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					By Ray Bradbury
 "You don't have to burn
books to destroy a culture.
 Just get people to stop
     reading them.“
       Ray BRADBURY
Fahrenheit 451

The temperature at which book paper
       catches fire and burns…
Ray Bradbury                         Who?
   Born in Waukegan, Illinois, on August 22, 1920.
   His family moved frequently when he was
    young, but they finally settled in Los Angeles
    (1934).
   As a young boy, Bradbury was interested in
    magic and had aspirations of becoming a
    magician. This interest in magic later turned into
    a love for writing.
   Began writing stories at age eleven. He received
    no formal education beyond high school (1938).
         His Work
   Weird Tales, a famous pulp science fiction
    (1940).
   The Martian Chronicles, launched his writing
    career (1950).
   Most famous to date is Fahrenheit 451 (1953)
   Pub. over 500 short stories, novels, plays,
    and poems in his career
       His Work…

   wrote for Alfred Hitchcock Presents & The
    Twilight Zone, & the screenplay for John
    Huston‟s Moby Dick
   helped design Spaceship Earth ride for
    Disney World‟s EPCOT Center
      Bradbury’s
     Writing Style
   science fiction writer
   fiction based on: scientific discoveries, space
    travel, time travel, alien existence or great
    environmental changes
   often deals with the future lives of humans and
    events that did not happen or have not
    happened yet.
   often takes into consideration how these events
    may have consequences on the human race
    The Beginning

   It began as story about a fireman, GUY
    MONTAG in a short story “The Fireman”
   1953 expanded into the novel
   Classified as science fiction
   But it is SO MUCH MORE
   A criticism


 Personal



 Public
              Personal
             Criticism

   To protest what Bradbury believed to be
    the invasiveness of editors

   Editors had strict control of books printed

   Bradbury felt it impaired originality and
    creativity of writers
    Creativity is inventing,
experimenting, growing, taking
 risks, breaking rules, making
   mistakes, and having fun.
                    Mary Lou Cook
                Social
            Criticism
   Warns against the danger of suppressing
    thought through censorship

   Oppressive government, left unchecked,
    can do irreparable damage to a society by
    limiting creativity of its people

   “dystopia” – order and harmony at the
    expense of individual rights
“If they give you ruled
 paper, write the other
          way.”
   Juan Ramon Jimenez
       Themes

Themes are the fundamental and
 often universal ideas explored in
          a literary work
    Fahrenheit 451
                   Themes
   Knowledge versus Ignorance
    •   Destroy knowledge to promote ignorance
    •   Search for knowledge destroys ignorance
   Conformity versus Individuality
    •   Conforming to the norms of our society
         •   What are the norms of our society?
         •   Does it endanger society‟s well-being?
         •   Does it help our society?
   Censorship…
            Censorship
   A person authorized to examine books, films, or
    other material & to remove or suppress what is
    considered morally, politically, or otherwise
    objectionable.

   An official, as in the armed forces, who
    examines personal mail and official dispatches to
    remove information considered secret or a risk
    to security.

   One that condemns or censures.
Time of the novel
                   censorship


   Fahrenheit 451 released in 1953
   Senator Joseph McCarthy
       Leading witch hunt to find suspected
        Communist sympathizers in gov‟t, writers,
        moviemakers, and performers
       Most findings unfounded
       Ruined careers of many people because of
        link with Communism
       “The Crucible” by Arthur Miller
McCarthyism




                 Red Channels; A 1950
                  publication
                  documenting
                  "Communist influence
                  in radio and television"
Herblock coined the
 term "McCarthyism"
 in this cartoon in
 the March 29, 1950
 Washington Post
          A Few of the
             Accused
   Leonard Bernstein, composer & conductor
   Charlie Chaplin, actor
   Bartley Crum, attorney
   W.E.B. DuBois, civil rights activist & author
   Langston Hughes, author
   Arthur Miller, playwright and essayist
   Clifford Odets, author
   J. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, "father of the
    atomic bomb“
       More Accused

   Paul Robeson, actor, athlete, singer, author, political &
    civil rights activist
   Edward G. Robinson, actor
   Waldo Salt, author
   Pete Seeger, folk singer
   Artie Shaw, jazz musician
   Howard Da Silva, actor
   Paul Sweezy, economist & founder-editor of Monthly
    Review
   Tsien Hsue-shen, physicist
   Orson Welles, actor, author & director
Let us Travel
   back in
  history…
  to censorship
The great eventful Present hides the
   Past;
but through the din of its loud life,
hints and echoes from the life behind,
  steal in.

        ~John Greenleaf Whittier
People are trapped in history,
 and history is trapped in
 them.
        ~James Baldwin, Notes of a
                    Native Son
In "The Book of
  Abraham",
  "written by
  Himself",
  published in
  Boston - for
  the purchaser-
  in 1846, the
  following
  woodcut is
  used as a
  frontispiece
Europe had a solution for the menacing spread of
knowledge as depicted in the engravings below:
  . . A 16th century wood block by Jost Amman
 Burned at the stake
Ridley & Latimer: October 16, 1555
Latimer, who lived and died unmarried, eased out of this
  world. But it was not so with his friend Nicholas
  Ridley. The [wood] being piled too high, he screamed
  for his bystanders to pull off some of the wood.
  Misunderstanding him, his brother-in-law, added more
  sticks to the fire. The fire "burned clean all his nether
  parts, before it once touched the upper; and that made
  him often desire them to let the fire come unto him". He
  exclaimed, „I cannot burn!‟. When he turned to his
  watchers, they saw a ghastly sight. "After his legs were
  consumed he showed that side towards us clean, shirt
  and all untouched with flame". Finally, a bystander
  pulled the [wood] from the fire, and the fire flamed to
  his face, igniting the gunpowder. And he stirred no
  more. And as hundreds of bystanders looked on at these
  two motionless bodies, all that could be heard was
  weeping.
    NEW YORK
        v.
JOHN PETER ZENGER
      (1735)


             •“the freshest advises,
             foreign and domestic”
             •1st pub. 1733
             •Zenger criticized the
             government
             •Related news about the
             colonies
    "The greater the truth, the greater
                the libel."
   John Peter Zenger was arrested and charged with
    seditious libel -- an English law prohibiting the publishing
    of statements intended to bring into contempt or excite
    dissatisfaction against the government.

   Any published criticism of the government, even if true

   The problem confronting Zenger was that the truth was
    no defense to libel at that time

   Andrew Hamilton was Peter‟s lawyer
      Hamilton
      said to the court…




“Men who injure and oppress the people
 under their administration provoke them
 to cry out and complain; and then make
 that very complaint the foundation for
 new oppressions and prosecutions. “
“by an impartial and uncorrupt verdict, have
  laid a noble foundation for securing to
  ourselves, our posterity, and our
  neighbors that to which nature and the
  laws of our country have given us a right -
  - and liberty -- both of exposing and
  opposing arbitrary power ... by speaking
  and writing truth....”
Despite clear instructions from
  the judge to the contrary,
  the jury found Zenger
  innocent of all charges.




This case was instrumental in
  establishing the framework
  for the American concept,
  Freedom of the Press.
An 18th century frontispiece for a
     French religious work
An 18th century French etching
Nazi Book
 Burning

  May 10, 1933
Nazi Germany and the book
         burning
One way the Nazis cleansed the country of "un-
 German" thoughts was through censorship. A
 "brown shirt" (member of the SA) throws some
 more fuel--"un-German" books-- into a roaring
 fire on the Opernplatz in Berlin. May 10, 1933.
         In Berlin
   20,000 books were burned during a
    student rally
   The suppression of free speech and ideas
    was a tactic of Joseph Goebbels' Ministry
    of Propaganda.
   Target this time was anti-Nazi, Jewish-
    authored, and so-called "degenerate"
    books, but it would escalate…
"Where they have burned
          books,
 they will end in burning
     human beings."
       Heinrich Heine
Someone must read a
 book to say that it is
   dangerous…yes?
 Where do we see
censorship in our own
        lives?
Let us refresh our memory on the
themes before we progress to motifs
       Themes

Themes are the fundamental and
 often universal ideas explored in
          a literary work
    Fahrenheit 451
                   Themes
   Knowledge versus Ignorance
    •   Destroy knowledge to promote ignorance
    •   Search for knowledge destroys ignorance
   Conformity versus Individuality
    •   Conforming to the norms of our society
         •   What are the norms of our society?
         •   Does it endanger society‟s well-being?
         •   Does it help our society?
   Censorship…
          Motifs
Recurring structures, contrasts, or literary
 devises that can help to develop and add
 to the text‟s major themes
        Fahrenheit 451
                 Motifs
   Paradoxes
       For ex: “I am not really here” – to be
        physically in a space, but, emotionally you are
        somewhere else
       For ex: to be living, but, at the same time, be
        spiritually dead
   Animal and Nature Imagery
       Nature: force of innocence and truth
       Animal: ironic (society ignores nature, but
        perpetuates devises modeled after animals)
        Motifs continued
   Religion
       Enameled faces of statues compared to
        permanent smiles of firemen
       Christian value of forgiveness
       Ref: miracle of Canaa – Christ turned water
        into wine (one of miracles to try and prove his
        identity)
       Fire (Christian beliefs) – “pagan,” “divine
        presence”
          In 451: starts out as the vehicle of a restrictive
           society
          Then it is turned on the oppressor
        Symbols




Objects, characters, figures, or colors used
 to represent abstract ideas or concept
        Fahrenheit 451
                   Symbols
   Blood
       Symbol of human beings repressed soul
        or primal, instinctive self
       The snake machine
   “The Hearth and the Salamander”
       Hearth (fireplace, heats the home) –
        symbolizes home
       Salamander (official symbol of firemen)
          Ancient beliefs that it lives in fire & is
           unaffected by flames
          fire
        Symbols continued

   “The Sieve and the Sand” (recollection of a
    memory as a child at the beach)
       Sand – tangible truth Montag seeks
       Sieve – human mind seeking truth that remains
        allusive (not able to grasp in any permanent way)
   The Phoenix (rebirth)
       Mankind burns itself up & then rises out of the ashes
        again & again
       Cyclical nature of history
       Montag‟s spiritual resurrection
        Symbols continued

   Mirrors
       Self-understanding
       Seeing oneself
        clearly
        The Characters

   Guy Montag – protagonist, 30 yrs old fireman
    who makes his living by burning books & the
    houses where the books are kept illegally.
       Experiences a drastic change in the novel

   Mildred Montag – married to Montag for 10 yrs,
    epitomizes shallowness and complacentness of
    society
   Clarrise McClellan – 17 yr. old girl; Montag is
    drawn to her, opposite of Millie; embodies what
    is positive about the human spirit
    More Characters

   Captain Beatty – antagonist; head of the Fire
    Dpt. whose sole purpose is to destroy books;
    “big brother” character
   Professor Faber – aging intellectual in a world
    where seems no place for him, disapproves of
    society but lacks courage; gives Montag
    inspiration

   Granger – intellectual & former author; leader of
    group of hobos; takes Montag under his wing.
    More Characters

   Mechanical Hound – terrible “triumph” of
    modern technology; programmed to track
    down and destroy any victim that his
    sensors are set to



   Mrs.Phelps & Mrs.Bowles – Millie‟s friends;
    just as ignorant and silly as she is
     By Ray Bradbury



The adventure begins!

				
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