Black coffee is without any modification of coffee, black coffee is the taste of coffee to bring the original feel. A collection of black coffee, bitter coffee flavors of the characteristics of Hong glycolic acid, which the original but rough, deep and intriguing. However, our understanding of black coffee is always too little, aloof from it so black it even more mysterious. In fact, black coffee on the side, love it, you'll find it.
The antioxidant power of coffee Coffee is the largest source of antioxidants in the typical American's diet, according to an article, published in January in Buffalo News newspaper that also describes its benefits on the human brain, possibly lowering the risk for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as offering a measure of some cancer protection. The publication quotes a 2005 study by a University of Scranton team of researchers led by Joe Vinson, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry who says that while coffee is the primary source of antioxidants in the American diet, it is not necessarily the best source - dates, cranberries and red grapes have high concentrations of antioxidants, although Americans don’t consume much of these foods. According to the American National Coffee Association, more than 80% of U.S. adults consume coffee at least occasionally, while more than half drink it on a daily basis. Antioxidants are valuable bioactive agents that quench damaging free radicals inside the body (unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and DNA). They also help to boost immune systems and have a number of potential health benefits. While the body produces its own antioxidants, it also gets a wide variety of antioxidants from the food and drinks – fruits and vegetables being the main sources. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants, but there are numerous others. According to the International Food Information Council (IFIC), the various antioxidants in foods help stop free radicals, which may help reduce the risk of some cancers, cognitive impairment, arthritis, immune dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Coffee is sixth among the top 50 antioxidant-containing foods, according to a publication in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The rankings were based on the amount of antioxidants found in a typical serving size. For a typical coffee, that's about 170.5 ml (6 ounces). Only blackberries, walnuts, strawberries, artichokes and cranberries contained more antioxidants per serving than did coffee. According to the French researcher Astrid Nehlig who specialises in coffee- health interaction at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), coffee contains chlorogenic acids, known as potent antioxidants. 1 During the past years, consumers have begun incorporating antioxidant rich foods into their diets to decrease risk for disease and to delay the onset of many age-related conditions. According to the US-based Institute of Food Technologists, sales of products carrying an antioxidant claim jumped nearly 20% in the US during 2005. One of every four consumers says they eat fruits or vegetables to prevent disease, one in three eats them to feel healthy, and nearly nine of ten eat them to stay healthy. According to the results of a study by L. F. Andersen and colleagues of the University of Oslo, published in 2006 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, "consumption of coffee, a major source of dietary antioxidants, may inhibit inflammation and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases in postmenopausal women”. A previous Norwegian study, published in 2004, found that coffee (average daily intake about 480 ml) was the major contributor to the total intake of antioxidants (about 66%) in Norwegians’ diet. Chlorogenic acid (the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid), the most abundant polyphenol in coffee, is likely responsible for a substantial part of coffee antioxidants. Green and black coffee beans contain 15.9 and 22.6 mmol total antioxidants in 100 g, respectively. This difference between green and black coffee beans agrees with previous data showing that although some antioxidants tend to be damaged during the roasting process, other are formed in so-called Maillard reactions (the browning reaction). Of the noncoffee total antioxidant intake, fruits (including berries), tea, cereals, wine, and vegetables contributed respectively about 26, 25, 13, 10, and 6% of total antioxidants. Dietary beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C contributed only 0.1, 0.3, and 8.5%, respectively, of the total intake of antioxidants. Of the noncoffee total antioxidant intake, beta-carotene, alpha- tocopherol, and vitamin C together contributed 24%. A major issue is whether the antioxidants from coffee are bioavailable and bioactive. Several studies demonstrated bioactivity of coffee that support coffee’s contribution to antioxidant defence. Many epidemiologic studies found that coffee is associated with reduced plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, a suggested biomarker for early oxidative stress. Furthermore, coffee is protective in models of experimental carcinogenesis and is associated with reduced incidence of human colorectal cancer, gallstone, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, liver cirrhosis, and type 2 diabetes in epidemiologic studies. The observation of a significant contribution of coffee to the total intake of antioxidants suggests a possible mechanism behind these potentially beneficial effects of coffee. 2 Moderate coffee consumption may thus have health benefits in complement to a diversified and balanced diet. As coffee is a very complex product, compounds other than antioxidants may also play a role in the physiological effects of coffee. Infonicks, January 2007 References: McAllister R. Coffee has its benefits. 9 January 2007. Buffalo News www.buffalonews.com Scranton professor’s study cites antioxidant benefits of coffee http://matrix.scranton.edu/pdf/journal_fall_2005.pdf Bakalar N. Coffee as a health drink? Studies find some benefits. 15 August 2006 The New York Times www.nytimes.com Svilaas A., Sakhi A., Andersen L., Svilaas T., Ström E., Jacobs D., Ose L. and Blomhoff R. Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. The Journal of Nutrition. 134:562-567, March 2004 http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/3/562 Andersen L. et al. Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2006;83(5):1039-1046) www.ajcn.org International Food Information Council www.ific.org French National Institute of Health and Medical Research www.inserm.fr/en/home.html Institute of Food Technologists www.ift.org 3
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