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Ethnic Groups in Oldham Ethnic Groups in Oldham

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					2001 Census of Population




Ethnic Groups
  in Oldham
  in Oldham

   November 2004
    November 2004
                           Acknowledgements

This is one of a series of reports produced by FOR – the Forum for Oldham
Research - based on analysis of the 2001 Census results. FOR is a network of
researchers and information specialists working in a range of organisations in
Oldham. This report is mainly the work of the Research Team in the Corporate
Policy Division of Oldham Council, with valuable input from Oldham Primary Care
Trust and from the research teams in the Council’s Social Services, and Education
and Culture Departments. Helpful advice and many useful comments were received
from the wider membership of FOR.




For further information about this report, contact the Research Team, Corporate
Policy Division: telephone 0161 9115186 or email jane.foody@oldham.gov.uk.


   All Census figures used in this report are produced with the permission of the
       Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office and are Crown Copyright.
                         Ethnic Groups in Oldham

                                   Contents

Summary                                                                             i-iv
Introduction                                                                         1
Ethnicity                                                                            1
The ethnic group question in the Census                                              1
Ethnic group                                                                         3
Sex and age                                                                          6
Country of birth                                                                     9
People with a limiting long-term illness, health problem or disability (LLTI)       11
Highest qualifications                                                              13
Economically active people                                                          19
Unemployed people                                                                   20
Economically inactive people                                                        23
Religion                                                                            27
Housing and households                                                              29
Dependent children                                                                  36
Conclusions                                                                         44



Appendices:                                                                         45

1. Ethnic groups and geographical areas                                             46
2. Ethnic composition of the populations of Oldham, Greater Manchester, the
                                                                                    47
    North West and England in 2001 and of the population of Oldham in 1991
3. Percentage of people resident in each ward and in Oldham by ethnic group         48
4. Age structure of the populations of Oldham and England                           49
5. Structure of the white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in
                                                                                    50
   Oldham
6. Residents of Oldham and England in 2001 who were born either in England
                                                                                    51
    or outside the United Kingdom
7. Self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in the population of Oldham      52
8. Self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in the populations of Oldham
                                                                                    53
   and England
9. Highest level of qualifications of 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham at the time of
   the 2001 Census (People with no academic or professional qualifications and      54
   people with level 4/5 qualifications)
10. Highest level of qualifications of white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi
    people in Oldham, Greater Manchester, the North West and England at the
                                                                                  55
    time of the 2001 Census. People aged under 50 years with no qualifications,
    level 2 qualifications and level 4/5 qualifications
11. Economically active people aged 16 to 74 years in Oldham                      56
12. Economically active 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham, Greater Manchester and
                                                                                  57
    England at the time of the 2001 Census
13. Unemployment rates in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England at the
                                                                                  58
    time of the 2001 Census
14. Students in Oldham at the time of the 2001 Census                             59
15. Economically inactive 16 to 74 year olds who look after the home or family:
                                                                                  60
    Oldham, Greater Manchester and England
16. Economically inactive 25 to 74 year olds who are permanently sick or
                                                                                  61
    disabled: Oldham, Greater Manchester and England
17. Response to religion question in the 2001 Census in Oldham and England        62
18. Tenure and people living in communal establishments by ethnic group in
                                                                                  63
    Oldham and England
19. One-person households and households with multiple ethnic identities in
                                                                                  64
    Oldham, Greater Manchester, England and wards in Oldham
20. Households classified by ethnic group of Household Reference Person
    (HRP): One-person households, one-person pensioner households and lone        65
    parent households in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England
21. Households classified by ethnic group of Household Reference
    Person (HRP): All households with no, one, or two and more dependent          66
    children
22. Dependent children in Greater Manchester and England by ethnic group          77
                         Ethnic Groups in Oldham

                                     Summary


This section of the report summarises some of the key points from the 2001 Census
results concerning ethnicity in Oldham.

•   Ethnicity is subjective. People can vary in how they classify their ethnicity in
    different contexts and over time.

•   The 2001 Census has two levels of classification. There were five broad ethnic
    groups: white, mixed, Asian or Asian British, black or black British, and ‘Chinese
    or other ethnic groups’. Within each of these broad ethnic groups are two or more
    narrow ethnic groups, providing a total of 16 ethnic groups. Compared to the
    1991 Census there were five additional narrow ethnic groups: ‘white Irish’ and
    ‘mixed’ (‘white and black Caribbean’, ‘white and black African’, ‘white and Asian’,
    and ‘other mixed’) ethnic groups.

•   White British people were numerically the largest ethnic group in Oldham, making
    up around 84.4% of the Borough’s population. The proportion of white British
    people in the ward population ranged from 39.6% in Werneth to 97.3% in
    Saddleworth West. White British people made up less than half of the population
    in Werneth and Coldhurst, and more than 91% of the population of 15 of
    Oldham’s 20 wards.

•   Pakistani people were numerically the second largest ethnic group in Oldham,
    making up around 6.3% of the Borough’s population. Some Pakistani people
    lived in each ward. Almost two-fifths (39.6%) of all Pakistani people lived in
    Werneth, with 30.0% in St. Mary’s, 19.9% in Alexandra and 17.0% living in St.
    Paul’s.

•   Bangladeshi people were numerically the third largest ethnic group in Oldham,
    making up around 4.5% of the Borough’s population. Some Bangladeshi people
    lived in each ward. Almost half (49.0%) of all Bangladeshi people lived in
    Coldhurst, with 11.9% living in Werneth, 6.2% in Alexandra and 6.0% in St.
    Mary’s.

•   People living in Oldham made up 8.4% of the white British population of Greater
    Manchester, 18.3% of the Pakistani population of Greater Manchester, and
    48.9% of the Bangladeshi population of Greater Manchester.

•   White people had the oldest populations in Oldham, with relatively high
    proportions of people aged 75 years and over and relatively low proportions of
    children aged under five years. Conversely, Pakistani people, Bangladeshi
    people and people of mixed ethnic origin had relatively youthful populations.

•   Some people in each ethnic group were born outside the UK, ranging from 0.9%
    of white British people to 83.4% of people from ‘other ethnic groups’. People from
                                           i
    white minority ethnic groups were more likely than Asian or black people to have
    been born outside the UK. Around 70.6% of white Irish people and 68.2% of
    people from ‘other white’ ethnic groups were born outside the UK compared to
    58.3% of Indian people, 50.2% of Bangladeshi people, 47.2% of black Caribbean
    people and 43.3% of Pakistani people.

•   People aged 16 years and over were more likely to report having a limiting long-
    term illness (LLTI) in Oldham than in England. Marked differences between
    ethnic groups existed for people aged 50 to 64 years, with black and especially
    Asian people being much more likely to have reported a LLTI than white people.
    For people aged 50 to 64 years, over half of all Pakistani people, Bangladeshi
    people, Indian women and black Caribbean women reported a LLTI compared to
    around 38% of white Irish people and 32% of white British people. Of Oldham’s
    population aged 25 to 74 years, 9.6% of men and 8.1% of women were identified
    as being permanently sick or disabled, with the white Irish population having the
    highest overall proportion of permanently sick or disabled people (13.9% of men
    and 11.8% of women). Overall, people were more likely to be permanently sick or
    disabled in Oldham than in England.

•   Except for black African people, 16 to 74 year olds were less likely to have
    obtained the highest level (level 4/5) of qualifications in Oldham than in England.
    Among 25 to 34 year olds in Oldham, Bangladeshi people were least likely
    (7.6%) and Indian people were most likely (50.2%) to have level 4/5
    qualifications. The proportion of people with level 4/5 qualifications has tended to
    increase among younger people, in particular, reducing the differential attainment
    of level 4/5 qualifications between white British people and Pakistani people.

•   With the exception of black African people, 16 to 74 year olds were more likely to
    lack academic or professional qualifications in Oldham than in England. In
    Oldham, the proportion of 16 to 74 year olds without qualifications ranged from
    9.9% of black African people to over half of all white Irish people (51.6%), people
    from ‘other Asian’ ethnic groups (52.8%), Pakistani people (55.3%) and
    Bangladeshi people (60.5%). However, younger people in the latter four ethnic
    groups were increasingly likely to have qualifications. The proportion of 16 to 24
    year olds without qualifications in Oldham ranged from none of the black African
    people and 9.9% of Chinese people to 30.2% of Pakistani people, 31.4% of
    Bangladeshi people and 36.7% of other Asian people.

•   Generally, women, especially Asian women aged 25 to 74 years, were less likely
    to be economically active than men. The main exceptions were women in some
    of the mixed ethnic groups. In both Oldham and England, Bangladeshi and
    Pakistani women aged 25 to 74 years were least likely to be economically active.
    The proportion of economically active 25 to 75 year old Bangladeshi women was
    9.7% in Oldham compared to 18.4% in England, while the figures for Pakistani
    women are 14.6% and 24.9%. Comparable figures for white British women were
    61.1% and 59.9%.

•   Overall, men aged 16 to 74 years and women aged under 25 years had higher
    unemployment rates in Oldham than in England, although the pattern varied for
    different ethnic groups. Among young people aged 16 to 24 years in Oldham,
                                           ii
    men tended to have higher unemployment rates than women. Among young
    men, Indian men had the lowest unemployment rate (9.7%) compared to rates of
    12.0% for white British men, 20.0% for Bangladeshi men and 22.4% for Pakistani
    men. Overall, people aged 25 years and over had much lower unemployment
    rates than younger people. An exception was older (25 to 74 year old)
    Bangladeshi men with an unemployment rate of 20.5% and Bangladeshi women,
    with the highest unemployment rate (24.7%) among older women. The
    unemployment rate for older Pakistani women (16.2%) was similar to that of
    younger Pakistani women and compared to rates of 3.1% for older white British
    women and 3.4% for older Indian women.

•   Women, especially Asian women, were much more likely than men to be looking
    after the home or family. Young women aged 16 to 24 years were much more
    likely to be looking after the home or family in Oldham than in England. In
    Oldham, around 4.9% of young Indian women and 9.1% of young white British
    women were looking after the home or family compared to 23.0% of young
    Pakistani women and 26.2% of young Bangladeshi women. Overall, older women
    (aged 25 to 74 years) were less likely to be looking after the home or family in
    Oldham than in England. The proportion of older women looking after the home
    or family ranged from 4.4% of black Caribbean women to 50.9% of Pakistani
    women and 54.0% of Bangladeshi women.

•   In Oldham, more than 70% of all white people and black people said that they
    were Christians. White Irish people were the most likely to report being Christian
    (88.5%). Around nine in ten Asian people reported being Muslim, including 94.6%
    of Pakistani people and 96.5% of Bangladeshi people. The third most common
    response to the religion question in Oldham was from people who said that they
    had no religion. Overall, around 8.9% of people in Oldham said that they had no
    religion, including between 16.0% to 20.6% of people from mixed ethnic
    backgrounds and 11.5% of black Caribbean people said that they had no religion.

•   Generally, people in Oldham were more likely to live in property owned by the
    household and in social rented accommodation and were less likely to live in
    private rented accommodation than people in England. Over 72% of all Pakistani,
    white British, Chinese and Indian people in Oldham lived in property owned by
    the household, as did 54.2% of Bangladeshi people. People with mixed ethnic
    heritage and black people (including 39.2% of all black Caribbean people) were
    most likely to live in social rented accommodation. People from mixed ethnic
    backgrounds were most likely (11.9% of the total) to live in privately rented
    accommodation.

•   One-person households were slightly less common in Oldham than in England.
    Almost half of all one-person households in Oldham were pensioner households,
    ranging from 7.4% for people of mixed heritage to 50.8% of white people
    (including 67.6% of people from ‘other white’ ethnic groups). A higher proportion
    of all households were lone parent families in Oldham than in England, with
    people with mixed heritage being most likely and Asian, especially Indian, people
    being least likely to be lone parent families.


                                          iii
•   Households made up of more than one person can include people in different
    ethnic groups. Around 92.3% of all households in Oldham compared to 90.7% of
    all households in England were made up of people with the same ethnic group.
    The next commonest type of household in Oldham (3.8%) was a household with
    different ethnic groups within partnerships.

•   Dependent children lived in a higher proportion (33.8%) of all households in
    Oldham than England (29.4%). At ward-level, between 10.8% and 22.2% of all
    households with a white British household reference person (HRP) had two or
    more dependent children. Much higher ward-level figures were found for
    households headed by Bangladeshi HRPs (66.1% in Coldhurst and 71.2% in
    Alexandra) and for Pakistani HRPs (68.2% in St. James’). More than half (56.3%)
    of all dependent white British children in Oldham lived in married couple families.
    High proportions of dependent Asian children in Oldham lived in married couple
    families: 81.8% of Pakistani children, 82.7% of Bangladeshi children and 92.5%
    of Indian children. In contrast, dependent black Caribbean children in Oldham
    were most likely (70.5%) to live in lone parent families. Around 27.6% of
    dependent white British children lived in lone parent families.

•   Black Caribbean children were the most likely of all dependent children in
    Oldham to have a limiting long-term illness (10.8%). Over half (51.1%) of all
    dependent black Caribbean children in Oldham lived in social rented
    accommodation.

•   Indian children were the most likely (82.9%) of all dependent children in Oldham
    to live in property owned by the household and were the least likely (9.4%) to live
    in households without an employed adult. Around 34.5% of dependent Indian
    children lived in accommodation classified as being ‘overcrowded’.

•   Sizeable proportions of dependent Bangladeshi children in Oldham lived in
    households without an employed adult (38.2%), in social rented accommodation
    (33.0%), in accommodation classified as ‘overcrowded’ (61.3%) and in
    accommodation without central heating (17.6%). Around 52.3% of dependent
    Bangladeshi children lived in property owned by the household. Bangladeshi
    children made up 8.6% of all dependent children in Oldham.

•   Almost one third (32.8%) of dependent Pakistani children in Oldham lived in
    households without an employed adult, 44.7% lived in accommodation classified
    as ‘overcrowded’, a 18.3% lived in accommodation without central heating, and
    5.3% were reported to have a limiting long-term illness. Around 69.8% of
    dependent Pakistani children lived in property owned by the household. Pakistani
    children made up 11.1% of all dependent children in Oldham.

•   Three-quarters (75.0%) of all dependent children in Oldham were classified as
    white British. Around 67.8% of all dependent white British children lived in
    property owned by the household, 17.8% lived in households without an
    employed adult, 11.4% lived in accommodation classified as ‘overcrowded’, 4.2%
    were reported to have a limiting long-term illness, and 3.6% lived in
    accommodation without central heating.

                                          iv
                              Ethnic Groups in Oldham

Introduction

This report introduces some of the 2001 Census results concerning Oldham's
population. Results for people belonging to different ethnic groups are presented
mainly at Local Authority level. Topics covered include gender, age, health,
qualifications, economic activity, religion, and tenure. The final section presents
some of the results for dependent children living in households.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity is a complex subject. Ethnic identity involves both how people define
themselves and how other people define them. Individuals can have simultaneously
different ethnic identities that are emphasised to different extents in different
situations, depending on personal objectives, and in response to other people's
behaviour.1 As people can legitimately record themselves in different ethnic groups
at different times, ‘an ethnic group classification is only valid for the period and
context in which it is used’.2

The ethnic group question in the Census

A question about ethnic group was introduced in the 1991 Census. Arguably,
meaningful comparisons cannot be made between the responses to the 1991
Census and 2001 Census because of the nature of ethnic identity and differences in
the ethnic groups listed in each Census. Therefore great care must be taken if
comparisons are made.

The 1991 Census provided a list of nine ethnic groups: white, black Caribbean, black
African, black other, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese, and any other ethnic
group. The 1991 Census identified people who were born in Ireland, but did not ask
people if they were Irish. Space was provided for people in the black other and any
other ethnic group categories to describe their ethnicity. People answering this
question were informed that this question sought descriptions of their ‘ancestry’. If
people belonged to ‘more than one ethnic or racial group’, they were asked to ‘tick
the group’ to which they considered that they belonged.

In the 2001 Census, people were asked ‘What is your ethnic group?’ and were told
that their response should 'indicate your cultural background'. Some additional ethnic
identities were recognised in the 2001 Census. Two levels of ethnic group
classification were used. There were five broad ethnic groups: white, mixed, Asian or
Asian British, black or black British, and ‘Chinese or other ethnic group’. Within each
of these broad ethnic groups were nested two or more narrow ethnic groups.
Respondents to the 2001 Census had a total of 16 ethnic group response categories
to choose from.
1                                                            nd
  Mason (2000) Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. 2 edition. Oxford Modern Britain. Oxford
University Press.
2
  Haskey (2000) ‘Projections of the population by ethnic group: a sufficiently interesting or a definitely
necessary exercise to undertake?’ Population Trends. 102. Winter 2000. pp. 34-40
                                                    1
Within the white ethnic group are three narrow ethnic groups: British, Irish, and any
other white background. Recognition of Irish people was reported to be a result of
'pressure from Irish community groups and the Commission for Racial Equality
(CRE)'.3 A 1997 report on research conducted nationally on behalf of the CRE said
that the Irish were 'by far the largest ethnic minority by immigration in Britain' and
tended to experience discrimination in many areas of their lives.4 Although
respondents from other white ethnic groups, such as Scottish and Polish people,
could choose to describe their ethnic group, these identities would not be reported in
the standard Census results.

Both Asian and black people were offered broad ethnic groups that recognised that
many people now perceive themselves to be ‘Asian British’ or ‘black British’ rather
than ‘Asian’ or ‘black’. Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi identities, together with
‘any other Asian background’, were included in the broad ethnic group Asian or
Asian British. The black and black British ethnic group is made up of three ethnic
groups: Caribbean, African, and ‘any other black background’. The 2001 Census
results do not include details of the other Asian and black identities.

The biggest difference between the two censuses is the introduction of the mixed
ethnic group category in 2001. This broad ethnic group has four ethnic groups: white
and black Caribbean, white and black African, white and Asian, and ‘any other mixed
background’. Standard reports of the 2001 Census results would not include details
of the other mixed background identities. Nationally, there has been an increase in
the size of the mixed-race, non-white population. Also, there has been a shift in
preference from identifying with one parent's ethnic group to recognising mixed
descent. 5

The broad ethnic group ‘Chinese or other ethnic group’ is made up of two ethnic
group categories: Chinese and ‘any other’.

Overall, the estimated response rate for 2001 Census was 94% in England and 93%
in Oldham. The estimated non-response rate for the ethnic group question was 2.9%
in England and Wales and 3.3% in Oldham. Within Greater Manchester the
estimated non-response rate for this question ranged from just under 2.3% in Wigan
to nearly 5.4% in Manchester. The 2001 Census results have a 100% cover, which
was achieved by making an educated guess about responses (imputation) for whole
households or people with missing, incorrect or inconsistent responses to questions.
In England and Wales, there were higher proportions of ‘imputed’ people in the
mixed, Asian and black ethnic groups compared to other ethnic groups. 6 7


3
  Vidler (2001) 'The 2001 Census of Population.' House of Commons Research Paper 01/21. 9
March 2001.
4
  Commission for Racial Equality (1997). The Irish in Britain. June 1997.
5
  Vidler (2001) As in 3. Haskey (2000) 'Projections of the population by ethnic group: a sufficiently
interesting or a definitely necessary exercise to undertake?' Population Trends. 102. Winter 2000. pp.
34-40.
6
   The 'non-response rate' was calculated as (number of non-responses + failed multi-ticks +
inadequately described + value out of range) / (number of people in population - those for whom no
answer was required).
7
  National Statistics. Census 2001 Review and Evaluation: Edit and Imputation Evaluation Report.
February 2003.; Item non-response rates. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/quality_indicators.asp.
                                                   2
This report presents some of the 2001 Census results concerning the recognised,
self-reported ethnic groups in Oldham, concentrating on the five broad ethnic
categories (white, mixed, Asian or Asian British, black or black British, and Chinese
or other ethnic group).8 Comments are made about some of the 16 narrow ethnic
groups. For several reasons, caution must be used when interpreting 2001 Census
results.9 The wards referred to here are the wards existing at the time of the 2001
Census.

Ethnic group

According to the 2001 Census there were about 217,271 people resident in
Oldham10, the majority (86.1%) of whom were white people. There were differences
in the ethnic composition of the populations of Oldham, Greater Manchester, the
North West and England (Figure 1 and Table 1). Of these four geographical areas,
Oldham’s population had the lowest proportion of white people (86.1%) and the
highest proportion of Asian people (11.9%).

Within Greater Manchester, only Manchester’s population had a lower percentage
(81%) of white people than Oldham. Based on the percentage of white people in the
population, Oldham was ranked 332 out of all 376 local authorities in England and
Wales, and was ranked 39 out of all 43 local authorities in the North West.11

People are unevenly distributed across geographical areas. Furthermore, there are
differences in the spatial distribution of people from different ethnic groups (Appendix
1). Oldham’s population makes up 8.8% of the population of Greater Manchester,
3.2% of the population of the North West and 0.4% of the population of England.
Although the pattern is similar for white British people, different patterns exist for
other ethnic groups. Oldham’s Bangladeshi population made up almost half (48.9%)
of the Bangladeshi population of Greater Manchester, 37.8% of the Bangladeshi
population of the North West, and 3.6% of the Bangladeshi population of England.
Oldham’s Pakistani population made up 18.3%, 11.8% and 1.9% respectively of the
Pakistani populations of Greater Manchester, the North West and England. In
contrast, for example, white Irish people in Oldham made up 4.6%, 2.5% and 0.3%
respectively of the white Irish populations of Greater Manchester, the North West
and England. While, Indian people in Oldham made up 4.3%, 2.2% and 0.2%
respectively of the Indian populations of Greater Manchester, the North West and
England.
8
   For brevity the this document uses the term ‘black’ instead of ‘black or black British’, ‘Asian’ instead
of ‘Asian or Asian British’, and ‘other’ instead of ‘Chinese or other ethnic group’.
9
   Partly because of imputation. Census results are produced in tables. To maintain confidentiality
some records have been switched and ‘small numbers’ in each table have been ‘randomly adjusted to
zero’. The tables contain no 0s, 1s and 2s. All 1s and 2s in the results are altered to 0s or 3s in the
tables in a way that should not add bias. Therefore, for example, a table entry of '0' could represent a
real result of 0, 1 or 2. Furthermore, as each table is treated independently, there can be different
census figures for the same population. For example, according to one census table (S101) the total
population of Oldham is 217,271, including 183,297 white British people, while the figures in another
table (S102) are 217,292 and 183,303, respectively. See Simpson, L. (2003) Are the census outputs
fit for purpose? Royal Statistical Society/Office for National Statistics Census conference, 11-12
November 2003.
10
    Based on Standard Table S101.
11
    Rank 1 is for the local authority with the highest percentage of white people in the population.
National Statistics. Census 2001. Profiles. From http://www.statistics.gov.uk.
                                                    3
     Figure 1: Percentage of the total populations of Oldham, Greater Manchester,
                 the North West and England in 2001 by ethnic group


                     Oldham




               Gt Manchester




                  North West




                    England



                               0%       20%         40%         60%          80%       100%
                                            percentage of the total population

                                    white      mixed        Asian        black      other
               Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S101 Sex and
               age by ethnic group. Oldham's total population is about 217,271 people.

Table 1: Ethnic group
                               percentage of people living within each area by ethnic group
                                                          (2001)
ethnic group
                                                                    Greater
                                England       North West                              Oldham
                                                                 Manchester
white                               90.9              94.4              91.1             86.1
Asian                                4.6               3.4               5.6             11.9
mixed                                1.3               0.9               1.3              1.1
black                                2.3               0.6               1.2              0.6
other                                0.9               0.6               0.8              0.3
all people                         100.0           100.0              100.0             100.0
total population
                          49,138,831                   6,729,766                 2,482,330    217,271
(number)
                                                                                                 12
     Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S101 Sex and age by ethnic group.

There are geographical differences in the ethnic composition of different populations.
Numerically, the two largest ethnic groups in Oldham, Greater Manchester and the
North West were white British people and Pakistani people. White Irish people made
up the third largest ethnic group in Greater Manchester and the North West but was
the fourth largest ethnic group in Oldham. Bangladeshi people made up the third
largest ethnic group in Oldham but were the sixth largest ethnic group in Greater
Manchester, the seventh largest ethnic group in the North West and the eighth
largest ethnic group in England. White British people are the largest ethnic group in
England, followed in order of decreasing numbers of people by other white people,
Indian people, Pakistani people and white Irish people. It is important to remember
12
  In the 1991 Census, Cumbria was part of the 'North' region. However, in the 2001 Census, Cumbria
became part of the 'North West' region. See http://www.statistics.gov.uk/geography/gor.asp.
                                                        4
these spatial differences in populations when comparing figures for different
geographical areas.

Asian people made up the second largest ethnic group in Oldham, accounting for
11.9% of the total population (Figure 1 and Table 1). The two largest minority ethnic
groups in Oldham were Pakistani and Bangladeshi people, respectively accounting
for 6.3% and 4.5% of the total population. Pakistani and Bangladeshi people
accounted for a much lower proportion of the total populations of Greater
Manchester, the North West and England (Appendix 2).

People with mixed ethnic backgrounds made up a slightly lower proportion (about
1.1%) of Oldham's population compared to the populations of Greater Manchester
and England (both with about 1.3% of the population having a mixed ethnic heritage)
(Figure 1 and Table 1). However, people with mixed white and black Caribbean
heritage made up a slightly higher proportion (0.6%) of Oldham's population
compared to the populations of Greater Manchester and England (both with 0.5% of
the population in this ethnic group) (Appendix 2).

Black people made up about 0.6% of the population of Oldham (Figure 1 and Table
1). This was about half the proportion (1.2%) of black people in the Greater
Manchester population and just over a quarter of the proportion (2.3%) of black
people in the English population. The proportion of population made up of black
Caribbean people in Oldham (0.4%) was lower than in England (1.1% of the
population). The difference was greater among the black African population, which
made up about 0.1% of Oldham's population compared to 1% of England's
population (Appendix 2).

A similar proportion of the population of Greater Manchester and England
(respectively, about 0.8% and 0.9% of these populations) was made up of people in
the ‘Chinese or other ethnic group’. However, the proportion of population in this
ethnic group in Oldham (0.3%) was about a third of that in England, with the greatest
difference being in the proportions of people in ethnic groups other than Chinese
(Figure 1 and Table 1. Appendix 2).

White people made up 86.1% of the population of Oldham (Figure 1 and Table 1).
White British people made up 84.4% of the population of Oldham and higher
proportions of the population of Greater Manchester and England (87.9% and 87%
respectively). White Irish people and other white people both made up a similar
proportion (0.9%) of Oldham’s population and higher proportions of the populations
of Greater Manchester and England. White Irish people made up 1.7% of Greater
Manchester’s population and 1.3% of the English population. The figures for other
white people were 1.4% and 2.7% respectively (Appendix 2).

Overall, white people made up the majority of the population of all but two wards in
Oldham (Table 2, Figure 2). White British people account for about 39.6% of the
population in Werneth and 41.7% of the population in Coldhurst. The most rural
wards in Oldham have a predominantly white British population. The populations of
Saddleworth West, Saddleworth East and Crompton comprised respectively 97.1%,
96.9% and 96.7% white British people. Bangladeshi and Pakistani people live
throughout the Borough. Bangladeshi people made up almost half (48.9%) of the
                                         5
population of Coldhurst and 11.9% of the population of Werneth. Pakistani people
made up around 19.9% of the population of Alexandra, nearly a third (30%) of the
population of St. Mary's, and 39.5% of the population of Werneth (Appendix 3).

Sex and age

Females made up just over half (51.7%) of Oldham's total population (Table 3). The
proportion of females varied across ethnic groups from 43.3% of black Africans to
55.5% of ‘other ethnic groups’. Females made up 52% of the white British
population, 49.4% of the Pakistani population and 50.1% of the Bangladeshi
population.

Table 3: Gender, age and country of birth of the population of Oldham in 2001
                          percentage of people within each ethnic group                     total
                                                                                        number of
                           white       Asian        mixed         black        other      people
 gender:
 females                    52.0         49.6         48.8         45.6        53.4      112,242
 males                      48.0         50.4         51.2         54.4        46.6      105,029
 age:
  0 to 4 years               5.8         14.4         19.7          3.0         5.2        15,197
  5 to 15 years             14.4         25.9         39.2         11.9        16.7        34,801
 16 to 24 years              9.4         19.4         16.2          8.3        17.6        23,150
 25 to 49 years             35.1         31.1         20.9         49.4        46.6        75,077
 50 to 64 years             19.3          6.1          2.6         15.4         9.4        38,021
 65 years & over            16.0          3.2          1.4         12.0         4.5        31,025
 75 years & over             7.7          0.8          0.4          2.3         1.0        14,672
 85 years & over             2.0          0.1           **          0.2          **         3,699
 country of birth:
 born in England            95.6         52.6         92.9         52.4        31.5      195,562
 born in the UK             97.7         52.9         93.9         52.4        31.5      199,576
 born outside UK             2.3         47.1          6.1         47.6        68.5       17,716
 total population
 by ethnic group       187,162        25,804        2,440        1,247          618      217,271
 (number)
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Tables: S101 Sex and age by ethnic group; S102
Sex and country of birth by ethnic group. Number of people born outside the UK was calculated by
subtracting the number of people born in the UK from the total population. ** indicates that the
percentage could not be calculated because the entry in S101 was ‘-’, which does not mean that there
was nobody in this category. Reading this table, e.g. there were about 112,242 females in Oldham
and 45.6% of all 1,247 black people in Oldham were female.

There were similar proportions of females in the populations of Oldham, Greater
Manchester, the North West and England. Within each ethnic group there were
broadly similar proportions of females in the populations in each area.

The age distributions of ethnic group populations in Oldham varied (Table 3,
Appendix 4). White ethnic groups, especially 'other white' and Irish people, had the
oldest populations. About 7.7% of all white people, 18.1% of all 'other' white people,
9.3% of all white Irish people and 7.6% of all white British people were aged 75
years and over. About 6.2% of all black African people were aged 75 years and over.
                                          6
         Figure 2 and Table 2: The total population and the percentage of non-white people and white people
                                  living in the wards and Borough of Oldham, 2001


                         percentage of the                            OLDHAM
                         total population in
                                                                       Werneth
                        each area made up        total
        ward                     of                                   Coldhurst
                                               population
                           white non-white                           St. Mary's          white people                          non-white people
                          people   people
                                                                     Alexandra
Werneth                     41.5        58.5        11,607
                                                                      St. Paul's
Coldhurst                   43.2        56.8        11,946
St. Mary's                  58.8        41.2        10,772          Hollinwood
Alexandra                   70.0        30.0        11,168
St. Paul's                  72.9        27.1        10,516          Waterhead
Hollinwood                  93.2         6.8         9,909           St. James'
Waterhead                   94.6         5.4        12,865
St. James'                  95.1         4.9         9,698    Chadderton North
Chadderton North            95.1         4.9        10,242                Lees
Lees                        95.2         4.8        10,113
Shaw                        95.4         4.6        10,644                Shaw
Chadderton South            95.8         4.2        10,107    Chadderton South
Failsworth West             96.5         3.5         9,834
Chadderton Central          96.5         3.5        10,766      Failsworth West
Failsworth East             96.8         3.2        10,712   Chadderton Central
Royton South                97.1         2.9        10,347
Crompton                    97.8         2.2        11,111      Failsworth East
Royton North                97.8         2.2        10,599
                                                                  Royton South
Saddleworth East            98.3         1.7        13,066
Saddleworth West            98.5         1.5        11,291            Crompton

OLDHAM                    86.1      13.9       217,271            Royton North
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright.
                                                              Saddleworth East
Standard Table S101. Sex and age by ethnic group.
                                                              Saddleworth West
'White people' are people in 2001 Census categories
white British', 'white Irish' and 'other white'. People
                                                                                   0%   20%            40%             60%                80%     100%
belonging to all other ethnic groups are classified as
being 'non-white'.                                                                      percentage of the total population in each area
Wards are the wards at the time of the 2001 Census.



                                                                         7
However, less than 2.3% of all Asian, mixed heritage, Chinese, and black Caribbean
people were in this age group. As were around 0.9% of Pakistani people and 0.6% of
Bangladeshi people.

Asian people (excluding Indian people) and people of mixed ethnic backgrounds had
the youngest populations. More than three in ten people in these ethnic groups were
younger than 16 years, including about 58.9% of all people of mixed ethnic origin,
44.2% of Bangladeshi people and 39.7% of Pakistani people. In comparison, up to
around 20% of all white people (ranging from 4.3% of Irish people to 20.5% of white
British people) and up to about 15% of all black people (ranging from 13.5% of black
Caribbean people to 19.1% of black African people) were younger than 16 years.

Overall, Oldham has a younger population than Greater Manchester, the North West
or England. The differences between the age structure of the white population in
these four areas were small. There were greater differences between the Asian
populations in these areas (Figure 3). However, it should be remembered that the
ethnic composition of populations in these areas varied.

   Figure 3: Population age structures for all people, all white people or all Asian
    people in Oldham, Greater Manchester, the North West and England, 2001
                                         all people


            England

         North W est

      Gt Manchester

             Oldham

                       0%         20%          40%        60%         80%       100%
                             percentage of the total population in each area



                                        white people

            England

         North W est

      Gt Manchester

             Oldham

                       0%         20%          40%        60%         80%       100%
                                 percentage of all white people in each area


                                        Asian people

            England

         North W est

      Gt Manchester

             Oldham

                       0%         20%          40%        60%         80%       100%
                                 percentage of all Asian people in each area

          0 to 4       5 to 15      16 to 24      25 to 49       50 to 64      65 plus



   Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Tables. S101 Sex and age by ethnic group.
                                 Ages groups are in years.


                                                     8
Figure 4 concerns the three numerically largest ethnic groups in Oldham. The white
British population has a broadly similar age structure in Oldham and England.
However, Oldham’s Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations were markedly younger
than comparable populations in England. For example, under fives in Oldham and
England made up respectively 13.7% and 11.9% of the Pakistani populations, 16.9%
and 13.1% of the Bangladeshi populations, and 5.9% and 5.7% of the white British
populations. People aged 65 years and over in Oldham and England made up
respectively 3.1% and 4.2% of the Pakistani populations, 2.8% and 3.2% of the
Bangladeshi populations, and 15.7% and 17.1% of the white British populations.

     Figure 4: Population age structures for all white British people, all Pakistani
          people and all Bangladeshi people in Oldham and England, 2001

       Bangladeshi people

                    England

                    Oldham

          Pakistani people

                    England

                    Oldham

       white British people

                    England

                    Oldham

                              0%       20%        40%          60%        80%        100%
                       percentage of all white British, all Pakistani or all Bangladeshi people
                                            in either England or Oldham

           0 to 4      5 to 15       16 to 24       25 to 49         50 to 64      65 plus



   Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Tables. S101 Sex and age by ethnic group.
                                 Ages groups are in years.

Age structures of populations will be reflected in population health and will reflect the
gender-related differential in life expectancy. Population pyramids are one way of
presenting information about population age and gender structure (Appendix 5).

Country of Birth

Oldham's ethnic groups differ in the proportions of their populations born in England,
the UK, and outside the UK (Table 3 and Appendix 6). For example, at least two
thirds of ‘other white’, white Irish, black African, and ‘other ethnic groups’ were born
outside the UK. About 56.5% of all Pakistani people, 49.4% of all Bangladeshi
people and 41.5% of all Indian people were born in England. As were about 97.1%
of white British people and 92.9% of all people of mixed heritage (ranging from
79.6% of ‘other mixed’ people to 98.1% of ‘white and black Caribbean’ people).

The 376 local authorities in England and Wales have been ranked by the Office for
National Statistics, with the local authority ranked one having the highest percentage
of the population with a specified characteristic. Oldham was ranked 296 for the
percentage (91.8%) of people born in the UK, ranked 272 for the percentage (1.3%)
                                                     9
of people born elsewhere in the EU (including the Republic of Ireland), and ranked
66 for the percentage (6.9%) of people born outside the EU. Of the 43 local
authorities in the North West, Oldham was ranked 24 for people born elsewhere in
the EU and ranked 5 for people born outside the EU. Among the 10 local authorities
in Greater Manchester, Oldham was ranked 8 for people born elsewhere in the EU
and ranked 2 for people born outside the EU. Manchester was ranked one in the
North West for both categories, with 10.6% of the population born outside the EU
and 4.2% born elsewhere in the EU.13

In Oldham, 95.6% of white people and 92.9% of people of mixed heritage were born
in England (Figure 5). Over half of black and Asian people in Oldham (52.4% and
51.6% respectively) were born in England, as were 31.5% of people from other
ethnic groups. Compared to Greater Manchester, the North West and England, for
all the broad ethnic groups, higher proportions of people in Oldham were born in
England and lower proportions of people in Oldham were born outside the UK.

             Figure 5: Country of birth of people living in Oldham, Greater Manchester,
                                the North West and England, 2001.

                   people born outside the UK                                               people born in England

                                                                                                                                 England
                                                                                                                               North West
     other                                                                      other                                        Gt Manchester
                                                                                                                                  Oldham

     black
                                                                                black


 mixed
                                                                                mixed


 Asian
                                                                                Asian
                                                                England
                                                              North West
     white                                                Gt Manchester
                                                                Oldham          white
             0        20          40          60         80          100
                 percentage of the population in each ethnic group                      0    20          40         60          80           100
                               born outside the UK
                                                                                            percentage of people in each ethnic group
                                                                                                        born in England



  Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Tables. S102 Sex and country of birth by ethnic
  group. UK is England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and unspecified parts of the UK. For each
 ethnic group, the number of people born outside the UK was calculated by subtracting the number of
                           people born in the UK from the total population.

The majority (97.1%) of white British people in Oldham were born in England with
1% born in Scotland, 0.9% born outside the UK, 0.6% born in Wales, and 0.3% born
in Northern Ireland. In England, the proportion of all white British people born in
England was lower (94.5%) than in Oldham, while the proportions of white British
people born in Scotland, outside the UK, Wales and Northern Ireland were higher
(respectively, 1.8%, 2.0%, 1.4% and 0.4% of all white British people).
13
  ONS Census 2001: Profiles/rankings. From http://www.statistics.gov.uk. Rank 1 is the local
authority with the highest percentage of people in the category of interest.
                                                                           10
In contrast, the majority (70.6%) of white Irish people in Oldham were born outside
the UK, mainly in the Republic of Ireland (69.4% of the total) with 17.7% born in
England and 11.4% born in Northern Ireland. In England, lower proportions of white
Irish people were born outside the UK (67.7%), in the Republic of Ireland (65.8%)
and in Northern Ireland (9.0%) compared to Oldham’s white Irish population, but
there was a higher proportion of people born in England (22.6%). Females made up
more than half (54.7% in Oldham and 55.3% in England) of the white Irish people
born in the Republic of Ireland

Over half (56.5%) of Pakistani people in Oldham were born in England with 43.4%
born outside the UK, 37.9% born in Pakistan, and 3.9% born in India. Compared to
Oldham, the Pakistani population in England had higher proportions of people born
outside the UK (45.2%) and in Pakistan (39.8%) but lower proportions of people born
in England (54.2%) and India (2.9%).

Just under half (49.4%) of Bangladeshi people in Oldham were born in England with
50.2% born outside the UK and 48.4% born in Bangladesh. Compared to Oldham’s
Bangladeshi population, the Bangladeshi population in England had higher
proportions of people born outside the UK (53.6%) and in Bangladesh (51.6%) but a
lower proportion of people born in England (45.9%).

Around 41.5% of Indian people in Oldham were born in England with 58.3% born
outside the UK, 36.7% born in India and 15.6% in Africa. Compared to Oldham’s
Indian population, the Indian population of England had higher proportions of people
born in England (45.5%) and Africa (16.2%) and lower proportions of people born
outside the UK (54.1%) and in Africa (16.2%).

Assumptions cannot be made about possible associations between country of birth
and other characteristics of people. No connections are made in the 2001 Census
results between place of birth and information such as individual’s educational
attainment, occupation, and the backgrounds of family members. Duration of
residence in the UK and fluency in English are unknown.

People with a limiting long-term illness, health problem or disability (LLTI)

The 2001 Census asked people ‘Do you have any long-term illness, health problem
or disability which limits your daily activities or the work you can do?’ The only
guidance on the census form was to include ‘problems which are due to old age’. As
limiting long-term illness, health problems and disability (LLTI) are likely to be
affected by sex and age, Figure 6 and Appendix 7 separate figures for males and
females within age bands. The number of people reporting a LLTI increases with
age, with more than half of all white people aged 65 years and older reporting a
LLTI. Much higher proportions of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people aged 50
to 64 years reported a LLTI than their white peers. Except for Bangladeshi women,
this difference between these ethnic groups persisted among people aged 65 years
and older. For example, for women aged 50 to 64 years, about 61.9% of Pakistani




                                        11
                 Figure 6: Percentage of males and females within each age band and
                        ethnic group to report having a long-term limiting illness, health
                           problem or disability (LLTI) in the 2001 Census in Oldham

                             females                                                              males

                                                                       other
     other


                                                                       black
     black


     Asian                                                             Asian


     mixed                                                             mixed
                                                      65 plus
                                                      50 to 64                                                            65 plus
     white                                            16 to 49                                                            50 to 64
                                                                       white                                              16 to 49
                                                       0 to 15                                                             0 to 15
             0          20           40          60          80                0           20           40          60            80
             percentage of all females in each age band (years)                    percentage of males in each age band (years)
                      of each ethnic group with LLTI                                      of each ethnic group with LLTI

             Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S107 Sex and age and
                           limiting long-term illness (LLTI) by ethnic group.

women, 56.1% of Indian women and 52.7% of Bangladeshi women reported a LLTI
compared to 31.6% of white British women. While the proportions of women aged 65
years and older reporting a LLTI were about 73.1% of Pakistani women, 69.4% of
Indian women, 58.2% of Bangladeshi women and 58.6% of white British women.
Nationally, there is a similar pattern of responses to the question about LLTI, with
Pakistani and Bangladeshi people reporting the highest rates of LLTI and Chinese
people the lowest rates.14

Perception of having a LLTI and willingness to report having a LLTI varies between
individuals and ethnic groups. These factors could contribute to the relatively low
proportion of Chinese women reporting a LLTI (about a quarter of Chinese women
aged 50 - 64 years and 31.3% of Chinese women aged 65 years and older). One
survey of Chinese 16 to 74 year olds living in metropolitan areas of England found
that although Chinese people had similar ‘self-reported health status’ to the general
population, they had lower levels of consultations with general practitioners.15 Other
studies have found that Chinese adults, for example, can have traditional Chinese



14
   ONS Focus on Ethnicity and Identity. January 2004. Available from National Statistics at
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/focuson/ethnicity/default.asp.
15
   Sproston, K., Pitson, L. and Walker, E. (2001) ‘The use of primary care services by the Chinese
population living in England: examining inequalities.’ Ethn. Health. Aug. - Nov. 6 (3-4) pp. 189-96.
                                                                  12
beliefs concerning oral health, and mental health and illness.16 While, for example, a
study of people from five broad ethnic groups found that ethnicity was an important
influence on perceptions of schizophrenia symptoms.17

The relationship between LLTI and ethnicity is complex. National survey results
suggest that major factors contributing to the generally poorer health of Indian,
Pakistani and Bangladeshi people compared to white people are things related to
occupation, standard of living, and ‘local area deprivation’.18 While a study of UK
born people from ethnic minority groups found that the higher risk of LLTI in south
Asian and black Caribbean people compared to white people persisted across
generations. Adjusting for ‘socio-economic position’ reduced the higher risks of
reporting LLTI compared to white people, especially for black Caribbean and
Bangladeshi people.19

Overall, similar proportions of under 16s (4.9% of males and 3.6% of females) were
reported to have a LLTI in both Oldham and England. However, there were higher
proportions of black people with a LLTI in Oldham than in England (Appendix 8). For
people aged 16 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 years and over, there were generally higher
proportions of people with a LLTI in Oldham than in England. For example, the
proportions of 50 to 64 year old white British people with LLTI in Oldham were 31.7%
for males and 31.6% for females compared to national figures of 25.9% and 25.1%,
respectively. Amongst Pakistani people aged 50 to 64 years, a LLTI was reported by
higher proportions (53% of males and 61.9% of females) of people in Oldham than in
England (45.4% and 53.1%, respectively). Amongst 50 to 64 year old Bangladeshi
people, a LLTI was reported by 63% of males and 52.7% of females in Oldham
compared to national figures of 55.7% and 52.8%.

Highest qualifications

Compared to all people aged 16 to 74 years living in England, people in this age
group living in Oldham were much more likely to have no academic or professional
qualifications and much less likely to have attained level 4 or 5 qualifications20
(Figure 7). Overall, the proportion of 16 to 74 year olds without qualifications was
around 37.7% in Oldham compared to 28.9% in England. For level 4 or 5
qualifications the proportions were 12.9% and 19.9%, respectively. However, the
younger age structure of Oldham’s population is likely to have an impact on these
results.

16
   Kwan, S., and Holmes, M. (1999) ‘An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in
West Yorkshire: a qualitative investigation.’ Health Edu. Res. August. 14 (4). pp. 453-60. Green, G., et
al (2002) ‘Is the English National Health Service meeting the needs of mentally distressed Chinese
women?’ J. Health Serv. Res. Policy. October. 7 (4) pp. 216-21. Chan, C. (2000) ‘A study of health
services for the Chinese minority in Manchester.’ Br. J. Community Nurs. March. 5 (3). pp. 140-7.
17
   Pote, H., and Orrell, M. (2002) ‘Perceptions of schizophrenia in multi-cultural Britain.’ Ethn. Health.
Feb. 7 (1) pp. 7-20.
18
   Chandola, T. (2001) ‘Ethnic and class differences in health in relation to British South Asians: using
the new National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification.’ Soc. Sci. Med. April 52 (8). pp. 1285-96.
19
   Harding, S., and Balarajan, R. (2000) ‘Limiting long-term illness among black Caribbeans, black
Africans, Indians, Pakistanis and Chinese born in the UK.’ Ethn. Health. Feb. 5 (1). pp. 41-6.
20
   Level 4/5 qualifications are defined as: first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4 - 5, HNC, HND,
qualified teacher status, qualified medical doctor, qualified dentist, qualified nurse, midwife, health
visitor or equivalent qualifications.
                                                   13
                             Figure 8: Highest qualifications by ethnic group


                  21.7                                                                                        Oldham
          other

          other                                                                                               England
          other

          black

          black

          black




         mixed

         mixed

         mixed

         Asian

         Asian

         Asian



                  level 4/5
          white   level 4/5
                  level 2
          white   level 2
                  no qualifications
          white   no qualifications

                  0               10               20               30               40               50                60
                      percentage of all people aged 16 to 74 years within each ethnic group in Oldham (dark bars)
                       or England (white bars) to have level 4/5qualifications, level 2 qualifications or no academic
                                                    and professional qualifications.



        Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S117 Age and highest level
          of qualification by ethnic group. See footnotes 20 and 21 for definitions of ‘level
                            4/5’ qualifications and of ‘level 2’ qualifications.



Educational opportunities are likely to differ with age. In Oldham the most common
highest educational qualification levels were level 221 for 16 to 24 year olds (34.4% of
this age group), level 1 for 25 to 34 year olds (22.1% of this age group), and no
qualifications for all other age groups. In England, the most common highest
qualification levels were level 2 qualifications for 16 to 24 year olds (33.3% of this
age group) and no qualifications for people aged 50 years and over. However, level
4/5 qualifications was the commonest category for 25 to 34 year olds and 35 to 49
year olds in England (29.2% and 23.4% of these age groups, respectively).



21
  Level 2 qualifications are defined as five or more ‘O’ levels, CSEs (grade 1), GCSEs (grade C or
higher), one or more ‘A’/‘AS’ levels, NVQ level 2, Intermediate GNVQ or equivalent.
                                                                  14
There are differences in the highest qualifications obtained by people aged 16 to 74
years in different ethnic groups (Figure7, Appendices 9 and 10). Caution is required
when interpreting overall results because there are few people aged 50 years and
over in the mixed, black, and ‘other’ ethnic groups in Oldham. Differences in the
overall results for 16 to 74 year olds may reflect differences in the age structure of
populations in different ethnic groups (e.g. Appendix 5).

In Oldham, around 22.7% of all 16 to 24 year olds and 22.1% of all 25 to 34 year
olds had no qualifications. This proportion increased with successive age groups:
from 30.8% of all 35 to 49 year olds, 48.0% of all 50 to 59 year olds, 63.8% of all 60
to 64 year olds and 72.2% of all 65 to 74 year olds. For all age bands, higher
proportions of people in Oldham than in England had no qualifications.

Asian people in Oldham tended to have the lowest level of qualifications compared
to other ethnic groups (Table 4). Over half (55.5%) of all Asian people aged 16 to 74
years have no qualifications. People of mixed ethnic groups were least likely to have
no qualifications (32.1% of 16 to 74 year olds). For the narrow ethnic groups, the
proportion all 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham without qualifications ranged from 9.9%
of black African people to 55.3% of Pakistani people and 60.5% of Bangladeshi
people, with 35.6% of white British people having no qualifications. The range in
England was from 13.4% of black African people to 41.3% of Pakistani people and
47.1% of Bangladeshi people, with 29.3% of white British people having no
qualifications. All ethnic groups, except for black African, had a higher proportion of
people without qualifications in Oldham compared to England. As well as Pakistani
and Bangladeshi people, more than half of other Asian (52.8%) and white Irish
people (51.5%) in Oldham had no qualifications.

For 65 to 74 year olds in Oldham, around 89.9% of Bangladeshi people had no
qualifications, as did 86.8%of Pakistani people and 71.5% of white British people
(Appendix 9). Compared to older age groups of white British people, markedly lower
proportions of both under 60s and under 50s had no qualifications. Marked
decreases in the proportions of both Pakistani and Bangladeshi people without
qualifications occurred among younger age groups: under 35s and under 25s. There
were higher proportions of white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people aged
under 50 without qualifications in Oldham than in Greater Manchester, the North
West and England (Appendix 10).

For people aged 16 to 74 years in Oldham, the highest levels of qualifications (levels
4 and 5) were least likely to have been attained by Asian people (9.7%) and most
likely to be attained by people from ‘other ethnic groups’ (21.7%) (Table 5). For
narrow ethnic groups in Oldham, the proportion of people with level 4/5 qualifications
ranged from 5.7% of mixed ‘white and black Caribbean’ people to 40.4% of black
African people, with 6.1% of Bangladeshi people, 9.0% of Pakistani people and
13.1% of white British people having these qualifications. In England, the proportion
of people with level 4/5 qualifications ranged from 13.6% of Bangladeshi people to
42.9% of both other white people and people from other ethnic groups. Compared to
Oldham, a higher proportion (18.3%) of white British people in England obtained
level 4/5 qualifications, as did more than twice the proportion of Bangladeshi (13.6%)
and Pakistani people (18.3%). All ethnic groups, except for black African, had a
higher proportion of people without qualifications in Oldham compared to England.
                                          15
Table 4: People without academic or professional qualifications by age and
ethnic group
                           people within each age band of each ethnic group
                             with no academic or professional qualifications
     age group         percentage of the total number of people in        number of
       (years)             each age band of each ethnic group                 people
                                                                           all ethnic
                          white    Asian    mixed black          other
                                                                             groups
      16 to 24             20.6     30.0      25.6     11.8       13.6         5,244
      25 to 34             16.4     55.9      33.0     10.4       18.2         6,661
      35 to 49             26.9     73.6      31.3     23.6       43.3       13,847
      50 to 59             46.8     79.0      51.2     47.4       75.7       13,059
      60 to 64             62.4     84.6      82.4     65.7       66.7         6,897
      65 to 74             71.7     84.8      60.0     76.7       76.9       11,808
       16 to 74                 35.8       55.5        32.1      32.2         35.9          57,516
  total number of
   people within            134,914     15,194          995     1,019         485         152,598
 each ethnic group
 (aged 16 to 74 years)
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S117 Age and highest level of qualification
by ethnic group. There are small numbers of people aged 60 years and older in the mixed, black and
other ethnic groups. Reading this table, e.g. there were about 1,019 black people, about 5,244 people
aged 16 to 24 years, and about 20.6% of all 134,914 white people aged 16 to 24 had no
qualifications.

As well as Pakistani and Bangladeshi people, more than half of ‘other Asian’ (52.8%)
and white Irish people (51.5%) in Oldham had no qualifications.

Typically, people are aged at least 21 years before they attain level 4/5 qualifications
in England. Around 17.0% of all 25 to 34 year olds in Oldham had level 4/5
qualifications, with Asian people being least likely and people from ‘other ethnic
groups’ being most likely to have these qualifications (respectively, 13.2% and
36.4% of these populations). For narrow ethnic groups, the proportion of people with
level 4/5 qualifications ranged from 7.6% of Bangladeshi people to over half (50.2%)
of Indian people. For all ethnic groups except Indian, black African and ‘other black’,
there were higher proportions of people with level 4/5 qualifications in England than
in Oldham. Overall, around 29.2% of 25 to 34 year olds in England had level 4/5
qualifications ranging from 18.9% of Bangladeshi people to 63.2% of Chinese
people. Compared to Oldham the proportion of 25 to 34 year olds in England with
level 4/5 qualifications was around 1.5 times higher for white British people, twice as
high for Pakistani people and 2.5 times higher for Bangladeshi people. In England,
26.0% of white British people aged 25 to 34 years had level 4/5 qualifications as did,
27.7% of Pakistani people and 18.9% of Bangladeshi people.

Within each broad ethnic group in Oldham, higher proportions of 25 to 34 year olds
had level 4/5 qualifications compared to 35 to 49 year olds (Table 5). The same
pattern occurred in England. In Oldham, around 17.3% of 25 to 34 year old white
British people had level 4/5 qualifications compared to 15.8% of 35 to 49 year olds.
The equivalent figures for Bangladeshi people are 7.6% and 6.2% and for Pakistani
people are 13.7% and 8.3%. The gap between the proportion of these three
                                                16
Table 5: People with level 4 and 5 qualifications by age and ethnic group
                            people within each age band of each ethnic group
                                     with level 4 and 5 qualifications
     age group          percentage of the total number of people in       number of
      (years)               each age band of each ethnic group                people
                                                                           all ethnic
                           white    Asian      mixed black         other
                                                                             groups
      16 to 24               8.0      7.0         4.1     5.9       12.7       1,787
      25 to 34              17.5     13.2        15.9    24.5       36.4       5,119
      35 to 49              16.0      9.8        13.2    18.2       21.3       6,970
      50 to 59              12.7     10.5        26.8    14.4       16.2       3,445
      60 to 64              10.0      7.0        17.6    10.8       16.7       1,061
      65 to 74               8.2      7.7        10.0    11.7       11.5       1,338
       16 to 74                  13.2         9.7        10.9      16.4         21.7          19,720
  total number of
   people within             134,914      15,185          995     1,019          485         152,598
 each ethnic group
 (aged 16 to 74 years)
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S117 Age and highest level of qualification
by ethnic group. Level 4/5 qualifications are defined as: first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4 - 5,
HNC, HND, qualified teacher status, qualified medical doctor, qualified dentist, qualified nurse,
midwife, health visitor or equivalent qualifications. There are small numbers of people aged 60 years
and older in the mixed, black and other ethnic groups. Reading this table, e.g. there were around
5,119 people aged 25 to 34 years with level 4/5 qualifications. Around 13.2% of 25 to 34 year old
Asian people and 9.7% of all 16 to 74 year old Asian people have level 4/5 qualifications.

populations with level 4/5 qualifications appears to be closing. Among 16 to 24 year
olds in Oldham, level 4/5 qualifications were held by 7.9% of white British people,
7.0% of Pakistani people and 5.6% of Bangladeshi people. Among 16 to 24 year
olds in England, a higher proportion (11.1%) of Pakistani people had level 4/5
qualifications compared to 10.4% of white British and 9.4% of Bangladeshi people. In
both England and Oldham, only black African people had a lower proportion of 25 to
34 year olds with level 4/5 qualifications than 34 to 49 year olds (Appendix 9).

Government targets have been set for both the percentage of 19 year olds and
adults with at least level 2 and level 3 qualifications. As illustrated in Figure 7, the
proportion of 16 to 74 year olds with level 2 qualifications varies across ethnic
groups. Overall, around 34.4% of all 16 to 24 year olds in Oldham had level 2
qualifications, ranging from 16.5% of other Asian people to 45.5% of black
Caribbean people, with 36.8% of white British people, 25.6% of Bangladeshi people
and 25.1% of Pakistani people having these qualifications. In England a lower
proportion (33.3%) of all 16 to 24 year olds had level 2 qualifications. The proportion
of 16 to 24 year olds with level 2 qualifications ranged from 18.9% of ‘other white’
people to 35.7% of ‘other black’ people, with 34.6% of white British, 28.8% of
Bangladeshi people and 27.2% of Pakistani people having these qualifications.

These statistics concern the highest qualifications reported to be held at the time of
the 2001 Census. It is likely that some people will go on to obtain higher levels of
qualification. Figure 8 shows people in Oldham aged 16 to 49 years with the higher
levels of qualifications desired by government. The relatively high proportion

                                                  17
                    Figure 8: People aged 16 to 49 years in Oldham with level 2
                                    or higher level qualifications
     35 to 49
       other
       black
       mixed
       Asian
        white
     25 to 34
       other
       black
       mixed
       Asian
        white
     16 to 24
       other
       black
       mixed
       Asian
        white

                0         10         20       30          40      50         60         70         80
                    percentage of all people in combined ethnic and age group category in Oldham
                               level 2                 level 3                    level 4/5



Source: 2001 Census. Standard Table S117. Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group.
Age in years. See footnotes 20 and 21 for definitions of level 4/5 and level 2. Level 3 includes 2 or
more ‘A’ levels, 4 or more ‘AS’ levels, NVQ level 3, Advanced GNVQ or equivalent qualifications.

of 35 to 49 year old Asian people with level 4/5 qualifications includes around a
quarter (24.4%) of the 414 Indian people and 16.4% of the 146 other Asian people,
as well as 8.2% of Pakistani people and 6.2% of Bangladeshi people. Many of the 16
to 24 year olds with level 2 and level 3 qualifications are likely to have been students
at the time of the Census.

It cannot be assumed that differences in the highest level of qualification reflect
differences directly attributed to ethnicity. For example, statistical evidence shows
that socio-economic factors can explain a sizeable part in the variation in academic
performance of school pupils.22 These relationships are complex, for example
eligibility for free school meals in England tends to be associated with poor GCSE
performance for white pupils but not for Chinese pupils.23 Recent research indicates
the diversity and complexity of the characteristics of participation of minority ethnic
22
   For example, the DfES reported that around 20% of the variation in Key Stage 3 results nationally
could be explained by pupil’s free school meal (FSM) eligibility and the school’s ‘FSM band’ (DfES
Statistics of Education: Variation in pupil progress 2003. Bulletin. Issue 02/04. July 2004).
23
   Bhattacharya, G. (2003) Minority Ethnic Attainment and Participation in Education and Training:
The evidence. DfES Research Topic Paper 01/03.
                                                     18
people in higher education in England, including subjects selection, gender
differences, age of entry, routes to higher education, and influences on the decision
to enter higher education.24

Many questions are left unanswered by the standard results of the 2001 Census. For
example, there is no information about the extent to which individuals have been
able to fulfil their academic potential, the country in which qualifications were
obtained, the subjects studied, the various types of qualifications held by individuals,
and the value of individual qualifications for careers and personal interest and
development. In addition around 7.9% of all 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham and 6.9%
of those in England had qualifications that were not classified.25

Economically active people

The 2001 Census provides information about the economic activity and ethnic group
of the population aged between 16 and 74 years. People are defined as being
‘economically active’, if they are full- or part-time employees, are full- or part-time
self-employed (with or without employees), or are unemployed (‘seeking work and
available to start within two weeks’ or ‘waiting to start a job already obtained and
available to start within two weeks’). Full-time students who fit into these categories
and people on ‘government sponsored training schemes’ are also classified as being
economically active'.26

There are differences across ethnic groups in levels of economic activity (Figure 9
and Appendix 11). A lower proportion of females than males were economically
active (Appendix 11). The proportion of economically active men aged 25 to 74 years
ranged from less than two thirds of all ‘other mixed’ (56.1%), white Irish (63.2%), and
black Caribbean men (65.1%) to over eight in ten of Indian (81.3%), ‘other ethnic
group’ (81.2%), and Chinese (80.2%) men. About 73.6% of white British men, 69.0%
of Pakistani men and 66.2% of Bangladeshi men in this age group were
economically active. For women aged between 25 to 74, about 9.7% of Bangladeshi
women and 14.6% of Pakistani women were economically active compared to about
58.8% of Indian women and 61.1% of white British women. Mixed ‘white and black
African’ women had the highest proportion of economically active women in this age
group at 73.2%.

Males aged 16 to 24 years were more likely to be economically active in Oldham
compared to England, with respectively 69.9% and 68.3% of males being
economically active. However, 25 to 74 year old males were less likely to be
economically active in Oldham than in England, with respectively 73.0% and 75.2%
of males economically active. Females in both age groups were less likely to be
economically active in Oldham than in England. For 16 to 24 year old females,
around 58.2% of females in Oldham were economically active compared to 62.1% of
females in England. The figures for 25 to 74 year old females were 57.6% and
59.4% respectively. Appendix 12 shows the percentages of economically active

24
   Connor, H. et al (2004) Why the Difference? A closer look at higher education minority ethnic
students and graduates. DfES Research Report 552.
25
   The proportion of 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham with unclassified qualifications included 8.5% of
white British people, 3.4% of Pakistani people and 3.7% of Bangladeshi people.
26
   National Statistics (2001) Census 2001 Classifications.' Final version. September 2001.
                                                  19
                                  Figure 9: Ethnic group, age and economic activity

                            people aged 16 to 24 years                                                people aged 25 to 74 years

           all ethnic                                                                   all ethnic
            groups                                                                       groups

               other                                                                        other

               black                                                                        black
  ethnic                                                                       ethnic
  group                                                                        group
              mixed                                                                        mixed

              Asian
                                                                                           Asian
                          females
              white                                                                                   females
                          males                                                             white
                                                                                                      males
                        0    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                                                                                                     0   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                        percentage of economically active 16 to 24 year old
                            males or females within each ethnic group                                percentage of economically active 25 to 74 year old
                                                                                                         males or females within each ethnic group



                                       Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S108
                                       Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group.

people in each combined age and ethnic group category. The biggest differences
between Oldham and England are in the percentage of economically active 25 to 74
year old Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. Nearly twice the proportion of
Bangladeshi women was economically active in England than in Oldham
(respectively, 18.4% and 9.7% of females). The proportion of economically active
Pakistani women was around 1.7 times higher in England than in Oldham
(respectively, 24.9% and 14.6% of females). Although Asian people were the broad
ethnic group least likely to be economically active in Oldham (Figure 10), relatively
high proportions of Indian females (58.8% of 25 to 74 year olds and 55.3% of 16 to
24 year olds) and 25 to 74 year old males (80.7% of this population) were
economically active (Appendix 12).

Unemployed people

Some economically active people are unemployed. Ways in which unemployed
people are identified differ between the 2001 Census and common sources of
unemployment statistics. Therefore, there are different estimates of the number of
unemployed people living in Oldham in April 2001. The 2001 Census only presents
unemployment results for people in different ethnic groups within two broad age
groups: 16 to 24 years and 25 to 74 years. The latter age group extends beyond
working age (59 years for women and 64 years for men). According to the 2001
Census a total of about 5,594 people of working age were reported to be
unemployed in the Borough. Claimant count unemployment statistics for Oldham in
April 2001 are much lower (3,962 people made up of 3,106 men (aged 16 to 64




                                                                          20
years) and 856 women (aged 16 to 59 years)).27 Ideally, narrower age bands should
be used to compare unemployment among people from different ethnic groups.

According to the 2001 Census for Oldham, 7.5% of all people aged 16 to 24 years
were unemployed, as were about 3% of all people aged 25 to 74 years. However,
not everyone aged 16 to 74 years is economically active. Therefore, it is more
meaningful to use the unemployment rate - the number of unemployed people as a
percentage of all economically active people – for specified populations.
Unemployment rates differ from the claimant count unemployment rates (the
percentage of the estimated working population (aged 16 to retirement age)
recorded as claiming unemployment-related benefits – Jobseeker’s Allowance). In
April 2001, the claimant count unemployment rate for all adults in Oldham was
4.1%.28

According to the 2001 Census, unemployment rates in Oldham were higher for
males than females: 13.7% compared to 9.4% for 16 to 24 year olds and 5.7% and
3.4% for 25 to 74 year olds. However, it is recognized nationally that there is ‘hidden
unemployment’ among women. In particular, many women have caring
responsibilies.29 Also, unemployed women are less likely than unemployed men to
have access to benefits in their own right. For both age groups and sexes the
highest unemployment rates were for Asian people: 21.3% of young males, 17.0% of
young females, 15.3% of older males and 13.8% of older females (Figure 10).
Except for black females, younger adults had higher unemployment rates than older
adults. For white people, unemployment rates were about 2.5 times higher for
younger than older adults. The difference in unemployment rates was much less
among Asian people, with young adults having around 1.3 times higher
unemployment rates than older adults.

For white British people in Oldham, the unemployment rates for 16 to 24 year olds
were 7.9% for females and 12.0% for males. The figures for 25 to 74 year old white
British people were 3.1% and 4.7%, respectively. For older economically active
adults, Bangladeshi people were the ethnic group most likely to be unemployed, with
unemployment rates of 24.7% for females and 20.5% for males. Unemployment
rates for younger and older Bangladeshi males were similar (20.0% and 20.5%
respectively), but were lower for younger than older Bangladeshi females (19.0%
and 24.7%, respectively). Although, high unemployment rates were also recorded for
Pakistani people there was less difference in the employment rates for older and
younger females. The unemployment rates were around 13.7% for older Pakistani
males, 22.4% for younger Pakistani males, 16.2% for older Pakistani females and
16.8% for younger Pakistani females. Appendix 13 gives the unemployment rates
that could be calculated for all the narrow ethnic groups in Oldham. Indian people in



27
   2001 Census definitions of ‘unemployed’ are based on self-reporting that an individual is either
‘seeking work and available to start within two weeks’ or ‘waiting to start a job already obtained and
available to start within two weeks’ (National Statistics). Claimant count unemployment statistics are
largely based on computerised records of benefit claimants (ONS and Greater Manchester
Research).
28
   Greater Manchester Research. April 2001. Quarterly Unemployment Bulletin.
29
   For example, Women & Equality Unit Young People and Gender: A review of research: Executive
summary. At http://www.womenandequalityunit.gov.uk/research/factsheets/ypgsumm.htm.
                                                  21
                 Figure10: Ethnic group, age group, gender and unemployment rates

                           people aged 16 to 24 years                                                                        people aged 25 to 74 years



   all ethnic groups                                                                                 all ethnic groups


                                                                                                                other
             other


                                                                                                                black
              black                                                                              ethnic
 ethnic                                                                                          group
 group                                                                                                         mixed
             mixed

                                                                                                                Asian
             Asian
                                                                                                                                                                                females
                                                                                                                white
                                                                              females                                                                                             males
              white
                                                                                males
                                                                                                                         0            5             10            15            20             25

                       0           5             10             15             20          25
                                                                                                                                   percentage of all economically active 25 to 74 year old
                               percentage of all economically active 16 to 24 year old                                         males or females within each ethnic group who were unemployed
                           males or females within each ethnic group who were unemployed



              Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S108 Sex and age and economic
              activity by ethnic group. Although no young, black women were recorded as being
              unemployed, this does not mean that no one was in this category. The unemployment rate for
              young women form other ethnic groups is unreliable because ‘3’ unemployed women were
              recorded (see footnote 9).

Oldham had the lowest calculable unemployment rates for young adults (9.7% of
males and 5.9% of females), the second lowest rate (3.4%) for older women and the
fifth lowest rate (6.0%) for older males.

Except for 25 to 74 year old females, overall unemployment rates were higher in
Oldham than in England (Appendix 13). However, differences between overall
unemployment rates in Oldham and England were small for 25 to 74 year old males
and females. Overall unemployment rates for young men were 31.7% in Oldham
compared to 10.5% in England and the figures for young women were 9.4% and
6.8% respectively. Similarly, unemployment rates for young white British people
were higher in Oldham than in England (respectively, rates of 12% and 9.8% for men
and 7.9% and 6.3% for women). Bangladeshi males and females in both age groups
recorded higher unemployment rates in Oldham than in England. Unemployment
rates for young Bangladeshi men were around 20.0% in Oldham compared to 17.2%
in England, with the figures for Bangladeshi females being 19.0% and 15.8%
respectively. Pakistani men in both age groups and older Pakistani women had
higher unemployment rates in Oldham than England. Unemployment rates for young
Pakistani men were around 22.4% in Oldham compared to 19.2% in England, with
the figures for females being 16.8% in both areas. Unemployment rates for Indian
women and young Indian men were lower in Oldham than in England.



                                                                                                22
The difference in unemployment rates between young Bangladeshi people and
young white British people were similar in Oldham and England; with unemployment
rates in Oldham for Bangladeshi males being about 1.7 times higher and rates for
females being around 2.4 times higher than for their white British peers. The
difference in unemployment rates between Bangladeshi and white British people
were greater for 25 to 74 year olds, especially women. In Oldham, older Bangladeshi
men had more than four times higher and older Bangladeshi women had more than
seven times higher unemployment rates than their white British peers. A similar
pattern existed for young Pakistani adults. In both Oldham and England, older
Pakistani men had around 2.8 times higher unemployment rates than their white
British peers. However, the difference was greater for older Pakistani females who
had unemployment rates more than four times higher in England and more than five
times higher in Oldham than their white British peers.

Economically inactive people

There are four categories of ‘economically inactive’ people: retired, student, looking
after home or family, and permanently sick or disabled. The 2001 Census provides
these figures by ethnic group for people aged 16 to 74 years. Retirement figures
reflect the age distribution of each ethnic group population in Oldham.

Overall, about 23.3% of all 16 to 24 year olds (24.4% of males and 22.3% of
females) in Oldham were economically inactive students30 (Figure 11). Much higher
proportions of young (16 to 24 year old) adults from Asian (30.4%) and ‘other’ ethnic
groups (51.4%) were students compared to young white adults (21%).

Similar proportions of young (16 to 24 year old) men and women were students
within the white, mixed, and ‘other’ ethnic groups. For example, within the white
British population, 20.8% of young men and 21.1% of young women were students.
A higher proportion of young black women were students than young black men.
While a much higher proportion of young Asian women were students compared to
young Asian men. Ethnic groups with much higher proportions of young men than
women studying include Bangladeshi people (34.2% men and 20.9% women),
Pakistani people (37.5% men and 26.9% women) and Indian people (44.2% men
and 35.8% women). Among young black Africans, about 42.9% of women were
students compared to a third of men.

Overall, 16 to 24 year olds in Oldham were less likely to be economically inactive
students in Oldham than in England. Around 26.5% of all 16 to 24 year olds in
England were in this category, as were 26.9% of all young men and 26.1% of all
young women. In addition, white, mixed, Asian, and black people were less likely to
be in this category in Oldham than in England. The biggest differences between
young people in Oldham and England were for young Asian women and young black
men. The proportion of young Asian women categorised as economically inactive
students was 37.6% in England compared to a quarter (25%) in Oldham. In Oldham,

30
   Around 6.1% of all 16 to 24 year olds in Oldham (6% of all males and 6.1% of all females) were
students, of whom 64.9% were economically inactive. A higher proportion (35.6%) of all 16 to 24 year
olds were students, with 65.5% of students being economically inactive. A lower proportion (0.8%) of
all 25 to 74 year olds were students, with 59.9% of students being economically active. See Appendix
14 for selected statistics concerning students in Oldham.
                                                23
        Figure 11: Ethnic group, gender, and economically inactive students


      all ethnic groups



                 other



                 black
    ethnic
    group
                mixed



                Asian


                                                females
                 white
                                               males

                          0      10        20          30      40        50    60
                    percentage of all 16 to 24 year old men or women within each
                        ethnic group who were economically inactive students


                   Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S108
                        Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group.

around 20.9% of Bangladeshi women, 26.9% of Pakistani women and 35% of Indian
women were in this category with figures for England of 30%, 33.6% and 41.8%
respectively. The proportion of young black Caribbean men who were economically
inactive students was 18.2% in Oldham and 31% in England, while the figures for
young black African men were 33.3% and 50.4% respectively.

The proportion of all young adults (aged 16 to 24 years) looking after the home or
family was more than two and a half times higher for Asian people compared to
white people, respectively 4.8% and 12.8% of all young adults. The proportion of
older people (aged 25 to 74 years) looking after the home or family was slightly
higher for white people (5%) and much higher for Asian people (25.8%). Women
were much more likely than men to be in this category (Figure 12). Around a quarter
(23% and 26.2% respectively) of young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women aged
under 25 years were looking after the home or family, compared to 4.9% of young
Indian women and 9.1% of young white British women (Appendix 15). These
differences also exist for women aged between 25 and 74 years. More than half of
older Pakistani and Bangladeshi women (50.9% and 54% respectively) were looking
after the home or family, compared to 11.8% of Indian women and 8.7% of white
British women. Black Caribbean women had the lowest proportion (4.4%) of older
women in this category.

Young women were much more likely to be looking after the home or family in
Oldham than in either Greater Manchester or England (respectively, 12.3%, 8.6%
and 7.2% of all 16 to 24 year old women). In all three areas, young Asian women
were most likely to be in this category. The proportion of young women looking after
home or family was highest for Bangladeshi women in England and Greater




                                          24
       Figure 12: Ethnic group, age group, gender and the percentage of people
                             looking after the home/family

                             people aged 16 to 24 years                                                             people aged 25 to 74 years


                                                                                            all ethnic groups
     all ethnic groups


                other                                                                                  other


                black                                                                                  black
     ethnic                                                                                 ethnic
     group                                                                                  group
               mixed                                                                                  mixed


               Asian                                                                                  Asian

                                    females
                white                                                                                                      females
                                    males                                                              white
                                                                                                                           males
                         0         10          20         30          40          50
                                                                                                                0         10          20          30         40          50
                         percentage of all 16 to 24 year old males or females within
                         each ethnic group who were looking after the home/family                               percentage of all 25 to 74 year old males or females within
                                                                                                                  each ethnic group who were looking after home/family


         Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S108 Sex and age and economic
         activity by ethnic group. Where no people are recorded in a category, this does not mean that
         no one was in this category. There were small numbers of people in the black, ‘other’ and
         mixed ethnic groups.

Manchester and second highest (after ‘other black’ women31) in Oldham (with
respectively, 21.6%, 25.2% and 26.2% of 16 to 24 year old Bangladeshi women).
High proportions of 16 to 24 year old Pakistani women also looked after home or
family: 23% in Oldham compared to 19.3% in England and 17.0% in Greater
Manchester. In contrast, there were much lower proportions of young Indian women
in this category: 4.9% in Oldham, 6.1% in England and 9.4% in Greater Manchester.
The proportion of young white British women in this category was 6.9% in England,
9.1% in Oldham, and 10.2% in Greater Manchester.

Overall, older women were less likely to be looking after home or family in Oldham
than in England (respectively 11.6% and 12.8% of all 25 to 74 year old women). The
figure for Greater Manchester is 11.4%. However, there were variations between
older women from different ethnic groups (Appendix 15). In these three areas, the
proportion of older women in this category was highest for Bangladeshi women and
second highest for Pakistani women. Older Pakistani and Bangladeshi women were
most likely to be looking after home or family in Oldham. The proportions of 25 to 74
year old Bangladeshi women in this category were 54.0% in Oldham, 52.4% in
Greater Manchester and 49.8% in England. The figures for older Pakistani women
are 50.9%, 44.3% and 44.0%, respectively. Older Indian and white British women
were least likely to be looking after the home or family in Oldham. The proportion of
25 to 74 year old Indian women in this category was 11.8% in Oldham compared to
16.3% in England and 24.6% in Greater Manchester. The proportion of older white
British women in this category was 8.7% in Oldham, 10.1% in Greater Manchester
and 12.0% in England.


31
  There were around ten 16 to 24 year old ‘other black’ women in Oldham, with three women
reported to be looking after the home/family. The small numbers make this result unreliable.
                                                                                       25
Less than 2% of people aged 16 to 24 years in Oldham were permanently sick or
disabled. A higher proportion (about 8.8%) of all people aged 25 to 74 years were
economically inactive for this reason. Ethnic groups differed in the proportion of
people in this category, ranging from 4.1% of ‘other’ people to 10.4% of Asian
people. Higher proportions of men were permanently sick or disabled than women,
with the highest proportion being recorded for black men (11.8% of all black men)
(Figure 13). Overall, the highest proportions of permanently sick or disabled people
aged 25 to 74 years were for white Irish people (with 12.8% of all people, 13.9% of
all men and 11.8% of all women in this category). About 11.4% of all Pakistani
people (12.3% of all men and 10.4% of all women) were permanently sick or
disabled, as were about 9.1% of Bangladeshi people (9.9% of all men and 8.1% of
all women). There were relatively high proportions of permanently sick or disabled
black Caribbean men (13% of all men), Indian women (12.6% of all women) and
black African people (10.9% of all women and 4.2% of all men). Relatively few
Chinese people said that they were permanently sick or disabled (5% of all men and
3.3% of all women).32

               Figure 13: Ethnic group, gender, and the percentage of people
               (aged 25 to 74 years) who were permanently sick or disabled

                all ethnic groups



                           other



                           black
               ethnic
               group
                          mixed



                          Asian


                                        females
                           white
                                        males

                                    0       2       4        6      8       10      12      14
                                    percentage of all 25 to 74 year old males or females within
                                     each ethnic group who were permanently sick or disabled


                         Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S108
                              Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group.

For older women (aged 25 to 74 years), Asian women were the ethnic group most
likely to be permanently sick or disabled in Oldham, Greater Manchester and
England (Appendix 16). The proportion of older white British females to be
permanently sick or disabled was highest in Greater Manchester (8.0%) with figures
of 7.9% for Oldham and 5.4% for England. The proportion of older Bangladeshi
women in this category was 8.1% in Oldham, 7.7% in Greater Manchester and 6.1%
in England and the figures for older Pakistani women were 10.4%, 9.1% and 8.0%
respectively. For older men, Asian men were the ethnic group most likely to be
permanently sick or disabled in Greater Manchester and England, but were second
(to black men) in Oldham. The proportion of older white British men in this category
32
     See the comments concerning Chinese people and health on page 16.
                                                        26
was highest in Greater Manchester (10.2%) compared to 9.4% in Oldham and 6.8%
in England. The proportion of older Bangladeshi men in this category was 9.9% in
Oldham, 10.0% in Greater Manchester and 8.2% in England and the figures for older
Pakistani men were 12.3%, 11.3% and 9.2% respectively.

Religion

People were asked ‘What is your religion?’ for the first time in the 2001 Census. As
this topic is considered sensitive, the question was voluntary. There were eight
response options: None, Christian (including Church of England, Catholic,
Protestant, and other Christian denominations), Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim,
Sikh, and any other religion. The non-response rate for this question was about 7.6%
in England and Wales and 6.5% in Oldham.33 The proportion of people who did not
respond to this question in Oldham was lowest (less than 5%) among Asian people.

Religious affiliation responses are not statements about objective, static
characteristics. Issues associated with self-definition and self-understanding could
impact on the numbers of Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists. For example, some Hindus
might not recognise the term ‘Hindu’. British Buddhists regard their religious
practices as personal and tend to dislike being counted. Some people fear being
identified with a religion, while other people have political reasons for identifying with
a religion.34 Adults were expected to complete the entry for children younger than 16
years.

Ethnic groups differed in their patterns of religious affiliation. More than 70% of all
white people and of all black people said that they were Christian, as did nearly 60%
of people of mixed heritage (Table 6). The highest proportion of people with Christian
affiliation (88.6%) was for the Irish population. About 82.9% of white British people
said that they were Christian, as did at least 72.8% of each of the black ethnic
groups. Around nine in ten Asian people in Oldham said that they were Muslim. Just
over 80% of all Indian people said that they were Hindu. About 94.6% of all Pakistani
people and 96.4% of all Bangladeshi people said that they were Muslim. About
15.7% of all Chinese people in Oldham said that they were Buddhist.

About 8.9% (or 19,375 people) of Oldham's population said that they did not have a
religion. Chinese people were the group most likely to say that they had no religion
(61.3%). High proportions of people of mixed heritage (ranging from 16.0% of 'other
mixed' people to 20.6% of 'white and black African' people) and black Caribbean
people (11.5%) said they had no religion. In comparison, only about 0.1% of
Bangladeshi people and 0.2% of Pakistani people said they had no religion.

Figure 15 shows the pattern of religious affiliation in the eight numerically largest
ethnic group populations in Oldham. For each ethnic group, the religious affiliations
of the populations in Oldham and England are compared. In both Oldham and
England, Indian and mixed white and Asian people had greater religious diversity
than Bangladeshi, Pakistani, white Irish, white British, black Caribbean, and mixed

33
   National Statistics http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/annexb.asp.
34
    Weller and Andrews. Counting Religion: Religion, statistics and the 2001 Census. At
http://www.multifaithnet.org/mfnop…rch/online/reprints/pwaacensus.htm. First published in World
Faiths Encounter. No. 21. November 1998. pp. 23-34.
                                              27
Table 6: Ethnic group and religion
                        percentage of all people within each ethnic        total
                          group in each response category to the     number of
response to                           religion question               people in
the religion question                                                     each
                         white     Asian mixed black         other response
                                                                      category
Christian                   82.9       0.5     59.4     74.4   18.1 157,793
Muslim                       0.2     89.9      11.7      2.8   10.5     24,039
has no religion              9.9       0.2     18.4      9.3   43.5     19,375
no response                  6.7       3.9      9.7     12.4   11.3     14,068
Hindu                        0.0       5.1      0.3       **      **     1,330
any other religion           0.1       0.0      0.2      0.6      **        266
Buddhist                     0.1       0.1      0.1       **   16.0         240
Jewish                       0.0       0.0       **      0.2      **         93
Sikh                         0.0       0.2      0.0      0.2    0.5          75
total number of people
                         187,162 25,810                      2,451       1,238         618      217,279
within each ethnic group
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S104 Ethnic group by religion. ** indicates
that the percentage could not be calculated because the entry in S104 was ‘-’, which does not mean
that there was no one in this category. Reading this table; e.g. there were about 19,375 people who
said that they had no religion and about 74.4% of all 1,238 black people were reported to be
Christian.

 Figure 15: Response to religion question in Oldham and England by ethnic group.
          white & Asian

               England
               Oldham

       black Caribbean
               England
               Oldham
white & black Caribbean

               England
               Oldham
                  Indian

               England

               Oldham
             white Irish
               England

               Oldham
           Bangladeshi

               England
               Oldham

              Pakistani
               England

               Oldham
           white British
               England

               Oldham

                           0%          20%             40%              60%             80%                100%
                   percentage of all people in either Oldham or England by response to religion question

      Christian            Muslim      no religion       Hindu        other religion        no response


       Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S104. Ethnic group by religion.

                                                        28
‘white and black Caribbean’ people. Generally, there was less religious diversity
within ethnic groups in Oldham than in England (Appendix 17). The proportion of
people with no religion was broadly similar in Oldham and England within four ethnic
groups: Indian, black Caribbean, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. However, there were
lower proportions of white British, white Irish, mixed ‘white and black Caribbean’, and
mixed ‘white and Asian’ people with no religion in Oldham than England.

Housing and households

A ‘household’ in the 2001 Census results is defined as comprising ‘one person living
alone, or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address with
common housekeeping – that is, sharing either a living room or sitting room or at
least one meal a day’.35 At least 99% of the population of each ethnic group
belonged to households that occupied unshared accommodation.36 The highest
proportions of people who were part of households sharing a dwelling with other
households were about 0.3% of Asian people and 0.1% of people of mixed heritage.

Just over seven in ten (71.3%) of Oldham's population said that they lived in property
owned by the household.37 The proportion of people in each broad ethnic group in
Oldham that had this tenure category ranged from 72.5% of white people to 45.2% of
people of mixed heritage (Figure 15). High proportions of Indian (83.3%), Chinese
(80.4%), white British (72.6%) and Pakistani (72.1%) people lived in a property
owned by the household. About 54.2% of Bangladeshi people were in this tenure
category. People with mixed heritage were least likely to be in this tenure category:
40.4% of ‘white and black Caribbean’ people and 48.7% for both ‘white and Asian’
and ‘white and black African’ people. This probably reflects the relatively young age
distribution of these populations.

The proportion of people living in social rented accommodation38 in Oldham was
highest for people with a mixed heritage (39.1%) and black people (36.6%) and
lowest for people from 'other' broad ethnic groups (11.5%) (Figure 15). Of the 16
narrow ethnic groups, mixed white and black Caribbean people were most likely
(44.6%) and Indian and Chinese people were least likely (both with 8.1%) to live in
social rented accommodation. Almost two-fifths (39.2%) of black Caribbean people
in Oldham lived in social rented accommodation. About 19.6% of white British people
lived in social rented housing, as did 14.3% of Pakistani people and 30.7% of
Bangladeshi people.

Overall, about 6% of Oldham's population lived in privately rented 39 accommodation.
However, the proportion people in each broad ethnic group living in privately rented



35
   National Statistics (2004) Census 2001: Definitions. Available from http://www.statistics.gov.uk.
36
   An ‘unshared’ dwelling is occupied by one ‘household’ (one or more families and/or one or more
‘ungrouped individuals’ (National Statistics).
37
    ‘Owned’ includes ‘owned outright’, ‘buying with a mortgage’ and ‘shared ownership’ (National
Statistics).
38
   ‘Social rented’ is accommodation rented from the council and ‘rented from Registered Social
Landlord or Housing Association’ (National Statistics).
39
   ‘Private rented’ is accommodation rented from a ‘private landlord or letting agency’, ‘employer of a
household member’, ‘relative or friend of household member’ or ‘other’ (National Statistics).
                                                 29
      Figure 15: Ethnic group and tenure for all people living in Oldham in 2001


             other



             black



             mixed

    ethnic
    group
             Asian


                         living rent free
                             private rented
             white
                                         social rented
                                                  ow ned

                     0        10      20       30      40       50      60        70   80

                                   percentage of all people within ethnic group


       Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table T13 Ethnicity – England and Wales.
       This chart does not show people living in ‘communal establishments’ in Oldham in 2001
       (about 1,783 people).

accommodation ranged from about 11.9% of people with mixed ethnic backgrounds
to 5.3% of both white and black people (Figure 15). The figures for narrow ethnic
groups ranged from about one in five (20%) people from ‘other ethnic groups’ to
4.2% of black Caribbean people. About 5.2% of white British people lived in privately
rented accommodation, as did about 10.4% of Pakistani people and 11.3% of
Bangladeshi people.

People were least likely to say that they lived ‘rent free’ (about 1.9% of Oldham's
total population). People from ‘other’ ethnic groups (4%) were most likely and white
people (1.6%) were least likely to be in this tenure category (Figure 10). However,
about 15.9% of black African people said that they lived ‘rent free’. ‘Other mixed’
people (1.4%) were least likely to be in this tenure category, followed by white British
people (1.6%). About 3.1% of Pakistani people and 3.8% of Bangladeshi people said
that they lived in rent free accommodation. However, the term ‘rent free’ caused
some confusion. For example, some people in receipt of housing benefit responded
incorrectly that they lived ‘rent free’.

Figure 16 and Appendix 18 provide statistics about the proportions of people in each
narrow ethnic group by tenure for Oldham and England. Overall, people in Oldham
were more likely to live in owned accommodation than people in England. White
British and Pakistani people were more likely and Bangladeshi people were much
more likely to live in owned accommodation in Oldham than in England (respectively,
72.6% and 71.9% of white British people and 72.1% and 70.9% of Pakistani people).
Over half (54.2%) of Bangladeshi people in Oldham lived in owned accommodation
compared to 37.5% of all Bangladeshi people in England.


                                                 30
 Figure 16: Selected tenure by ethnic group: Comparison of populations of Oldham,
                         Greater Manchester and England
                                 owned accommodation                                                                           social rented accommodation

              other                                                                                               other
              black                                                                                              black
   ethnic     mixed                                                                                               mixed
                                                                                                       ethnic
   group      Asian                                                                                    group      Asian
              white                                                                                               white
   all ethnic groups
                                                                                                       all ethnic groups
                       0        10        20        30        40        50        60        70        80
                                                                                                                           0      10    20     30     40     50     60     70    80
                               percentage of all people within ethnic group in area
                                                                                                                                  percentage of all people within ethnic group


                               private rented accommodation

                  other
                 black                                                                                                                       England
     ethnic       mixed
     group
                                                                                                                                             Greater Manchester
                  Asian
                  white                                                                                                                      Oldham
     all ethnic groups

                           0         10        20        30        40        50        60        70    80
                               percentage of all people within ethnic group in area



      Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table T13 Ethnicity – England and Wales

People in Oldham were also more likely to live in social rented accommodation
compared to people in England. Similar proportions (around 14.4%) of Pakistani
people lived in social rented accommodation in Oldham and England. White British
people were more likely and Bangladeshi people were less likely to live in social
rented accommodation in Oldham than in England (respectively, 19.6% and 16.9%
of white British people and 30.7% and 49.1% of Bangladeshi people).

Overall, people in Oldham were less likely to live in private rented accommodation
than people in England. White British people were less likely to live in private rented
accommodation in Oldham than in England (respectively, 5.2% and 8.0%), as were
Pakistani people (respectively, 10.4% and 11.5%). Bangladeshi people were more
likely to live in private rented accommodation in Oldham than England (respectively,
11.3% and 9.9%).

A minority (about 0.8%) of the population of Oldham in 2001 lived in communal
establishments, which were mainly ‘medical and care establishments’. Around 0.9%
of all white people lived in communal establishments in Oldham, as did 0.6% of black
people, 0.4% of people of mixed heritage, 0.5% of people from other ethnic groups
and 0.1% of Asian people. Excluding white people, there were estimated to be 22 or
fewer people in each of the broad ethnic groups in Oldham living in communal
establishment. The small numbers of people recorded as living in non-medical and
non-care establishments make analysis of these results unreliable. Higher
proportions of people within each ethnic group were recorded as living in communal
care in both Greater Manchester and England. For example, the proportions of white
British people living in communal establishments were 0.9% in Oldham, 1.4% in

                                                                                                      31
Greater Manchester and 1.7% in England, including respectively 94.3%, 58.7% and
54.6% in medical or care establishments. Around 0.1% of Pakistani people in
Oldham lived in communal establishments compared to 0.7% of Pakistani people in
both Greater Manchester and England, of whom respectively 66.7%, 15.1% and
12.2% lived in medical or care establishments. Around 0.03%40 of Bangladeshi
people in Oldham lived in communal establishments compared to 0.6% of
Bangladeshi people in both Greater Manchester and England, of whom respectively
100%, 11.9% and 11.3% lived in medical or care establishments. The geographical
distribution of people living in communal establishments reflects the distribution of
these establishments, but it might not reflect their residents’ previous home
addresses.

There were around 87,800 households in Oldham.41 One-person households were
less common in Oldham (29.5% of the total) than in either Greater Manchester
(32%) or England (30.1%). A household can be made up of people from different
ethnic groups. More than nine in ten of all households with more than one member in
Oldham (92.3%), Greater Manchester (91.4%) and England (90.7%) have members
who share the same ethnic group. The commonest type of household with different
ethnic identities was the household with ‘different ethnic groups within partnerships’;
accounting for 3.8% of all households with two or more members in Oldham
compared to higher proportions of these households in Greater Manchester (4.7%)
and England (5.3%). Around 2.8% of all households with two or more members in
Oldham had ‘different ethnic identities between generations only’ compared to lower
proportions of these households in Greater Manchester (2.5%) and England (2.2%).
Households with two or more members were less likely to have ‘other combinations
of multiple ethnic groups’ in Oldham (1.1% of the total) compared to Greater
Manchester and England, with respectively 1.4% and 1.8% of the total.

Overall, households with two or more people were less likely to be made up of
people who did not all share the same ethnic groups in Oldham than in Greater
Manchester and England, accounting respectively for 7.7%, 8.6% and 9.3% of all
these households. However, within Oldham there was considerable variation in the
proportion of these households in each ward, ranging from 4.7% in Crompton to
more than twice the average for England (19.3%) in Werneth (Figure 17 and
Appendix 19). Households with multiple ethnic identities also made up more than
one in ten of all households of two or more people in Alexandra (10.3%), St. Mary’s
(12.5%), and Coldhurst (16.1%). This ward-level pattern generally reflects the
proportions of white and non-white people living in the wards (Figure 2).42

Some households with only one adult are of interest to policy makers. For example,
pensioners living alone and lone parent families. A lower proportion (29.5%) of
households in Oldham were one-person households compared to Greater
Manchester (32.0%) and England (30.1%). In all three areas, black people were
40
   According to Theme Table 13 of the 2001 Census, there were ‘3’ Bangladeshi people living in
communal establishments in Oldham. However, as a result of the processing of these Census results,
there might actually be fewer than three Bangladeshi people.
41
   The estimated number of household varies with 2001 Census tables. For example, in Univariate
Table UV69 there were around 87,824 households in Oldham compared to an estimated 87,845
households in Standard Table S106.
42
   Classification of all ethnic groups into ‘white’ and ‘non-white’ categories is used by National
Statistics/ONS. The ‘white’ ethnic group includes white minority ethnic groups.
                                               32
                   Figure 17: Households with multiple ethnic identities
                Crompton

         Saddleworth West

         Saddleworth East

                    Shaw

             Royton North

           Failsworth East

             Royton South

          Failsworth West

         Chadderton North

         Chadderton South

               Waterhead

        Chadderton Central

                St. James

                     Lees

                  Oldham

               Hollinwood

                 St. Pauls

                Alexandra

                St. Marys

                 Coldhurst

                  Werneth

                             0         5             10            15            20            25
                         percentage of all households of two or more people with household members
                                           who do not all share the same ethnic group


      Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Univariate table UV69 Multiple ethnic groups.
        Downloaded from Neighbourhood Statistics. The ‘same ethnic group’ refers to the
                  same standard 2001 Census classification for ethnic group.

most likely and Asian people were least likely to live alone (Figure 18). Asian people
were much less likely and black people were more likely to live alone in Oldham than
in England. In all three areas, black Caribbean people were most likely to live alone;
accounting for 41.5% of all black Caribbean households in Oldham compared to
44.5% in Greater Manchester and 38.0% in England. Bangladeshi people were least
likely to live in one-person households, which accounted for 5.7% of Bangladeshi
households in Oldham compared to 7.2% in Greater Manchester and 8.8% in
England. Pakistani people were the second least likely ethnic group to live alone.
One-person households made up 7.9% of all Pakistani households in Oldham
compared to 10.6% in Greater Manchester and 11.9% in England. The figures for
white British people were 30.8%, 32.4% and 30.4%.

Almost half (49.8%) of all one-person households in Oldham were pensioner
households compared to 46.4% in Greater Manchester and 47.8% in England
(Appendix 20). The proportion of one-person households in Oldham made up of
pensioners ranged from 7.4% for people of mixed heritage to over half (50.8%) of
white people, reflecting the age distribution of these ethnic groups (Figure 19). The
highest proportions of pensioner only households in Oldham were found within ‘other
white’ (67.6%), white British (50.6%) and white Irish (48.5%) one person households.
For people in one-person households, black people and people from ‘other ethnic

                                                    33
                      Figure 18: One-person households and pensioners living alone
                              one-person households                                                            pensioners living alone
     ethnic group                                                                   ethnic group
      of HRP                                                                           of HRP

      other                                                                           other



      black                                                                           black



      mixed                                                                          mixed



      Asian                                                                           Asian

                                                                    England                    England
      white                                                    Gt Manchester
                                                                                      white    Gt Manchester
                                                                    Oldham                     Oldham

              0          10        20         30        40         50          60             0          10        20         30         40         50         60
                    one-person households as a percentage of all households                        pensioners living alone as a percentage of all one-person
                                within each ethnic group of HRP                                          households within each ethnic group of HRP

              Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S106. Household composition
              by ethnic group of the household reference person (HRP).

groups’ were more likely and Asian people and people of mixed heritage were less
likely to be pensioners in Oldham than in Greater Manchester and England. Around
half of white British people living alone were pensioners (50.6% in Oldham 47.6% in
Greater Manchester and 50.0% in England). The figures for Bangladeshi people
living alone were 17.3%, 18.3% and 19.2% respectively and for Pakistani people
living alone were 18.2%, 18.6% and 21.3% respectively.

Overall, a higher proportion (around 11.5%) of all households in both Oldham and
Greater Manchester were lone parent families compared to 9.5% of all households in
England. In Oldham, households with mixed ethnic heritage household reference
persons (HRPs)43 were most likely and households with Asian HRPs were least
likely to be lone parent households, which made up respectively 24.7% and 9.8% of
all these households. Lone parent families made up 19.7% of all households with
mixed ‘white and Asian’ HRPs, 25.0% of all households with mixed ‘white and black
African’ HRPs and 29.3% of all households with mixed ‘white and black Caribbean’
HRPs. Households in Oldham with Indian HRPs were least likely to be made up of
lone parent families, which made up 5.2% of Indian households. Compared to
England, lone parent households were more common in Oldham in households with
a HRP who was white, of mixed ethnic heritage and from ‘other ethnic groups’ and
were less common in households with black HRPs (Figure 19). A lower proportion
(10.2%) of households headed by Bangladeshi people were lone parent families in
Oldham than in either Greater Manchester or England (respectively 10.8% and
11.0% of Bangladeshi HRPs). The figures were similar for Pakistani HRPs, of which

43
   For the 2001 Census results, someone living alone is the ‘household reference person’ (HRP). A
set of criteria, focusing initially on economic activity, is used to identify the HRP where the household
is made up of two or more people (National Statistics).
                                                                               34
                             Figure 19: Lone parent households


     ethnic group
      of HRP
         other



         black



         mixed



         Asian

                                                                                   England
         white                                                              Gt Manchester
                                                                                   Oldham


                 0          5           10           15           20          25           30
                          percentage of all households within each ethnic group
                                 of HRP made up of lone parent families


         Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S106. Household composition by
         ethnic group of the household reference person (HRP).

respectively 10.2%, 10.8% and 11.1% were lone parent households. Lone parent
households made up 11.5% of all households with a white British HRP in both
Oldham and Greater Manchester compared to a figure of 9.1% in England (Appendix
20).

Overall, the most common type of lone parent household in Oldham was a family
with one dependent44 child (38.9% of the total). Of all lone parent families in Oldham,
almost a third (33%) had two or more dependent children and 28.2% had no
dependent children. A similar pattern was found in lone parent households in Greater
Manchester and England. Variations existed in the number of dependent children in
lone parent households headed by HRPs from different ethnic groups and in different
areas (Figure 20). In Oldham, families with one dependent child were the most
common type of lone parent family for households with white HRPs and HRPs from
‘other ethnic groups’. Families with two or more dependent children were the
commonest type of lone parent household for Asian, mixed heritage and black
HRPs.

Average household size in Oldham was 2.45 people, which was the largest average
household size in the ten districts of Greater Manchester and the fourth largest
household size out of the 43 local authorities in the North West. Oldham’s average
household size is ranked 41st highest out of all 376 local authorities in England and
Wales.45 Within Greater Manchester, Oldham had the highest proportion (0.8%) of
occupied household spaces with eight or more residents. This figure is much higher
than in either Greater Manchester or England (with respectively around 0.3% and

44
   Defined in the next section on ‘dependent children’.
45
  National Statistics Online Census 2001 – Ranking – Average Household Size. Average household
size in England and Wales ranged from 2.64 people in Newham to 2.09 people in Islington and the
range in the North West were from 2.54 people in Blackburn with Darwen to 2.15 in Blackpool. From
http://www.statistics.gov.uk.
                                               35
                                                                          Figure 20: Number of dependent children in lone parent households

                                                                       other
                                                                                                                                                                  England
                                                                         2+                                                                                       Oldham
     ethnic group of lone parent HRP and number of dependent childre


                                                                          1

                                                                          0

                                                                       black

                                                                         2+

                                                                          1

                                                                          0

                                                                       mixed

                                                                         2+

                                                                          1

                                                                          0

                                                                       Asian

                                                                         2+

                                                                          1

                                                                          0

                                                                       white

                                                                         2+

                                                                          1

                                                                          0

                                                                               0   5        10        15        20        25       30        35       40          45        50
                                                                                       percentage of all lone parent households within each ethnic group of HRP




Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S106. Household composition by ethnic
group of the household reference person (HRP). ‘0’ means that there were no dependent children.
 ‘1’ indicates that there was one dependent child. ‘2+’ indicates that there were two or more
dependent children. See the section on ‘dependent children’ for the definition of this term.

0.2% of occupied household spaces with eight or more residents). In Oldham, over
1% of occupied household spaces were in this category in St. Paul’s (1.4%), St.
Mary’s (1.9%), Alexandra (3.2%), Coldhurst (4.6%) and Werneth (4.6%). While
household spaces occupied by eight or more people were not recorded in Failsworth
East and West, Royton North and South, and Saddleworth West. There were small
numbers (3) of these households recorded in Chadderton North and Central,
Crompton and Saddleworth East.46

Dependent children

A 'dependent child' in the 2001 Census results is 'defined as a person aged 0-15 in a
household (whether or not in a family) or aged 16-18, in full-time education and living

46
  2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Univariate Table. UV51 Number of people living in households.
From Neighbourhood Statistics (http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk).
                                                                                                                     36
in a family with his or her parent(s).' 47 Adults in the household supply most of the
information about dependent children. There were about 55,706 dependent children
in Oldham48. Table 7 shows some of the characteristics of these children and their
households and Appendix 22 gives comparable figures for Greater Manchester and
England. Table 8 gives comparable figures for dependent white British, Pakistani
and Bangladeshi children in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England. Only some
of the variation between children from different ethnic groups is highlighted in this
report.

Information about household size and composition classifies households by the
ethnic group of the household reference person (HRP). The majority (66.2%) of all
households in Oldham had no dependent children49, which was a lower proportion of
all households than in either Greater Manchester (69.2%) or England (70.6%). A
broadly similar pattern was found with HRPs from white, mixed heritage, and other
ethnic groups, with households most commonly having no dependent children.
However, over half (57.5%) of households with Asian HRPs in Oldham had two or
more dependent children, as did 45.8% of these households in Greater Manchester
and 38.1% in England (Figure 21). In Oldham, households with Bangladeshi HRPs
were most likely to have two or more dependent children. Around 64.8% of
households with a Bangladeshi HRP in Oldham had two or more dependent children,
while 19% had one dependent child, and 16.2% had no dependent children.
Households in Oldham with Pakistani HRPs were the second most likely to have two
or more dependent children, with figures of 56.7%, 19.3% and 24.0% respectively. In
contrast, 69.0% of households in Oldham with white British HRPs had no dependent
children, 14.5% had one dependent child and 16.5% had two or more dependent
children. Households in Oldham with white Irish HRPs were least likely to have two
or more dependent children and most likely to have no dependent children,
accounting respectively for 10.3% and 79.9% of all these households.

Six wards in Oldham had more than the Borough average (19.1%) of all households
with two or more dependent children: St. James’ (20.4%), Hollinwood (23.0%), St.
Mary’s (24.6%), Coldhurst (27.6%) and Werneth (28.3%). The proportion of
households with white British HRPs that had two or more dependent children ranged
from 10.8% in Coldhurst to 22.2% in Hollinwood. High proportions of households
with two or more dependent children were recorded for many households with
Bangladeshi or Pakistani HRPs (Appendix 21). For example, around 71.2% of
households with Bangladeshi HRPs had two or more dependent children in
Alexandra, as did 66.1% of these households in Coldhurst. Around 68.2% of
households with Pakistani HRPs in St. James’ had two or more dependent children.




47
   National Statistics (2001) Census 2001 Classifications. Final version. September 2001.
48
   According to the 2001 Census (Theme table T12 Ethnicity of all dependent children in households)
the approximate numbers of dependent children were: 41768 white British, 94 white Irish, 234 white
other, 839 white and black Caribbean, 101 white and black African, 430 white and Asian, 175 ‘other
mixed’, 469 Indian, 6194 Pakistani, 4772 Bangladeshi, 246 ‘other Asian’, 139 black Caribbean, 41
black African, 28 black other, 129 Chinese, and 47 ‘other ethnic groups’.
49
   The number of households without dependent children was taken to be the total number of
households minus the sum of the number of households with one dependent child and households
with two or more dependent children. Figures were obtained from Standard Table S106.
                                                37
Table 7: Dependent children in Oldham

                                 percentage of all dependent children     total number of
category                               within each ethnic group       dependent children
                                  white Asian mixed black other         in each category

family type
lone parent                        27.7      12.2     52.9      62.5     15.3                14,042
   female parent                   25.3      11.1     49.7      57.2     15.3                12,881
married couple                     56.3      82.6     31.6      28.8     75.6                34,022
   step family                      6.7       8.2      7.1       4.3      6.3                 3,891
cohabiting couple                  15.1       3.2     13.7       5.3      6.8                 6,980
   step family                      7.1       1.7      5.8       1.4      1.7                 3,272
not in a family                     0.9       2.1      1.6       2.9      3.4                   664

country of birth
born in the UK                     99.2      88.5     97.9      86.1     75.0                53,905
born outside the UK                 0.8      11.5      2.0      13.5     25.0                 1,798

child has a limiting
                                     4.2      4.4       5.5      7.2       4.5                 2,398
long-term illness

child provides at least
one hour of care per                 1.5      2.6       1.6      2.9       4.0                   984
week

household
has no employed adult              17.9      34.1     33.9      33.7     18.8                12,157
is ‘overcrowded’                   11.5      51.3     18.2      24.5     31.3                11,209
has no central heating              3.6      17.6      3.6       5.3      4.0                 3,650
lives in a flat / maisonette        2.2       6.1      3.9       9.6      8.0                 1,734
no access to cars or vans          22.9      35.6     41.6      37.0     15.9                14,541

tenure
owned                              67.5      63.1     42.7      41.3     72.7                36,644
social rented                      23.8      22.9     41.0      44.2     13.6                13,442
private rented                      7.0      10.7     12.6       6.3     10.8                 4,399
lives rent free                     1.8       3.4      3.7       8.2      4.0                 1,220

total number of dependent
children within each ethnic     42,096 11,681 1,545             208       176                55,706
group
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table 12. Ethnicity of all dependent children in
households. ‘A dependent child is a person in a household aged 0 to 15 (whether or not in a family) or
a person age 16 to 18 who is a full-time student in a family with parent(s)’ (National Statistics).
Reading this table, e.g. there were about 55,706 dependent children; about 51.3% of the 11,681
dependent Asian children lived in ‘overcrowded’ households; about 664 children did not live in a
family.




                                                 38
Table 8: Dependent white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children in Oldham

                                         percentage of all dependent children within
                                                    each ethnic group
 category                            white British        Pakistani        Bangladeshi
                                      children             children          children
                                   O           M           E             O         M          E           O         M         E
 family type
 lone parent                      27.6        27.7        21.9          13.3      14.8       16.3        11.6      13.4      15.2
      female parent               25.3        25.4        19.9          12.0      13.2       14.2        10.8      12.1      13.2
 married couple                   56.3        57.7        65.3          81.8      80.6       79.2        82.7      81.4      79.2
      step family                  6.6         6.2         6.4           7.5       5.8        5.6         9.2       8.4       6.7
 cohabiting couple                15.2        13.5        11.9           3.4       2.6        2.4         3.0       2.8       2.6
      step family                  7.1         5.8         5.2           1.7       1.2        1.2         2.0       1.7       1.7
 not in a family                   0.9         1.1         0.9           1.5       2.0        2.1         2.7       2.5       3.0

 country of birth
 born in the UK                   99.5        99.4        98.9          91.0      90.0       90.1        84.7      85.0      85.1
 born outside the UK               0.5         0.6         1.1           9.0      10.0        9.9        15.3      15.0      14.9

 child has a LLTI                  4.2         4.5         4.3           5.3       5.2        5.1         3.6       3.8       4.6

 child provides at least
 one hour of unpaid                1.5         1.3         1.2           3.5       2.7        2.3         1.5       2.0       2.4
 care/week

 household
 no employed adult                17.8        19.7        15.6          32.8      29.9       30.8        38.2      36.6      36.8
 is ‘overcrowded’                 11.4        10.2         9.0          44.7      36.2       36.2        61.3      51.4      56.1
 has no central heating            3.6         5.3         5.6          18.3      10.8       18.6        17.6      12.5       8.7
 in a flat/maisonette              2.2         2.3         5.5           4.7       4.0        7.8         8.0       6.2      37.9
 no access to car/ van            22.8        21.7        14.8          26.0      19.2       21.0        50.8      44.6      40.5

 tenure
 owned                            67.6        66.0        69.8          69.8      69.3       69.2        52.3      53.0      34.3
 social rented                    23.7        25.4        21.5          16.2      16.1       16.9        33.0      32.2      53.2
 private rented                    6.9         6.8         7.2          10.9      12.2       11.3        10.9      11.5       9.3
 lives rent free                   1.8         1.8         1.5           3.1       2.5        2.6         3.8       3.3       3.1
                                                494,586




                                                                          6,194




                                                                                               280,108


                                                                                                           4,772


                                                                                                                     9,203


                                                                                                                               118,909
                                     41,768




                                                            9,261,259




                                                                                    31,152




 total number of
 dependent children
 within each ethnic group

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table T12. Ethnicity of all dependent children in
households. ‘O’ is Oldham. ‘M’ is Greater Manchester. ‘E’ is England. ‘LLTI’ is limiting long-term
illness. ‘A dependent child is a person in a household aged 0 to 15 (whether or not in a family) or a
person aged16 to 18 who is a full-time student in a family with parent(s)’ (National Statistics). Reading
this table: there were about 41,768 dependent white British children in Oldham, 17.8% of whom lived
in a household with no employed adults.


                                                          39
Figure 21: Number of dependent children in households classified by ethnic group of
household reference person (HRP) in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England.

                                                                               other                                                  England
                                                                                                                                      Gt M anche ste r
                                                                                 2+
           ethnic group of HRP and number of dependent children in household
                                                                                                                                      Oldham
                                                                                  1
                                                                                  0
                                                                               black
                                                                                 2+
                                                                                  1
                                                                                  0
                                                                               mixed
                                                                                 2+
                                                                                  1
                                                                                  0
                                                                               Asian
                                                                                 2+
                                                                                  1
                                                                                  0
                                                                               white
                                                                                 2+
                                                                                  1
                                                                                  0

                                                                                       0   10      20      30        40    50      60      70     80
                                                                                           percentage of all households within each category of
                                                                                                           ethnic group of HRP

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S106. Household composition by ethnic
group of household reference person (HRP). Population: all households. ). ‘0’ means that there were
no dependent children. ‘1’ indicates that there was one dependent child. ‘2+’ indicates that there were
two or more dependent children.

A ‘family’ is defined as a ‘group of people consisting of a married or cohabiting
couple with or without child(ren), or a lone parent with child(ren). It also includes a
married or cohabiting couple with their grandchild(ren) or a lone grandparent with his
or her grandchild(ren) where there are no children in the intervening generation in
the household.’ 50

The majority (61.1%) of dependent children in Oldham lived in married couple
families, as did 59.2% of dependent children in Greater Manchester and 65.2% of
dependent children in England. In all three areas, more than three-quarters of all
dependent Asian children lived in married couple families, with dependent Pakistani,
Bangladeshi and Indian children being more likely to live in married couple families in
Oldham than in Greater Manchester and England. In Oldham, around 81.8% of
Pakistani children, 82.7% of Bangladeshi children and 92.5% of Indian children lived
in married couple families. High proportions of dependent Chinese children lived in

50
     National Statistics (2004) Census 2001:Definitions.
                                                                                                                40
married couple families: 74.4% in Oldham, 74.9% in Greater Manchester and 78.2%
in England. More than half (56.3%) of all dependent white British children in Oldham
lived in married couple families, a lower proportion than in Greater Manchester
(57.7%) and England (65.3%).

In Oldham, dependent black Caribbean children were least likely (about 21.6% of all
these children) to be living in married couple families and were most likely (about
70.5% of all these children) to live in lone parent families. Black Caribbean children
were the ethnic group most likely to live in lone parent families in both Greater
Manchester and England, with respectively 63.2% and 59.1% of dependent black
Caribbean children in this category. However, black Caribbean children had the
second lowest proportion of dependent children living in married couple families in
these two areas, after dependent children of mixed ‘white and black Caribbean’
heritage. The proportion of black Caribbean children in married couple families was
25.6% in Greater Manchester and 29.2% in England.

Dependent white British children were more likely to live in lone parent families in
Oldham than England, with respectively 27.6% and 21.9% of dependent white British
children in this category.

Asian children were least likely to be living in lone parent families in Oldham, Greater
Manchester and England. In all three areas, Indian children were least likely to live in
lone parent families (3.6% in Oldham, 10.0% in Greater Manchester and 10.9% in
England). In Oldham, around 13.3% of dependent Pakistani children and 11.6% of
dependent Bangladeshi children lived in lone parent families.

Dependent white children were most likely to live in cohabiting couple families, which
accounted for around 12.2% of dependent white British children in Oldham
compared to figures of 13.5% in Greater Manchester and 11.9% in England.
Dependent Asian, especially Indian, children were least likely to live in cohabiting
couple families in all three areas. Around 1.7% of dependent Indian children lived in
cohabiting couple families in Oldham compared to figures of 2.3% in Greater
Manchester and 1.8% in England. Dependent Pakistani and Bangladeshi children
were more likely to live in cohabiting couple households in Oldham than in either
Greater Manchester or England. In Oldham, around 3.4% of dependent Pakistani
children and 3.0% of dependent Bangladeshi children lived in cohabiting couple
families compared respectively to figures of 2.4% and 2.6% in England.

The category ‘not in a family’ refers to dependent children who live in households but
do not live in a family as defined for the 2001 Census results. These dependent
children could be living with relatives, such as brothers or sisters, in-laws, and
cousins. Over half (56.8%) of the 667 dependent children in Oldham classified as not
living in a family were white British children, 19.4% were Bangladeshi children and
14.4% were Pakistani children. Overall, black dependent children were most likely
not to live in a family in Oldham, Greater Manchester, and England (respectively
2.9%, 5.2% and 3.9% of all dependent black children) and white dependent children
were least likely to not live in a family in Oldham (0.9%, 1.1% and 2.2% of all
dependent white children).



                                          41
About 3.2% of all dependent children in Oldham, including about 0.5% of white
British children, were born outside the UK. Just over half (51.1%) of all Irish
dependent children were born outside the UK, as were more than a third of all
dependent children for ‘other white’ (35%), black African (43.9%) and ‘other ethnic
groups’ (46.8%). Nearly 9% of all Pakistani children and 15.3% of all Bangladeshi
children were born outside the UK. In Greater Manchester and England, dependent
Bangladeshi children were less likely than in Oldham and dependent white British
and Pakistani children were more likely than in Oldham to be born outside the UK
(Tables 7 and 8).

Overall, about 4.3% of all dependent children living in Oldham were reported to have
a limiting long-term illness (LLTI). The proportion of children in this category was
highest (10.8%) for black Caribbean children and lowest (1.9%) for Indian children.
LLTI was reported for about 3.6% of Bangladeshi children, 4.2% of white British
children, and 5.3% of Pakistani children. Broadly similar proportions of dependent
white British and Pakistani children were recorded as having a LLTI in Oldham,
Greater Manchester and England. However, dependent Bangladeshi children were
less likely to be recorded as having a LLTI in Oldham than in England (Tables 7 and
8). Compared to Oldham, dependent Indian children were more likely to have a LLTI
in Greater Manchester and England (respectively 3.7% and 3.4% of all dependent
Indian children) and dependent black Caribbean children were much less likely to
have a LLLTI (respectively 5.3% and 5.4% of all dependent black Caribbean
children).

Around 1.5% of both Bangladeshi and white British children, 3.4% of Indian children,
and 3.5% of Pakistani children were reported to spend typically at least one hour a
week providing care.51 Dependent white British and Pakistani children were more
likely and Bangladeshi children were less likely to be reported to provide care in
Oldham than in Greater Manchester or England (Tables 7 and 8). Lower proportions
of dependent Indian children were reported to provide care in Greater Manchester
(2.6%) and England (2.5%) than in Oldham. The accuracy of these statistics is
unknown. Some respondents might not have reported accurately. ‘Care’ can be
understood in different ways. The majority of respondents are likely to be parents or
other adults. The dynamic and hidden nature of most informal caring means that
there are no reliable statistics to compare with the results of the 2001 Census.

Generally, Asian children were most likely and white children were least likely to live
in households without an employed adult. However, the highest proportions of
children living in such households were black African children (43.9%) and white
Irish children (41.5%) and the lowest proportion was for Indian children (9.4%).
About 38.2% of Bangladeshi children, 32.8% of Pakistani children and 17.8% of
white British children lived in households without an employed adult. Dependent
Pakistani and Bangladeshi children were more likely to live in households without an
employed adult in Oldham than in both Greater Manchester and England. White
British children were more likely to be in this category in Oldham than in England but
not in Greater Manchester (Tables 7 and 8). Dependent Indian children were much
less likely to be in households without an employed adult in Oldham than in Greater
51
   People were asked in the 2001 Census ‘Do you look after or give any help or support to family
members, friends, neighbours or others because of long-term physical or mental ill-health or disability,
or problems related to age?’
                                                  42
Manchester and England (respectively 9.4%, 17.8% and 11.5% of dependent Indian
children).

Dependent Indian children were most likely to live in property owned by the
household in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England (respectively 82.9%, 76.5%
and 82.1% of dependent Indian children). Chinese children were the second most
likely ethnic group to live in property owned by the household in Oldham and
England (respectively 79.8% and 71.2% of all dependent Chinese children), as were
68.7% of dependent Chinese children in Greater Manchester. In Oldham, about
69.8% of Pakistani children, 67.6% of white British children, and 52.3% of
Bangladeshi children were in this category. Compared to Oldham, in England,
dependent Bangladeshi children (34.3%) were much less likely to live in property
owned by the household, Pakistani children (69.2%) were slightly less likely to be in
this category and white British children (69.8%) were more likely to be in this
category (Table 8).

Social rented accommodation was home for over half of all dependent black
Caribbean children in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England (respectively,
51.1%, 53.8% and 52.8% of dependent black Caribbean children). Over two-fifths of
dependent mixed white and black Caribbean children also lived in social rented
accommodation (44.7% in Oldham, 48.6% in Greater Manchester and 49.6% in
England). Dependent white Irish children were much more likely to live in this type of
accommodation in Oldham than in Greater Manchester and England (respectively
45.7%, 21.6% and 22.5% of all dependent white Irish children). A third (33.0%) of
Bangladeshi children lived in social rented accommodation, as did 23.7% of
Pakistani children, 23.7% of white British children, and 9.0% of Indian children.
Compared to Oldham, dependent Indian and Pakistani children were almost as likely
to live in social rented accommodation in England (respectively 8.9% and 16.9% of
these dependent children). Dependent white British children were more likely and
dependent Bangladeshi children were much less likely to live in social rented
accommodation in Oldham compared to England (Table 8).

Many children lived in unsatisfactory accommodation. The proportion of dependent
children in accommodation classed as being ‘overcrowded’ ranged from 11.4% of
white British children to 61.3% of Bangladeshi children. Around 34.5% of Indian
children, 44.7% of Pakistani children and 58.5% of black African children lived in
overcrowded accommodation. Dependent children in all these ethnic groups were
more likely to live in overcrowded accommodation in Oldham than in either Greater
Manchester or England. Central heating was absent from the homes of about 6.5%
of all dependent children living in Oldham, including only around 3.6% of white
British children, but 18.3% of Pakistani children and 17.6% of Bangladeshi children.
Dependent Bangladeshi children were much more likely and white British were less
likely to live in accommodation without central heating in Oldham than in England.
Similar proportions of dependent Pakistani children lived in accommodation without
central heating in Oldham and England (Table 8).




                                         43
Conclusions

In this report some of the main 2001 Census results about ethnic groups in Oldham.
Have been explored. Compared to other sources of information about ethnic groups
in Oldham, the coverage of the 2001 Census results (in theory, representing the
whole population) and their relatively high quality make them a useful resource for
many purposes.

The 2001 Census results can be used to describe the size and distribution of
populations of different ethnic groups in Oldham. The results also show some of the
interactions that exist between ethnic group, gender and age. Finally, the results
show associations between ethnic group and variables concerning aspects of health,
provision of unpaid care, education, religious affiliation, economic activity and
housing.

Census results show if an ethnic group is disproportionately associated with factors
that are widely agreed to be undesirable (such as reported ill-health) or desirable
(such as young adults having qualifications at level 2 or higher). However, the
existence of a statistical association does not explain the reasons for this
association. Improved understanding of the reasons for these associations should
assist individuals and organisational decision-makers to reduce or eliminate
undesirable associations and possible inequalities. Partial explanations for patterns
in the Census results might be developed from a combination of the knowledge of
local people and organisations with information from published statistics and
research findings. As many social situations are highly context dependent, further
research might be required to develop a sufficient understanding of some situations.

The published 2001 Census results were provided in tables that restrict analysis to a
limited number of categories and cross-tabulations (tables that show the combined
results of ethnic group with selected categories of another variable). So although a
lot of potentially useful information, such as more detailed information about
households, was collected in the 2001 Census, this information is not generally
made available. Some information can be commissioned from the Office for National
Statistics.

Ethnicity is subjective. People can vary in how they classify their ethnicity in different
contexts and over time. Arguably, it is inappropriate to directly compare the results of
the 2001 Census and the 1991 Census because of the nature of ethnicity combined
with changes in ethnic groups used in these censuses. Some broad comparisons
can be made but care must be taken.

The ethnic groups used in the 2001 Census are likely to be used widely for official
statistics, research, evaluation and monitoring activities. Used carefully, information
from these diverse sources can complement the 2001 Census results, and provide a
valuable resource to inform service planning and policy and strategy development,
particularly in relation to identifying and addressing inequalities and needs.




                                           44
Ethnic Groups in Oldham:
       Appendices




           45
                                                     .Appendix 1. Ethnic groups and geographical areas, 2001

                                    number of people in each ethnic group in the specified area as a percentage of the number of people in that
                                                                 ethnic group in the larger geographical area(s)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                       Asian or                                            black or
                                                  white                                         mixed                                                                                                                                other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                     Asian British                                       black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        group

                           all people




                                                                                                         white & Asian
                                                                         white & black


                                                                                         white & black




                                                                                                                                                                 Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               other ethnic
                                                                                                                              other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                               other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       other black
                                                           other white



                                                                          Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                             Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                     Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chinese
                                                                                           African




                                                                                                                                                                                                             African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 groups
                                        British




                                                                                                                                            Indian
Oldham’s share of                                 Irish
the population of:
Greater Manchester         8.8              8.4      4.6         5.5        9.8             3.7                  8.0                4.5        4.3   18.3        48.9                7.6          5.7            1.9         3.8         3.4      2.9
North West                 3.2              3.0      2.5         2.5        5.8             1.8                  4.0                2.2        2.2   11.8        37.8                4.6          4.6            1.2         2.3         1.5      1.6
England                    0.4              0.4      0.3         0.1        0.6             0.2                  0.4                0.2        0.2    1.9         3.6                0.3          0.2            0.0         0.1         0.2      0.1
Greater
Manchester’s share
of the population of:
North West                36.9          35.2      55.0     46.4          59.2            49.3            49.6                 47.9          49.8     64.3        77.2          60.2          79.5            64.4      61.5          44.1      54.7
England                    5.1           5.1       6.8      2.7           5.7             6.4             4.6                  4.2           3.5     10.6         7.3           3.7           2.9             2.2       3.4           5.4       3.4
The North West’s
share of the
population of:
England                   13.7          14.5      12.4           5.7        9.6          12.9                    9.4                8.8        7.0   16.6              9.4           6.2          3.6            3.3         5.6     12.2         6.2
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S101 Sex and age by ethnic group. Reading this table: Indian people in Oldham made up 4.3%of the Indian
population of Greater Manchester. Indian people in Greater Manchester made up 49.8% of the Indian population of the North West. Indian people in the North West
made up 7% of the Indian population of England.



                                                                                                                         46
            Appendix 2. Ethnic composition of the populations of Oldham, Greater Manchester, the North West and
                                  England in 2001 and of the population of Oldham in 1991

                                                                       percentage of people living in the area according to the 2001 Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                                                                              black or black
                       all people                      white                                              mixed                                       Asian or Asian British                                                                          other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  British
                     living in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                       group
                        area in
         area




                                                                                                                        white & Asian
                                                                                     white & black


                                                                                                       white & black




                                                                                                                                                                                Bangladeshi
                                                                                                                                        other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                                                               other Asian
                          2001




                                                                       other white




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        other black
                                                                                      Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                                   Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chinese
                                                                                                          African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    groups
                                            British




                                                                                                                                                        Indian
                                                            Irish
                       (number)



   Oldham                217,273 84.4                       0.9 0.9                        0.6               0.1          0.3            0.1            0.7        6.3 4.5                      0.3 0.4 0.1                                0.1           0.2           0.1
   Gt Manchester       2,482,328 87.9                       1.7 1.4                        0.5               0.2          0.3            0.3            1.4        3.0 0.8                      0.4 0.7 0.4                                0.1           0.5           0.3
   North West          6,729,764 92.2                       1.2 1.1                        0.3               0.1          0.3            0.2            1.1        1.7 0.4                      0.2 0.3 0.2                                0.1           0.4           0.2
   (incl. Cumbria)
   England            49,138,831 87.0                       1.3 2.7                        0.5               0.2          0.4            0.3            2.1        1.4 0.6                      0.5 1.1 1.0                                0.2           0.4           0.4
                                 217,273

                                                 183,297

                                                               1,962

                                                                           1,903


                                                                                              1,287


                                                                                                               187

                                                                                                                                686

                                                                                                                                               291

                                                                                                                                                           1,562

                                                                                                                                                                       13,754

                                                                                                                                                                                     9,817

                                                                                                                                                                                                     674

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  931

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               182

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                122

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            408


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         210
   number of
   people in
   Oldham
  Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Downloaded from National Statistics: Neighbourhood Statistics site http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk.

                       percentage of the population and number of people living in Oldham according to the 1991 Census                                                                                                                                                people
                                                           black                                                                                                                                                                      other groups                    born in
                       all                                                       black                black
                                    white                  Carib-                                                      Indian            Pakistani                 Bangladeshi                               Chinese                                                  Ireland
                     people                                                     African               other                                                                                                                           Asian           other
                                                           bean
% of population       100.0                91.3                0.5                    0.1                0.3                  0.7                      4.1                                    2.4                         0.2           0.1                0.3                   1.2
no. of people        216,531     197,701                   1,054                     144                 598           1,567                          8,929                            5,132                              391           260               755              2,536
Source: 1991 Census. Crown Copyright. 100% Local Base Statistics produced using SASPAC.
                                                                                                                       47
                      Appendix 3. Percentage of people resident in each ward and in Oldham by ethnic group, 2001
                                                                          percentage of the population in each ward and Oldham by ethnic group
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chinese or
                                              white                                   mixed                                    Asian or Asian British              black or black British               other ethnic
                       all people                                                                                                                                                                          group
        ward
                       (number)




                                                       other white




                                                                                                                                                                                          other black
                                                                     Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                    Caribbean
                                                                     white and


                                                                                 white and



                                                                                             white and




                                                                                                                                     Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Chinese
                                                                                                                                                 Bangla-
                                                                                  African




                                                                                                                                                                                African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   groups
                                    British




                                                                                                                      Indian
                                                                                                              mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ethnic
                                                                                              Asian




                                                                                                                                                           Asian
                                                                                                                                                  deshi
                                                                       black


                                                                                   black




                                                                                                              other




                                                                                                                                                           other




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    other
                                               Irish
Alexandra           11,168          67.8         1.2        1.0          0.9         0.1         0.5            0.3      0.5        19.9           6.2       0.5        0.8         **         0.1          0.1      0.0
Chadderton Central  10,766          94.6         1.3        0.6          0.5         0.1         0.1            0.1      0.6         0.5           0.6       0.1        0.3        0.1         0.0          0.3      0.1
Chadderton North    10,242          93.6         0.8        0.7          0.6         0.1         0.3            0.0      0.7         0.7           1.8       0.1        0.4         **          **          0.1      0.1
Chadderton South    10,107          94.0         1.1        0.7          0.8         0.1         0.3            0.1      0.5         1.1           0.5       0.2        0.2        0.0         0.0          0.1      0.1
Coldhurst           11,946          41.7         0.8        0.7          0.7         0.1         0.9            0.3      1.4         2.5          48.9       0.8        0.8        0.1         0.2          0.1      0.1
Crompton            11,111          96.3         0.6        0.9          0.4          **         0.2            0.1      0.3         0.4           0.3       0.1        0.1        0.1         0.0          0.1      0.1
Failsworth East     10,712          95.3         0.9        0.6          0.6         0.2         0.1            0.1      0.3         0.7           0.5        **        0.3        0.1         0.0          0.4      0.0
Failsworth West      9,834          94.5         1.4        0.6          0.7         0.2         0.1            0.0      0.1         1.1           0.1       0.1        0.5        0.2         0.0          0.2      0.2
Hollinwood           9,909          91.3         1.3        0.7          0.8         0.2         0.2            0.1      0.5         2.9           0.8       0.2        0.4        0.1         0.1          0.5      0.2
Lees                10,113          93.1         1.0        1.1          0.9         0.1         0.3            0.2      0.1         2.1           0.2       0.0        0.4        0.1         0.1          0.2      0.0
Royton North        10,599          96.3         0.8        0.7          0.4         0.0         0.2            0.2      0.3         0.4           0.1       0.0        0.2        0.0         0.1          0.1      0.1
Royton South        10,347          95.2         0.9        1.0          0.5         0.1         0.1            0.3      0.6         0.3           0.2       0.1        0.3         **          **          0.4      0.1
Saddleworth East    13,066          96.7         0.6        0.9          0.2         0.0         0.3            0.1      0.3         0.5           0.0       0.1        0.1        0.0          **          0.1      0.0
Saddleworth West    11,291          97.3         0.6        0.6          0.3         0.1         0.2            0.1      0.2         0.1           0.1       0.0        0.2         **          **          0.1      0.2
St. James'           9,698          93.2         1.1        0.8          0.9         0.2         0.2            0.1      0.1         1.0           1.1       0.1        0.8        0.1         0.1          0.2      0.1
St. Mary's          10,772          56.6         0.8        1.4          0.9         0.1         0.4            0.2      0.5        30.0           6.0       1.1        1.3        0.2         0.1          0.3      0.1
St. Paul's          10,516          70.4         1.1        1.4          0.5         0.0         0.4            0.1      4.5        17.0           3.2       0.5        0.4        0.2         0.1          0.1      0.0
Shaw                10,644          94.3         0.6        0.5          0.3         0.1         0.1            0.1      0.3         1.0           1.8       0.1        0.5        0.0         0.1          0.2      0.2
Waterhead           12,865          93.0         0.6        0.9          0.8         0.0         0.2            0.2      0.2         2.5           0.7       0.1        0.4        0.1         0.0          0.1      0.0
Werneth             11,607          39.6         0.7        1.2          0.3         0.1         1.1            0.3      2.3        39.5          11.9       1.8        0.6        0.2         0.1          0.1      0.3
Oldham             217,271          84.4         0.9        0.9          0.6         0.1         0.3            0.1      0.7         6.3           4.5       0.3        0.4        0.1         0.1          0.2      0.1
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S101 Sex and age by ethnic group. There is a separate table for each geographical area.
Note: ** indicates that the entry in Standard Table S101 was ‘-’, which does not necessarily mean that there was nobody with these combined characteristics.
Caution is needed when interpreting 'small numbers' in Standard Table S101.


                                                                                                         48
                                  Appendix 4. Age structure of the populations of Oldham and England, 2001
                                              percentage of the population in each ethnic group in either Oldham or England by age group (years)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Chinese or
                                              white                                             mixed                                                       Asian or Asian British                       black or black British                    other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      group




                                                                                                         white and Asian
                                                                     white and black


                                                                                       white and black




                                                                                                                                                                             Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             other ethnic
                                                                                                                                other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                           other Asian
                         all




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                other black
                                                       other white


                                                                       Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                                 Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Chinese
                                                                                           African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               groups
                       people




                                    British




                                                                                                                                                   Indian
                                               Irish
Oldham, people:
0 to 4 yrs.                7.0      5.9         1.1     2.4            19.1              14.5            21.9                   20.6                6.1          13.7        16.9          11.3           2.6          4.6       4.1                4.9        5.7
5 to 15 yrs.              16.0     14.6         3.2     8.4            41.7              33.0            38.1                   34.8               17.5          26.0        27.3          22.2          11.0         14.4      14.6               19.4       11.4
16 to 24 yrs.             10.7      9.5         3.0     5.8            17.3              21.2            13.1                   15.7               16.4          20.1        19.1          15.9           6.0         13.9      16.3               19.9       13.3
25 to 49 yrs.             34.6     35.1        32.3    33.5            18.5              29.6            23.9                   18.5               40.9          31.5        28.4          38.7          49.6         46.9      52.0               38.6       62.1
50 to 64 yrs.             17.5     19.2        32.8    15.7             2.2               1.7             2.5                    5.2               13.0           5.6         5.4           8.6          17.3          9.3      10.6               11.1        6.2
65 yrs. and over          14.3     15.7        27.7    34.2             1.2                **             0.4                    5.2                6.2           3.1         2.8           3.3          13.5         10.8       2.4                6.1        1.4
75 yrs. and over            6.8       7.6       9.3    18.1                0.5                    **          0.4                             **     2.2            0.9         0.6            0.4           1.8        6.2                   **     1.5              **

England, people:
0 to 4 yrs.                6.0      5.7         1.8     4.7            19.1              18.2            17.2                   15.7                6.6          11.9        13.1           7.7           5.7         10.6      12.2                4.7        6.0
5 to 15 yrs.              14.2     13.9         4.1     9.1            38.7              27.4            30.2                   28.2               16.3          23.1        25.3          15.8          14.7         19.6      25.8               13.6       13.2
16 to 24 yrs.             10.9     10.3         6.3    14.2            15.9              15.5            16.1                   17.0               15.8          19.3        19.7          15.0          10.8         14.6      16.2               22.8       15.5
25 to 49 yrs.             35.6     34.9        35.8    48.2            21.3              32.3            27.4                   29.4               41.8          34.2        32.3          43.8          44.8         46.2      37.7               42.6       51.2
50 to 64 yrs.             17.4     18.2        27.1    13.6             2.7               4.5             5.5                    6.3               12.9           7.4         6.4          12.5          13.4          6.8       4.9               11.2       11.2
65 yrs. and over          15.9     17.1        24.9    10.2             2.3               2.2             3.5                    3.4                6.6           4.2         3.2           5.2          10.6          2.3       3.1                5.1        2.9
75 yrs. and over            7.5       8.2       9.9        4.6             1.0               0.9              1.4                   1.4              2.0            1.1         0.6            1.6           2.7        0.7         1.1              1.6          0.9
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S101 Sex and age by ethnic group. ** indicates that the percentage could not be calculated because the
entries in S101 were ‘-’.


                                                                                                                           49
           Appendix 5. Structure of the white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in Oldham, 2001
                                                                                                                                     white British people
                                                                                                age (years)
                                                                                                  90 plus

                                                                                                 80 to 84
                               number of people living in Oldham (2001)                                                         males                               females
                                                                                                 70 to 74
  age
               white British                  Pakistani                   Bangladeshi            60 to 64
(years)                                                                                          50 to 54
              males       females          males       females        males           females    40 to 44


 0 to 4       5,584            5,272          969          922             861           800     30 to 34


 5 to 9       6,075            5,670          856          796             697           673     20 to 24


10 to 14      6,476            5,979          853          725             540           542     10 to 14


15 to 19      5,549            5,465          848          796             536           523        0 to 4

                                                                                                                 9      7     5      3       1      1      3       5      7          9
20 to 24      4,314            4,536          672          789             396           654                         percentage of all white British people living in Oldham
25 to 29      5,129            5,735          590          618             482           544
30 to 34      6,614            7,330          498          514             428           292                                           Pakistani people

35 to 39      7,167            7,628          331          344             232           141      age (years)
40 to 44      6,219            6,535          334          383             183           179       90 plus


45 to 49      5,905            6,114          398          319             128           182      80 to 84
                                                                                                                                     males                    females
50 to 54      6,980            7,034          150          155              22           104      70 to 74


55 to 59      5,538            5,888           82          106              53           100      60 to 64


60 to 64      4,859            4,903          162          114             160            96      50 to 54

                                                                                                  40 to 44
65 to 69      3,785            4,165           91           99              95            53
                                                                                                  30 to 34
70 to 74      3,052            3,910           64           57              51            15
                                                                                                  20 to 24
75 to 79      2,478            3,646           32           30              11            11      10 to 14
80 to 84      1,397            2,768           16           20              13             7        0 to 4
85 to 89        671            1,779            5            5               3             4                 9         7         5       3      1      1       3      5          7   9

90 plus         226              922            3            8               6             3                               percentage of all Pakistani people living in Oldham


all ages     88,018        95,279           6,954         6,800       4,897             4,923                                         Bangladeshi people



                                                                                                age (years)
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S101. Sex and age by                          90 plus

                                                                                                  80 to 84
ethnic group.                                                                                     70 to 74
                                                                                                                               males                         females

                                                                                                  60 to 64

The table above was used to produce the population pyramids (right). White bars                   50 to 54

                                                                                                  40 to 44
represent males and grey bars represent females. Except for the oldest people                     30 to 34
(aged 90 years and over), each bar represents a five year age group in the                        20 to 24

population. Each bar shows the number of males and females in each age group                      10 to 14


as a percentage of the total white British, Pakistani or Bangladeshi population                     0 to 4
                                                                                                             9         7        5       3      1       1      3       5      7       9

of Oldham.                                                                                                             percentage of all Bangladeshi people living in Oldham




                                                                                 50
     Appendix 6. Residents of Oldham and England in 2001 who were born either in England or outside the United Kingdom

                        percentage of all people in each ethnic group living in Oldham, Greater Manchester, the North West, and England
                                                       who were born either outside the UK or in England
                                                                                                                               Chinese or
                                                                                         Asian or               black or         other
                                     white                    mixed
                                                                                      Asian British           black British      ethnic
                                                                                                                                 group
       area              all




                                                                                                  white & Asian
                                                                  white & black


                                                                                  white & black




                                                                                                                                                          Bangladeshi
                                                                                                                       other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                                        other Asian
                                                    other white




                                                                                                                                                                                                            other black
                                                                   Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                      Caribbean
                       people




                                                                                                                                              Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese
                                                                                     African




                                                                                                                                                                                                  African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      groups
                                  British




                                                                                                                                     Indian
                                            Irish
people born
outside the UK
Oldham                   8.2       0.9      70.6    68.2          1.4              9.6             8.9                 17.7          58.3     43.3        50.2          53.7          47.2        67.0      23.4          60.6      83.4
Gt. Manchester           7.2       1.1      68.1    73.7          3.1             16.8            16.1                 23.7          49.3     44.4        51.5          62.9          45.3        71.5      17.1          67.5      80.9
North West               5.1       1.1      65.9    73.2          3.5             14.5            15.3                 22.2          48.0     43.5        51.4          62.8          45.9        69.8      18.2          64.3      81.9
England                  9.2       2.0      67.7    80.4          6.2             33.4            23.8                 33.5          54.1     45.2        53.6          69.4          42.1        66.2      20.8          71.8      84.5

people born in
England
Oldham                  90.0     97.1       17.7    30.3          98.1            90.4            89.4                 79.6          41.5     56.5        49.4          45.9          52.8        33.0      76.6          39.4      16.6
Gt. Manchester          90.1     96.2       21.0    25.0          96.2            81.4            82.2                 74.5          50.0     55.0        48.1          36.2          54.4        27.7      82.2          31.3      18.5
North West              91.7     95.6       20.3    25.3          95.6            83.9            82.6                 76.1          51.3     55.9        48.1          36.4          53.7        29.4      81.0          34.4      17.4
England                 87.4     94.5       22.6    18.8          93.0            65.0            74.7                 65.2          45.5     54.2        45.9          30.1          57.6        33.3      78.5          27.3      15.2
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S102 Sex and country of birth by ethnic group. The UK is made up of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland,
and Wales. Some people did not specify where they were born in the UK : about 34 people in Oldham, 227 people in Greater Manchester, 523 people in the North
West and 6,809 people in England. For each ethnic group, the number of people in the area who were born outside the UK was calculated by subtracting the
number of people in the area born in the UK from the total population of that area.


                                                                                                                  51
                      Appendix 7. Self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in the population of Oldham, 2001

                  percentage of people in each combined ethnic group and age band who were reported to have a limiting long-term illness
                                                               (LLTI) in the 2001 Census
                                                                                                                            Chinese or
                                                                                     Asian or              black or            other
                                     white                 mixed
                                                                                   Asian British         black British         ethnic
 gender and                                                                                                                    group
 age (years)       all people




                                                                                                  white & Asian
                                                                  white & black


                                                                                  white & black




                                                                                                                                                          Bangladeshi
                                                                                                                       other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                                        other Asian
                                                    other white




                                                                                                                                                                                                            other black
                                                                   Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                      Caribbean
                                                                                                                                              Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese
                                                                                     African




                                                                                                                                                                                                  African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      groups
                                  British




                                                                                                                                     Indian
                                            Irish
females:
   0 to 15                 3.6     3.5        **     3.1           4.8             7.3             5.6                   **           2.1      4.6         3.3           2.8           5.8          **      25.0           6.7        **
  16 to 49                11.6    11.1      17.5    14.6          10.3            13.2            14.4                   **          14.8     15.9        11.7          12.4          11.1        13.2      25.5           8.3       5.7
  50 to 64                32.9    31.6      37.5    32.0          42.9               **           53.8                 42.9          56.1     61.9        52.7          42.9          53.9        42.9      50.0          25.0      50.0
   65 plus                58.6    58.6      55.7    56.1          60.0             ****           50.0                 50.0          69.4     73.1        58.2          78.6          54.3        50.0       100          31.3      50.0

males:
   0 to 15                 4.9     4.9       6.1     6.4           6.3               **            6.5                   5.6           **      5.8         4.2           2.6          13.0          **         **           **      17.6
  16 to 49                12.2    11.9      19.8    13.4          15.4            25.0            16.2                  7.4           7.6     15.1        11.3          14.6          16.0         4.5      16.7           7.5       6.8
  50 to 64                32.8    31.7      37.7    28.3          33.3               **             **                  100          36.5     53.0        63.0          55.6          43.5        46.2      66.7          31.8      42.9
  65 plus                 55.1    54.5      54.9    59.8            **             ****           50.0                 72.7          66.0     66.4        68.0          33.3          63.3        37.5       100          58.3       ****
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S107. Gender and age and limiting long-term illness and general health by ethnic group.
** means that the number of people with an LLTI was recorded as ‘-’ in S107. **** means that both the total number of people in the age band and the number of
people in the age band with a LLTI were recorded as ‘-’. An entry of ‘-’ in S107 cannot be assumed to mean that there was nobody with that combination of
characteristics in Oldham. Caution is required when using this table because there were small numbers of males and females in some categories, especially for
people of mixed heritage. For white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi males and females there were more than 90 people in each age band. There were more than
90 males or females in each age group for Indian people aged under 65 years. There were more than 90 in each age group of white Irish people aged over 15 years.



                                                                                                                  52
             Appendix 8. Self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in the populations of Oldham and England, 2001


                                  percentage of people in each combined ethnic group and age band who were reported to have a limiting
                                                                long-term illness (LLTI) in the 2001 Census
gender, age (years) and                                people in broad ethnic groups                     people in narrow ethnic groups
  geographical area                all
                                 people       white      mixed        Asian        black       other white British Pakistani Bangladeshi


females:
age 0 to 15, Oldham                  3.6           3.5           4.6          3.9           8.3           4.5              3.5           4.6     3.3
age 0 to 15, England                 3.6           3.6           4.2          3.8           4.2           2.5              3.6           4.7     4.0
age 16 to 49, Oldham                11.6          11.2          10.7         14.2          13.5           7.3             11.1          15.9    11.7
age 16 to 49 England                 9.4           9.3          10.1         10.5           9.6           5.4              9.5          12.6    11.7
age 50 to 64, Oldham                32.9          31.8          42.1         57.2          52.8          30.0             31.6          61.9    52.7
age 50 to 64, England               25.8          25.1          31.4         43.8          36.1          21.5             25.1          53.1    52.8
age 65 plus, Oldham                 58.6          58.5          54.5         69.2          56.4          36.4             58.6          73.1    58.2
age 65 plus, England                52.6          52.4          50.3         64.5          58.0          49.7             52.5          66.5    59.6

males:
age 0 to 15, Oldham                  4.9           4.9           5.9          4.8           9.1           4.3              4.9           5.8     4.2
age 0 to 15, England                 4.9           4.9           5.5          4.8           5.4           3.5              4.9           5.5     5.2
age 16 to 49, Oldham                12.2          12.0          15.5         13.2          14.1           7.2             11.9          15.1    11.3
age 16 to 49 England                 9.6           9.7          11.1          9.3           9.4           5.5              9.8          11.2    10.8
age 50 to 64, Oldham                32.8          31.8          32.0         54.0          45.8          34.5             31.7          53.0    63.0
age 50 to 64, England               26.3          26.0          30.9         36.4          30.4          22.0             25.9          45.4    55.7
age 65 plus, Oldham                 55.1          54.6          52.4         66.3          62.2          58.3             54.5          66.4    68.0
age 65 plus, England                48.9          48.8          46.6         55.4          49.7          44.6             48.8          59.1    65.1

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S107. Gender and age and limiting long-term illness and general health by ethnic group.



                                                                              53
              Appendix 9. Highest level of qualifications of 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham at the time of the 2001 Census
                        percentage of people in each combined ethnic group and age band who were reported to have either level 4/5
                        qualifications (e.g. first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4 or 5, HNC, HND, qualified nurse, qualified doctor,
                                          qualified teacher or equivalent) or no (academic or professional) qualifications
  highest level of                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                       Asian or                                            black or
                                                   white                                        mixed                                                                                                                                other ethnic
 qualification at the                                                                                                                                Asian British                                       black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        group

                            all people
    time of the




                                                                                                         white & Asian
                                                                         white & black


                                                                                         white & black
 2001 Census and




                                                                                                                                                                 Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               other ethnic
                                                                                                                              other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                               other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       other black
                                                           other white



                                                                          Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                             Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                     Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chinese
    age (years)




                                                                                           African




                                                                                                                                                                                                             African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 groups
                                         British




                                                                                                                                            Indian
no qualifications                                  Irish
  16 to 24 year olds       22.7           20.6     19.3     17.1         28.1            23.7              24.4                15.6         13.3      30.2        31.4          37.7          12.7             0.0      25.0           9.9     24.1
  25 to 34 year olds       22.1           16.3     19.7     19.4         32.6            20.0              44.2                16.7         15.2      52.3        66.0          50.9           9.6            10.8      15.4          14.9     20.6
  35 to 49 year olds       30.8           26.9     30.5     18.2         31.8            30.0              33.3                19.4         40.8      76.4        82.0          65.8          25.4             7.5      33.3          47.7     34.3
  50 to 59 year olds       48.0           46.8     56.1     36.7         45.0            40.0              62.5                50.0         56.8      83.0        90.0          35.9          54.1              **      25.0          73.5     33.3
  60 to 64 year olds       63.8           62.0     81.6     61.1          100              **              50.0                50.0         66.7      83.0        92.5          61.1          73.6              **       100          80.0        **
  65 to 74 year olds       72.2           71.5     75.6     76.9            **             **               100                78.6         61.3      86.8        91.1          83.3          78.0            50.0         **         85.0      100
 all 16 to 74 year olds    37.7           35.6     51.6     37.3         32.0            25.5              36.0                27.0         34.3      55.3        60.6          53.2          36.9             9.0      27.0          39.6     28.2
level 4/5 qualifications
  16 to 24 year olds        7.7            7.9     17.5      9.9          1.3            15.8               5.6                11.1         17.3       7.0               5.6     4.7           5.5            12.5       0.0          12.3     13.8
  25 to 34 year olds       17.0           17.3     26.9     31.6         12.4            16.0              19.8                25.0         50.2      13.7               7.6    15.2          17.8            48.6      30.8          34.0     38.1
  35 to 49 year olds       15.5           15.8     20.2     33.4          6.4            16.7              17.9                19.4         24.4       8.3               6.2    16.1          12.4            52.8      19.4          15.3     30.0
  50 to 59 year olds       12.7           12.6     14.3     25.2         25.0            30.0                **                50.0         28.8       6.9               3.2    43.6          12.2            45.5      25.0            **     66.7
  60 to 64 year olds        9.8           10.0      6.7     10.0           **              **                **                50.0         23.8       5.4               3.5    22.2           9.2              **        **            **      100
  65 to 74 year olds        8.2            8.1     11.1      6.8           **              **                **                21.4         33.9       4.8               5.1      **           9.2            50.0        **            **        **
  all 16 to 74 year olds   12.9           13.1     15.7     22.3          6.3            17.0              13.2                20.6         28.8       9.0               6.1    15.2          12.1            43.6      18.0          14.0     32.8
total no. of 16 to 74 year
                           152, 131,
olds in each ethnic                     1,695 1,356      491    106     272      126 1,156 8,171 5,416               442     786     133     100     308                                                                                         177
                            598  863
group
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S117. Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.


                                                                                                                         54
Appendix 10. Highest level of qualifications of white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people in Oldham, Greater Manchester,
the North West and England at the time of the 2001 Census. People aged under 50 years with no qualifications, level 2
qualifications and level 4/5 qualifications.

                                        percentage of all people in each combined age group and ethnic group category in each area by
                                                          highest levels of qualification at the time of the 2001 Census
    age                                   white British people                   Pakistani people                   Bangladeshi people
   group            area
                                   no          level 2     level 4/5   no                    level 2     level 4/5   no          level 2     level 4/5
  (years)
                                   qualificat- qualificat- qualificat- qualifica-            qualificat- qualificat- qualificat- qualificat- qualificat-
                                   ions        ions        ions        tions                 ions        ions        ions        ions        ions

              Oldham                     20.6           36.8           7.9            30.2         25.1           7.0           31.4          25.6            5.6
   16 to      Gt Manchester              17.0           33.9          10.1            21.2         28.5          10.3           28.4          26.3            6.9
    24        North West                 17.2           35.5           9.1            23.1         27.8           9.6           27.1          27.0            7.6
              England                    15.9           34.6          10.4            22.6         27.2          11.1           21.5          28.8            9.4

              Oldham                     16.3           24.8          17.3            52.3         10.6          13.7           66.0           7.4            7.6
   25 to      Gt Manchester              13.9           25.2          23.8            36.4         13.6          25.9           56.0           8.8           12.7
    34        North West                 13.4           25.7          22.9            38.6         12.9          23.8           54.7           9.0           13.9
              England                    11.6           24.6          26.0            35.6         12.4          27.7           45.7          10.4           18.9

              Oldham                     26.9           19.9          15.8            76.4          4.2           8.3           82.0            2.8           6.2
   35 to      Gt Manchester              26.0           19.8          19.7            58.3          9.0          15.5           71.1            4.6          12.3
    49        North West                 23.2           21.1          19.8            61.2          8.2          14.1           70.7            4.3          12.3
              England                    20.9           21.0          21.7            54.9          8.7          17.9           67.5            4.8          13.1
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S117. Age and highest level of qualification by ethnic group. Total numbers of people in Oldham aged 16
to 24 years, 25 to 34 years and 35 to 49 years were respectively 17373, 24808 and 39568 for white British people, 2761, 2220 and 2109 for Pakistani people, and
1877, 1746 and 1045 for Bangladeshi people. There were fewer than 500 Pakistani people and 500 Bangladeshi people in each of the older age groups. Level 2
qualifications include five or more 'O' levels, CSEs (grade 1) or GCSEs (grades C and above) or equivalent. Level 4/5 qualifications include first and higher degrees
and professional qualifications (e.g. nurse, dentist, teacher) or equivalent.



                                                                                 55
                                      Appendix 11. Economically active people aged 16 to 74 years in Oldham, 2001

                        percentage of people in each combined age and ethnic group category in Oldham identified as being economically
                         active in the 2001 Census. Total number of people in each combined age and ethnic group category in Oldham.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                          Asian or                                         black or
                                                   white                                            mixed                                                                                                                                other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                        Asian British                                    black British
    sex and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 group
   age group             all people




                                                                                                            white & Asian
                                                                            white & black


                                                                                            white & black




                                                                                                                                                                      Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    other ethnic
                                                                                                                                 other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                    other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           other black
                                                              other white


                                                                             Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Caribbean
    (years)




                                                                                                                                                         Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinese
                                                                                              African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      groups
                                         British




                                                                                                                                               Indian
                                                      Irish
economically
active (%)
males 16 to 24            69.9            73.8       87.0     69.2 69.0                     37.5            57.1                 59.3          56.8      55.1         59.1          72.0          81.8         50.0       54.5           51.3       40.0
         25 to 74         73.0            73.6       63.2     71.9 76.1                     76.9            80.2                 56.1          81.3      69.0         66.2          66.7          65.1         73.6       62.9           80.2       81.2

females 16 to 24          58.3            64.3       75.7     50.8 51.5                     50.0            58.7                 63.2          55.3      37.2         39.4          29.6          66.7           **       40.0           48.9       33.3
        25 to 74          57.6            61.1       48.6     46.3 66.7                     73.2            52.2                 66.7          58.8      14.6          9.7          24.1          66.4         57.1       66.7           60.3       60.0


total numbers
 males 16 to 24       11,333            8,582         23       52            126                  16             42                  27        132      1,352          821           50            33             12          11           39            15
         25 to 74     62,718           55,248        791      533            142                  26             91                  41        448      2,700        1,834          195           392             72          35          101            69

females 16 to 24      11,817            8,791         37       59             97                  16             46                  19        123      1,411        1,056           54            24              9          10           47            18
        25 to 74      66,751           59,242        845      710            129                  41             92                  48        451      2,709        1,706          141           339             49          48          121            80

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** means that the percentage could not be
calculated - it does not mean that there were no economically active black African women aged 16 to 24 years in Oldham. ‘Total number’ is the total number of
economically active and economically inactive people in a combined age and ethnic group category.




                                                                                                                            56
                   Appendix 12. Economically active 16 to 74 year olds in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England
                                                    at the time of the 2001 Census
                       percentage of people in each combined age and ethnic group category in Oldham, Greater Manchester or England
                                                  identified as being economically active in the 2001 Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                      Asian or                                            black or
                                                  white                                        mixed                                                                                                                                other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                    Asian British                                       black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       group

                           all people
      sex and




                                                                                                        white & Asian
                                                                        white & black


                                                                                        white & black
     age (years)




                                                                                                                                                                Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              other ethnic
                                                                                                                             other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                              other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other black
                                                          other white



                                                                         Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                            Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                    Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chinese
                                                                                          African




                                                                                                                                                                                                            African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                groups
                                        British




                                                                                                                                           Indian
males                                             Irish
16 to 24 years
Oldham                    69.9          73.8 87.0         69.2          69.0            37.5            57.1                 59.3          56.8     55.1        59.1          72.0          81.8            50.0      54.5          51.3      40.0
Greater Manchester        66.5          70.6 60.7         38.6          59.6            49.6            48.1                 51.0          43.6     48.2        55.1          40.1          54.9            40.4      57.5          28.0      29.6
England                   68.3          72.1 62.6         49.7          62.7            54.2            50.6                 51.2          50.7     52.6        53.6          46.7          60.1            43.7      56.3          30.1      35.3
25 to 74 years
Oldham                    73.0          73.6 63.2         71.9          76.1            76.9            80.2                 56.1          81.3     69.0        66.2          66.7          65.1            73.6      62.9          80.2      81.2
Greater Manchester        71.8          72.2 57.9         71.1          72.7            66.1            73.6                 70.1          75.7     71.0        67.2          67.5          63.8            67.2      69.2          71.0      65.1
England                   75.2          75.3 66.2         78.5          76.3            75.4            77.5                 75.6          79.8     71.8        68.6          75.2          71.0            77.3      75.9          76.5      72.5
females
16 to 24 years
Oldham                    58.3          64.3 75.7         50.8          51.5            50.0            58.7                 63.2          55.3     37.2        39.4          29.6          66.7              **      40.0          48.9      33.3
Greater Manchester        59.5          63.3 53.1         43.4          55.8            52.5            47.5                 46.7          38.7     36.5        35.7          32.4          55.2            40.1      44.4          32.4      28.9
England                   62.1          65.6 59.0         52.6          56.3            52.2            49.6                 50.0          48.1     36.5        37.9          38.4          56.6            42.8      53.6          32.2      34.1
25 to 74 years
Oldham                    57.6          61.1 48.6         46.3          66.7            73.2            52.2                 66.7          58.8     14.6         9.7          24.1          66.4            57.1      66.7          60.3      60.0
Greater Manchester        57.8          59.3 47.3         55.5          62.1            59.2            59.9                 61.8          47.8     23.2        14.4          39.0          59.9            54.2      59.2          58.4      46.3
England                   59.4          59.9 54.2         61.1          63.0            59.7            62.7                 63.0          59.9     24.9        18.4          53.0          65.2            62.7      65.8          60.9      54.0
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.
                                                                                                                        57
          Appendix 13. Unemployment rates in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England at the time of the 2001 Census
                         percentage of all economically active people in each combined age and ethnic group category in Oldham
                                                   identified as being unemployed in the 2001 Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                      Asian or                                            black or
                                                  white                                        mixed                                                                                                                                other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                    Asian British                                       black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       group
      sex and

                           all people




                                                                                                        white & Asian
                                                                        white & black


                                                                                        white & black
     age (years)




                                                                                                                                                                Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              other ethnic
                                                                                                                             other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                              other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other black
                                                          other white



                                                                         Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                            Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                    Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chinese
                                                                                          African




                                                                                                                                                                                                            African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                groups
                                        British




                                                                                                                                           Indian
                                                  Irish
males
16 to 24 years
Oldham                    13.7          12.0 15.0                **     20.7              **            12.5                 37.5           9.7     22.4        20.0          38.9          29.2              **        **          15.0        **
Greater Manchester        12.1          11.6 12.0               8.0     27.6            21.5            15.1                 21.1           9.9     17.7        19.0          18.1          26.4            11.2      28.6           7.5      16.3
England                   10.5           9.8 10.4               9.3     23.1            17.8            13.7                 13.7          10.3     19.2        17.2          11.9          26.3            15.8      26.1           6.5      15.6
25 to 74 years
Oldham                     5.7              4.7     7.0         7.3     13.0              **                    3.9                 **        6.0   13.7        20.5          14.3          11.4             7.5      13.6              4.8    5.4
Greater Manchester         5.6              5.1     7.1         6.2     13.0            16.8                    8.0                8.9        6.3   11.2        15.9          11.5          15.6            15.7      17.8              6.4   13.7
England                    5.0              4.5     6.3         5.9     12.4            12.6                    8.2                9.6        5.5   12.2        15.8           8.4          13.2            14.1      16.4              5.3    9.6

females
16 to 24 years
Oldham                     9.4              7.9 16.0      10.0          20.0              **            11.1                 33.3             5.9   16.8        19.0          18.8            **              **        **          13.0        **
Greater Manchester         7.6              7.1 7.6        8.2          17.4            12.7            11.5                  9.2             8.4   15.0        18.1          10.0          12.0            14.7      18.5           2.2      12.8
England                    6.8              6.3 6.4        6.3          14.4            11.3             8.7                  9.2             7.9   16.8        15.8           9.6          13.2            11.4      15.6           4.7       8.4
25 to 74 years
Oldham                     3.4              3.1     5.1         4.9     12.8              **            11.1                        **        3.4   16.2        24.7          14.7               6.7          **      10.3              4.1   14.6
Greater Manchester         3.5              3.2     3.8         5.6     10.4            10.0             6.9                       9.7        5.9   14.0        17.7           9.8               7.1        10.6      11.4              6.6   10.2
England                    3.6              3.2     3.7         5.2      9.1             9.4             5.7                       7.0        5.8   13.5        17.3           8.0               7.1        12.3      10.2              5.5    7.2
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.

                                                                                                                        58
                                                    Appendix 14. Students in Oldham at the time of the 2001 Census

                                                                                                              percentage of specified population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                             Asian or                                             black or
                                                      white                                           mixed                                                                                                                                   other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                           Asian British                                        black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 group



                             all people
      population




                                                                                                               white & Asian
                                                                              white & black


                                                                                              white & black
   (sex and age in




                                                                                                                                                                        Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         other ethnic
                                                                                                                                    other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                      other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                other black
                                                                other white


                                                                               Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                    Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                            Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Chinese
        years)




                                                                                                African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           groups
                                          British




                                                                                                                                                  Indian
                                                        Irish
students as % of
all 16-74                    6.1           5.0          1.8      4.4          19.8            18.2             13.3                 19.0          15.0     15.9         14.4          12.1           3.8            18.2       13.0           19.2       18.0
all 16-24                   35.6          33.1         36.8     39.6          38.6            43.9             37.5                 52.5          63.1     44.1         38.9          38.3          35.2            60.0       44.4           65.1       85.7
all 25-74                    0.8           0.7          0.6      1.2           4.4              **              1.6                  3.5           1.6      1.5          1.4           3.8           1.5             7.6        5.4            1.4        8.2
males 16-74                  6.0           4.6          1.5      3.9          18.5            15.6             15.4                 21.5          16.4     18.4         16.3          12.0           3.3            11.1       13.5           20.7       20.8
males 16-24                 36.2          31.5         34.6     38.5          35.0            36.8             42.9                 51.9          68.2     51.9         50.3          37.7          30.3            66.7       62.5           74.4        100
males 25-74                  0.6           0.5          0.4      0.6           4.2              **              3.2                   **           1.6      1.7          1.0           5.1           1.0             4.2         **            **0       13.6
females 16-74                6.1           5.3          2.1      4.7          21.4            20.4             11.1                 16.4          13.6     13.4         12.6          12.3           4.4            26.9       12.7           17.9       15.8
females 16-24               35.0          34.6         38.7     40.7          43.0            50.0             32.6                 53.8          57.7     36.6         30.0          38.9          42.9            57.1       30.0           57.4       80.0
females 25-74                1.0           0.9          0.7      1.7           4.7              **               **                  6.3           1.6      1.4          1.9           2.1           2.1            13.0        8.9            2.5        3.8
economically
inactive students as
% of all
16-74 students              64.9          63.0         40.0     78.0          63.3            83.3             69.4                 62.5          62.4     71.5         68.1          70.4          46.7            77.8        100           72.9       63.3
16-24 students              65.5          63.3         42.9     79.5          65.1            83.3             66.7                 71.4          63.5     72.8         68.8          75.6          57.9            66.7        100           71.4       83.3
male 16-74 students         66.0          64.8         25.0     82.6          61.2             100             81.0                 78.6          63.2     70.5         66.0          70.0          42.9            66.7        100           65.5       66.7
male 16-24 students         67.3          65.8         33.3     80.0          62.8             100             77.8                 78.6          64.8     72.3         68.0          70.0          60.0            50.0        100           65.5        100
female 16-74 students       63.8          61.5         50.0     75.0          65.3            72.7             53.3                 40.0          61.5     72.9         70.8          70.8          50.0            83.3        100           80.0       60.0
female 16-24 students       63.7          61.0         50.0     79.2          67.4            72.7             53.3                 57.1          62.0     73.4         69.7          81.0          55.6            75.0        100           77.8       75.0
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.



                                                                                                                               59
                       Appendix 15. Economically inactive 16 to 74 year olds who look after the home or family:
                                            Oldham, Greater Manchester and England, 2001
                        percentage of people in each combined age and ethnic group category in Oldham, Greater Manchester or England
                                                identified as looking after the home or family in the 2001 Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                              Asian or                                                  black or
                                                   white                                           mixed                                                                                                                                              other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                            Asian British                                             black British
        sex,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             group

                          all people
  age (years) and




                                                                                                            white & Asian
                                                                            white & black


                                                                                            white & black




                                                                                                                                                                          Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  other ethnic
                                                                                                                                 other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                          other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other black
                                                            other white



                                                                             Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Caribbean
       area




                                                                                                                                                            Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chinese
                                                                                              African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    groups
                                       British




                                                                                                                                                 Indian
males                                              Irish
16 to 24 years
Oldham                      0.5              0.4       **              **         **              **                    **                  **         **           0.8             0.7              **            **            **              **          **        **
Greater Manchester          0.3              0.3      0.4             0.6         **             0.8                   0.4                  **        0.2           0.6             0.7              **           0.4           0.3             1.1         0.2        **
England                     0.3              0.3      0.4             0.5        0.7             0.5                   0.3                 0.4        0.2           0.6             0.6             0.4           0.5           0.3             0.3         0.1       0.4
25 to 74 years
Oldham                      1.4              1.1      1.3             1.5        2.1              **                    **                 7.9        0.7           3.9             6.1             5.6           2.6            **             8.6         3.0       4.5
Greater Manchester          1.3              1.1      1.4             1.4        2.2             2.0                   1.7                 2.0        1.7           2.8             5.1             2.7           1.6           2.3             1.8         2.0       2.1
England                     1.0              0.9      1.0             1.4        1.7             1.9                   1.6                 1.8        1.2           2.9             4.3             2.0           1.3           1.7             1.6         1.4       2.3
females
16 to 24 years
Oldham                   12.3                9.1      8.1             8.5     14.4                **            10.9                 15.8             4.9      23.0           26.2            24.1                 **            **       30.0               **    16.7
Greater Manchester        8.6                8.0      5.4             5.3     11.1               8.1             7.9                  6.7             9.4      17.0           25.2            12.4                5.8           6.7        8.2              2.2    12.6
England                   7.2                6.9      5.5             5.1     10.0               7.6             4.8                  5.3             6.1      19.3           21.6             8.3                6.3           4.5        6.7              1.3     6.4
25 to 74 years
Oldham                   11.6     8.7     6.2    7.6    18.6                                 12.2   22.8     8.3   11.8      50.9     54.0    36.9     4.4     8.2     6.3     15.7                                                                                27.5
Greater Manchester       11.4   10.1      8.5   12.2    16.3                                 18.6   17.7    16.1   24.6      44.3     52.4    28.3     6.9    14.4    14.1     14.8                                                                                26.5
England                  12.8   12.0      9.9   16.1    16.9                                 17.6   15.9    16.0   16.3      44.0     49.8    21.1     8.1    14.3    12.5     17.0                                                                                24.8
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex                              and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.

                                                                                                                            60
                     Appendix 16. Economically inactive 25 to 74 year olds who are permanently sick or disabled:
                                         Oldham, Greater Manchester and England, 2001

                                        percentage of all 25 to 74 year olds in each ethnic group identified as being permanently sick or disabled in
                                                                          Oldham, Greater Manchester or England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chinese or
                                                                                                                                                                 Asian or                                                black or
                                                       white                                          mixed                                                                                                                                            other ethnic
                                                                                                                                                               Asian British                                           black British
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          group
      sex and
                           all people




                                                                                                               white & Asian
                                                                               white & black


                                                                                               white & black
        area




                                                                                                                                                                           Bangladeshi




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   other ethnic
                                                                                                                                    other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                           other Asian




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       other black
                                                               other white



                                                                                Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                               Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chinese
                                                                                                 African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     groups
                                           British




                                                                                                                                                    Indian
                                                       Irish

males
Oldham                     9.6                9.4      13.9              8.4     14.1              **                     9.6                 7.3        7.1      12.3          9.9                  9.7      13.0               4.2       11.4              5.0       4.3
Greater Manchester        10.2               10.1      16.3              6.6     11.9            11.9                     9.1                 7.2        9.5      11.3         10.0                  7.1      11.8               4.5       11.4              2.7       3.4
England                    6.7                6.8      10.8              4.1      8.2             7.0                     5.9                 6.3        5.9       9.2          8.2                  5.4       7.4               3.7        7.1              2.3       4.2

females
Oldham                       8.1                 7.9   11.8              7.0        7.0              **            13.0                       6.3     12.6        10.4               8.1             9.2           4.1       10.2                6.3         3.3        **
Greater Manchester           8.0                 8.0   11.3              5.4        9.1             7.4             8.6                       5.7      8.8         9.1               7.7             7.1           8.0        5.0                6.4         2.9       3.3
England                      5.4                 5.4    7.1              3.2        5.9             5.6             4.8                       4.8      6.7         8.0               6.1             5.6           6.0        3.9                5.6         1.9       2.5

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table. S108 Sex and age and economic activity by ethnic group. ** percentages could not be calculated.




                                                                                                                               61
                         Appendix 17. Response to religion question in the 2001 Census in Oldham and England
                                         percentage of the population in each ethnic group in Oldham or England by their response to religion question
                                                                                      in the 2001 Census
                     all people                                                                                                               Chinese or
                     in religion             white                     mixed                 Asian or Asian British  black or black British other ethnic
area and response
                     response                                                                                                                   group
to religion question
                      category




                                                                                                other mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                         other ethnic
                                                                                                                                             other Asian
                                                      other white




                                                                                                                                                                                 other black
  in 2001 Census




                                                                    Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                           Caribbean
                                                                    white and


                                                                    white and



                                                                                   white and




                                                                                                                       Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                               Chinese
                       in area




                                                                                                                                   Bangla-
                                                                     African




                                                                                                                                                                       African




                                                                                                                                                                                                           groups
                                    British




                                                                                                              Indian
                                                                                    Asian




                                                                                                                                    deshi
                                                                      black


                                                                      black
                                              Irish
                      (number)


people in Oldham
Christian               157,793     82.9      88.6    77.4           72.9   62.4    33.8        58.0           3.1      0.4          0.0      1.9          74.3        72.8      77.2          12.5        29.0
Muslim                   24,039      0.2       0.5     2.7            0.5    3.7    35.1        10.8           9.1     94.6         96.4     87.7           0.4        10.3       9.8            **        31.0
no religion              19,375      9.9       3.4     9.7           18.8   20.6    18.1        16.0           1.5      0.2          0.1      1.0          11.5         2.2       3.3          61.3         9.0
religion not stated      14,068      6.7       7.3     9.2            7.8   11.6    11.0        13.9           3.0      4.7          2.9      4.9          13.3        10.9       7.3          10.5        12.9
Hindu                     1,330      0.0        **     0.2             **     **     0.6         1.4          80.1       **          0.4      2.4            **          **        **            **          **
any other religion          266      0.1       0.2     0.3             **    1.6     0.4          **           0.2      0.0           **       **           0.4         2.2        **            **          **
Buddhist                    240      0.1        **     0.3             **     **     0.4          **            **       **          0.0      2.1            **          **        **          15.7        16.7
Jewish                       93      0.0        **     0.3             **     **      **          **            **      0.1          0.0       **            **          **       2.4            **          **
Sikh                         75      0.0        **      **             **     **     0.4          **           3.0      0.0          0.0       **            **         1.6        **            **         1.4

people in England
Christian             35,251,244    76.1      85.5    62.5           60.8   56.5    43.9        48.3           4.8      1.1          0.5     13.4          73.8        69.1      66.7          21.6        33.0
no religion           7,171,332     15.2       6.3    15.8           25.4   17.8    24.0        21.7           1.7      0.5          0.4      3.4          11.2         2.3      12.1          52.5        14.1
religion not stated   3,776,515      7.6       7.4     9.4           12.5   10.9    10.8        11.2           4.6      6.2          5.8      6.8          13.0         8.1      13.9           9.7         7.5
Muslim                1,524,887      0.1       0.1     8.8            0.6   13.3    16.1        14.1          12.7     92.1         92.5     37.2           0.8        19.9       5.9           0.3        25.6
Hindu                   546,982      0.0       0.0     0.1            0.1    0.2     1.9         1.2          44.9      0.1          0.6     26.9           0.3         0.2       0.4           0.1         1.4
Sikh                    327,343      0.0       0.0     0.0            0.0    0.0     1.1         0.4          29.1      0.0          0.0      6.3           0.0         0.1       0.1           0.0         1.0
Jewish                  257,671      0.5       0.2     2.4            0.2    0.2     0.4         1.1           0.1      0.0          0.0      0.3           0.1         0.0       0.1           0.0         1.1
Any other religion      143,811      0.2       0.3     0.6            0.4    0.4     0.7         0.9           1.8      0.0          0.0      0.9           0.6         0.2       0.6           0.5         0.9
Buddhist                139,046      0.1       0.2     0.3            0.2    0.6     1.0         1.2           0.2      0.0          0.1      4.8           0.2         0.1       0.2          15.1        15.5
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S104 Ethnic group by religion. Data released February 2004. There is a separate table for each
geographical area. Note: ** indicates that the entry in Standard Table S104 was ‘-’, which does not mean that there was nobody with these combined characteristics.
Caution is needed when interpreting ‘small numbers’ in Standard Table S104.
                                                                                           62
            Appendix 18. Tenure and people living in communal establishments by ethnic group in Oldham and England
                                              percentage of the population in each ethnic group in Oldham or England living in communal establishments
                  all people                                                              and by their tenure
                       in                                                                                                                        Chinese or
                  establish-                    white                     mixed                 Asian or Asian British    black or black British other ethnic
 area, tenure and
                   ment or                                                                                                                          group
type of communal
                    tenure
  establishment




                                                          other white




                                                                                                                                                                                        other black
                                                                        Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                  Caribbean
                                                                        white and


                                                                                    white and



                                                                                                white and




                                                                                                                                   Pakistani
                  category




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Chinese
                                                                                                                                               Bangla-
                                                                                     African




                                                                                                                                                                              African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     groups
                                    British




                                                                                                                          Indian
                                                                                                                 mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ethnic
                                                                                                 Asian




                                                                                                                                                         Asian
                                                                                                                                                deshi
                                                                          black


                                                                                      black




                                                                                                                 other




                                                                                                                                                         other




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other
                                                  Irish
                   in area
                  (number)

tenure:
people in Oldham
owned               154,946         72.6          64.4    70.8            40.4        48.7       48.7            55.7     83.3     72.1         54.2      65.3    53.8        52.7      52.5               80.4       54.8
social rented        43,518         19.6          26.6    17.9            44.6        35.3       33.2            30.9      8.1     14.3         30.7      17.1    39.2        21.4      39.3                8.1       18.1
private rented       12,979          5.2           5.6     7.5            11.2        13.4       12.8            12.0      5.6     10.4         11.3      12.9     4.2        10.4       6.6                7.6       20.0
living rent free      4,042          1.6           2.3     2.5             2.8         2.7        5.0             1.4      2.4      3.1          3.8       4.7     1.9        15.9       2.5                3.4        5.2
people in England
owned             34,362,927        71.9          63.6    51.2            41.2        40.1       62.5            53.6     79.5     70.9         37.5      60.1    49.7        26.0      36.9               58.9       39.5
social rented     8,648,718         16.9          21.2    12.7            44.4        35.8       18.7            24.7      7.7     14.5         49.1      15.5    40.6        50.3      50.1               12.0       20.2
private rented    4,419,320          8.0          10.8    28.7            10.3        18.6       14.0            16.3      9.9     11.5          9.9      18.6     6.8        17.6       8.8               17.7       29.8
living rent free    817,185          1.5           1.9     3.1             2.4         2.8        2.4             2.7      1.4      2.4          2.9       3.2     1.2         3.6       2.3                2.7        4.3

people in
communal
establishments:
people in Oldham
medical & care            1,686        0.9          1.1        1.3          0.9           **        0.4              **      0.6       0.0        0.0        **       0.4        1.6                  **      0.7        **
other types                 102        0.1           **         **           **           **         **              **       **       0.0         **        **       0.3         **                  **       **        **
people in England
medical & care          423,870        0.9          1.2        0.6          0.4         0.4         0.3            0.4       0.3       0.1        0.1      0.3        0.6        0.4         0.4              0.3       1.0
other types             466,811        0.8          1.4        3.7          1.3         2.3         2.1            2.3       1.1       0.6        0.5      2.3        1.0        2.2         1.5              8.4       5.2
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table T13 Ethnicity – England and Wales. Data released February 2004. There is a separate table for each
geographical area. Note: ** indicates that the entry in T13 was ‘-’, which does not mean that there was nobody with these combined characteristics. Caution is
needed when interpreting 'small numbers' in T13. ‘Owned’ is ‘owned outright’, ‘buying with a mortgage’ and ‘shared ownership’.

                                                                                                            63
  Appendix 19. One-person households and households with multiple ethnic
identities in Oldham, Greater Manchester, England and wards in Oldham, 2001

                                                percentage of all households in area
                                                   all
                   number of                   household      different                        other
                    house-                                                    different
     area                           one        members       identities                    combination
                                                                             identities
                    holds in      person        have the     between                        of multiple
                                                                               within
                     area        household       same       generations                       ethnic
                                                                            partnerships
                                                 ethnic         only                          groups
                                                 group
Oldham                87,824        29.5         65.1            2.0            2.7            0.8
Greater
Manchester
                   1,040,231        32.0         62.1            1.7            3.2            1.0

England             20,451,427      30.1         63.4            1.6            3.7            1.2
Oldham
wards
Alexandra              4,023        30.6         62.2            3.5            2.4            1.3
Chadderton C           4,486        29.4         65.8            1.5            2.7            0.6
Chadderton N           4,285        27.2         68.1            1.3            2.8            0.5
Chadderton S           4,177        29.0         66.4            1.8            2.4            0.5
Coldhurst              4,090        38.6         51.5            4.4            3.3            2.2
Crompton               4,621        25.4         71.1            0.8            2.3            0.5
Failsworth E           4,526        29.1         66.9            1.1            2.5            0.4
Failsworth W           4,181        28.2         67.3            1.7            2.3            0.5
Hollinwood             3,992        30.2         64.3            2.1            2.7            0.7
Lees                   4,444        32.4         62.4            2.2            2.4            0.5
Royton N               4,354        25.7         70.3            0.9            2.5            0.5
Royton S               4,409        28.4         67.5            1.0            2.7            0.3
Saddleworth E          5,486        25.4         70.9            0.5            2.9            0.3
Saddleworth            4,689        25.5         70.9            0.8            2.4            0.4
St. James'             4,053        31.3         63.8            1.4            2.9            0.7
St. Mary's             3,973        30.1         61.1            4.2            3.0            1.6
St. Paul's             4,317        35.2         58.7            2.4            2.8            0.9
Shaw                   4,448        28.1         68.2            1.2            2.2            0.4
Waterhead              5,498        31.7         63.7            1.9            2.3            0.4
Werneth                3,772        30.7         55.9            6.2            4.0            3.3

Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Univariate Table. UV69 Multiple ethnic groups. Downloaded
from Neighbourhood Statistics. Here the 'same ethnic group' means within the same group shown in
the Census classification. ‘C’ is Central, ‘N’ is North, ‘S’ is South, ‘E’ is East and ‘W’ is West. The
wards listed in the table are the wards existing at the time of the 2001 Census.




                                                  64
Appendix 20. Households classified by ethnic group of Household Reference Person (HRP): One-person households, one
person pensioner households and lone parent households in Oldham, Greater Manchester and England
                                    percentage of all households classified by ethnic group in household reference person (HRP) Oldham, Greater Manchester or
                                                           England made up of one-person households and lone parent households, and
                                                                 the percentage of one-person households made up of pensioners
                          all                                                                                                                      Chinese or
                     households           white                        mixed                     Asian or Asian British     black or black British other ethnic
 type of household
                     in category                                                                                                                      group
     and area
                       in area




                                                      other white




                                                                                                                                                                                  other black
                                                                    Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                            Caribbean
                                                                    white and


                                                                                white and



                                                                                            white and




                                                                                                                              Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                Chinese
                      (number)




                                                                                                                                          Bangla-
                                                                                 African




                                                                                                                                                                        African




                                                                                                                                                                                                          groups
                                    British




                                                                                                                     Indian
                                                                                                             mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                          ethnic
                                                                                             Asian




                                                                                                                                                    Asian
                                                                                                                                           deshi
                                                                      black


                                                                                  black




                                                                                                             other




                                                                                                                                                    other




                                                                                                                                                                                                           other
                                              Irish
     one-person
     households
as % of all
households in
Oldham                    25,919     30.8     37.0     38.8    28.1     38.6    27.3    23.7     9.8      7.9    5.7      8.0    41.5   37.8    40.8    22.3   14.5
Gt Manchester           333,150      32.4     39.4     35.0    33.2     34.2    32.9    33.4    15.4    10.6     7.2     19.4    44.5   39.7    42.3    26.8   24.1
England               6,150,264      30.4     37.6     28.1    31.0     29.8    29.7    30.7    15.4    11.9     8.8     18.3    38.0   30.1    34.2    28.0   23.6
pensioners as % of
all one-person
households in
Oldham                    12,906     50.6     48.5     67.6     5.9        **    8.3    21.4    24.4    18.2    17.3     31.3    28.9   17.6    15.0    31.0      **
Gt Manchester           154,490      47.6     50.0     41.2    10.6     12.7    12.4    15.5    21.7    18.6    18.3     18.1    29.3   12.8    14.7    20.6    9.0
England               2,939,465      50.0     47.5     30.2    15.7     12.8    19.8    19.1    24.5    21.3    19.2     20.7    25.3    9.1    13.7    15.8   12.2
     lone parent
     households
as % of all
households in
Oldham                    10,126     11.5     10.0     11.8    29.3     25.0    19.7    16.9     5.2    10.2    10.2     11.4    18.4   11.1    16.3    11.5   11.8
Gt Manchester           119,920      11.5     11.4      9.1    28.6     24.3    14.6    17.7     7.0    10.8    10.8      9.0    20.2   14.4    25.7     9.3    8.8
England               1,934,878       9.1       9.9     7.7    26.8     20.0    12.3    14.3     8.1    11.1    11.0      8.8    23.5   19.9    27.8     8.5   10.6
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S106. Household composition by ethnic group of Household Reference Person (HRP). Data released
February 2004. There is a separate table for each geographical area. Note: ** indicates that the entry in S106 was ‘-’, which does not mean that there was nobody
with these combined characteristics. ‘Gt’ is Greater. Reading this table: in Oldham, there were 25,919 one-person households and 12,906 one-pensioner
households (representing 50.6% of all white British one-person households); and 5.2% of all households with an Indian HRP were lone parent families.

                                                                                                        65
                      Appendix 21. Households classified by ethnic group of Household Reference Person (HRP):
                                  All households with no, one, or two and more dependent children
                                percentage of all households classified by ethnic group of the Household Reference Person (HRP) in
                                   Oldham, Greater Manchester or England by the number of dependent children in the household
    number of            all                                                                                                                                                                           Chinese or
    dependent       households               white                                   mixed                                    Asian or Asian British              black or black British               other ethnic
    children in     in category                                                                                                                                                                           group
  household and       in area




                                                      other white




                                                                                                                                                                                         other black
                                                                    Caribbean




                                                                                                                                                                   Caribbean
                                                                    white and


                                                                                white and



                                                                                            white and




                                                                                                                                    Pakistani




                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chinese
                                                                                                                                                Bangla-
                                                                                 African




                                                                                                                                                                               African




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  groups
                     (number)


                                   British




                                                                                                                     Indian
                                                                                                             mixed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ethnic
                                                                                             Asian




                                                                                                                                                          Asian
                                                                                                                                                 deshi
       area




                                                                      black


                                                                                  black




                                                                                                             other




                                                                                                                                                          other




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   other
                                              Irish
no dependent
children
Oldham                  59,561    69.0        79.9    78.6            42.6        59.1       51.5            62.7    43.1          24.0          16.2      26.4    67.3        62.2      59.2          49.2        46.1
Gt Manchester          719,387    70.3        80.5    74.1            51.6        55.8       60.6            61.3    48.6          30.4          21.2      45.1    68.3        61.4      57.7          60.0        52.9
England              14,428,676   71.8        79.5    70.4            53.0        56.0       63.7            62.3    49.9          33.7          25.5      50.6    62.9        52.1      52.9          63.5        56.5

one dependent
child
Oldham                  12,942    14.5          9.9   10.0            28.9        18.2       13.6            20.3    23.5          19.3          19.0      17.4    15.2        13.3      20.4          20.0        15.8
Gt Manchester          139,551    13.3          9.1   11.6            24.3        19.7       15.5            16.4    18.3          18.5          18.3      16.8    15.3        14.0      20.2          18.1        16.5
England               2,517,406   11.9          9.3   13.0            22.2        19.6       15.5            17.2    19.2          17.9          18.0      18.5    18.6        18.4      22.2          16.4        18.0

two or more
dependent
children
Oldham                  15,342    16.5        10.3    11.3            28.5        22.7       34.8            16.9    33.3          56.7          64.8      56.2    17.5        24.4      20.4          30.8        38.2
Gt Manchester          181,293    16.5        10.3    14.3            24.1        24.4       23.9            22.3    33.2          51.1          60.5      38.1    16.4        24.6      22.1          21.9        30.5
England               3,505,345   16.3        11.2    16.6            24.8        24.4       20.8            20.5    30.9          48.3          56.5      30.9    18.5        29.5      24.9          20.2        25.5
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Standard Table S106. Household composition by ethnic group of Household Reference Person (HRP). Data released
February 2004. There is a separate table for each geographical area. Note: ‘Gt’ is Greater. Reading this table: Oldham had around 59,561 households with no
dependent children and 15,342 households with two or more dependent children; 79.9% of households with an Irish HRP had no dependent children while 64.8% of
households with a Bangladeshi HRP had two or more dependent children.


                                                                                                        66
      Appendix 22. Dependent children in Greater Manchester and England
                           by ethnic group, 2001

                            percentage of all dependent children within each ethnic group
                                   in either Greater Manchester (M) or England (E)
category
                              white         Asian       mixed        black        other
                            M      E      M      E     M     E      M     E     M      E
family type
lone parent               27.7       21.9 13.7 13.9 48.9 40.6 54.2 51.7 18.9 18.2
   female parent          25.4       19.9 12.2 12.1 46.1 38.4 51.3 48.8 15.9 15.7
married couple            57.9       65.5 81.7 82.0 36.9 46.3 34.4 36.4 75.6 76.6
   step family             6.2        6.4  5.8  5.0  4.6  5.0  5.3  5.3  4.0  4.4
cohabiting couple         13.4       11.8  2.6  2.3 12.1 11.2  6.2  8.0  3.2  3.2
   step family             5.8        5.2  1.3  1.2  4.9  4.3  2.9  3.5  1.1  1.3
not in a family            1.1        0.9  2.0  1.8  2.1  1.9  5.2  3.9  2.3  2.0
country of birth
born in the UK            98.9 97.8 88.9 88.7 94.8 92.4 74.8 78.1 68.5 65.0
born outside the
                             1.1         2.2 11.1 11.3                5.2      7.6 25.2 21.9 31.5 35.0
UK
child has a LLTI             4.5         4.3       4.6      4.3       5.3      4.9       4.5     4.8       2.8     3.0
child provides at
least one hour of
                             1.3         1.2       2.6      2.4       1.2      1.2       1.4     1.3       1.4     1.4
unpaid care per
week
household
has no employed
                          19.8 15.8 29.1 24.1 36.7 29.9 42.6 34.8 28.4 24.7
adult
is overcrowded            10.2           9.2 36.8 35.7 15.2 18.7 25.3 43.1 31.6 32.5
has no central
                             5.3         5.6 10.4 10.6                4.8      6.0       3.4     4.9       5.3     5.2
heating
lives in a
                             2.3         5.9       4.6 14.4           5.7 19.3           9.0 43.9 12.0 26.3
flat/maisonette
has no access to
                          21.7 14.9 22.5 19.8 35.8 29.3 40.7 39.1 17.7 18.5
cars or vans
tenure
owned                     65.9 69.4 67.1 67.5 44.1 50.7 29.8 30.4 55.8 51.4
social rented             25.3 21.4 18.6 20.1 40.0 35.9 54.7 56.9 18.4 23.1
private rented             6.9  7.6 11.7 10.1 13.1 10.7 11.0  9.5 21.3 21.1
lives rent free            1.9  1.6  2.6  2.3  2.9  2.6  4.5  3.2  4.4  4.4
total number of
                                     9,498,759
                           502,038




                                                 53,697

                                                          741,948

                                                                    18,508

                                                                             347,932

                                                                                       7,329

                                                                                               327,326

                                                                                                         4,598

                                                                                                                 90,737




dependent children
in each ethnic
group
Source: 2001 Census. Crown Copyright. Theme Table T12. Ethnicity of all dependent children in
households. ’A dependent child is a person in a household aged0 to 15 (whether or not in a family) or
a person aged 16 to 18 years who is a full-time student in a family with parent(s)’ (National Statistics).




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