Class Sixth : Chapter 1
S.No Topics Description
1 Speed of Light The speed of light is 300,000 kilometres per second.
2 Sun The light from the Sun, which is also a star nearest to the
Earth, takes 8.3 minutes to reach the Earth.
3 Milky Way The galaxy that the solar system belongs to is known as the
“Spiral Shape” Milky Way.
4 Kalpana Chawla The Haryana born Kalpana Chawla, first Indian American
woman astronaut began her carrier at Research center in
America. On 16-1-2003 she along with five other astronauts
travelled to International Space Lab in the space shuttle
Columbia. On 1-2-2003 the space shuttle Columbia while
returning to earth at a speed of 20113 km. per hour carrying
the astronauts exploded and burnt down
5 Proxima Centauri The star nearer to the earth is Proxima Centauri.
6 Light Year The distance between the Earth and the stars is measured
using a unit known as the ‘light year’.
Class Sixth : Chapter 2
7 Sun Main Source of Energy. ft
Temp in Sun : 6000 o Celsius.Surface).
Core of the Sun:m 15,000,000 deg Celsius.
92% - Hydrogen.
7.8% Helium. 0.2% of Other Gases.
8 Nuclear Fusion The Sun) shines as a consequence of the fusion of hydrogen
into helium, which is constantly taking place in its core.
9 Solar Family The solar family consists of nine planets namely Mercury,
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and
Pluto and their satellites; Asteroids, Meteorites and Comets.
10 Gravitational Force of All the planets in the solar family are controlled by the
the Sun gravitational force of the Sun.
11 Rock Fragments These rock fragments are also called the “Flying Mountains”
of the Universe.
Class Sixth : Chapter 3
12 Mercury The first planet positioned near the Sun is Mercury.
Min temp: -170 deg Celsius.
Max temp: 350 deg Celsius.
13 Venus Venus is positioned second from the Sun and it is next to
Max Temp: 480 deg Celsius.
Morning Star/ Evening Star
Rotates east to west.
14 Earth Venus is positioned second from the Sun and it is next to
Water – 71%.
Land – 29%
7 Continents, 4 Oceans.
15 Seven Continents Asia, Africa, South America, North America, Europe,
16 Oceans Pacific, Antartic, Artic, Indian Ocean.
17 Earth’s Atmosphere 78% Nitrogen
Water Vapour, and Dust Particles.
18 Mars Mars is positioned fourth from the Sun. As it is far from
Red Planet the Sun, about 230 Celsius temperature prevails during day
and about -1010 Celsius during night.
19 Jupiter “Biggest” Fifth from the Sun.
20 Saturn Positioned Sixth from the Sun.
There are 7 rings around the Planet.
21 Uranus and Neptune. “Blue”.
22 Pluto “ Smallest” Pluto is the smallest and also the farthest planet of the solar
Class Sixth : Chapter 4
23 Mercury and Venus Does not have satellites of their own.
Earth and Pluto
Have on Satellite
Have more ga Satellite each.
26 Moon Si
Only natural Satellite of the earth.
One rotation / One revolution around the earth.– 27.3 days.
No atmosphere on the moon.
It reflects the light of the Sun.
27 Neil Amstrong Neil Armstrong, an American astronaut is the first to set foot
on the Moon. He and Edwin, pilot of the Apollo collected
rock and soil samples for analysis.
28 New Moon Moon is in between earth and the Sun.
29 Full Moon Earth is in between the Sun and the Moon.
30 New Moon – Full Moon 29 1/2 days.
31 Eclipses Eclipses occur when the light thus received is either blocked
by the earth or by the Moon.
Orbit of the moon around the earth is tilted about 50
than the orbit of the Earth around the Sun.
Sun, Earth, Moon – Lunar Eclipse
Sun, Moon, Earth – Solar Eclipse.
Class Sixth : Chapter 5
32 Latitudes and Longitudes Geographers have designed imaginary lines as addresses to
locate the places on the earth. Such lines are called the
latitudes and the longitudes.
33 Equator Equator divides the globe into two equal halves. The
northern half of the equator is the Northern hemisphere and
the southern half of the equator is the
34 Latitudes Latitudes are imaginary lines that are drawn from east to
west as parallels on the globe.
The parallel lines north of the equator are called the north
latitudes and those that are south of the equator are called the
North Pole – 90 deg North.
South Pole – 90 deg South.
35 Important Latitudes Tropic of Cancer – 23 ½ North
Tropic of Capricon – 23 ½ South
Artic Circle – 66 ½ North
Antartic Circle – 66 ½ South
36 Longitudes We know that the 900 N. is the North Pole and 900 S. is the
South Pole. The imaginary line that joins both the north and
south poles is called longitude.
The eastern half, east of 00 longitude is called the
eastern hemisphere and the western half, west of 00 longitude
is called the western hemisphere
37 Greenwich Meridian There is an astronomical research institute in Greenwich, a
place near London. The longitude that is drawn across
Greenwich has been o S taken as the 00 longitude. This 00
longitude is alsom called the
38 India Located in ithe Northern Hemisphere. (Latitude wise)
S Extension – 8 deg North to 37 deg North.
(C in the Eastern Hemisphere. (Longitude Wise)
Longitudinal Extension – 68 deg East to 96 deg East.
Class Sixth : Chapter 6
39 Axis of the Earth It is inclined 23 ½ deg to the vertical.
Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation.
40 Season It is assumed in India that the Sun migrates towards north
from the Tropic of Capricorn on
14th –15th January. This day is celebrated as
“Pongal” in Tamil Nadu and as “Mahara
Sankaranthi” in other states. Similarly it is
assumed that the Sun migrates towards south
from the Tropic of Cancer on 2nd –3rd August.
This is celebrated as “Adiperukku” in Tamil Nadu.
Class Sixth : Chapter 7
41 Earth The Shape of the Earth is Spherical.
42 Zones Between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricon – Torrid
Between 23 ½ deg N- 66 ½ North and 23 ½ S – 66 ½ deg
South - Temparate Zones.
Between 66 ½ N – North pole and 66 ½ S – South Pole –
43 Indian Standard time India extends from 680E longitude to 970E
longitude. Therefore 820 30’ Longitude is taken as the
central meridian in India. (680E longitude + 970E longitude
= 165/2 = 820 30’E. longitude).
The 820 30’ is the central meridian of India. When the Sun is
directly on this longitude, the time in India is 12 Noon. This
time is assumed as the standard time of India.
44 World Standard time There are 360 longitudes drawn on the Globe. The central
Greenwich Mean Time meridian is the Greenwich Meridian (00 long.). When the Sun
shines directly on this longitude it is taken as 12Noon and it
is considered as
World Standard Time.
45 Japan Japanese who live in the borders of eastern hemisphere see
the Sunrise first in the world. Therefore Japan is called as the
Land of Rising Sun.
Class Sixth : Chapter 8
46 Neil Amstrong Earth – “Blue Pearl”.S of
47 Corals and Pearls Polyps – Corals a m
Oysters – Pearls
Largest ) system on the earth.
(C eco of the corals are very rich in calcium
Class Seven : Chapter 1
1 India Our country India is in the Southern part of the Asian
continent. India is surrounded on three sides by water.
Therefore India is called a Peninsula.
2 Himalayas The highest mountain range in the world is the Himalayas
and they form the northern boundary of India.
3 Plateau Elevated landmasses with flat tops and steep sides are
called plateaus. They are also known as tablelands. The
Tibetan plateau is the world’s highest plateau.
4 Plains 1. Alluvial plains - Formed by deposits of rivers
Favourable for human 2. Loess plains - Formed by wind deposits
settlements 3. Coastal plains - Formed by wave action .
Ex: Gangetic Plain of India.
5 Deepest Part The deepest part of the Earth is the Mariana trench in the
6 Water Out of the total water covering the Earth‘s surface, 97
percent is salt water from the seas and oceans and only the
remaining 3 percent is fresh water.
7 Atmosphere Air is colourless, odourless and tasteless.
8 Bacterium The oldest known living creature, the simple single-celled
bacterium, took form in the Earth’s oceans some 2.5 billion
9 Earth Earth was formed 4.6 billion Years ago.
Class Seven : Chapter 2
10 Atmosphere Air is a mixture of gases such as Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
dioxide, Argon, Neon, Methane, Ozone, Helium, Hydrogen
and many other gases. It extends for a height of 500 Km
above the Earth’s surface. This layer of air enveloping the
Earth’s surface is called atmosphere. Due to Earth’s gravity
the air is attached to the Earth’s surface. Along with the
Earth the atmosphere also rotates
11 Nitrogen Nitrogen does not have colour, odour or taste. It has the
property of extinguishing fire.
Bacteria – Nitrate – Helps in Plant growth.
12 Oxygen Oxygen is used in respiration by all living things. Oxygen
also helps in body metabolism.
13 Photosynthesis plants convert Carbondi- oxide into Carbohydrates, which is
an important source of energy for animals and human beings.
Carbon dioxide is heavier than any other gas. It has the
property of absorbing S
15 Fossil Fuels Due to intense am and pressure, the buried vegetation
turned into Carbon rich fossil fuels such as coal
16 Dust Particles The dust particles in the atmosphere are able to scatter 7
percent of energy coming from the Sun. They also act as
nuclei in the conversion of water-vapour into water droplets.
17 Air The density of air decreases rapidly with increasing altitude.
18 Troposhpere Equator – 16 KM
Poles – 8 KM
80 Percent of air.
19 Stratosphere Between 16 Km – 50 Km
19 Percent of air.
Temparature remains constant.
20 Ozone Layer Within the stratosphere, between 20 and 35 km above the
Earth’s surface, lies the ozone layer. The Ozone layer filters
the ultraviolet rays and prevents them from reaching the
Earth’s surface. Human beings and animals are thus
protected from the harmful ultraviolet rays which can cause
skin diseases and cancer.
21 Ozone depletion Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used as a refrigerant, does not
have any harmful effect in the troposphere. When CFC
reaches the stratosphere it reacts with the ultra-violet rays
from the Sun thereby isolating the chlorine molecule. The
chlorine molecule chemically reacts with Ozone (O3) present
in the stratosphere and splits it into Oxygen and Chlorine -
mono-oxide. Thus it weakens the Ozone in the atmosphere.
This is known as ozone depletion. Continued depletion can
cause holes in the Ozone layer. Through these Ozone
holes the harmful ultra-violet rays can reach the Earth’s
22 Montreal Protocol In 1987 the Montreal Protocol, a treaty for protection of the
Ozone layer, was signed by 36 nations including the USA. In
1989 a total ban on the use of CFC’s was proposed by the
European Union to be enforced by the Developed Nations by
1995 and the Developing Nations by 2010.
23 Green House gases Carbon di oxide
Sulphur Hexa Floride
24 Mesosphere Between 50 KM – 80 KM
25 Thermosphere / Between 80 – 500 KM
26 Exosphere Outer Space.
27 Atmosphere The atmosphere prevents the Earth from becoming too hot
of sound waves are converted into
during the day or too cold during the night.
28 Radio Broadcasting In Radio broadcastingS
electromagnetic m waves and sent to the atmosphere. The layer
of ionosphere r the atmosphere reflects the electro-magnetic
waves backg the Earth’s surface. Thus we are able to listen
to radio )broadcasts that are made at different places of the
Class Seven : Chapter 3
29 Solar Radiation 1. The visible Sunrays that consists of seven colours
2. The invisible Sunrays consisting of Gama rays, X rays,
Ultraviolet rays, Infra red rays and Radio waves.
30 Sun It emits hear in Short wave radiation. This short wave
radiation can travel a distance of 150 million km to reach and
heat the Earth.
31 Vaccum There is a vacuum between the upper limit of the atmosphere
and the Sun. Since the area between the Sun and the Earth‘s
atmosphere is a void or vacuum, the Sun radiates its heat to
32 Radiation Radiation is a method by which heat is conducted without a
33 Conduction The process of heat transfer from one molecule and another
molecule is known as conduction.
34 Isotherms Isotherms are imaginary lines joining places having the same
35 Diurnal range of The difference between the daily maximum and minimum
temperature temperature is known as the diurnal range of temperature.
36 Annual range of The difference between the daily maximum and minimum
temperature temperature is known as the diurnal range of temperature.
The difference between the average monthly maximum
and minimum temperatures is known as the annual range of
37 Zones Equatorial Zone – 5 N– 5 deg S
Tropical Zone – 5 -30 N and 5 – 30 S
Temparate Zone – 30 – 60 N and 30- 60 S
Frigid Zone – 60 N and 60 S
38 Temparatures 6.5 deg Celsius for 1000 meters(decreases).
39 Hot and Cold winds Hot Winds – High temperature.
Cold Winds – Low temperature.
Class Seven : Chapter 4
40 Weight of Air I Kg per Square cm.[Air column].
The weight of air resting on the Earth’s surface exerts
pressure on the Earth’s surface. The pressure exerted on the
Earth by the atmosphere is called the atmospheric pressure.
41 Barometer An instrument called a barometer measures atmospheric
Avg. air pressure at sea pressure, and it is expressed in millibars.
level. 1013 millibars.
Isobars Isobars are imaginary S oflines, drawn on maps joining various
places having equal pressure. In the weather maps, pressure
distribution is r
a shown by ‘isobars’.
43 Air Pressure Si
The air pressure decreases steadily as the height increases
above C) level. There is a decrease of one millibar for every
10 meters rise in elevation.
44 Pressure Gradient The pressure difference between any two places at a
particular distance is defined as ‘pressure gradient’.
Class Seven : Chapter 5
45 South west Monsoon Rain: Whole of India except east coast.
June – September
46 North East Monsoon Entire Tamil Nadu and Eastern Coast of India receive rainfall
due to the North - East monsoon wind.
47 Sea and Land Breezes Sea and land breeze are blow in opposite directions over the
coastal belt everyday.
48 Cyclone Cyclones are intense low-pressure systems towards which
winds move in from all directions. Cyclones bring heavy
rainfall and are associated with high speed winds. They cause
damage to both life and property.
Bay of Bengal: September, October and November.
49 Cyclone Names North America and West Indies.
Typhoons in China and Japan.
Storms in India.
Willy Willy in Australia.
Sumoon in Arabia.
Bosiquiss in Philliphines.
50 Hot Winds Foehn – Swiss Alps.
Loo – India 45 -50 deg Celsius.
Chinook – blows down the Rockies of North America to the
Sirocco - blows from the Sahara desert northwards over the
Mediterarian-sea to reach Southern Italy.
51 Coastal Winds Mistral and Bora.
Class Seven : Chapter 6
52 Humidity The amount of Water Vapour present in the air.
53 Dew Point “The temperature at which the air column becomes saturated
is called dew point”.
54 Evaporation The process by which the water gets transformed into the
gaseous state is called evaporation.
55 Evapo – Transpiration Water-vapour from all these sources that mixes with the
atmosphere is responsible for causing rainfall. Because plants
are responsible for supplying water-vapour, we have to grow
more plants and trees.
56 Condensation Condensation is a process by which water-vapour is
converted into water particles.
57 Clouds One form of condensation that takes place at higher altitudes
Minute water particles and ice particles stick to dust particles
that are present in the atmosphere. They join together to form
58 Dew These tiny water droplets are called as dew. Dew is formed.
59 Rainfall The falling of water droplets from the atmosphere is called as
60 Fog When condensation takes place near the Earth’s surface fog
is formed. Fog is defined as a cloud whose base is at or very
near the ground.
61 Mist Mist is also a kind of fog, much thinner than the fog. Mist
reduces visibility slightly.
62 Deccan Plateau Rain Shadow region.
Class Seven : Chapter 7
63 Equatorial Climate 5 N- 5S. The annual average temperature of this zone is 27°C
the annual average rainfall is about 250 cm.
64 Tropical Climate 5 – 25N and 5 – 25S. The tropical region receives rainfall
only for a few months of a year. So, there are well marked
rainy and dry season in a year. The average rainfall is lesser
than the rainfall of the equatorial region.
65 Sub Tropical Climate 25 – 35N and 25 – 35S. The subtropical belt experiences
warm summers and cool winters.
66 Temparate Climate 35 – 60N and 35 – 60S. Summers are cool and winters are
67 Sub Polar Climate 60- 70 N and 60 – 70S.
68 Polar Climate The region lying beyond 70° North and South of the
equator experience polar climate. Temperature is below
freezing point throughout the year.
Class Seven : Chapter 8
69 Soil “Soil is made up of minute particles of disintegrated rocks,
containing minerals, decomposed organic matter and
River Bed – Sand
Ponds and Lakes – Alluvial Soil.
Red Soil, Black Soil. S
70 Sand a m
Sand is not suitable for agriculture.
However coconut trees grow well in this soil where the
heavy. Trees like casuarina, cashewnuts etc., also
) in sandy region.
71 Alluvial Soil Rich – Potassium and
Deficient – Phosphorous.
Suitable for agriculture. Crops like paddy, sugarcane,
plaintain etc., grow well on Alluvial soil.
Fertile alluvial soil is used for making bricks.
72 Red Soil Ion Content is very high.
Red soil is moderately fertile and suitable for agriculture.
Crops like redgram, Bengal gram, Greengram and oil seeds
like groundnut, castor seed etc., grow well in this soil.
73 Black Soil Hence, this soil is capable of supporting plant growth even if
the rainfall is very low.
It is rich in calcium, pottasium, magnesium, aluminium, iron
and other carbonates. This soil is poor in nitrogen content.
Black soil is suitable for agriculture. Crops like cotton,
tobacco, chilli, oil seeds, jowar, ragi, maize, etc., grow well
in this soil.
Class Seven : Chapter 9
74 Natural Vegetation They germinate and grow naturally without the effort of man
and are known as ‘natural vegetation’.
75 Decidious trees Teak and Sal.
76 Coniferous Trees Pine , fir, Laurch and Spruce.
77 Evergreen Forests Evergreen forests are found in the equatorial regions where
the temperature and rainfall is very high. Due to heavy
rainfall throughout the years, these forests are evergreen.
Trees like teak, mahogany, ebony and rosewood are found
here. These forests are found in the Amazon basin of South
America and Congo basin or Zaire in Africa. The Silent
Valley in Kerala is the best example of evergreen forests in
78 Deciduous Forest The trees of the deciduous forests shed their leaves at a
particular time of the year. They are also called
The important trees found here are teak, sal, sandalwood and
They are Oak, Cyprus, Maple and Olive. These are used to
79 Deserts Hot: Cactus, prickly pear aloe and thorny bushes
are found here. Such vegetation are found in the Sahara and
Kalahari deserts of Africa. Thar desert of India and the great
Cold: These deserts are Gobi deserts of China ‘Taklamakan’
of Tibet. PatagonianoS desert of South America.
80 Plants m
Plants provide us with oxygen.
81 Silent Valley in Kerala ar
Class Eight : Chapter 1,2,3
82 Mountain A mountain can be defined as an area of land that rises
abruptly from the surrounding region
83 Lava Temparature: 1100 deg Celsius.
84 Mauna Loa Hawaii
85 Paricutin Mexico City
86 Barren Island Only active volcano in India Subcontinent, located 135 km
east of Port Blair, in east Andaman Sea and is a part of
Andaman Nicobar chain of islands in the Indian Ocean
87 Tiltmeter Tiltmeter to measure the expansion of a volcanoe.
88 Thermometers Thermometers to check temperature increases in the area,
and gas detectors to measure the amount of gas.
89 Ajanta Caves Ajantha Caves Curved in the basaltic lava
90 Geothermal Energy This geothermal energy is used to produce electricity.
91 Krakotoa One of the most spectacular volcanic eruptions in recorded
history occurred in 1883 with the explosion of Krakatoa, an
island in the Sunda Strait near Java.
92 Lava Plateau Lava plateaus are built by the accumulation of basalt released
by volcanic activity. The Deccan Traps are one of the largest
volcanic provinces in the world.
93 Geothermal gradient Gradual Increase in temp with depth is called geothermal
Class Eight : Chapter 4
94 January 26th 2001 Bhuj in Gujarat , India experienced a major earthquake
recently on January 26th 2001, The damage was extreme
with nearly 20,000 people killed and over 150,000 injured.
95 Epicentre The point on earth surface above the focus is called as
96 Earthquake Waves Seismic Waves
97 Ritcher Scale Earthquakes are measured using something called the Richter
Class Eight : Chapter 5
98 Igneous Rocks Basalt(extrusive) and Granite.(Intrusive)
99 Sedimentary Rocks One of the commonest sedimentary rock is sandstone, lime
stone and coal
100 Cement Cement made from limestone and other rocks serves to bind
crushed stone into strong, long-lasting concrete for buildings,
dams, and highways.
101 Ores Metals such as aluminum, iron, lead, and tin come from
rocks called ores. Radium and Uranium.
102 Peridodite Diamonds mined in Africa and Arkansas come from a rock
Emeralds are found inftblack limestone in Colombia.
103 Black Limestone
104 Erosion The removal of rock and soil by natural processes is known
as Erosion. am
Class Eight : Chapter 6- 13
105 Great Canyon Northern SArizona.(Colorodo River)
River Cauvery is the only major river in Tamilnadu. This is
an interstate river with many tributaries lying in Karnataka
and Tamilnadu States.
Middle: The tributaries such as Bhavani, Amaravathi, and
Noyyal join the river cauvery while flowing through
the Deccan plateau.
107 Canyon A deep, steep-walled, V-shaped valley cut by a river through
resistant rock is often called a canyon.
108 Gorges Smaller valleys of similar appearance are
called gorges .
109 Delta The forward motion of the river is checked upon when a
river enters an ocean. So, the river deposits its load of
sediments near the mouth of the river. This is known as
110 Glaciers large In Europe. Malaspina Glacier on Yakutat Bay in Alaska
111 Size of Waves Wind speed.
112 Yellow River Hwang Ho
113 Pacific Ocean Largest Ocean
114 Shallow Seas The Caribbean, Mediterranean, Baltic, Arctic Seas, and the
Gulf of Mexico
115 Indian Ocean Smallest of the three Oceans.
116 Continental Self Northwestern Europe and the coastal areas around Japan
are the largest fishing grounds in the world.
117 Hazard Hazard is a natural event.
118 Disastar It is nothing but the consequence of hazard.
119 Pirpanchal Foothills Himalayas. Known for avalanche.
120 Flood Prone Areas Ganga and Brahmaputra Basins.
121 Eastern Coast line The eastern coastline of India, is more prone to cyclones as it
hit by about 80% of total cyclones generated in the region.
About 4 to 6 such storms originate in the Bay of Bengal and
the Arabian Sea every year.
122 Nilgris Avalanche Valley.
123 Kumbakonam Tragedy 2004.
124 Bhopal Methyl Iso Cyanate. Union Carbide India Limited. 1984
Class Nine : Chapter 1
125 Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system in which capital goods are
owned, operated and traded by private individuals,
businesses, or corporations for the purpose of profit.
126 Socialism Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social
organization advocating state or collective ownership and
administration of theomeans of production and distribution of
goods, and the creation of an egalitarian society
127 Nationalism a m to an ideology, a sentiment, a form of
Nationalism can refer
culture, or a social movement that focuses on the nation.
128 Total Countries 193. Si
The top )three countries with very high density are Monaco,
129 High density of Pop.
Singapore and Vatican city.
130 Worlds largest City Mumbai.
131 High per Capita Income Luxembourg ($ 45,348), Japan ($ 34,556), Norway, ($
34,356), United States of America ($ 33,922), and Sweden ($
132 Low Per Capita Income Congo ($ 18), Ethiopia ($ 94), Myanmar ($ 122), and Bhutan
133 Indo European French, Portugese, Spanish and English
134 Dravidian Languages Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
135 Cold War [ USA,Russia] They were aggressive against each other, spied on each
other, and also fought proxy wars in the third world
136 Tiger Economy A tiger economy is the economy of a country which
Hongkong, Singapore, undergoes rapid economic growth, usually accompanied by
Taiwan, Malasyia, an increase in standard of living.
Thailand, South Korea.
137 January 9th Pravasi Bharathiya Divas
138 BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
Class Nine : Chapter 2
139 GDP – Gross Domestic The GDP is actually the market values of goods and services
Product produced in that country.
140 Standard of Living The GDP of a country divided by the number of its
population gives rise to ‘standard of living’.
141 Human Development The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index
Index 1990 combining normalized measures of life expectancy, literacy,
educational attainment, and GDP per capita for countries
142 WWW World Wide Web
143 Third World Countries All economically backward countries, trying hard for
developing their societies, were called the Third World
Class Nine : Chapter 3
144 Productivity Among the criteria used in dividing the world into regions is
145 Vegetative lands Savannas (Africa, India, Australia and in the north of the
South America) and Mediterranean and mid latitude
146 Worlds largest desert Sahara – Africa.(North)
147 Coniferous forests
Canada, Russia and Scandinavian Countries.
148 Nomads – Midnight Sun Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.
Class Nine : Chapter 4,5
149 Nilgris Si
Eastern and Western Ghats meet.
150 Rivers in Tamilnadu
(C Then Pennai, Palar, Vaigai and Tamiravaruni, they
depend on the seasonal rainfall.
151 Madras presidency Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh and Kerala.
152 January 14th 1969 Madras State was renamed as ‘Tamil Nadu’
153 Time Sirupozhuthu – A day – 6 – Vaigarai, Kalai, Nanpagal,
Yerpadu, Malai and Yamam.
Perumpozhuthu – A Year – 6 Seasons( 2 months) – Kar,
Kuthir, Munpani, Pinpani, Ilavenil and Muduvenil.
154 Thinai Every thinai has the three aspects of mudal, karu, and uri.
These five regions were deliberately sung as the ulagam or
the world by Tholkappiyar.
155 Hills Anamalai, Palani, Kodaikanal, Kutralam, Mahendragiri or
the Agathiyar hills.
156 Anaimudi Highest peak in South India.
157 Palghat Gateway to Kerala.
158 Kurunji Flower Blossoms for every 12 years.
159 Kambam Hills It separates the Aundipatti hills and Varushanad Hills.
160 Eastern ghats The Eastern Ghats extend in the form of detached hills such
as the Javadhus, Shevroys, the Kalrayans, the Kollimalais
and the Pachaimalais.
161 Yercaud Shevroy hills, Salem
162 Solaikadu, Kolli hills Bauxite
163 Pachaimalai Black Granite.
164 Baramal Plateau Continuation of Mysore Plateau
165 Coimbatore Plateau Coimbatore, Salem, Erode.
166 Nilgris Plateau This is separated from the Mysore plateau by the Moyar river
in the north.
167 Plains (a) the Cormandel coastal plains;
(b) the Cauvery Alluvial Plains and
(c) the dry southern Coromandel coastal plains.
Class Nine : Chapter 6 - 9
168 Climate The average weather conditions of a place from anywhere
between 30 years to 150 years become the climate of that
169 Seasons January to March : Dry Weather
April and May : Hot Weather
June to September : Southwest Monsoon
October to December : Northeast Monsoon
170 Venirkalam Period of Scorching Sun.
171 Alluvial Soils Cauvery in Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, and Nagapattinam
districts and also in Villupuram, Cuddalore, Thirunelveli and
Rich: Potassium and
Crop: Paddy,asugarcane, banana and turmeric are the main
crops grown here.
172 Black Soils
Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram, Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai
173 Saline Soil Vedaranyam
174 Laterite Soil(Red in Iron Oxide Content.
175 Sex ratio 986/1000
176 Nilgris It is here the tribes such as the Todas, the Kotas and the
177 Malayali Tribes Javadhu hills, Pachaimalai, Kollimalai and Yercaud hills are
the places where Malayali tribes live in very large numbers.
178 Chennai Detroit of India
179 Coimbatore Manchester of India
180 Literacy Rate 73.5%
Kanyakumari – 80%
Urban Literacy – 82.07 %
181 Growth and development 2nd , Tamilnadu is next to kerala.
182 Agro based Industries Cotton and Textile Mills, Sugar and Paper Mills.
183 Geographical Area 13 Million hectares
45P for Agriculture, 18P Forest, 15P Non Agri, 15P fallow.
Paddy, millets, sugarcane, cotton and groundnut are some of
the important crops of the State.
184 Paddy Tamil Nadu is the third ranking state in the production of
paddy after Andhra Peadesh and West Bengal. Paddy is
cultivated in 3 million hectares and the production is nearly 5
185 Cotton Cotton is the much needed fibre crop. It is a commercial
There is government support and incentives for cotton
textiles through cooperatives and Sarvodaya Societies. Cities
such as Salem, Dharmapuri, Erode, Coimbatore, Vellore,
Thanjavur, Madurai and Virudhunagar are important cotton
186 Coffee and tea Coffee and tea are the crops cultivated in the plantations of
Tamil Nadu. These crops are grown on the slopes of the
Nilgiris, Anaimalai, Kodaikanal and Yercaud.
187 Silk Weaving This industry buys the silk from Karnataka and processes it
before dyeing and using in weaving. It mixes the zari in a
good blend and weaves then the silk products.
Salem, Dharmapuri, Kanchipuram, Arani, Thirubhuvanam,
Kumbakonam and Madurai are some of the important centres
of silk weaving.
188 Sugar Mills 37 Sugar Mills. ft
189 Match Industries Match industries areo S concentrated in places such as
Virudhunagar, Vellore and Sivakasi.
190 Paper Mills ar
Paper Mills use soft wood and sugarcane waste known as the
bagasse. Kakithapuram, Sivaganga, Theni, and Thirunelveli
are the places where such mills are found. Printing industries
(C widespread in the State.
191 Coach Factory Perambur, Chennai.
192 Enfield Spare parts in vellore.
193 Pertroleum refineries Manali Chennai.
194 Neyveli Lignite Corporation
195 Nuclear Power Plant The Nuclear Power Station at Kalpakkam is functioning
very well. Efforts are afoot to install a nuclear power plant in
Kudankulam with assistance from Russia.
196 Sankar Cement Thalayuthu.
197 Industrial Development Tamilnadu Ranks 5th in India
198 Govt. Organisations Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO),
the State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu State Small Industries Development Corporation
(SIDCO) help with the setting up of industries.
Class Nine : Chapter 10,11
199 Vedic Schools Gurukuls
200 Birth and Death Rate Birth : 20.7%
201 Christian Medical Vellore
202 Cartography Cartography is both a science and art of drawing maps and
Class Ten : Chapter 1,2
1 Tropic of Cancer The Tropic Cancer divides India into Peninsular and
2 Land border As for the land border, it shares its common border with
Afghanistan and Pakistan - Northwest,
Indo-China and Bhutan -North, and
Bangladesh - East.
3 Palk Strait Sri Lanka is separated from India by a strait, known as the
4 Scheduled Languages 18 accepted in the Constitution.
5 Aryabhatta Zero was invented.
6 Bhaskaracharya Timetaken by the earth to rotate round the sun.
7 Bhdhayana The value of "pi" was first calculated by Budhayana, and he
explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean
8 Jagdeesh Bose Wireless Communication.
9 Sushruta Father of Surgery. oft
10 Vindhya Mountains S
Runs Parallel to the Narmada Valley.
11 Satpura Mountains a m
The Satpura mountains are found between the rivers
Seven Folds g ar
Narmada and the Tapti.
12 Western Ghats Si
Talkad, Porkad, and Palghat.
Highest Peak on Aravalli
( Abu highest summit known as the Everest is on these
mountains. Everest is found at the border of Nepal. On the
Himalayas of the Indian borders are the peaks such as those
of the Kanjan Janga, Daulagiri, and Nanga Parbat.
15 Kahmir Valley In Himalayas is beautiful.
16 Plains Indo Gangetic Plains, Sutlej Plains and Brahmaputra Plains.
17 East flowing River Mahanadi, Godavari(AP), Krishna(AP) and Cauvery(KA-
18 Bakra Nangal Across Sutlej, Benefits Punjab.
Class Ten : Chapter 3,4
19 Summer March – September
20 Winter October – February
High Pressure -
21 North East Monsoon Retreating Monsoon.
22 Cyclones Bay of Bengal – October to December
23 Rain Water Harvesting The process of catching rainwater when and where it falls for
use during non-monsoon months is called rainwater
24 Rain Water Fresh Water
25 Arid Region Thar Desert
26 Evergreen Vegetation Ebony, Deodar, Rosewood and Karungali are the evergreen
varieties of vegetation.
27 Decidious Vegetation The important trees of these forests are the teak, sal, red
wood, sandal and bamboo.
28 Andaman and Nicobar Mangroves here are a special type of vegetation.
29 'vana mahotsav July-August
30 Kumari Cultivation This is particularly encouraged towards quicker yield and
quality improvement of the forests.
31 Kumaridhars Forest Department.
32 Marshy Lands Sundarbans.
33 Thurukkal Hill Soil
Class Ten : Chapter 5
34 Paddy Production Andhra ranks first and Tamilnadu ranks second.
35 Thanjavur Rice bowl of Tamilnadu
36 Pongal Thanksgiving for the sun.
37 Aduthurai In Aduthurai of Thanjavur district, a Regional Research
Centre for Rice has been established and it is doing yeoman
38 Sugarcane Sucrose
msugarcane, the farmers do not cut the cane
39 Ratooning When harvesting ra
completely ga leave the stumps in the field. Sugarcane
grows from the stumps leftover in the field This process is
known as the rattooning.
40 Kerala In the littoral areas of Kerala, oil crops such as the cashew
and coconut are grown in vast areas.
41 Cotton – Tropical Crop Maharashtra(1) and Gujarat.
42 Coffee The parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu where coffee
is grown are in the Western Ghats area of the states.
Kodagu hills of Karnataka and Palani Hills of Tamil Nadu
are the two important areas of coffee cultivation.
Over 80 per cent of the coffee grown in India is from the
state of Karnataka.
43 Tobacco Coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat States.
44 Kerala Crops such as rubber and spices such as pepper, cardamom
and cloves are some of the crops grown on the slopes of the
Western Ghats, particularly in Kerala.
45 Wheat Punjab (1) and Uttarpradesh
46 Punjab Wheat granary of India.
47 Holi After wheat harvest holy is celebrated.
48 Tea Assam, Darjeeling of west Bengal.
49 Jute West Bengal ranks 1 in jute production.
50 FCI Food Corporation of India.
Class Ten : Chapter 6
51 Iron and Manganese ore Bihar, Orissa, and West Bengal are the important states
where metallic minerals are found.
52 Bauxite Tamilnadu
53 Gold Karnataka – Kolar
54 Mica, limestone and Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya
55 Coal, petroleum and Petroleum – Maharashtra, Assam and Cauvery delta of
natural gas tamilnadu.
56 Tata Steel (TISCO) Jamshedpur – 1907
Manganese – Bihar
Orissa – Dolomite
River - Subarnareka
57 Chittranjan – West Railway Engines
58 Perambur Railway Coaches
59 Timber Andaman Islands [Asias largest saw mill]
60 Nepa Nagar Madhya Pradesh, NewsPrint Industry
61 Mumbai Cotton Textile Industry.
62 Mumbai Manchester of India.oft
Class Ten : Chapter 7 - 12 S
63 Indian Railways a
India's railways arem the densest in Asia.
1833 g ar
Bombay – Thane Central - SiMumbai, Victoria
Eastern ) Calcutta
(C - - New Delhi
Northeast - Gorakhpur
Northeastern - Border Malegaon
Southern - Chennai
South Central - Secunderabad
Southeastern - Calcutta
Western Mumbai - Churchgate
64 Satabti Superfast trains Chennai – Coimbatore, Mysore, Newdelhi
65 International Airports Chennai, Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad
and Thiruvananthapuram are the International Airports in the
66 Professor Dave 1991 Minimum levels of learning.
67 India Second most populous and seventh largest country in the
68 Census Census is a collection of data on a country's population
(Every 10 Years) number and its social and economic statuses.
69 Gangetic Plains States such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and the
northern Madhya Pradesh with large populations are found in
the Gangetic Plains.
70 Kerala Only in kerala women are more than the men.
71 Eighth Plan 1992 -1997 Human Resource main focus / Economic Reforms
72 Wheat India is the third largest producer of whear. (1.china,2.USA)
73 Exports Most of them are Industrial Products.
74 Social Data Data regarding individuals, family, village and town people
to this group of data.
75 Economic Data Data in regard to all economic activities by human beings are
76 Cultural Data Cultural data include all kinds of other data. Indian cultural
structure, its divisions, services in India (transport, health,
and education), technology and new innovations and
inventions are all examples of cultural data.
77 Spatial Data Location
78 GPS Global Positioning System
79 Field Work Fieldwork is literally data collection, whether it is soil or
plant types or religious patterns; so consistency is important
for accurate results.
80 Samples Select people who provide us data.