco
Personal Finance offers only a savings account and a credit card, but aims to expand its range.
These trends do not indicate that traditional branch banking is going to die, but that the
competitive scenario is changing. High-street banks have expensive branch networks and
relatively outdated procedures, with far greater operating costs than their new, more flexible

                                   PRIVATE BANKING

One of the most interesting trends affecting the banking industry is the development of domestic
private banking services. These services, once provided only to aristocrats, are gaining
popularity and seem to be an attractive, fast-growing market. Retail banks are no longer targeting
only the super rich, who hold a small proportion of the total wealth, but also people with,
relatively speaking, high income. Private banking is basically an asset management service and
represents a natural area for banks in time of margin squeezing and increased competition. Risks
of adverse market movements are transferred, at least partially, to customers, while banks
increase their fee-based income. Nevertheless, commercial banks must be aware of actual and
potential competitors including traditional private banks, investment banks, converted building
societies, and insurers. Private banking creates opportunities for commercial banks, but also adds
new problems in the following areas:

• Bank organization.

• Culture needed to manage private banking.

• Risk management

                          GLOBAL INVESTMENT BANKING

Investment banking is by far the most globalized segment of the financial service industries.
Commercial banks today are starting to offer investment-banking and merchant banking services
to larger corporations, thus entering in direct competition with prestigious investment houses.

These services include:

• Identifying possible merger targets.

• Financing acquisitions of other companies.

• Dealing in customers‘ securities (i.e., security underwritings).

• Providing strategic advice.

• Offering hedging services against market risk.

To provide customers with a broader spectrum of services, commercial banks in search of
globalization are boosting takeovers of investment banks. All the major competitors have
developed, or are in the process of developing, facilities in the world‘s leading markets. The aim
is to provide multinational corporations with a broad range of financial service products,
including conventional investment banking such as merger and acquisition (M&A) advice,
market trading, financial lending and fund management, at both the institutional and retail levels.
Relationship banking is replacing transaction-based banking: What is important is to increase the
loyalty of the client to the bank, almost irrespectively of the service needed or required.
Diversification is not the whole story. To face the rising costs and squeezing margins created by
competition, investment banks need partners with large amounts of available capital.


The global banking industry has been undergoing deep transformation.

The following trends can be outlined:

• The technological breakthrough caused by the eruption of e-banking and e-finance.

• Worldwide consolidation and consequent restructuring.

• Increasing competition in terms of both markets (geographic diversification) and products.

•―Contamination‖ among different industries, thanks to a progressive relaxation of regulations
and huge inter-industry acquisitions.

• A slowing population growth and increasing average life expectancy and per capita income.
Since Western governments need to cut expenditures for old-age benefits to keep deficits under
control, there will be an increase in the importance of private pensions, mutual funds, and private
banking operations.

• The growing importance of a clear strategic intent in the banking industry. Banks, especially
commercial banks, will be obliged to rethink their strategic positioning. While some banks are
opting to offer a vast variety of products/services on a global scale, others are focusing on some
specific market segment (retail banking, private banking, corporate banking) or specific
geographic area.

• New competitors are entering the financial service business. In the retail banking industry,
large department stores in the United Kingdom have entered the market for personal and
mortgage loans, primarily to retain their customers.

These trends are having and will have a major impact on banks‘ and financial institutions‘ risk
management process. Contamination also means that firms in the different sub industries will
face risks that were once specific to another sub industry. The relaxation of the Glass-Steagall
Act in the United States, and similar processes of deregulation in many other leading countries, is
forcing even commercial banks to dedicate growing attention to market risk management and
liquidity risk management, in addition to the more traditional credit risk and interest rate risk.


Consolidation is also taking place also on an interindustry basis. By interindustry consolidation,
we mean M&As taking place between firms of different sub industries in the financial service
industry (e.g., insurance companies acquiring commercial banks or commercial banks acquiring

Investment banks). There can be cost-saving potential, particularly in computer systems. But
complexity explodes. Top managers have to handle a far more complicated business; front-line
service staff has to sell a richer mix of products.

To be a global player, a banking conglomerate must satisfy three characteristics:

1. Size. It must be big enough to play on a global basis.

2. High degree of contamination. It must cover the full spectrum of financial products and

3. High degree of geographic diversification. A significant portion of its assets must be outside
its original domestic market.

      CHAPTER 3


Banks are the most significant players in the Indian financial market. They are the biggest
purveyors of credit, and they also attract most of the savings from the population. Dominated by
public sector, the banking industry has so far acted as an efficient partner in the growth and the
development of the country. Driven by the socialist ideologies and the welfare state concept,
public sector banks have long been the supporters of agriculture and other priority sectors. They
act as crucial channels of the government in its efforts to ensure equitable economic

The Indian banking can be broadly categorized into nationalized (government owned), private
banks and specialized banking institutions. The Reserve Bank of India acts a centralized body
monitoring any discrepancies and shortcoming in the system. Since the nationalization of banks
in 1969, the public sector banks or the nationalized banks have acquired a place of prominence
and has since then seen tremendous progress. The need to become highly customer focused has
forced the slow-moving public sector banks to adopt a fast track approach. The unleashing of
products and services through the net has galvanized players at all levels of the banking and
financial institutions market grid to look anew at their existing portfolio offering. Conservative
banking practices allowed Indian banks to be insulated partially from the Asian currency crisis.
Indian banks are now quoting al higher valuation when compared to banks in other Asian
countries (viz. Hong Kong, Singapore, Philippines etc.) that have major problems linked to huge
Non Performing Assets (NPAs) and payment defaults. Co-operative banks are nimble footed in
approach and armed with efficient branch networks focus primarily on the ‗high revenue‘ niche
retail segments.

The Indian banking has finally worked up to the competitive dynamics of the ‗new‘ Indian
market and is addressing the relevant issues to take on the multifarious challenges of
globalization. Banks that employ IT solutions are perceived to be ‗futuristic‘ and proactive
players capable of meeting the multifarious requirements of the large customer‘s base. Private
Banks have been fast on the uptake and are reorienting their strategies using the internet as a
medium The Internet has emerged as the new and challenging frontier of marketing with the
conventional physical world tenets being just as applicable like in any other marketing medium.

The Indian banking has come from a long way from being a sleepy business institution to a
highly proactive and dynamic entity. This transformation has been largely brought about by the
large dose of liberalization and economic reforms that allowed banks to explore new business
opportunities rather than generating revenues from conventional streams (i.e. borrowing and
lending). The banking in India is highly fragmented with 30 banking units contributing to
almost 50% of deposits and 60% of advances. Indian nationalized banks (banks owned by the
government) continue to be the major lenders in the economy due to their sheer size and
penetrative networks which assures them high deposit mobilization. The Indian banking can be
broadly categorized into nationalized, private banks and specialized banking institutions.

The Reserve Bank of India acts as a centralized body monitoring any discrepancies and
shortcoming in the system. It is the foremost monitoring body in the Indian financial sector.
The nationalized banks (i.e. government-owned banks) continue to dominate the Indian banking
arena. Industry estimates indicate that out of 274 commercial banks operating in India, 223
banks are in the public sector and 51 are in the private sector. The private sector bank grid also
includes 24 foreign banks that have started their operations here.

The liberalize policy of Government of India permitted entry to private sector in the banking,
the industry has witnessed the entry of nine new generation private banks.            The major
differentiating parameter that distinguishes these banks from all the other banks in the
Indian banking is the level of service that is offered to the customer. Their focus has always
centered around the customer – understanding his needs, preempting him and consequently
delighting him with various configurations of benefits and a wide portfolio of products and
services. These banks have generally been established by promoters of repute or by ‗high
value‘ domestic financial institutions.

The popularity of these banks can be gauged by the fact that in a short span of time, these banks
have gained considerable customer confidence and consequently have shown impressive growth
rates. Today, the private banks corner almost four per cent share of the total share of deposits.
Most of the banks in this category are concentrated in the high-growth urban areas in metros

(that account for approximately 70% of the total banking business). With efficiency being the
major focus, these banks have leveraged on their strengths and competencies viz. Management,

operational efficiency and flexibility, superior product positioning and higher employee
productivity skills.

The private banks with their focused business and service portfolio have a reputation of being
niche players in the industry. A strategy that has allowed these banks to concentrate on few
reliable high net worth companies and individuals rather than cater to the mass market. These
well-chalked out integrates strategy plans have allowed most of these banks to deliver
superlative levels of personalized services. With the Reserve Bank of India allowing these
banks to operate 70% of their businesses in urban areas, this statutory requirement has translated
into lower deposit mobilization costs and higher margins relative to public sector banks.

                                      PEST ANALYSIS


Government and RBI policies affect the banking sector. Sometimes looking into the political
advantage of a particular party, the Government declares some measures to their benefits like
waiver of short-term agricultural loans, to attract the farmer‘s votes. By doing so the profits of
the bank get affected. Various banks in the cooperative sector are open and run by the politicians.
They exploit these banks for their benefits. Sometimes the government appoints various
chairmen of the banks. Various policies are framed by the RBI looking at the present situation of
the country for better control over the banks.


Banking is as old as authentic history and the modern commercial banking are traceable to
ancient times. In India, banking has existed in one form or the other from time to time. The
present era in banking may be taken to have commenced with establishment of bank of Bengal in
1809 under the government charter and with government participation in share capital.
Allahabad bank was started in the year 1865 and Punjab national bank in 1895, and thus, others

Every year RBI declares its 6 monthly policy and accordingly the various measures and rates are
implemented which has an impact on the banking sector. Also the Union budget affects the
banking sector to boost the economy by giving certain concessions or facilities. If in the Budget
savings are encouraged, then more deposits will be attracted towards the banks and in turn they
can lend more money to the agricultural sector and industrial sector, therefore, booming the
economy. If the FDI limits are relaxed, then more FDI are brought in India through banking

Before nationalization of the banks, their control was in the hands of the private parties and only
big business houses and the effluent sections of the society were getting benefits of banking in
India. In 1969 government nationalized 14 banks. To adopt the social development in the
banking sector it was necessary for speedy economic progress, consistent with social justice, in
democratic political system, which is free from domination of law, and in which opportunities
are open to all. Accordingly, keeping in mind both the national and social objectives, bankers
were given direction to help economically weaker section of the society and also provide need-
based finance to all the sectors of the economy with flexible and liberal attitude. Now the banks
provide various types of loans to farmers, working women, professionals, and traders. They also
provide education loan to the students and housing loans, consumer loans, etc.

Banks having big clients or big companies have to provide services like personalized banking to
their clients because these customers do not believe in running about and waiting in queues for
getting their work done. The bankers also have to provide these customers with special
provisions and at times with benefits like food and parties. But the banks do not mind incurring
these costs because of the kind of business these clients bring for the bank.

Banks have changed the culture of human life in India and have made life much easier for the


Technology plays a very important role in bank‘s internal control mechanisms as well as services
offered by them. It has in fact given new dimensions to the banks as well as services that they
cater to and the banks are enthusiastically adopting new technological innovations for devising
new products and service.

The latest developments in terms of technology in computer and telecommunication have
encouraged the bankers to change the concept of branch banking to anywhere banking. The use
of ATM and Internet banking has allowed ‗anytime, anywhere banking‘ facilities. Automatic
voice recorders now answer simple queries, currency accounting machines makes the job easier
and self-service counters are now encouraged. Credit card facility has encouraged an era of
cashless society. Today MasterCard and Visa card are the two most popular cards used world
over. The banks have now started issuing smartcards or debit cards to be used for making
payments. These are also called as electronic purse. Some of the banks have also started home
banking through telecommunication facilities and computer technology by using terminals
installed at customers home and they can make the balance inquiry, get the statement of
accounts, give instructions for fund transfers, etc. Through ECS we can receive the dividends
and interest directly to our account avoiding the delay or chance of loosing the post.

Today banks are also using SMS and Internet as major tool of promotions and giving great utility
to its customers. For example SMS functions through simple text messages sent from your
mobile. The messages are then recognized by the bank to provide you with the required
information. All these technological changes have forced the bankers to adopt customer-based
approach instead of product-based approach.

                          HISTORY OF BANKING IN INDIA

Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have a healthy economy. The
banking system of India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new
challenges posed by the technology and any other external and internal factors.

For the past three decades India's banking system has several outstanding achievements to its
credit. The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or
cosmopolitans in India. In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of
the country. This is one of the main reasons of India‘s growth process.

The government's regular policy for Indian bank since 1969 has paid rich dividends with the
nationalization of 14 major private banks of India.

Not long ago, an account holder had to wait for hours at the bank counters for getting a draft or
for withdrawing his own money. Today, he has a choice. Gone are days when the most efficient
bank transferred money from one branch to other in two days. Now it is simple as instant
messaging or dials a pizza. Money has become the order of the day.

From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct
phases. They are as mentioned below:

        Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks
        Nationalization of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms.
        New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking
sector reforms after 1991.

To make this write-up more explanatory, we prefix the scenario as Phase I, Phase II and Phase


The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan and
Bengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of Bombay
(1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. These
three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started
as private shareholders banks, mostly European shareholders.

Exclusively by Indians Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at
Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara
Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935.

During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures
between 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1100 banks, mostly small. To streamline the
functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with The
Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per
amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive
powers for the supervision of banking in India as the Central Banking Authority.

During those day‘s public has lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit
mobilisation was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department
was    comparatively     safer.   Moreover,      funds    were    largely    given    to    traders.


Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. In 1955,
it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale especially
in rural and semi-urban areas. It formed State Bank of India to act as the principal agent of RBI
and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country.

Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th July,
1969, major process of nationalisation was carried out. It was the effort of the then Prime
Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country were

Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in 1980 with
seven more banks. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under Government

The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in
the Country:

      1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.
      1955: Nationalisation of State Bank of India.
      1959: Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries.
      1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits.
      1969: Nationalisation of 14 major banks.
      1971: Creation of credit guarantee corporation.
      1975: Creation of regional rural banks.
      1980: Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.

After the nationalization of banks, the branches of the public sector bank India rose to
approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11,000%.
Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and immense
confidence about the sustainability of institutions.


This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms
measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up by his
name which worked for the liberisation of banking practices.

Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking
is introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more
importance than money.

The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from any crisis
triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. This is
all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the capital account is not
yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure.


The nationalization of banks in India took place in 1969 by Mrs. Indira Gandhi the then prime
minister. It nationalized 14 banks then. These banks were mostly owned by businessmen and
even managed by them.

      Central Bank of India                                 Indian Overseas Bank
      Bank of Maharashtra                                   Bank of Baroda
      Dena Bank                                             Union Bank
      Punjab National Bank                                  Allahabad Bank
      Syndicate Bank                                        United Bank of India
      Canara Bank                                           UCO Bank
      Indian Bank                                           Bank of India

Before the steps of nationalization of Indian banks, only State Bank of India (SBI) was
nationalized. It took place in July 1955 under the SBI Act of 1955. Nationalization of Seven
State Banks of India (formed subsidiary) took place on 19th July, 1960.

The State Bank of India is India's largest commercial bank and is ranked one of the top five
banks worldwide. It serves 90 million customers through a network of 9,000 branches and it
offers -- either directly or through subsidiaries -- a wide range of banking services.

The second phase of nationalisation of Indian banks took place in the year 1980. Seven more
banks were nationalised with deposits over 200 crores. Till this year, approximately 80% of the
banking segments in India were under government ownership.

After the nationalisation of banks in India, the branches of the public sector banks rose to
approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11,000%.

                                BANKING STRUCTURE

The Indian banking industry, which has Reserve Bank of India as its regulatory authority, is a
mix of the public sector, private sector, and foreign banks. The private sector banks are again
split into old banks and new banks.


Scheduled commercial banks are those that come under the purview of the Second Schedule of
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act, 1934. The banks that are included under this schedule are
those that satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (60 of the Act). Some co-operative banks
come under the category of scheduled commercial banks though not all co-operative banks.


Public sector banks are those in which the Government of India or the RBI is a majority
shareholder. These banks include the State Bank of India (SBI) and its subsidiaries, other
nationalized banks, and Regional Rural Banks (RRBs). Over 70% of the aggregate branches in
India are those of the public sector banks. Some of the leading banks in this segment include
Allahabad Bank, Canara Bank, Bank of Maharashtra, Central Bank of India, Indian Overseas
Bank, State Bank of India, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur, State Bank of
Travancore, Bank of Baroda, Bank of India, Oriental Bank of Commerce, UCO Bank, Union
Bank of India, Dena Bank and Corporation Bank.


Private Banks are essentially comprised of two types: the old and the new. The old private sector
banks comprise those, which were operating before Banking Nationalization Act was passed in
1969. On account of their small size, and regional operations, these banks were not nationalized.
These banks face intense rivalry from the new private banks and the foreign banks. The banks
that are included in this segment include: Bank of Madura Ltd. (now a part of ICICI Bank),
Bharat Overseas Bank Ltd., Bank of Rajasthan, Karnataka Bank Ltd., Lord Krishna Bank Ltd.,
The Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd., The Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd., The Federal Bank Ltd., The
Jammu & Kashmir Bank Ltd., The Karur Vysya Bank Ltd., The Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd., The
Nedungadi Bank Ltd. and Vysya Bank. The new private sector banks were established when the
Banking Regulation Act was amended in 1993. Financial institutions promoted several of these
banks. After the initial licenses, the RBI has granted no more licenses. These banks are gearing
up to face the foreign banks by focusing on service and technology. Currently, these banks are on
an expansion spree, spreading into semi-urban areas and satellite towns. The leading banks that
are included in this segment include Bank of Punjab Ltd., Centurion Bank Ltd., Global Trust
Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd., ICICI Banking Corporation Ltd., IDBI Bank Ltd., IndusInd Bank
Ltd. and UTI Bank Ltd.


The operations of foreign banks, though similar to that of other commercial Indian banks, are
mainly confined to metropolitan areas. Foray of foreign banks depends on reciprocity, economic
and political bilateral relations. An inter-departmental committee has been set up to endorse
applications for entry and expansion. Foreign banks, in the wake of the liberalization era, are
looking to expand and diversify. Some of the leading foreign banks that operate in India are
Citibank, Standard Chartered Grindlays Bank, Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation, Bank
of America, Deutsche Bank, Development Bank of Singapore and Banque National De Paris.


The enhanced role of the banking sector in the Indian economy, the increasing levels of
deregulation along with the increasing levels of competition have facilitated globalisation of the
India banking system and placed numerous demands on banks. Operating in this demanding
environment has exposed banks to various challenges. The last decade has witnessed major
changes in the financial sector - new banks, new financial institutions, new instruments, new
windows, and new opportunities - and, along with all this, new challenges. While deregulation
has opened up new vistas for banks to augment revenues, it has entailed greater competition and
consequently greater risks. Demand for new products, particularly derivatives, has required
banks to diversify their product mix and also effect rapid changes in their processes and
operations in order to remain competitive in the globalised environment.


The benefits of globalisation have been well documented and are being increasingly recognised.
Globalisation of domestic banks has also been facilitated by tremendous advancement in
information and communications technology. Globalisation has thrown up lot of opportunities
but accompanied by concomitant risks. There is a growing realisation that the ability of countries
to conduct business across national borders and the ability to cope with the possible downside
risks would depend, inter-alia, on the soundness of the financial system and the strength of the
individual participants. Adoption of appropriate prudential, regulatory, supervisory, and
technological framework on par with international best practices enables strengthening of the
domestic banking system, which would help in fortifying it against the risks that might arise out
of globalisation. In India, strengthening of the banking sector for facing the pressures that may
arise out of globalisation by adopting the banking sector reforms in a calibrated manner, which
followed the twin governing principles of non-disruptive progress and consultative process.

                          GLOBAL CHALLENGES IN BANKING

Few broad challenges faced by the Indian banks in the following areas, viz., enhancement of
customer service; application of technology; implementation of Basel II; improvement of risk
management systems; implementation of new accounting standards; enhancement of
transparency & disclosures; and compliance with KYC aspects. If we were to identify a few
global challenges which banks face today, I am sure we would cover some common ground. An
overview of the global challenges would include the following: Basel II implementation;
enhancing corporate governance; alignment of regulatory and accounting requirements;
outsourcing risks; and application of advanced technology. I propose to cover these aspects now.

                               BASE II IMPLEMENTATION

Basel II implementation is widely acknowledged as a significant challenge faced by both banks
and the regulators internationally. It is true that Basel II implementation may be seen as a
compliance challenge. While it may be so for some banks, Basel II implementation has another
dimension which offers considerable opportunities to banks.Highlighting two opportunities that
are offered to banks, viz., refinement of risk management systems; and improvement in capital

Comprehensive risk management: Under Basel I banks were focused on credit and market risks.
Basel II has brought into focus a larger number of risks requiring banks to focus on a larger
canvas. Besides the increase in the number of risks, banks are now beginning to focus on their
inter-linkages with a view to achieve a more comprehensive risk management framework. Basel
II implementation, therefore, is being increasingly seen as a medium through which banks
constantly endeavour to upgrade the risk management systems to address the changing
environment. Further, in the initial stages, banks were managing each risk in isolation. It is no
longer adequate to manage each risk independently. Enterprises worldwide are, therefore, now
putting in place an integrated framework for risk management which is proactive, systematic and

spans across the entire organisation. Banks in India are also moving from the individual silo
system to an enterprise wide risk management system. While the first milestone would be risk
integration across the entity, banks are also aware of the desirability of risk aggregation across
the group both in the specific risk areas as also across the risks. Banks would, therefore, be
required to allocate significant resources towards this endeavour.

Capital efficiency: Basel II prescriptions have ushered in a transition from the traditional
regulatory measure of capital adequacy to an evaluation of whether a bank has found the most
efficient use of its capital to support its business i.e., a transition from capital adequacy to capital
efficiency. In this transition, how effectively capital is used will determine return on equity and a
consequent enhancement of shareholder value. In effect, banks may adopt a more dynamic
approach to use of capital, in which capital will flow quickly to its most efficient use. This
revised efficiency approach is expected to guide the return-on-equity strategy and influence
banks‘ business plans. With the extension of capital charge for market risks to the AFS portfolio
this year and the coming into force of Basel II norms in March 2007, banks would need to shore
up the capital levels not only for complying with these requirements but also for supporting the
balance sheet growth. With a view to enhancing the options available to banks for augmenting
their capital levels, the Reserve Bank has recently permitted banks to issue new capital
instruments, including perpetual instruments. A notable feature of these instruments is that these
are designed to help banks in not only managing their capital effectively but also efficiently.


The issues related to corporate governance have continued to attract considerable national and
international attention in light of a number of high-profile breakdowns in corporate governance.
This becomes all the more relevant for banks since they not only accept and deploy large amount
of uncollateralized public funds in fiduciary capacity, but also leverage such funds through credit
creation. Banks are also important participants in the payment and settlement systems. In view

of the above, legal prescriptions for ownership and governance of banks in Banking Regulation
Act, 1949 have been supplemented by regulatory prescriptions issued by RBI from time to time.

In view of the importance of the banking system for financial stability, sound corporate
governance is not only relevant at the level of the individual bank, but is also a critical ingredient
at the system level. Effective risk management systems determine the health of the financial
system and its ability to survive economic shocks. To a large extent, many risk management
failures reflect a breakdown in corporate governance which arise due to poor management of
conflicts of interest, inadequate understanding of key banking risks, and poor Board oversight of
the mechanisms for risk management and internal audit. Corporate governance is, therefore, the
foundation for effective risk managements in banks and thus the foundation for a sound financial
system2. Therefore, the choices which banks make when they establish their risk management
and corporate governance systems have important ramifications for financial stability. These
systems can affect how the institution functions and how others perceive it in the marketplace.

A good ―governance culture‖ is crucial for financial stability but since it is an ‗intangible‘, rules
may not be able to capture its essence effectively. Therefore, banks may have to cultivate a good
governance culture building in appropriate checks and balances in their operations. There are
four important forms of oversight that should be included in the organisational structure of any
bank in order to ensure appropriate checks and balances: (1) oversight by the board of directors
or supervisory board; (2) oversight by individuals not involved in the day-to-day running of the
various business areas; (3) direct line supervision of different business areas; and (4) independent
risk management, compliance and audit functions. In addition, it is important that key personnel
are fit and proper for their jobs. Although some ownership structures might have the potential to
alter the strategies and objectives of a bank, these banks will also face many of the same risks
associated with weak corporate governance.


One of the prime international standards considered relevant for ensuring a safe and sound
banking system is the ‗Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision‘ issued by the Basel
Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). Accounting standards are now a part of the set of
twelve standards that have been identified by the Financial Stability Forum as conducive to a
robust financial infrastructure. Financial reporting and prudential supervision have slightly
different perspectives. While the former is oriented towards capturing the historical position, the
latter has a forward looking element particularly with reference to measurement of impairment
and capital. An important challenge, therefore, is to ensure that accounting standards and
prudential frameworks are mutually consistent. While working towards achieving this
consistency between the two sets of standards, it is essential for the regulators to be in a position
to address any implications that the changes in accounting standards may have for the safety and
soundness of banks.

Derivative activity in banks in India has been increasing at a brisk pace. While the risk
management framework for derivative trading, which is a relatively new area for Indian banks
(particularly more in respect of structured products), is an essential pre-requisite, the absence of
clear accounting guidelines in this area is matter of significant concern. It is widely accepted that
as the volume of transactions increases, which is happening in the Indian banking system, the
need to upgrade the accounting framework needs no emphasis. The World Bank‘s ROSC on
Accounting and Auditing in India has commented on the absence of an accounting standard
which deals with recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosures pertaining to financial
instruments. The Accounting Standards Board of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
(ICAI) is considering issue of Accounting Standards on the above aspects pertaining to financial
Instruments. These will be the Indian parallel to International Financial Reporting Standard 7,
International Accounting Standards 32 and 39. The proposed Accounting Standards will be of
considerable significance for financial entities and could therefore have implications for the
financial sector. The formal introduction of these Accounting Standards by the ICAI is likely to
take some time in view of the processes involved. In the meanwhile, the Reserve Bank is
considering the need for banks and financial entities adopting the broad underlying principles of
IAS 39. Since this is likely to give rise to some regulatory / prudential issues all relevant aspects
are being comprehensively examined. The proposals in this regard would, as is normal, be
discussed with the market participants before introduction. Adoption and implementation of
these principles are likely to pose a great challenge to both the banks and the Reserve Bank.

                                     OUTSOURCING RISKS

Banks are increasingly using outsourcing for achieving strategic aims leading to either
rationalisation of operational costs or tapping specialist expertise which is not available
internally. 'Outsourcing' may be defined as a bank's use of a third party, including an affiliated
entity within a corporate group, to perform activities on a continuing basis that would normally
be undertaken by the bank itself. Typically outsourced financial services include applications
processing (loan origination, credit card), document processing, investment management,
marketing and research, supervision of loans, data processing and back office related activities

Outsourcing might give rise to several risks including, strategic risk, reputation risk, compliance
risk, operational risk, exit strategy risk, counterparty risk, country risk, access risk, concentration
risk and systemic risk. The failure of a service provider to provide a specified service, ensure
security/ confidentiality, and comply with legal and regulatory requirements can lead to financial
losses/ reputational risk for the bank and could also lead to systemic risks for the entire banking
system in a country. It would therefore be imperative for the bank outsourcing its activities to
ensure effective management of these risks.

It is in this background that RBI has issued draft guidelines on outsourcing, which is intended to
provide direction and guidance to banks to effectively manage risks arising from such
outsourcing activities. The underlying principles for any outsourcing arrangement by a bank are

that such arrangements should neither diminish the bank‘s ability to fulfill its obligations to its
customers and the RBI nor impede effective supervision by RBI. Outsourcing banks, therefore,
should take steps to ensure that the service provider employs the same high standard of care in
performing the services as would be employed by the banks if the activities were conducted
within the banks and not outsourced. Accordingly, banks are not expected to outsource any
activity that would result in their internal control, business conduct, or reputation being
compromised or weakened.


Technology is a key driver in the banking industry, which creates new business models and
processes, and also revolutionises distribution channels. Banks which have made inadequate
investment in technology have consequently faced an erosion of their market shares. The
beneficiaries are those banks which have invested in technology. Adoption of technology also
enhances the quality of risk management systems in banks. Recognising the benefits of
modernising their technology infrastructure banks are taking the right initiatives. While doing
so, banks have four options to choose from: they can build a new system themselves, or buy best
of the modules, or buy a comprehensive solution, or outsource. In this context banks need to
clearly define their core competencies to be sure that they are investing in areas that will
distinguish them from other market players, and give them a competitive advantage6. A further
challenge which banks face in this regard is to ensure that they derive maximum advantage from
their investments in technology and avoid wasteful expenditure which might arise on account of
uncoordinated and piecemeal adoption of technology; adoption of inappropriate/ inconsistent
technology and adoption of obsolete technology.

                                    CAPACITY BUILDING

As dictated by the changing environment, banks need to focus on appropriate capacity building
measures to equip their staff to handle advanced risk management systems and supervisors also
need to equally equip themselves with appropriate skills to have effective supervision of banks
adopting those systems. In the likelihood of a high level of attrition in the system, banks need to
focus on motivating their skilled staff and retaining them7. Skill requirements would be
significantly higher for banks planning to migrate to the advanced approaches under Basel II.
Capacity building gains greater relevance in these banks, so as to equip themselves to take
advantage of the incentives offered under the advanced approaches.

A relevant point in this regard is that capacity building should be across the institution and not
confined to any particular level or any particular area. The demand for better skills can be met
either from within or from outside. It would perhaps be worthwhile to first glean through the
existing resources to identify misplaced or hidden or forgotten resources and re-position them to
boost the bank‘s efforts to capitalise on available skills. This does not undermine the benefits that
a bank may derive by meeting their requirements from the market, but is only intended to
prioritise the process.


The global challenges which banks face are not confined only to the global banks. These aspects
are also highly relevant for banks which are part of a globalised banking system. Further,
overcoming these challenges by the other banks is expected to not only stand them in good stead
during difficult times but also augurs well for the banking system to which they belong and will
also equip them to launch themselves as a global bank.



       Sales & Marketing strategy for both retail & wholesale banking
       Expanding geographies


       Understanding the values of the brand
       Repositioning the brand to communicate the values

Organization restructuring

      Re organization of the bank in line with the strategic thrust

Re engineering of the key business processes

      Redesign of Sales processes to increase conversion ratio
      Six Sigma process improvements for branch channel, Call Center & back office
      processes
      Centralization of branch operations and deferred processes to free up resources

Cost efficiency

      Reduction in Total cost of acquisition
      Reduction in transaction costs
      Reduction in fixed and overheads cost

Right sizing and matching of skills

      Manpower modelling for branch & back office at various volume scenarios
      Productivity improvement for sales & service functions
      Competency Assessments & profiling

Creating a high performing organization

      Define new roles & responsibilities, KRA
      Assessing competencies of people across levels and match the position with the skill-set
      Designing and implementing a new PMS for restructured organization

Change management & creating a new mind set

      Developing critical mass of champions and drive ‗Change‘ across the organisation to
move from conventional banking to new age banking.

                         BANKING SERVICES IN INDIA

With years, banks are also adding services to their customers. The Indian banking industry is
passing through a phase of customers market. The customers have more choices in choosing
their banks. A competition has been established within the banks operating in India.

With stiff competition and advancement of technology, the services provided by banks have
become more easy and convenient. The past days are witness to an hour wait before
withdrawing cash from accounts or a cheque from north of the country being cleared in one
month in the south.

The following are the major services provided by the Banks.

                                      BANK ACCOUNT

Open bank account - the most common and first service of the banking sector. There are
different types of bank account in Indian banking sector. The bank accounts are as follows:

      Bank Savings Account - Bank Savings Account can be opened for eligible person /
       persons and certain organisations / agencies (as advised by Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
       from time to time)
      Bank Current Account - Bank Current Account can be opened by individuals /
       partnership firms / Private and Public Limited Companies / HUFs / Specified Associates /
       Societies / Trusts, etc.
      Bank Term Deposits Account - Bank Term Deposits Account can be opened by
       individuals / partnership firms / Private and Public Limited Companies / HUFs/ Specified
       Associates / Societies / Trusts, etc.
      Bank Account Online - With the advancement of technology, the major banks in the
       public and private sector has facilitated their customer to open bank account online. Bank
       account online is registered through a PC with an internet connection. The advent in
       opening an account.
                                     PLASTIC MONEY

Credit card

Credit cards in India are gaining ground. A number of banks in India are encouraging people to
use credit card. The concept of credit card was used in 1950 with the launch of charge cards in
USA by Diners Club and American Express. Credit card however became more popular with use
of magnetic strip in 1970.

Credit card in India became popular with the introduction of foreign banks in the country.
Credit cards are financial instruments, which can be used more than once to borrow money or
buy products and services on credit. Basically banks, retail stores and other businesses issue

Major Banks issuing Credit Card in India

        State Bank of India credit card (SBI               HDFC credit card
         credit card)                                       IDBI credit card
        Bank of Baroda credit card or Bob                  ABN AMRO credit card
         credit card                                        Standard Chartered credit card
        ICICI credit card                                  HSBC credit card

Global player in credit card market


MasterCard is a product of MasterCard International and along with VISA are distributed by
financial institutions around the world. Cardholders borrow money against a line of credit and
pay it back with interest if the balance is carried over from month to month. Its products are
issued by 23,000 financial institutions in 220 countries and territories. In 1998, it had almost 700
million cards in circulation, whose users spent $650 billion in more than 16.2 million locations.


VISA cards is a product of VISA USA and along with MasterCard is distributed by financial
institutions around the world. A VISA cardholder borrows money against a credit line and repays
the money with interest if the balance is carried over from month to month in a revolving line of
credit. Nearly 600 million cards carry one of the VISA brands and more than 14 million
locations in the world.


The world's favorite card is American Express Credit Card. More than 57 million cards are in
circulation and growing and it is still growing further. Around US $ 123 billion was spent last
year through American Express Cards and it is poised to be the world's No. 1 card in the near
future. In a regressive US economy last year, the total amount spent on American Express cards
rose by 4 percent. American Express cards are very popular in the U.S., Canada, Europe and
Asia and are used widely in the retail and everyday expenses segment.


Diners Club is the world's No. 1 Charge Card. Diners Club cardholders reside all over the world
and the Diners Card is a all-time favourite for corporates. There are more than 8 million Diners
Club cardholders. They are affluent and are frequent travelers in premier businesses and
institutions, including Fortune 500 companies and leading global corporations.


The JCB Card has a merchant network of 10.93 million in approximately 189 countries. It is
supported by over 320 financial institutions worldwide and serves more than 48 million
cardholders in eighteen countries world wide. The JCB philosophy of "identify the customer's
needs and please the customer with Service from the Heart" is paying rich dividends as their
customers spend US$43 billion annually on their JCB cards.

The following are some of the varieties of credit cards in India

       ANZ - Gold                                                             Citibank Silver International Credit
       ANZ - Silver                                                           Citibank Electronic Credit Card
       Bank Of India - Indiacard                                              Citibank Times Card
       Bol - Taj Premium                                                      Citibank Citi Diners Club Card
       Bol - Gold                                                             HSBC - Gold
       BoB - Exclusive                                                        HSBC - Classic
       BoB - Premium                                                          ICICI Sterling Silver Credit Card
       Canara Bank - Cancard                                                  ICICI Solid Gold Credit Card
       Citibank - Gold                                                        ICICI True Blue Credit Card
       Citibank - Silver                                                      SBI Card
       Citibank WWF Card                                                      Stanchart - Gold
       Citibank Visa Card for Women                                           Stanchart - Executive
       Citibank Cry Card                                                      Stanchart - Classic

Debit Card

Debit cards, also known as check cards look like credit cards or ATM cards (automated teller
machine card). It operate like cash or a personal check. Debit cards are different from credit
cards. Credit card is a way to "pay later," whereas debit card is a way to "pay now." When we
use    a     debit      card,        our         money     is     quickly       deducted       from   the bank account.
Debit cards are accepted at many locations, including grocery stores, retail stores, gasoline
stations,    and     restaurants.          Its    an     alternative       to   carrying   a    checkbook        or    cash.
With       debit     card,      we     use        our     own      money         and   not     the    issuer's        money.
In India almost all the banks issue debit card to its account holders.

Features of Debit Card

       Obtaining a debit card is often easier than obtaining a credit card.
       Using a debit card instead of writing checks saves you from showing identification or
        giving out personal information at the time of the transaction.
       Using a debit card frees you from carrying cash or a checkbook.
       Using a debit card means you no longer have to stock up on traveler's checks or cash
        when you travel.
       Debit cards may be more readily accepted by merchants than checks, especially in other
        states or countries wherever your card brand is accepted.
       The debit card is a quick, "pay now" product, giving you no grace period.
       Using a debit card may mean you have less protection than with a credit card purchase
        for items which are never delivered, are defective, or were misrepresented. But, as with
        credit cards, you may dispute unauthorized charges or other mistakes within 60 days.
        You should contact the card issuer if a problem cannot be resolved with the merchant.
       Returning goods or canceling services purchased with a debit card is treated as if the
        purchase were made with cash or a check.


Banks in India with the way of development have become easy to apply in loan market. The
following loans are given by almost all the banks in the country:

       Personal Loan
       Car Loan or Auto Loan
       Loan against Shares
       Home Loan
       Education Loan or Student Loan

In Personal Loan, one can get a sanctioned loan amount between Rs 25,000 to 10,00,000
depending upon the profile of person applying for the loan. SBI, ICICI, HDFC, HSBC are some
of the leading banks which deals in in personal loan.

Almost all the banks have jumped into the market of car loan which is also sometimes termed as
auto loan. It is one of the fast moving financial products of banks. Car loan / auto loan are
sanctioned to the extent of 85% upon the ex-showroom price of the car with some simple paper
works and a small amount of processing fee.

Loan against shares is very easy to get because liquid guarantee is involved in it.

Home loan is the latest craze in the banking sector with the development of the infrastructure.
Now people are moving to township outside the city. More number of townships are coming up
to meet the demand of 'house for all'. The RBI has also liberalised the interest rates of home loan
in order to match the repayment capability of even middle class people. Almost all banks are
dealing in home loan. Again SBI , ICICI , HDFC , HSBC are leading.

The educational loan, rather to be termed as student loan, is a good banking product for the mass.
Students with certain academic brilliance, studying at recognized colleges/universities in India
and abroad are generally given education loan / student loan so as to meet the expenses on tuition
fee/ maintenance cost/books and other equipment.


Beside lending and depositing money, banks also carry money from one corner of the globe to
another. This act of banks is known as transfer of money. This activity is termed as remittance
business. Banks generally issue Demand Drafts, Banker's Cheques, Money Orders or other such
instruments for transferring the money. This is a type of Telegraphic Transfer or Tele Cash
It has been only a couple of years that banks have jumped into the money transfer businessess in
India. The international money transfer market grew 9.3% from 2003 to 2004 i.e. from US$213

bn. to US$233 bn. in 2004. Economists say that the market of money transfer will further grow at
cumulative 10.1% average growth rate through 2008.

With the use of high technology and varieties of product it seems that "Free" money transfers
will become commonplace. We will see more bundling of tailored money services by banks and
non-traditional entrants that will include "free" money transfers. Many banks will even use
money transfer services as loss-leaders inorder to generate account openings and cross-sell
opportunities. The price evolution of money transfer products for banks will be similar to that of
consumer bill pay-the product is worth giving away as an account acquisition tool to win
overall market share and establish banking relationships.

ATM money transfer card products have had terrible bank adoption rates since being introduced
in the last three to four years. Remittees who are highly educated and have been already been
exposed to ATM technology in receiving countries tend to have an interest in this product.
Money transfer to India is one of the most important part played by the banks. This service
provide peace of mind to either the NRIs or to the visitors to India. Many Indian banks have
ATM'S (automatic teller machine), enable to draw foreign currency in India.

By 2007, we will see a good percent of all foreign-born households doing some level
of online banking. First-mover banks will start having a window of opportunity to include online
transfer functionality within the next couple of years, which currently frequents traditional
money transmitters such as Western Union. There is a terrific opportunity for banks and non-
banks to offer more robust global inter-institutional funds transfer services online. More than half
of Western Union's customers today are already banked, and most do not have an alternative
product marketed by their bank that is painless, quick, and cost-effective. That will change as
banks offer transfer services through their online channel.

Visa has recently introduced the 'Visa Money Transfer' option for its savings and current account
holder of any bank with a visa debit card. This facility helps its customer to transfer funds from
his bank account to any visa card, either debit or credit within India.

A Visa Money Transfer is of similar kind, in many respects, to the third-party fund transfer
option given by some banks to its account holders through e-cheque, but this is restricted to only
visa card holders.

How to transfer money?

      Log on to your bank account through your respective bank websites.
      Fill the beneficiary details like visa card numbers, name, address and then specify the
       amount that needs to be transferred. For bank account specify the visa card number
       and credit card number for paying credit card bill.
      Click on to VISA Transfer Payments button.
      Transfer immediately or on schedule date. Your account will be debited according to the
       date mentioned.


Mobile Banking is a service that allows customers to do banking transactions on their mobile
phone without making a call , using the SMS facility.

Mobile Banking works on the 'Text Messaging Facility' also called the SMS that is available on
mobile phones. This facility allows sending a short text message from mobile phone instead of
making a phone call.

All that is need to do is, to type out a short text message on mobile phone and send it out to a
specific mobile banking number given by the bank .The response is sent as an SMS message,
all in the matter of a few seconds.

The following transactions are currently available across India -

      Balance Inquiry of all accounts linked to Customer Identification Number (maximun up
       to five accounts)
      Following transactions give information on primary account

      Checking the last 3 transactions in your primary account for MobileBanking
      Placing a Stop Payment on a cheque
      Requesting a cheque book
      Requesting an Account Statement
      Cheque Status inquiry
      Bill Presentment
      Fixed Deposit Inquiry
      A Help menu, which gives you the transaction codes for the various transactions
      IPIN Re-generation request

Mobile banking in India is set to explode - approximately 43 million urban Indians used their
mobile phones to access banking services during quarter ending August, 2009, a reach of 15%
among urban Indian mobile phone user.

Most Popular Banking Service on Mobile

Checking account balances is the most popular banking service used by urban Indians with
almost 40 million users followed by checking last three transactions, 28 million and status of
cheques with 21 million users.

                 Usage                            Unique Users (In millions)

                 Used mobile banking              43.70

                 Checking account balance         39.97

                 View last three transactions     28.15

                 Status of cheques                21.06

                 Payment reminders                20.92

                 Request a cheque book            19.11

Mobile banking is popular among the Rs.1 to 5 lakhs per year income group with almost 60% of
mobile banking users falling in the income bracket, an indicator of adoption of this service by
younger generation.


When one dials in to Phone Banking, a voice prompt will guide him through the various
transactions. He may also talk to a Phone Banker, who will provide him with the required

             Check your account balance
             Enquire on the cheque status
             Order a Cheque Book / Account Statement
             Stop Payment
             Loan Related queries
             transfer Funds between accounts
             Open a Fixed deposit or Enquire on your Fixed deposits / TDS
             Pay bills
             Report loss of ATM / Debit Card / ForexPlus Card
             Enquire about latest Interest / Exchange rates
             Request a Demand Draft / Manager's Cheque
             Demat Related Queries


Internet banking is the technology that allows banking customers to do the things they would
normally do at their bank from the comfort of home with a connection to the Internet. Anything
that would normally be done in the offshore bank account, which is done on the Internet, is
considered Internet banking.

With cybercafes and kiosks springing up in different cities access to the Net is going to be easy.
Internet banking (also referred as e banking) is the latest in this series of technological wonders
in the recent past involving use of Internet for delivery of banking products & services. Even the
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Internet research emphasised that Web is more important for retail
financial services than for many other industries.

Internet banking is changing the banking industry and is having the major effects on banking
relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the
branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true
Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the
branch (anywhere banking) at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a
"need to have" than a "nice to have" service. The net banking, thus, now is more of a norm rather
than an exception in many developed countries due to the fact that it is the cheapest way of
providing banking services.

Indian banks are going for the retail banking in a big way. However, much is still to be achieved.
This study which was conducted by students of IIML shows some interesting facts:

      Throughout the country, the Internet Banking is in the nascent stage of
       development (only 50 banks are offering varied kind of Internet banking services).
       In general, these Internet sites offer only the most basic services. 55% are so called
       'entry level' sites, offering little more than company information and basic
       marketing materials. Only 8% offer 'advanced transactions' such as online funds
       transfer, transactions and cash management services.

Foreign & Private banks are much advanced in terms of the number of sites & their level
of development.

Following services can be availed on the internet:

         Bill Payment
         Funds Transfer
         Special Promotions & Offers
         Ticket Booking
         Online loans and credit cards
         Online Shopping
         Online Tax payment
         Prepaid mobile recharge

 Chapter 4
Bank Profile

                                       ICICI BANK

ICICI Bank is India's second-largest bank with total assets of Rs. 3,562.28 billion (US$ 77
billion) at December 31, 2009 and profit after tax Rs. 30.19 billion (US$ 648.8 million) for the
nine months ended December 31, 2009. The Bank has a network of 1,654 branches and about
4,883 ATMs in India and presence in 18 countries. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking
products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery
channels and through its specialised subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment
banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The Bank currently
has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Russia and Canada, branches in United States,
Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar and Dubai International Finance Centre and
representative offices in United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa, Bangladesh, Thailand,
Malaysia and Indonesia. Our UK subsidiary has established branches in Belgium and Germany.

Corporate Profile

ICICI Bank's equity shares are listed in India on Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock
Exchange of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New
York Stock Exchange (NYSE).

ICICI Bank is India's second-largest bank with total assets of Rs. 3,562.28 billion (US$ 77
billion) at December 31, 2009 and profit after tax Rs. 30.19 billion (US$ 648.8 million) for the

nine months ended December 31, 2009. The Bank has a network of 1,645 branches and about
4,883 ATMs in India and presence in 18 countries. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking
products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery
channels and through its specialised subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment
banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The Bank currently
has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Russia and Canada, branches in United States,
Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar and Dubai International Finance Centre and
representative offices in United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa, Bangladesh, Thailand,
Malaysia and Indonesia. UK subsidiary has established branches in Belgium and Germany.

Personal banking Services

Mobile Banking Services offered by ICICI Bank

Bank Account         Credit Card            Demat                Loan            Other Services

Funds Transfer*    Balance Details    Holding Enquiry     Provisional        Locate Branch
                                                          Income Tax
Bill Payment+      Last Payment       Transaction         Final Income       Locate ATM
                   Details            Status              Tax Certificate
Balance Enquiry    Payment Due        Bill Enquiry        Reset Letter       Phone Banking
                   Date                                                      Number
Last 5             Reward Point       ISIN Enquiry        Rescheduled        Prepaid Mobile
Transactions       Status                                 Letter             Recharge*
Cheque Book                                               Loan Agreement     Apply for Bank
Request                                                   Copy               Products
Stop Cheque                                                                  Status of Service
Request                                                                      Request Raised
Cheque Status


Benefits of using iMobile:

      Secure access to your bank accounts anytime, anywhere
      Convenient menu based features designed for easy access
      Enjoy financial transactions worth Rs 50,000 per day for funds transfer to any account,
       bill payment and prepaid mobile recharge
      Continually updated services
      Multiple service options with minimal effort

Services available with iMobile:

        Payment of utility bills and credit card bills
        Transfer of funds to any bank account
        Payment of insurance premium

Placement of service request such us ordering of cheque books, bank account statements, cheque
status and balance enquiry.

Tv banking at icici bank

At ICICI Bank, we've introduced India to an all new way of banking. TV Banking. This
pioneering initiative now enables you to get information regarding loans, accounts, deposits and
a lot more while you're watching that exciting cricket match or your favorite sitcom. Quite
certainly, TV Banking has revolutionized banking by bringing it right into your living room.

You can get details and information regarding all our services – everything from loans, accounts
and deposits to additional services like financial counselling, interactive features like calculators
for loans and premiums, and lots more.If your TV service is coming to you through Satellite
DTH or Digital Cable, you can avail of our TV Banking from anywhere in India

    It doesn‘t require an Internet connection
    It's available 24x7
    Zero charges
    You can obtain all the information you need about the available banking products
     and services on the TV screen itself

                                          HDFC BANK

The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to
receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the
private sector, as part of the RBI's liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The
bank was incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its registered
office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank
in January 1995.


HDFC is India's premier housing finance company and enjoys an impeccable track record in
India as well as in international markets. Since its inception in 1977, the Corporation has
maintained a consistent and healthy growth in its operations to remain the market leader in
mortgages. Its outstanding loan portfolio covers well over a million dwelling units. HDFC has
developed significant expertise in retail mortgage loans to different market segments and also
has a large corporate client base for its housing related credit facilities. With its experience in the
financial markets, a strong market reputation, large shareholder base and unique consumer
franchise, HDFC was ideally positioned to promote a bank in the Indian environment.

Business focus

HDFC Bank's mission is to be a World-Class Indian Bank. The objective is to build sound
customer franchises across distinct businesses so as to be the preferred provider of banking
services for target retail and wholesale customer segments, and to achieve healthy growth in
profitability, consistent with the bank's risk appetite. The bank is committed to maintain the
highest level of ethical standards, professional integrity, corporate governance and regulatory
compliance. HDFC Bank's business philosophy is based on four core values - Operational
Excellence, Customer Focus, Product Leadership and People.

Capital Structure

As on 31st December, 2009 the authorized share capital of the Bank is Rs. 550 crore. The paid-
up capital as on said date is Rs. 455,23,65,640/- (45,52,36,564 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each).
The HDFC Group holds 23.87 % of the Bank's equity and about 16.94 % of the equity is held by
the ADS Depository (in respect of the bank's American Depository Shares (ADS) Issue). 27.46
% of the equity is held by Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) and the Bank has about 4,58,683
The shares are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange Limited and The National Stock Exchange
of India Limited. The Bank's American Depository Shares (ADS) are listed on the New York
Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol 'HDB' and the Bank's Global Depository Receipts
(GDRs) are listed on Luxembourg Stock Exchange under ISIN No US40415F2002.

On May 23, 2008, the amalgamation of Centurion Bank of Punjab with HDFC Bank was
formally approved by Reserve Bank of India to complete the statutory and regulatory approval
process. As per the scheme of amalgamation, shareholders of CBoP received 1 share of HDFC
Bank for every 29 shares of CBoP. The merged entity will have a strong deposit base of around
Rs. 1,22,000 crore and net advances of around Rs. 89,000 crore. The balance sheet size of the
combined entity would be over Rs. 1,63,000 crore. The amalgamation added significant value to
HDFC Bank in terms of increased branch network, geographic reach, and customer base, and a
bigger pool of skilled manpower.

In a milestone transaction in the Indian banking industry, Times Bank Limited (another new

private sector bank promoted by Bennett, Coleman & Co. / Times Group) was merged with
HDFC Bank Ltd., effective February 26, 2000. This was the first merger of two private banks in
the New Generation Private Sector Banks. As per the scheme of amalgamation approved by the
shareholders of both banks and the Reserve Bank of India, shareholders of Times Bank received
1 share of HDFC Bank for every 5.75 shares of Times Bank.


HDFC Bank operates in a highly automated environment in terms of information technology and
communication systems. All the bank's branches have online connectivity, which enables the
bank to offer speedy funds transfer facilities to its customers. Multi-branch access is also
provided to retail customers through the branch network and Automated Teller Machines

The Bank has made substantial efforts and investments in acquiring the best technology available
internationally, to build the infrastructure for a world class bank. The Bank's business is
supported by scalable and robust systems which ensure that our clients always get the finest
services we offer.

The Bank has prioritised its engagement in technology and the internet as one of its key goals
and has already made significant progress in web-enabling its core businesses. In each of its
businesses, the Bank has succeeded in leveraging its market position, expertise and technology to
create a competitive advantage and build market share.

Mr. Jagdish Capoor took over as the bank's Chairman in July 2001. Prior to this, Mr. Capoor was
a deputy governor of the reserve bank of india.

The Managing Director, Mr. Aditya Puri, has been a professional banker for over 25 years, and
before joining HDFC Bank in 1994 was heading Citibank's operations in Malaysia.

The Bank's Board of Directors is composed of eminent individuals with a wealth of experience
in public policy, administration, industry and commercial banking. Senior executives
representing Hdfc are also on the board.

Senior banking professionals with substantial experience in India and abroad head various
businesses and functions and report to the Managing Director. Given the professional expertise

of the management team and the overall focus on recruiting and retaining the best talent in the
industry, the bank believes that its people are a significant competitive strength.

Products and Services at glance
Personal banking

A. Accounts & Deposits

      Regular Savings Account
      Savings Plus Account
      SavingsMax Account
      Senior Citizens Account
      No Frills Account
      InstitutionalSavings Account
      Payroll Salary Account
      Classic Salary Account
      Regular Salary Account
      Premium Salary Account
       Many others

B. Loans

      Personal Loans
      Home Loans
      Two Wheeler Loans
      New Car Loans
      Used Car Loans
      Overdraft against Car
      Express Loans
      Loan against Securities
      Loan against Property
      Commercial Vehicle Finance
      Working Capital Finance
      Construction Equipment Finance
      Offers & Deals
      CustomerCenter

C. Investments & Insurance

      Mutual Funds
      Insurance
      Bonds
      Financial Planning
      Knowledge Centre
      Equities & Derivatives

    Mudra gold bar

D. Forex Services

      Trade Finance
      Travelers‘ Cheques
      Foreign Currency Cash
      Foreign Currency Drafts
      Foreign Currency Cheque Deposits
      Foreign Currency Remittances
      Cash To Master
      ForexPlus Card

E. Payment Services

      Net Safe
      Prepaid Refill
      Bill Pay
      Direct Pay
      Visa Money Transfer
      E-Monies Electronic Funds Transfer
      Excise and Service Tax Payment

F. Access Your Bank

      One View
      Insta Alerts
      Mobile Banking
      ATM
      Phone Banking
      Branch Network

G. Cards

      Silver Credit Card
      Gold Credit Card
      Woman's Gold Credit Card
      Platinum plus Credit Card
      Titanium Credit Card
      Value plus Credit Card
      Health plus Credit Card
      HDFC Bank Idea Silver Card
      HDFC Bank Idea Gold Card
      Compare Cards
      Transfer & Safe
      TrackyourCreditCard

H. Get More from Your Card

     Offers & Savings
     My Rewards
     Insta Wonderz
     Add-On Cards
     Credit Card Usage Guide
     Easy EMI
     Net safe
     Smart Pay
     Secure Plus
     My City Benefit Card
     Debit Cards
     Easy ShopInternational Debit Card
     Easy Shop Gold Debit Card
     Easy ShopInternational Business Debit Card
     Easy ShopWoman's Advantage Debit Card
     Prepaid Cards
     Forex Plus Card
     Kisan Card

                                 State Bank of India

   The State Bank of India, the country‘s oldest Bank and a premier in terms of balance
    sheet size, number of branches, market capitalization and profits is today going through a
    momentous phase of Change and Transformation – the two hundred year old Public
    sector behemoth is today stirring out of its Public Sector legacy and moving with an
    agility to give the Private and Foreign Banks a run for their money.

   The bank is entering into many new businesses with strategic tie ups – Pension Funds,
    General Insurance, Custodial Services, Private Equity, Mobile Banking, Point of Sale
    Merchant Acquisition, Advisory Services, structured products etc – each one of these
    initiatives having a huge potential for growth.

   The Bank is forging ahead with cutting edge technology and innovative new banking
    models, to expand its Rural Banking base, looking at the vast untapped potential in the
    hinterland and proposes to cover 100,000 villages in the next two years.

   It is also focusing at the top end of the market, on whole sale banking capabilities to
    provide India‘s growing mid / large Corporate with a complete array of products and
    services. It is consolidating its global treasury operations and entering into structured
    products and derivative instruments. Today, the Bank is the largest provider of
    infrastructure debt and the largest arranger of external commercial borrowings in the
    country. It is the only Indian bank to feature in the Fortune 500 list.

   The Bank is changing outdated front and back end processes to modern customer friendly
    processes to help improve the total customer experience. With about 8500 of its own
    10000 branches and another 5100 branches of its Associate Banks already networked,
    today it offers the largest banking network to the Indian customer. The Bank is also in the
    process of providing complete payment solution to its clientele with its over 8500 ATMs,
    and other electronic channels such as Internet banking, debit cards, mobile banking, etc

   With four national level Apex Training Colleges and 54 learning Centres spread all over
    the country the Bank is continuously engaged in skill enhancement of its employees.
    Some of the training programes are attended by bankers from banks in other countries.

   The bank is also looking at opportunities to grow in size in India as well as
    Internationally. It presently has 82 foreign offices in 32 countries across the globe. It has
    also 7 Subsidiaries in India – SBI Capital Markets, SBICAP Securities, SBI DFHI, SBI
    Factors, SBI Life and SBI Cards - forming a formidable group in the Indian Banking
    scenario. It is in the process of raising capital for its growth and also consolidating its
    various holdings.

   Throughout all this change, the Bank is also attempting to change old mindsets, attitudes
    and take all employees together on this exciting road to Transformation. In a recently
    concluded mass internal communication programme termed ‗Parivartan‘ the Bank rolled

 out over 3300 two day workshops across the country and covered over 130,000
 employees in a period of 100 days using about 400 Trainers, to drive home the message
 of Change and inclusiveness. The workshops fired the imagination of the employees with
 some other banks in India as well as other Public Sector Organizations seeking to emulate
 the programme.

State Bank of India offers a wide range of services in the Personal Banking Segment
which are indexed here

     eZ-trade@sbi
     SBI      VISHWA        YATRA
     FOREIGN              INWARD
     LOCKER

Online Trading
SBI‘s value proposition is based on Unmatched Expertise, State-Of-Art Technology And
Operational Ease that will redefine the way india trades.
State Bank of India in alliance with SBICap Securities Limitedand Motilal Oswal Securities
Limited offers an online trading account which will let you trade from the comfort of your home
or office either through the internet. This service provides you with a 3-in1 account which is an
integrated platform of savings bank a/c, demat a/c and an online trading a/c to give you a
convenient and paper free trading experience under one roof.

eZ -Pay Card
Payment of salaries to employees who will be required to work at different locations is generally
a difficult proposition for Employers as a single Banking arrangement can not be made for all
employees. The SBI eZ-Pay card , a prepaid plastic card issued in Indian Rupees in association
with VISA international, is the right solution in such cases. Periodical payments like salary,
payment of TA/ Medical/ incentives etc. can be loaded on to the card from a single point and the
funds are available to the employees immediately.
The SBI eZ-Pay card is a Pre-paid ATM-cum-Debit card usable at all VISA-enabled ATMs
through PIN and at Merchant establishments/ Point of Sale through PIN/ Signature,
in India, Nepal & Bhutan. The cardholder need not visit any Branch to withdraw his money.
Balance enquiry can be made either through ATM or through Internet free of charge.

Mobile banking services

Away from home, bills can be paid or money sent to the loved ones or balance enquiries done
anytime 24x7!!! That is what SBI FreedoM offers -convenience, simple, secure, anytime and
anywhere banking.

The service is presently available on java enabled mobile phones over SMS/ GPRS/ WAP as also
non java phones with GPRS connection. The service can be availed over the free GPRS facilities
offered by various mobile service providers. The services for other non-Java mobile phonesunder
development and will be offered using Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD).
ATM Services

State Bank offers convenience of over 8000 ATMs in India, the largest network in the country
and continuing to expand fast! This means that you can transact free of cost at the ATMs of State
Bank Group (This includes the ATMs of State Bank of India as well as the Associate Banks –
namely, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Indore, State
Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of Saurashtra, and State Bank of Travancore)
and wholly owned subsidiary viz. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd., using the State
Bank ATM-cum-Debit (Cash Plus) card.

Gift Cards
Presenting Gifts to Employees is an integral and unique culture in India. Traditionally, gifts have
been given to employees in the form of cash or kind. With the advancement of Banking, Gift
Cheques were introduced, allowing the employees to use the money according to their wishes.
These cheques, however, are accepted at the issuing bank branches only. The SBI Gift Card,
issued in association with VISA International, is one such product which gives the comfort of
convenience and wide acceptability.

Gift Card is a Pre-paid Plastic Card supported by Magnetic-strip based technology. It is usable at
all VISA enabled Merchant Establishments and POS by signature/ PIN. It is a perfect substitute
for Gift Vouchers sold by many retail houses as its use is not restricted to any particular
Merchant Establishment/ Point of Sale.

Sbi Yuva Card
SBI Yuva Card is an International Debit Card on VISA platform, exclusively designed for
vibrant youth of Indiabetween 18-30 years of Age. The card can be used at ATMs for cash
withdrawal at all ATMs under bilateral arrangement. It can be used for dining, shopping and
traveling at POS/MEs. This Card is available in all our branches free of cost. You can not only
draw cash at ATM but also swipe it for. This card is PIN based on ATM and signature based at
POS/MEs. This card can ‗be used for e-commerce i.e. for shopping through internet by using
VbV (Verified by VISA) certified internet websites. Funds can also be transferred using VISA
Monet Transfer facility. Using our ATMs, card holder can also transfer funds to other VISA
Debit/ Credit Cards issued by our Bank or any other Bank.

Internet banking
Simple, fast and convenient - anytime -anywhere - always open. You can now check your
account balances, view your account, request for cheque book, drafts, Bankers cheques, stop
cheque payment and issue standing instructions. You can also transfer funds to your other
accounts at the Branch, request for third party transfers, invest and renew Term Deposits.

Inter-bank Electronic Funds Transfer facility of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI - EFT) is
available with our branches in the clearing zone of Service Branches at Kolkata, Mumbai ,New
delhi and Chennai.

                                      Bank of Baroda

Bank of Baroda India

The Bank of Baroda was established in the year 1908 in Baroda. Ever since its inception, the
bank has been growing and expanding its branches successfully. At the turn of a century, the
bank has its presence in 25 countries across the world. Bank of Baroda has progressively taken a
step towards commitment and values by providing uncompromising standards of service to its
customers, stakeholders, employees and the like.

Heritage & Ethics of Bank of Baroda:

The Bank of Baroda was started on 20th July 1908 under the Companies Act of 1887. The initial
capital invested was Rs. 10 Lakhs. The Maharaja was none other than Sayajirao Gaekwad who,
with his visionary insight, planned the beginning of a reputed journey which over the years,
came to be known as the Bank of Baroda.

It is interesting to note that during the period of 1913 to 1917; almost 87 banks in India
succumbed to a financial crisis. However, the Bank of Baroda survived the economic depression
by dint of its financial integrity, business prudence and concern uncompromising concern about
its customers and clients. This has transcended down to the present ages and has become the
motto of the bank.
The mid-eighties marked the beginning of the shift to a buyers` market. The Bank orchestrated
its business strategies around the centrality of the customer. It diversified into areas of merchant
banking, housing finance, credit cards and mutual funds. A string of segment specific branches
entrenched operations in the profitable markets. Overseas operations were revamped and
structural changes intensified in the territories to cater to second generation NRIs. Slowly but
surely, the move to become a one stop financial supermarket had been set in motion. Service
delivery standards were stipulated.

Technology was adopted to add punch. Employees across the board were inculcated with the
marketing concept. Aggressive marketing became the new business philosophy.

Bank of Baroda has always had an immense faith in the infinite potential of its people. This has
been historically demonstrated in its recruitment practices, developmental initiatives, placement
processes and promotion policies. Strategic HR interventions like, according cross border and
cross cultural work exposure to its managers, hiring diverse functional specialists to support line
functionaries and complementing the technical competencies of its people by imparting
conceptual, managerial and leadership skills, gave the Bank competitive advantage. The
elaborate man management policies also made the Bank a breeding ground for business leaders.
The Bank provided around a dozen CEOs to the industry- men who went on to build other great
institutions. People initiatives were blended with IR initiatives to create an effectively
harmonious workplace, where everyone prospered.

New norms for capital adequacy required new capital management strategies. In 1995 the Bank
raised Rs 300 crores through a Bond issue. In 1996 the Bank tapped the capital market with an

IPO of Rs 850 crores, Despite adverse market conditions prevailing then, the issue was over
subscribed, reflecting the positive public perception of the Bank's fundamental financial strength.

Bank of Baroda pioneered the shift from manual operating systems to a computerized work
environment. Starting with ledgers, to ledger posting machines, through ALPMs, the Bank
graduated to the use of Unix based systems to Mainframes, to client server based Total Branch
Mechanization Systems. Today, the Bank has 1918 computerized branches, covering 70% of its
network and 91.64% of its business. Alive to the growing complexities of an intensely
competitive marketplace and the mounting expectations of customers fuelled by this competition,
the Bank reworked its distribution strategy. It ventured beyond the brick and mortar delivery
channel into ATMs and the OmniBOB range of anytime, anywhere electronic channels of PC
banking, telephone banking. The e-banking products used state of the art technologies like digital
certificates, smart card authentication and secure networking.

The new IT strategy, in the process of implementation will see the deployment of Core Banking
Systems, Multi Service Transaction Switch, Payment Gateways - all geared to deliver
convenience banking.

In its relentless striving for quality perfection, the Bank secured the ISO 9001:2000
certification for 15 branches. By end of the current financial, the Bank is targeting 54 more
branches for this quality certification.

Revolutionary and discontinuous changes in the operating environment are a stark reminder that
business success is 'impermanent'. The emergence of IT as a major driver for change, has
accentuated the need to initiate a major transformation program. The conversion to an IT savvy,
market driven bank will be a prerequisite to survival and growth. A major and strategic step in
hi-tech, was the establishment of the Integrated Treasury branch, as a forerunner to full-fledged
global treasury operations. Towards creating a future Bank of Baroda, the Bank has adopted a

revolutionary new business strategy that will be enabled by a revolutionary new IT strategy.
Actioning this strategy will position Bank of Baroda as India's uncontested premier bank.

At Bank of Baroda, change is a journey. It has a beginning. There will be no end. It will be a
long and difficult march. And the Bank will emerge stronger, more resilient and positioned to
become India's first bank of truly global standards. The relocation to the imposing Baroda
Corporate Centre, is a true reflection of the Bank's resolve to move ahead of the times. It will not
be out of place now, as it stands on the threshold of a digital era, to echo the same sentiments that
guided the Bank in its platinum jubilee year - 'a promising future is the sequel to a glorious past'.

Products & Services

This is a unique system under which Bank of Baroda helps companies and institutions making
heavy payments disburse these amounts directly into the bank accounts of the beneficiaries such
as account holders, shareholders, investors etc.

Key Benefits

      Prompt payment on the due date.

      Convenient receipt of money reduces trips made to the bank for depositing
       dividend/interest warrants.

      Elimination of fraudulent encashment against instruments lost in transit.


A tailor made product for customers, that enables faster remittance of funds. A more economic,
convenient, smoother mode of operation which can be availed of by a well supported network of

      Smoother: Time and money spent on dispatches are saved
      More economic: Involves a premium service at nominal cost with a pickup service from
       the client's office.
      More Convenient: The collection and credit are both done on days convenient to the
      Centred towards client benefits: All the benefits are passed on to the clients, in terms of
       enhanced quality, ease of liquidity and profit maximisation through better resource
      Spread over a good network: Initially launched at 5 centres, with the connectivity to be
       now fanned over to around 200 centres.

Collection Services


All branches of Bank of Baroda have the facility of collecting Cheques, Demand Drafts, Interest
Warrants, Dividend Warrants, Refund Orders, Clean Bills and Documentary Bills from
customers and various centres.. All Cheques and other instruments are collected into properly
introduced accounts and sent for collection on the day of receipt from the customers or the next
working day.


All branches of Bank of Baroda are prompt in terms of the collections and forwarding of
cheques and other instruments. For metro cities, when financial instruments are presented in a
branch, the proceeds are credited to the customer's account on the same day in the following
week. For state capitals, (and centres with more than 100 branches), amount is credited only after
10 days. If these instruments are not collected within 14 days of lodgement, interest @ 2% per
annum over savings bank rate is paid and is credited to the customer's account, without the
customer having to claim it.

Branches also accept requests for collection of Loan Certificates / FDRs issued by Joint Stock
Cos.; prize money of Lottery Tickets, Foreign Currency Notes etc. The bank levies service
charges as stipulated from time to time.


Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, Hundi's etc. (Clean / Documentary), payable locally but
received from outstation branches / banks / parties are treated as "Inward Bills for Collection".
Also, Bills received from Bank of Baroda branches and from other banks, directly from drawers
or outstation parties are treated as Usance (??) Bills.


The Funds collected in this offering are credited to the customer's account within a guaranteed
period of 7 days. Bank of Baroda's BOB Quick ensures a better collection service, which
creates new avenues of income and ensures better investment of funds. All cheques amounting to
Rs. 25000/- and above are drawn on select banks and are eligible for "Quick inter station
clearing". Rs. 50/- per packet is charged for courier charges with an additional but nominal
collection charge.


This product is an undertaking by the Reserve Bank of India, for inter city clearing of cheques
between the four metropolitan centres of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta.

Key Benefits

        Settlement of transactions on the basis of net value of instruments.
        All financial instruments are cleared promptly with the introduction of mechanised cheque
           processing, achieved through MICR technology. The concept of clearing has been extended
           to clearance of outstation cheques also.

        In addition to the four metropolitan centres, certain other centres have also been identified
           for "One Way National Clearing". These centres are Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad,
           Bangalore, Pondicherry, Trichy, Trivandrum, Vellore, Baroda, Erode, Madurai, and more.

Baroda Internet Banking

"Baroda Connect" is an internet banking facility introduced as an alternative delivery channel for
rendering effective customer service on 24 X 7 basis. It offers unique customized services to
both Retail & Corporate customers.

Under THIS facility customer can

      View Account summary of all operative, deposit and loan accounts
      View all multiple Account information online with a single user id
      Get Account statements

Under Transaction facility customer can

    Transfer funds immediately or schedule for a future date to self linked and third party
    Pay through Online Tax - Direct and Indirect taxes online such as Excise Duty, Service
       Tax, Customs Duty, Income Tax etc.
    Pay through Baroda Easy Pay - utility bills like electricity, mobile etc , Donations,
       Subscription, Travel plan booking online
    Book Rail Ticket – IRCTC
    Additionally a Corporate user can

           o   Set up multiple workflow of initiators and approvers for transactions and requests
           o   View all trade finance related facilities availed eg. Export / Import LC, Inland/
               Export Bills, Forward Contracts Bank Guarantees, Packing Credit account etc
           o   Use upload facility for single debit-multiple credit, multiple debit-multiple credit
               and single credit-multiple debit.




1) Which type of service do you prefer the most from the banks?

   a ATM services b Internet banking            c Mobile banking        d Retail banking

                                   Most Preferred Banking Service

             ATM Services     Internet Banking         Mobile Banking   Retail Banking





2) Your Account Decisions are influenced by:

   a Oneself   b Market research c broker d friends/relatives

                             Influence Of Account Decisions

           Oneself           Market Research      Broker        Friends/Relatives




3) Which factors do you consider before opening account or in purchasing new plan in a
   particular bank?

                          A   Financial position
                          B   Current Market Position
                          C   Goodwill
                          D   Future prospects
                          E   Services provided

                 Factors considered before opening an Account


         28%                          8%
                                                         Financial position
                                                         Current Market Position
                                                         Future prospects
                                                         Services provided


5) Which bank is more secure according to you?

  a ICICI     b HDFC      c SBI        d BOB

                              Most Secure Bank

                         ICICI    HDFC      SBI     BOB





                               Chi square test of independence


H0: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group are independent of
    each other.
H1: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group are dependent of each


Fo= observed frequency

Fe= expected frequency for each cell

Fe=(frequency for the column)(frequency for the row)/n


                                       observed frequency
                                               Age group
    Preference                                                         55 and     Total of
    towards banks         18-25        26-35          36-45   46-55     above        raw
    Public sector
    banks                     13          21            31       36         16           117
    Private sector
    banks                     22          16            23       19          3            83
    Total of
    column                    35          37            54       55         19           200
                                        Expected frequency
                                                       Age group
     Preference                                                                   55 and
     towards banks             18-25          26-35        36-45     46-55         above
     Public sector
     banks                     20.475         21.645       31.59    32.175        11.115
     Private sector
     banks                     14.525         15.355       22.41    22.825         7.885

        Fo            Fe           Fo-Fe          (Fo-Fe)^2          [(Fo-Fe)^2]/Fe
             13        20.48          -7.48               55.95                       2.73
             21        21.64          -0.64                 0.41                      0.02
             31        31.59          -0.59                 0.35                      0.01
             36        32.18           3.82               14.59                       0.45
             16        11.12           4.88               23.81                       2.14
             22        14.53           7.47               55.80                       3.84
             16        15.36           0.64                 0.41                      0.03
             23        22.41           0.59                 0.35                      0.02
             19        22.83          -3.83               14.67                       0.64
              3         7.89          -4.89               23.91                       3.03
                                                                             χ2Cal = 12.91

Degree of freedom=(R-1)*(C-1)
                   = (2-1)*(5-1)
Confidence level = 95 %
Therefore χ2tab = 9.49

Now in this case χ2cal > χ2tab hence null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is

Conclusion: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group are dependent
on each other.
Strenth of contingency co efficient:

Cramour‘s value =[Φ/Min (r-1) or (c-1)]^½


Φ = [χ2 / n ]½
  = 0.25
Cramour‘s value = [Φ/Min (r-1) or (c-1)] ^½
            = 0.5

Upper limit = [(r-1)/r] ^½
            = 0.70


Out of 0.70, strength = 0.5
Therefore strength = 0.5/0.70
                      = 71.42 %

                         SERVQUAL ANALYSIS

                 Calculation of servqual scores for ICICI bank
Dimension        Statement     Expectation Perception          Gap      Average
                                   Score          Score       Score       for
Reliability          1                  6.8           4.4        2.4
                     2                  5.8           5.2        0.6
                     3                  4.8             4        0.8
                     4                  5.2           3.6        1.6
Tangibility          5                  6.5           5.8        0.7
                     6                    6           5.4        0.6
                     7                  5.6           5.4        0.2
                     8                  5.8           5.6        0.2
                     9                    6           5.7        0.3
                    10                  5.6           5.5        0.1
                    11                  5.4             5        0.4
                    12                      5         3.8        1.2
Responsiveness      13                 5.2            3.8        1.4
                    14                 4.8            3.2        1.6
                    15                 4.3            2.9        1.4     1.45
                    16                 3.5            1.9        1.6
                    17                 4.5           3.25       1.25
Assurance           18                 5.6            2.7        2.9
                    19                 4.7            2.2        2.5
                    20                 5.6            3.6          2
                    21                 6.5            5.9        0.6
                    22                 5.7            4.3        1.4
                    23                 5.5            4.5          1
Empathy             24                 6.7            6.3        0.4
                    25                5.75           5.67       0.08
                    26                   6            4.9        1.1     0.68
                    27                 6.6            5.9        0.7
                    28                 6.2            5.1        1.1

                            Unweighted Average SERVQUAL score:             1.136
                                        Reliability                              1.35
                                        Tangibility                              0.46
                                        Responsiveness                           1.45
                                        Assurance                                1.74
                                        Empathy                                  0.68

                                                       ICICI bank


                    1.8                                                   1.74

Average gap score



                     1                                                                            Series1

                    0.8                                                                  0.68


                          Reliability    Tangibility   Responsiveness   Assurance       Empathy


                                            Gap score              Dimension
                                            Minimum                Tangibility
                                            Maximum                Assurance

Weightage given by respondents to different dimension                           Points
1.The bank's ability to perform the promised service dependably and                 19.7

2. The appearance of the banks physical facilities, equipment, personnel            29.5
and communication materials.

3. The banks willingness to help customers and provide prompt service.              11.2

4. The knowledge and courtesy of the bank's employees and their ability to          17.9
convey trust and confidence.

5. The caring individual attention the bank provides its customers.                 21.7

                                                                      Total:        100

           SERVQUAL            Score       7- Score      Weighting Weighted
            Dimension          from          from          from     Score
                              Table 1       table 1       Table 2

             Reliability          1.35            5.65        19.7       1.11

            Tangibility           0.46            6.54        29.5       1.93

          Responsiveness          1.45            5.55        11.2       0.62

             Assurance            1.74            5.26        17.9       0.94

             Empathy              0.68            6.32        21.7       1.37

                                         Average weighted score          1.19

                                                      SERVQUAL               Weighted
                                                       Dimension              Score

                                                  Reliability                       1.11

                                                  Tangibility                       1.93

                                                  Responsiveness                    0.62

                                                  Assurance                         0.94

                                                  Empathy                           1.37



weighted score

                 1.50                                                                             1.37
                                  1.11                                                                   Series1













                                            Weighted score                   Dimension
                                             Maximum                         Tangibility
                                              Minimum                      Responsiveness

                  Calculation of servqual scores for HDFC bank

Dimension        Statement    Expectation    Perception   Gap Score      Average
                                Score          Score                       for

Reliability          1                   7          6.8           0.2
                     2                 6.6          6.4           0.2
                     3                 5.9          5.7           0.2
                     4                   6          5.5           0.5
Tangibility          5                 6.4          5.8           0.6
                     6                   6          5.9           0.1
                     7                 5.5          5.3           0.2
                     8                 6.1          5.7           0.4
                     9                 6.5          6.3           0.2
                    10                 4.7          3.8           0.9
                    11                 5.2          4.9           0.3
                    12                 5.1          4.6           0.5
Responsiveness      13                 5.7          4.2           1.5
                    14                 6.6          5.1           1.5
                    15                 6.3          5.3             1     1.03
                    16                5.35         4.65           0.7
                    17                 5.7         5.25          0.45
Assurance           18                 6.3          5.9           0.4
                    19                 5.5          4.5             1
                    20                 6.6          5.8           0.8
                    21                 6.8          6.1           0.7
                    22                 5.3          3.9           1.4
                    23                   6          4.9           1.1
Empathy             24                 6.5          6.2           0.3
                    25                 6.5          4.7           1.8
                    26                   5          4.3           0.7     0.78
                    27                 6.7          6.2           0.5
                    28                 6.4          5.8           0.6

                              Unweighted Average SERVQUAL score:

                                            Reliability                             0.28
                                            Tangibility                               0.4
                                            Responsiveness                          1.03
                                            Assurance                                 0.9
                                            Empathy                                 0.78

                                                                HDFC bank

Average gap score

                     1                                                                   0.9

                    0.6                                                                                    Series1
                    0.4             0.28













                                                        Gap score               Dimension
                                                        Minimum                 Reliability
                                                        Maximum               Responsiveness

Weightage given by respondents to different dimension                Points
1.The bank's ability to perform the promised service dependably          22.3
and accurately.
2. The appearance of the banks physical facilities, equipment,                30
personnel and communication materials.
3. The banks willingness to help customers and provide prompt            15.5
4. The knowledge and courtesy of the bank's employees and                14.4
their ability to convey trust and confidence.

5. The caring individual attention the bank provides its                 17.8
                                                            Total:        100

   SERVQUAL             Score        7- Score       Weighting     Weighted
    Dimension           from        from table     from Table      Score
                       Table 1           1              2

  Reliability               0.28            6.72           22.3        1.50
  Tangibility                 0.4            6.6            30         1.98
  Responsiveness            1.03            5.97           15.5        0.93
  Assurance                   0.9            6.1           14.4        0.88
  Empathy                   0.78            6.22           17.8        1.11
                                    Average weighted score             1.28

                                             SERVQUAL                      Weighted
                                              Dimension                     Score

                                          Reliability                              1.50
                                          Tangibility                              1.98
                                          Responsiveness                           0.93
                                          Assurance                                0.88
                                          Empathy                                  1.11



Weighted score

                                                                                                 1.11   Series1
                                                                   0.93              0.88














                                            Weighted score                  Dimension
                                             Maximum                        Tangibility
                                              Minimum                       Assurance

                  Calculation of servqual scores for SBI bank

Dimension        Statement   Expectation    Perception     Gap        Average for
                               Score          Score       Score       Dimension

Reliability          1               5.3             5          0.3
                     2               6.3           5.4          0.9
                     3               5.8           3.9          1.9
                     4               6.3           4.9          1.4      1.13
Tangibility          5               5.7           3.9          1.8
                     6               5.5           4.2          1.3
                     7                 6           5.8          0.2
                     8               6.3           5.9          0.4
                     9               6.8           6.4          0.4
                    10                 5           3.7          1.3
                    11                 5             4            1
                    12               6.7           6.3          0.4      0.85
Responsiveness      13                 6           5.4          0.6
                    14               5.7           3.7            2
                    15                 5             3            2
                    16               5.5           4.3          1.2
                    17               6.2             6          0.2      1.2
Assurance           18               5.5           5.3          0.2
                    19               6.6           6.4          0.2
                    20               3.8             3          0.8
                    21               5.3           4.8          0.5
                    22                 5           3.8          1.2
                    23               5.7           5.5          0.2      0.52
Empathy             24               5.9           3.2          2.7
                    25                 6           5.3          0.7
                    26                 5           2.9          2.1
                    27               5.3           4.6          0.7
                    28                 6           5.6          0.4      1.32

                         Unweighted Average SERVQUAL score:             1.004

                                              Reliability                                         1.13

                                              Tangibility                                         0.85

                                              Responsiveness                                       1.2

                                              Assurance                                           0.52

                                              Empathy                                             1.32

                                                                    SBI bank
                    1.4                                                                                      1.32
                    1.2             1.13
Average gap score

                    0.6                                                                    0.52















                                                        Gap score                   Dimension
                                                        Minimum                     Assurance
                                                        Maximum                     Empathy

Weightage given by respondents to different dimension                           Points
1.The bank's ability to perform the promised service dependably and                      20.9

2. The appearance of the banks physical facilities, equipment,                            15
personnel and communication materials.

3. The banks willingness to help customers and provide prompt service.                    6.8

4. The knowledge and courtesy of the bank's employees and their                           45
ability to convey trust and confidence.

5. The caring individual attention the bank provides its customers.                      12.3

                                                                       Total:            100

        SERVQUAL            Score         7-Score       Weighting        Weighted
         Dimension          from        from table     from Table         Score
                           Table 1           1              2

       Reliability               1.13           5.87         20.9               1.23
       Tangibility               0.85           6.15             15             0.92
       Responsiveness             1.2            5.8             6.8            0.39
       Assurance                 0.52           6.48             45             2.92

       Empathy                   1.32           5.68         12.3               0.70

                                        Average weighted score                  1.23

                                             SERVQUAL                        Weighted
                                             Dimension                        Score

                                             Reliability                                1.23
                                             Tangibility                                0.92
                                             Responsiveness                             0.39
                                             Assurance                                  2.92
                                             Empathy                                    0.70


Weighted score


                 1.50             1.23
                 1.00                                                                               0.70













                                            Weighted score                 Dimension
                                             Maximum                       Assurance
                                              Minimum                     Responsiveness

                 Calculation of servqual scores for BOB bank
Dimension        Statement Expectation Perception          Gap      Average
                                   Score         Score    Score       for

Reliability           1                6.6         6.3       0.3
                      2                5.7         5.5       0.2
                      3                5.8         4.8         1
                      4                4.7        3.65      1.05     0.64
Tangibility           5                6.7         6.6       0.1
                      6               5.78         5.4      0.38
                      7                  5        4.72      0.28
                      8                6.3        6.01      0.29
                      9                5.9        4.75      1.15
                     10               5.43         4.9      0.53
                     11                6.3        5.88      0.42
                     12                5.9         5.7       0.2     0.42
Responsiveness       13                6.3        5.25      1.05
                     14                6.6        6.13      0.47
                     15               5.97        3.82      2.15
                     16                5.7         4.7         1
                     17                5.3         4.9       0.4     1.01
Assurance            18                6.6        6.35      0.25
                     19                  7         6.7       0.3
                     20                6.1           5       1.1
                     21                6.3         5.7       0.6
                     22                5.8         4.6       1.2
                     23                6.8         6.6       0.2     0.61
Empathy              24                6.6         6.3       0.3
                     25                  7        6.75      0.25
                     26                  4         2.8       1.2
                     27                5.2         3.9       1.3
                     28                6.3           6       0.3     0.67

                          Unweighted Average SERVQUAL score:         0.67

                                                    Reliability                              0.64

                                                    Tangibility                              0.42

                                                    Responsiveness                           1.01

                                                    Assurance                                0.61

                                                    Empathy                                  0.67


Average gap score


                    0.8                                                                                  0.67
                                    0.64                                                 0.61
                    0.6                                                                                         Series1














                                                        Gap score               Dimension
                                                        Minimum                 Tangibility
                                                        Maximum               Responsiveness

Weightage given by respondents to different dimension                Points
1.The bank's ability to perform the promised service dependably               20
and accurately.

2. The appearance of the banks physical facilities, equipment,                25
personnel and communication materials.

3. The banks willingness to help customers and provide prompt            16.8

4. The knowledge and courtesy of the bank's employees and                     30
their ability to convey trust and confidence.

5. The caring individual attention the bank provides its                      8.2

                                                            Total:        100

    SERVQUAL            Score         7-Score     Weighting       Weighted
     Dimension          from        from table      from           Score
                       Table 1           1         Table 2

   Reliability               0.64          6.36             20        1.27
   Tangibility               0.42          6.58             25        1.65
   Responsiveness            1.01          5.99            16.8       1.01
   Assurance                 0.61          6.39             30        1.92
   Empathy                   0.67          6.33             8.2       0.52
                                    Average weighted score            1.27

                                                  SERVQUAL                   Weighted
                                                   Dimension                  Score

                                            Reliability                                 1.27
                                            Tangibility                                 1.65
                                            Responsiveness                              1.01
                                            Assurance                                   1.92
                                            Empathy                                     0.52



Weighted score


                 1.50             1.27













                                            Weighted score                 Dimension
                                             Maximum                       Assurance
                                              Minimum                      Empathy


                              BANK                      GAP SCORE
                              ICICI                                        1.35

                              HDFC                                         0.28

                              SBI                                          1.13

                              BOB                                          0.64



                1.4   1.35

                1.2                                         1.13
Avg gap score


                0.8                                                                      Series1

                0.4                   0.28


                      ICICI           HDFC                  SBI                   BOB


                                      Gap score                    Bank
                                      Minimum                      HDFC
                                      Maximum                      ICICI

                              BANK                       GAP SCORE
                              ICICI                                       0.46
                              HDFC                                         0.4
                              SBI                                         0.85
                              BOB                                         0.42


                0.9                                         0.85


Avg gap score


                0.5   0.46
                                       0.4                                       0.42   Series1




                      ICICI           HDFC                  SBI                  BOB


                                      Gap score                    Bank
                                      Minimum                      HDFC
                                      Maximum                      SBI

                              BANK                      GAP SCORE

                              ICICI                                     1.4

                              HDFC                                     1.03

                              SBI                                       1.2

                              BOB                                      1.01


Avg gap score


                0.8                                                                  Series1




                      ICICI           HDFC               SBI                  BOB


                                      Gap score                Bank
                                      Minimum                  BOB
                                      Maximum                  ICICI

                              BANK                          GAP SCORE
                              ICICI                                        1.74
                              HDFC                                          0.9
                              SBI                                          0.52
                              BOB                                          0.61


                1.8   1.74

Avg gap score

                 1                     0.9                                               Series1

                0.6                                         0.52


                      ICICI           HDFC                  SBI                   BOB


                                      Gap score                    Bank
                                      Minimum                      SBI
                                      Maximum                      ICICI

                              BANK                      GAP SCORE

                              ICICI                                      0.68

                              HDFC                                       0.78

                              SBI                                        1.32

                              BOB                                        0.67


                1.4                                        1.32


Avg gap score

                      0.68                                                      0.67



                      ICICI           HDFC                 SBI                  BOB


                                      Gap score                   Bank
                                      Minimum                     BOB
                                      Maximum                     SBI

                                            Comparision of gap score
                Dimension                          ICICI             HDFC              SBI         BOB
                Reliability                         1.35                0.28           1.13        0.64
                Tangibility                         0.46                 0.4           0.85        0.42
                Responsiveness                      1.45                1.03            1.2        1.01
                Assurance                           1.74                 0.9           0.52        0.61
                Empathy                             0.68                0.78           1.32        0.67

                                               comparision of gap score




Avg gap score

                1.2                                                                                   ICICI
                0.8                                                                                   BOB




                       Reliability   Tangibility       Responsiveness      Assurance     Empathy

                                                                Unweighted average Gap

                                                 ICICI                    1.14

                                                 HDFC                     0.68

                                                 SBI                       1

                                                 BOB                      0.67

                                   1.2   1.14

   unweighted avg servqual score

                                                         0.68                            0.67

                                   0.6                                                          Series1



                                         ICICI           HDFC             SBI            BOB


BOB is having minimum unweighted average servqual score amongst all the four banks.


                               Bank                weighted score
                               ICICI                                      1.11
                               HDFC                                           1.5
                               SBI                                        1.23
                               BOB                                        1.27


                 1.6                     1.5

                                                              1.23                  1.27

                 1.2   1.11
Weighted score


                 0.8                                                                       Series1




                       ICICI            HDFC                  SBI                   BOB


                                       Weighted score                Bank
                                        Maximum                      HDFC
                                         Minimum                      ICICI


                               Bank               weighted score
                               ICICI                                  1.93
                               HDFC                                   1.98
                               SBI                                    0.92
                               BOB                                    1.65



                       1.93             1.98
Weighted score



                  1                                       0.92


                       ICICI            HDFC                 SBI             BOB


                                       Weighted score              Bank
                                        Maximum                    HDFC
                                         Minimum                    SBI


                               Bank            weighted score
                               ICICI                          0.62
                               HDFC                           0.93
                               SBI                            0.39
                               BOB                              1.01



                  1                    0.93
Weighted score


                 0.6                                                          Series1



                       ICICI           HDFC           SBI              BOB


                                     Weighted score          Bank
                                      Maximum                BOB
                                       Minimum               SBI


                               Bank               weighted score
                               ICICI                                 0.94
                               HDFC                                  0.88
                               SBI                                   2.92
                               BOB                                   1.92




weighted score


                       0.94              0.88


                       ICICI            HDFC                SBI             BOB


                                       Weighted score              Bank
                                        Maximum                    SBI
                                         Minimum                   HDFC

                               Bank             weighted score
                               ICICI                            1.37
                               HDFC                             1.11
                               SBI                               0.7
                               BOB                              0.52



                 1.2                   1.11
Weighted score


                 0.8                                    0.7                   Series1

                 0.6                                                   0.52



                       ICICI           HDFC             SBI            BOB


                                     Weighted score            Bank
                                      Maximum                 ICICI
                                       Minimum                 BOB

                                              Comparision of weighted score
                        Dimension                       ICICI                HDFC          SBI         BOB
                        Reliability                      1.11                 1.50         1.23        1.27
                        Tangibility                      1.93                 1.98         0.92        1.65
                        Responsiveness                   0.62                 0.93         0.39        1.01
                        Assurance                        0.94                 0.88         2.92        1.92
                        Empathy                          1.37                 1.11         0.70        0.52

                                                        comparision of weighted score



weighted score

                                                                                                         Bank ICICI
                 2.00                                                                                    Bank HDFC
                                                                                                         Bank SBI
                                                                                                         Bank BOB



                            Reliability   Tangibility       Responsiveness     Assurance     Empathy


                                        Bank           Avg weighted score
                                        ICICI                           1.19
                                        HDFC                            1.28
                                        SBI                             1.23
                                        BOB                             1.27

                     1.28                                                   1.27

Avg weighted score

                     1.24                                      1.23

                     1.22                                                                  Series
                       1.2       1.19



                                ICICI           HDFC           SBI          BOB


                     HDFC is having highest average weighted score amongst all the four banks.



                       Key Findings for general questions

 According to respondents the most preferred banking service is ATM service followed by
   mobile banking, internet banking and Retail banking.

 Most of the respondent‘s account decisions are influenced by themselves.

 Most important factor which respondent consider before opening an account is Future
   prospects followed by services provided, goodwill, financial position and current market

 According to respondents most secure bank is SBI followed by BOB, HDFC and ICICI.

 From the Chi square test of independence, it has been found that Preference towards
   public/private sector banks and age group are dependent on each other and the strength of
   the same is 71.42%.

                      Key Findings for servqual questions

                                       Gap Score

 For ICICI bank, the gap score for tangibility is minimum followed by empathy
   ,reliability, responsiveness and assurance.

 For HDFC bank ,the gap score for reliability is minimum followed by tangibility,
   empathy, assurance and responsiveness.

 For SBI bank, the gap score for assurance is minimum followed by tangibility, reliability,
   responsiveness and empathy.

 For BOB bank, the gap score for tangibility is minimum followed by reliability
   ,assurance ,empathy and responsiveness.

                              Weight for five dimensions

 For ICICI bank, the highest weight is given to tangibility followed by empathy,
   reliability, assurance and responsiveness.

 For HDFC bank, the highest weight is given to tangibility followed by reliability,
   empathy, responsiveness and assurance.

 For SBI bank, the highest weight is given to assurance followed by reliability, tangibility,
   empathy and responsiveness.

 For BOB bank, the highest weight is given to assurance followed by tangibility,
   reliability, responsiveness and empathy.

                                     Weighted score

 For ICICI bank, the highest weighted score is of dimension tangibility followed by
   empathy, reliability, assurance and responsiveness.

 For HDFC bank, the highest weighted score is of dimension tangibility followed by
   reliability, empathy, responsiveness and assurance.

 For SBI bank, the highest weighted score is of dimension assurance followed by
   reliability, tangibility, empathy and responsiveness.

 For BOB bank, the highest weighted score is of dimension assurance followed by
   tangibility, reliability, responsiveness and empathy.

      Comparison amongst banks on different dimensions

                                      Gap Score

             Reliability   tangibility   Responsiveness   assurance   Empathy
    ICICI       1.35          0.46             1.4           1.74       0.68
    HDFC        0.28           0.4            1.03            0.9       0.78
    SBI         1.13          0.85             1.2           0.52       1.32
    BOB         0.64          0.42            1.01           0.61       0.67

 For reliability the minimum gap score is for HDFC bank followed by BOB, SBI and

 For tangibility the minimum gap score is for HDFC bank followed by BOB, ICICI and

 For responsiveness the minimum gap score is for BOB bank followed by HDFC, SBI and

 For assurance the minimum gap score is for SBI bank followed by BOB, HDFC and

 For empathy the minimum gap score is for BOB bank followed by ICICI, HDFC, and

                               Bank       average Gap
                              ICICI           1.14
                              HDFC            0.68
                               SBI              1
                              BOB             0.67

 BOB is having minimum unweighted average gap score amongst all the banks
 followed by HDFC ,SBI and ICICI.
                                 Weighted score

           Reliability tangibility Responsiveness assurance          Empathy
     ICICI    1.11        1.93          0.62         0.94              1.37
     HDFC      1.5        1.98          0.93         0.88              1.11
      SBI     1.23        0.92          0.39         2.92               0.7
      BOB     1.27        1.65          1.01         1.92              0.52

 For reliability the highest weighted score is of HDFC bank followed by BOB, SBI and

 For tangibility the highest weighted score is of HDFC bank followed by ICICI, BOB and

 For responsiveness the highest weighted score is of BOB bank followed by HDFC, ICICI
   and SBI.

 For assurance the highest weighted score is of SBI followed by BOB, ICICI and HDFC.

 For empathy the highest weighted score is of ICICI followed by HDFC, SBI and BOB.

                               Bank      score

                               ICICI            1.19
                               HDFC             1.28
                               SBI              1.23
                               BOB              1.27

 HDFC is having highest weighted score amongst all the banks followed by BOB,SBI
 and ICICI.



 ATM is the preferred service.

 SBI is the most secure bank.

 There is a dependency relationship between age group and preference towards
   public/private sector banks.

 For ICICI bank tangibility is best amongst all other dimensions, which shows that
   customers are satisfied with visually appealing facilities, online banking facilities, time
   saving technology facilities and facilities for senior citizens of the bank.

 For HDFC bank Reliability is best amongst all other dimensions, which shows that
   customers are satisfied with timely services, error free records and sincerity of solving
   customers problems of the bank.

 For SBI and BOB bank assurance is best amongst all other dimensions, which shows that
   customers are satisfied about the safety of their tranctions with the bank.

 BOB and HDFC have comparative lower unweighted average gap score.

 SBI and ICICI have comparative higher unweighted average gap score.

 HDFC bank has the highest weighted score amongst all the banks, which shows that
   customers are more satisfied with HDFC bank for the services provided by them.


 ICICI and HDFC bank should emphasize on improving their services on responsiveness
   and Assurance.

 SBI and BOB should emphasize on improving their services on responsiveness and

 In general responsiveness is the dimension for which the weighted score of all the four
   banks is less comparative to other dimension so every bank whether public sector or
   private sector should consider their responsibility towards their customers and should
   provide proper training to their employees so that they can satisfy their customer.

 If we look at both the public sector banks, empathy is common dimension for which
   both the banks have got less weighted score which shows that customers are not getting
   individual attention so SBI and BOB should improve their services on empathy

 In private sector banks, assurance is common dimension which have got less weighted
   score . ICICI and HDFC should build confidence and trust in their customers regarding
   the safety of their transactions and other services provided by the banks.

 Though internet banking is convenient and user friendly, respondents don t prefer it more
   because of safety issues so all the banks should make their customers aware about the
   benefits of internet banking and should provide accurate services .

  List of web-sites.


List of books

     Zeithmal V. A., GremblerD.D., Bitner M.j., and Pandit A.:Service
      Marketing Integrated customer Focus Across The Firm‖ , Fourth Edition

     Zillur Rahman, ―Service Quality: Gap in the Indian Bank Industry‖ The
      ICFAI Journal of Marketing Management.

     Naresh K.Malhotra : Marketing Research – An applied orientation, Fifth

     Richard I.Levin,David S.Rubin –Statistics For Management, Seventh


                               Annexure (Questionnaire)
Dear sir/madam

We are students of NRIBM Ahmedabad, Presently working on a project on SERVQUAL
Analysis of Banking services and comparative analysis of customer satisfaction of various banks.

We request you to kindly fill the questionnaire below. We assure you that data provided by you
shall be kept confidential.

   1)   Which type of service do you prefer the most from the banks?

        a ATM services b Internet banking     c Mobile banking     d Retail banking

   2) Your account decisions are influenced by

        a Oneself       b Market research
        c Broker        d friends/relatives

   3) Which factors do you consider before opening account or in purchasing new plan in a
   particular bank?

        A   Financial position
        B   Current Market Position
        C   Goodwill
        D   Future prospects
        E   Services provided

   4) Which bank do you prefer the most from the following?
                a) Public sector bank
                b) Private sector bank
   5) Which bank is more secure according to you?
                a ICICI b HDFC c SBI d BOB e others

                                  SERVQUAL QUESTIONS

The following statements relate to your feelings about the particular bank you have chosen.
Please show the extent to which you believe this bank has the feature described in the statement.
Here, we are interested in a number from 1 to 7 that shows your Expectations and perceptions
about the bank.

You should rank each statement as follows:

                    Strongly Disagree                                  Strongly Agree

                                  1      2      3     4     5      6       7

Statement                                                                 E-Score       P-score


1. The Bank provides timely service.

2. The Bank insists on error free records services.

3. The Bank provides required and accurate information when

4. The Bank shows sincere interest in solving a customer‘s problem.


5. The Bank maintains visually appealing physical facilities like
   Reception, sufficient seating arrangement, drinking water facility

6. The Bank has accessible materials like forms, broachers, stationary
   associated with services.

7. The employees are decently dressed.

8. The Bank has different properly identified counters.

9. The Bank has good ATM‘s services

10. The Bank maintains sufficient and easy to use Online Banking

11. The Bank is well equipped with the time saving technology facility
    like phone banking and mobile banking.

12. The Bank has enough provision for facilities for senior citizens in
    terms of management of queue, solving queries, etc.


13. Employees are good in explaining the various services the Bank

14. Employees in the bank give you prompt service.

15. Employees in the bank are always willing to help you.

16. Employees in the bank are never too busy to respond to your

17. Employees give sufficient attention to properly respond to the
    senior citizens.


18. Employees instill confidence In the customers

19. Customers feel safe about their transactions

20. Employees are competent and knowledgeable.

21. The Bank maintains good systems for its efficient functioning

22. Employees in the bank are consistently courteous.

23. The Banks Corporate image is important for the employees.


24. The Customers get individual attention

25. The bank has operating hours convenient to all its customers.

26. The Bank has reliable Home delivery services.

27. The bank has your best interests at heart.

28. The Bank maintains long term customer relationships.

      Features                                                                  Points

      1. The appearance of the banks physical facilities, equipment,
         personnel and communication materials.

      2. The bank's ability to perform the promised service dependably and

      3. The banks willingness to help customers and provide prompt

      4. The knowledge and courtesy of the bank's employees and their
         ability to convey trust and confidence.

      5. The caring individual attention the bank provides its customers.

                                                                       Total:      100

                                           Personal details:



Contact no:


        1)   18 – 25
        2)   26 -35
        3)   36-45
        4)   46-55
        5)   55 and above


        1)   Student
        2)   Government employee
        3)   Private employee
        4)   Professional/ self employed
        5)   Housewife


        1)   Less than 10,000
        2)   10,001 to 20,000
        3)   20,001 to 30,000
        4)   30,001 to 40,000
        5)   40,001 and above