The Dark Side of the City

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					The Dark Side of the City
        Susanne Urban




                                   1
                            12/18/05
The dark side of the city as a
real-and-imagined place




                                        2
                                 12/18/05
Mordor in The Lord of the Rings




                                    3
                             12/18/05
Excluded places in research
”In severe cases they could even be termed
  sores on the faces of the city. They are
  often percieved by the public as places that
  are not inhabited or frequented by decent
  people – they are seen as ’places of
  exclusion’ (Andersen 2003, p. 1)



                                                        4
                                                 12/18/05
Segregated areas
in public policy
”The segregation is a question of destiny for
  Sweden. The segregation is threatening to
  undermine the basic condition for each
  society /…/ Instead of solidarity and
  cohesion, self-interest and distrust will be
  foundation of society” (Govermental bill
  1998)


                                                        5
                                                 12/18/05
The problems
 Theoretically
 Operalionalyzing
 Analyzing
 Empirically




                            6
                     12/18/05
Mechanisms reinforcing
ethnical division

                     Discrimination,
                     structural racism


    Ethnic housing                   Segregated labor
    segregation                      market



                                                               7
                                                        12/18/05
Sweden
 A multicultural country
 Different from U.S
 Previous results




                                   8
                            12/18/05
Results from an statistical study
 Data and analytical strategy
 The cohort – individual level
 The output – individual level
 The neighbourhood – contextual level




                                                9
                                         12/18/05
First impression – dark places
          Table 1. “Dark places”: The ten most immigrant-dense areas in Stockholm
                  county 1991, with more than 50 inhabitants from the cohort.

       sams91      forsam91    Område       Number       % Born in   Mean         % Not       Mean
                                            of cohort-   Sweden in   disposable   working     disposable
                                            member       sams        income in    of cohort   income of
                                            in sams      1991        sams         1999        cohort
                                                                     1991                     1999
       1270011     12701*      Botkyrka     164          40          849,07       39          836,38
       1800148     18041*      Spånga       373          43          903,26       39          850,93
       1270018     12701*      Botkyrka     133          47          880,45       40          685,35
       1270001     12701*      Botkyrka     120          47          905,14       31          866,89
       1800151     18041*      Spånga       434          50          991,31       39          865,76
       1810038     18103*      Södertälje   157          51          891,54       32          769,34
       1810032     18112*      Västertälj   130          53          854,92       26          891,40
                               e
       1630020     16301       Sollentun    103          60          1017,94      36          713,56
       1800154     18042       Kista        218          61          1061,97      34          847,85
       1260022     12603*      Vårbygår     192          62          988,14       34          878,46
                               d
       MEAN:                               202,4        51,4         934,37       35,0        820,59
   * The area is also among the ten poorest places (table 2.).

                                                                                                                10
                                                                                                           12/18/05
First impression – rich places
        Table 4. Rich places: The ten areas in Stockholm county 1991 with highest mean
               disposable income (with more than 50 inhabitants from the cohort).
   sams91    forsam91 Område         Number       % Born    Mean         % Not       Mean
                                     of cohort-   in        disposable   working     disposable
                                     member       Sweden    income in    of cohort   income of
                                     in sams      in sams   sams         1999        cohort
                                                  1991      1991                     1999
   1620010   16201    Danderyd       89           89        2657,32      44          1254,60
   1620011   16201    Danderyd       104          90        2448,86      34          2699,93
   1820035   18202    Saltsjöbaden   50           93        2167,34      37          1019,78
   1800023   18011    Oscar          261          90        2049,68      44          1404,51
   1800097   18029*   Västerled      91           94        2012,34      41          1206,42
   1800100   18029*   Västerled      64           94        1997,37      44          953,38
   1600016   16001    Täby           56           91        1972,30      33          1034,16
   1860036   18601    Lidingö        82           90        1959,81      30          935,39
   1800104   18029*   Västerled      108          94        1867,17      27          1108,06
   1620013   16201    Danderyd       65           91        1839,55      30          1259,23
   MEAN:                             97,0         91,6      2097,17      36,4        1287,55




                                                                                                       11
                                                                                                  12/18/05
Second impression
                                      0.08


                                      0.07
   Variance Partition Coefficient %




                                      0.06


                                      0.05

                                                                                                      Low income
                                      0.04
                                                                                                      Not working

                                      0.03


                                      0.02


                                      0.01


                                        0
                                             1991 1992    1993 1994   1995 1996 1997      1998 1999
                                                         Year of neighbourhood exposure



                                                                                                                         12
                                                                                                                    12/18/05
             ââì
                       Table 5. Log odds to have below 50% of median disposable income 1999 (<719



Third
                                hSkr/year), intercept varying for neighborhood 1991.
              Cohort born in Stockholm county 1973 and 1974, 29 266 individuals in 820 sams-areas (3258
              excluded because of missing values). Standard error within parentheses. Estimated with


impression
              RIGLS.
                                       1.                   2.                   3.                     4.
              Intercept, 0j            -1,73527 (0,05015)   -0,63545 (0,09170)   -0,73336 (0,09826)     -0,71548 (0,08833)
              Control for              No                   Yes                  Yes                    Yes
              Individual
              characteristics, x ij*
              Immigrant-density        0,21155 (0,07176)    -0,12687 (0,07256)   -0,02603 (0,08213)
              high**
              Immigrant-density        0,07575 (0,06864)    -0,00250 (0,06715)   0,08920 (0,06735)
              medium high**
              Immigrant-density        reference group      reference group      reference group
              medium**
              Immigrant-density        0,01835 (0,06902)    0,06473 (0,06724)    -0,04231 (0,06611)
              medium low**
              Immigrant-density        -0,04164 (0,06754)   0,02382 (0,06602)    -0,06408 (0,06499)
              low**
              Mean of disponible                                                 0,02952 (0,07712)      0,00482 (0,06659)
              income low***
              Mean of disponible                                                 -0,01305 (0,06779)     -0,01407 (0,06458)
              income low
              medium***
              Mean of disponible                                                 reference group        reference group
              income medium***
              Mean of disponible                                                 0,12040 (0,06648)      0,08261 (0,06421)
              income high
              medium***
              Mean of disponible                                                 0,45307 (0,06765)      0,39716 (0,06291)
              income high***
               0j                     0,09480 (0,01516)      0,08012 (0,01416)     0,06160 (0,01274)      0,06135 (0,01272)
              * Individual characteristics include: female, born in Sweden, mother born in Sweden, father born in Sweden,
              mother income from work 1991, father income from work 1991.
              **Immigrant-density are quintiles of sams-areas 1991 according to share of inhabitants born outside of Sweden
              1991. High =65–18,8 %, High medium= 18,7–12,6 %, Medium= 12,5–10,5 %, Medium Low 4=10,6–8,8 %,
              Low = 8,7–0 %.
              ***Mean of disponible income in hundred SEK/year in sams -areas 1991. Low= 395.69–1097.6719, low
              medium= 197.9720–1197.7550, medium=1197.77551–1292.2621, high medium= 1292.2622 – 1393.2644,
                                                                                                                           13
              high= 1393.2645–3671.63.
                                                                                                                      12/18/05
To be continued…
Summarizing the results:
 Neighbourhoods have a small impact on
  individual economic carreer.
 The effects is most from socioeconomic
  composition in the neighbourhood – and
  not the ethnic.



                                                14
                                           12/18/05
Localization of the darkness
The darkness is not the poor and
 unemployed, but the force that continue
 the real-and-imagined categorization of
 people by skin or by “race”. But this
 darkness is also growing at workplaces, in
 the employment offices, in the minds of
 people, … and is confined,
 institutionalized and built into
 organizations and in social networks.
                                                   15
                                              12/18/05
No easy fix
Unfortunately, there
 is no simple
 solution, as to
 send one innocent
 Hobbe to
 eradicate the Ring
 of the dark force,
 as in the story.

                            16
                       12/18/05

				
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