Docstoc

TNPSC Group I And Group II Geography Notes

Document Sample
TNPSC Group I And Group II Geography Notes Powered By Docstoc
					                                      Geography

Class Sixth : Chapter 1
S.No            Topics                                    Description
  1    Speed of Light           The speed of light is 300,000 kilometres per second.
  2    Sun                      The light from the Sun, which is also a star nearest to the
                                Earth, takes 8.3 minutes to reach the Earth.
 3     Milky Way                The galaxy that the solar system belongs to is known as the
       “Spiral Shape”           Milky Way.
 4     Kalpana Chawla           The Haryana born Kalpana Chawla, first Indian American
                                woman astronaut began her carrier at Research center in
                                America. On 16-1-2003 she along with five other astronauts
                                travelled to International Space Lab in the space shuttle
                                Columbia. On 1-2-2003 the space shuttle Columbia while
                                returning to earth at a speed of 20113 km. per hour carrying
                                the astronauts exploded and burnt down
 5     Proxima Centauri         The star nearer to the earth is Proxima Centauri.
 6     Light Year               The distance between the Earth and the stars is measured
                                using a unit known as the ‘light year’.
Class Sixth : Chapter 2
 7     Sun                      Main Source of Energy.  ft
                                Temp in Sun : 6000 o Celsius.Surface).
                                                     S deg
                                Core of the Sun:m   15,000,000 deg Celsius.
                                                  a
                                92% - Hydrogen.
                                             g ar
                                          Si
                                7.8% Helium. 0.2% of Other Gases.
 8     Nuclear Fusion           The Sun) shines as a consequence of the fusion of hydrogen
                                      (C
                                into helium, which is constantly taking place in its core.
 9     Solar Family             The solar family consists of nine planets namely Mercury,
                                Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and
                                Pluto and their satellites; Asteroids, Meteorites and Comets.
 10    Gravitational Force of   All the planets in the solar family are controlled by the
       the Sun                  gravitational force of the Sun.
 11    Rock Fragments           These rock fragments are also called the “Flying Mountains”
                                of the Universe.
Class Sixth : Chapter 3
 12    Mercury                  The first planet positioned near the Sun is Mercury.
                                Min temp: -170 deg Celsius.
                                Max temp: 350 deg Celsius.
 13    Venus                    Venus is positioned second from the Sun and it is next to
                                Mercury.
                                Max Temp: 480 deg Celsius.
                                Morning Star/ Evening Star
                                Rotates east to west.
 14    Earth                    Venus is positioned second from the Sun and it is next to
                                Mercury.
                                Water – 71%.
                                   Land – 29%
                                   7 Continents, 4 Oceans.

 15    Seven Continents         Asia, Africa, South America, North America, Europe,
                                Antartica, Australia
 16    Oceans                   Pacific, Antartic, Artic, Indian Ocean.
 17    Earth’s Atmosphere       78% Nitrogen
                                21% Oxygen
                                0.03% Carbon-di-Oxide.
                                0.9% Argon.
                                Water Vapour, and Dust Particles.
 18    Mars                     Mars is positioned fourth from the Sun. As it is far from
       Red Planet               the Sun, about 230 Celsius temperature prevails during day
                                and about -1010 Celsius during night.
 19    Jupiter “Biggest”        Fifth from the Sun.
 20    Saturn                   Positioned Sixth from the Sun.
                                There are 7 rings around the Planet.
 21    Uranus and Neptune. “Blue”.
 22    Pluto “ Smallest”        Pluto is the smallest and also the farthest planet of the solar
                                system.
                                                           t
Class Sixth : Chapter 4
                                                      S of
 23    Mercury and Venus        Does not have satellites of their own.
                                                    meach.
 24
 25
       Earth and Pluto
       Other Planets
                                Have on Satellite
                                                 ra
                                Have more ga Satellite each.
                                               than
 26    Moon                                 Si
                                Only natural Satellite of the earth.
                                          )
                                       (C
                                One rotation / One revolution around the earth.– 27.3 days.
                                No atmosphere on the moon.
                                It reflects the light of the Sun.
 27    Neil Amstrong            Neil Armstrong, an American astronaut is the first to set foot
                                on the Moon. He and Edwin, pilot of the Apollo collected
                                rock and soil samples for analysis.
 28    New Moon                 Moon is in between earth and the Sun.
 29    Full Moon                Earth is in between the Sun and the Moon.
 30    New Moon – Full Moon 29 1/2 days.
 31    Eclipses                 Eclipses occur when the light thus received is either blocked
                                by the earth or by the Moon.
                                Orbit of the moon around the earth is tilted about 50
                                than the orbit of the Earth around the Sun.
                                Sun, Earth, Moon – Lunar Eclipse
                                Sun, Moon, Earth – Solar Eclipse.
Class Sixth : Chapter 5
 32    Latitudes and Longitudes Geographers have designed imaginary lines as addresses to
                                locate the places on the earth. Such lines are called the
                                latitudes and the longitudes.
 33    Equator                  Equator divides the globe into two equal halves. The
                                northern half of the equator is the Northern hemisphere and
                             the southern half of the equator is the
                             Southern hemisphere.
 34    Latitudes             Latitudes are imaginary lines that are drawn from east to
                             west as parallels on the globe.
                             The parallel lines north of the equator are called the north
                             latitudes and those that are south of the equator are called the
                             south latitudes.
                             North Pole – 90 deg North.
                             South Pole – 90 deg South.
 35    Important Latitudes   Tropic of Cancer – 23 ½ North
                             Tropic of Capricon – 23 ½ South
                             Artic Circle – 66 ½ North
                             Antartic Circle – 66 ½ South
 36    Longitudes            We know that the 900 N. is the North Pole and 900 S. is the
                             South Pole. The imaginary line that joins both the north and
                             south poles is called longitude.
                             The eastern half, east of 00 longitude is called the
                             eastern hemisphere and the western half, west of 00 longitude
                             is called the western hemisphere
 37    Greenwich Meridian    There is an astronomical research institute in Greenwich, a
                                                      ft
                             place near London. The longitude that is drawn across
                             Greenwich has been o  S taken as the 00 longitude. This 00
                             longitude is alsom  called the
                                               a
                                            ar
                             Greenwich Meridian.
                                          g
 38    India                 Located in ithe Northern Hemisphere. (Latitude wise)
                                      )
                             Latitudinal
                                        S Extension – 8 deg North to 37 deg North.
                                   (C in the Eastern Hemisphere. (Longitude Wise)
                             Located
                             Longitudinal Extension – 68 deg East to 96 deg East.
Class Sixth : Chapter 6
 39    Axis of the Earth     It is inclined 23 ½ deg to the vertical.
                             Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation.

 40    Season                It is assumed in India that the Sun migrates towards north
                             from the Tropic of Capricorn on
                             14th –15th January. This day is celebrated as
                             “Pongal” in Tamil Nadu and as “Mahara
                             Sankaranthi” in other states. Similarly it is
                             assumed that the Sun migrates towards south
                             from the Tropic of Cancer on 2nd –3rd August.
                             This is celebrated as “Adiperukku” in Tamil Nadu.
Class Sixth : Chapter 7
 41    Earth                 The Shape of the Earth is Spherical.
 42    Zones                 Between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricon – Torrid
                             Zone.
                             Between 23 ½ deg N- 66 ½ North and 23 ½ S – 66 ½ deg
                             South - Temparate Zones.
                              Between 66 ½ N – North pole and 66 ½ S – South Pole –
                              Frigid Zones.



 43    Indian Standard time   India extends from 680E longitude to 970E
                              longitude. Therefore 820 30’ Longitude is taken as the
                              central meridian in India. (680E longitude + 970E longitude
                              = 165/2 = 820 30’E. longitude).
                              The 820 30’ is the central meridian of India. When the Sun is
                              directly on this longitude, the time in India is 12 Noon. This
                              time is assumed as the standard time of India.
 44    World Standard time    There are 360 longitudes drawn on the Globe. The central
       Greenwich Mean Time    meridian is the Greenwich Meridian (00 long.). When the Sun
                              shines directly on this longitude it is taken as 12Noon and it
                              is considered as
                              World Standard Time.
 45    Japan                  Japanese who live in the borders of eastern hemisphere see
                              the Sunrise first in the world. Therefore Japan is called as the
                              Land of Rising Sun.
                                                        t
Class Sixth : Chapter 8
 46    Neil Amstrong          Earth – “Blue Pearl”.S of
 47    Corals and Pearls      Polyps – Corals  a m
                                            ar
                              Oysters – Pearls
                                          g
                                       Si
                              (Sea Organisms).
                              Largest ) system on the earth.
 48
 49
       Coral Reef
       Corals
                                   (C eco of the corals are very rich in calcium
                              The skeletons
                              carbonate.
Class Seven : Chapter 1
 1     India                  Our country India is in the Southern part of the Asian
                              continent. India is surrounded on three sides by water.
                              Therefore India is called a Peninsula.
  2    Himalayas              The highest mountain range in the world is the Himalayas
                              and they form the northern boundary of India.
  3    Plateau                Elevated landmasses with flat tops and steep sides are
                              called plateaus. They are also known as tablelands. The
                              Tibetan plateau is the world’s highest plateau.
  4    Plains                 1. Alluvial plains - Formed by deposits of rivers
       Favourable for human   2. Loess plains - Formed by wind deposits
       settlements            3. Coastal plains - Formed by wave action .
                              Ex: Gangetic Plain of India.
  5    Deepest Part           The deepest part of the Earth is the Mariana trench in the
                              Pacific ocean.
  6    Water                  Out of the total water covering the Earth‘s surface, 97
                              percent is salt water from the seas and oceans and only the
                              remaining 3 percent is fresh water.
 7    Atmosphere          Air is colourless, odourless and tasteless.
 8    Bacterium           The oldest known living creature, the simple single-celled
                          bacterium, took form in the Earth’s oceans some 2.5 billion
                          years ago.
  9    Earth              Earth was formed 4.6 billion Years ago.
Class Seven : Chapter 2
 10    Atmosphere         Air is a mixture of gases such as Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
                          dioxide, Argon, Neon, Methane, Ozone, Helium, Hydrogen
                          and many other gases. It extends for a height of 500 Km
                          above the Earth’s surface. This layer of air enveloping the
                          Earth’s surface is called atmosphere. Due to Earth’s gravity
                          the air is attached to the Earth’s surface. Along with the
                          Earth the atmosphere also rotates
 11   Nitrogen            Nitrogen does not have colour, odour or taste. It has the
                          property of extinguishing fire.
                          Bacteria – Nitrate – Helps in Plant growth.
 12   Oxygen              Oxygen is used in respiration by all living things. Oxygen
                          also helps in body metabolism.
 13   Photosynthesis      plants convert Carbondi- oxide into Carbohydrates, which is
                          an important source of energy for animals and human beings.
                                                     t
 14   Carbon-di-Oxide
                                                   ofheat.
                          Carbon dioxide is heavier than any other gas. It has the
                          property of absorbing  S
 15   Fossil Fuels        Due to intense am and pressure, the buried vegetation
                                             heat
                                          ar
                          turned into Carbon rich fossil fuels such as coal
                                       ig
                                   )S
                          and petroleum.
                                (C
 16   Dust Particles      The dust particles in the atmosphere are able to scatter 7
                          percent of energy coming from the Sun. They also act as
                          nuclei in the conversion of water-vapour into water droplets.
 17   Air                 The density of air decreases rapidly with increasing altitude.
 18   Troposhpere         Equator – 16 KM
                          Poles – 8 KM
                          80 Percent of air.
 19   Stratosphere        Between 16 Km – 50 Km
                          19 Percent of air.
                          Temparature remains constant.
 20   Ozone Layer         Within the stratosphere, between 20 and 35 km above the
                          Earth’s surface, lies the ozone layer. The Ozone layer filters
                          the ultraviolet rays and prevents them from reaching the
                          Earth’s surface. Human beings and animals are thus
                          protected from the harmful ultraviolet rays which can cause
                          skin diseases and cancer.
 21   Ozone depletion     Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used as a refrigerant, does not
                          have any harmful effect in the troposphere. When CFC
                          reaches the stratosphere it reacts with the ultra-violet rays
                          from the Sun thereby isolating the chlorine molecule. The
                          chlorine molecule chemically reacts with Ozone (O3) present
                           in the stratosphere and splits it into Oxygen and Chlorine -
                           mono-oxide. Thus it weakens the Ozone in the atmosphere.
                           This is known as ozone depletion. Continued depletion can
                           cause holes in the Ozone layer. Through these Ozone
                           holes the harmful ultra-violet rays can reach the Earth’s
                           surface.
 22   Montreal Protocol    In 1987 the Montreal Protocol, a treaty for protection of the
                           Ozone layer, was signed by 36 nations including the USA. In
                           1989 a total ban on the use of CFC’s was proposed by the
                           European Union to be enforced by the Developed Nations by
                           1995 and the Developing Nations by 2010.
 23   Green House gases    Carbon di oxide
                           Methane
                           Nitrous Oxide
                           Sulphur Hexa Floride
 24   Mesosphere           Between 50 KM – 80 KM
 25   Thermosphere /       Between 80 – 500 KM
      Ionosphere
 26   Exosphere            Outer Space.
 27   Atmosphere           The atmosphere prevents the Earth from becoming too hot
                                                    t
                                                  of sound waves are converted into
                           during the day or too cold during the night.
 28   Radio Broadcasting   In Radio broadcastingS
                           electromagnetic m   waves and sent to the atmosphere. The layer
                                             a
                           of ionosphere r the atmosphere reflects the electro-magnetic
                                          a in
                           waves backg the Earth’s surface. Thus we are able to listen
                                      Si to
                           to radio )broadcasts that are made at different places of the
                           world.(C
Class Seven : Chapter 3
 29    Solar Radiation     1. The visible Sunrays that consists of seven colours
                           2. The invisible Sunrays consisting of Gama rays, X rays,
                           Ultraviolet rays, Infra red rays and Radio waves.
 30   Sun                  It emits hear in Short wave radiation. This short wave
                           radiation can travel a distance of 150 million km to reach and
                           heat the Earth.
 31   Vaccum               There is a vacuum between the upper limit of the atmosphere
                           and the Sun. Since the area between the Sun and the Earth‘s
                           atmosphere is a void or vacuum, the Sun radiates its heat to
                           the Earth.
 32   Radiation            Radiation is a method by which heat is conducted without a
                           medium.
 33   Conduction           The process of heat transfer from one molecule and another
                           molecule is known as conduction.
 34   Isotherms            Isotherms are imaginary lines joining places having the same
                           temperature
 35   Diurnal range of     The difference between the daily maximum and minimum
      temperature          temperature is known as the diurnal range of temperature.
 36   Annual range of            The difference between the daily maximum and minimum
      temperature                temperature is known as the diurnal range of temperature.
                                 The difference between the average monthly maximum
                                 and minimum temperatures is known as the annual range of
                                 temperature.
 37   Zones                      Equatorial Zone – 5 N– 5 deg S
                                 Tropical Zone – 5 -30 N and 5 – 30 S
                                 Temparate Zone – 30 – 60 N and 30- 60 S
                                 Frigid Zone – 60 N and 60 S
 38   Temparatures               6.5 deg Celsius for 1000 meters(decreases).
 39   Hot and Cold winds         Hot Winds – High temperature.
                                 Cold Winds – Low temperature.
Class Seven : Chapter 4
 40    Weight of Air             I Kg per Square cm.[Air column].
                                 The weight of air resting on the Earth’s surface exerts
                                 pressure on the Earth’s surface. The pressure exerted on the
                                 Earth by the atmosphere is called the atmospheric pressure.
 41   Barometer                  An instrument called a barometer measures atmospheric
      Avg. air pressure at sea   pressure, and it is expressed in millibars.
                                                            t
 42
      level. 1013 millibars.
      Isobars                    Isobars are imaginary  S oflines, drawn on maps joining various
                                                    a m
                                 places having equal pressure. In the weather maps, pressure
                                 distribution is r
                                                 a shown by ‘isobars’.
                                               g
 43   Air Pressure                          Si
                                 The air pressure decreases steadily as the height increases
                                 above C) level. There is a decrease of one millibar for every
                                         sea
                                       (
                                 10 meters rise in elevation.
 44   Pressure Gradient          The pressure difference between any two places at a
                                 particular distance is defined as ‘pressure gradient’.
Class Seven : Chapter 5
 45    South west Monsoon        Rain: Whole of India except east coast.
       June – September
 46    North East Monsoon        Entire Tamil Nadu and Eastern Coast of India receive rainfall
                                 due to the North - East monsoon wind.
 47   Sea and Land Breezes       Sea and land breeze are blow in opposite directions over the
                                 coastal belt everyday.
 48   Cyclone                    Cyclones are intense low-pressure systems towards which
                                 winds move in from all directions. Cyclones bring heavy
                                 rainfall and are associated with high speed winds. They cause
                                 damage to both life and property.
                                 Bay of Bengal: September, October and November.
 49   Cyclone Names              North America and West Indies.
                                 Typhoons in China and Japan.
                                 Storms in India.
                                 Willy Willy in Australia.
                                 Sumoon in Arabia.
                              Bosiquiss in Philliphines.
 50   Hot Winds               Foehn – Swiss Alps.
                              Loo – India 45 -50 deg Celsius.
                              Chinook – blows down the Rockies of North America to the
                              prairies.
                              Sirocco - blows from the Sahara desert northwards over the
                              Mediterarian-sea to reach Southern Italy.
 51   Coastal Winds           Mistral and Bora.




                                                        ft
                                                     So
                                                am
                                          g  ar
                                      ) Si
                                   (C




Class Seven : Chapter 6
 52    Humidity               The amount of Water Vapour present in the air.
 53    Dew Point              “The temperature at which the air column becomes saturated
                              is called dew point”.
 54   Evaporation             The process by which the water gets transformed into the
                              gaseous state is called evaporation.
 55   Evapo – Transpiration   Water-vapour from all these sources that mixes with the
                              atmosphere is responsible for causing rainfall. Because plants
                      are responsible for supplying water-vapour, we have to grow
                      more plants and trees.
56   Condensation     Condensation is a process by which water-vapour is
                      converted into water particles.
57   Clouds           One form of condensation that takes place at higher altitudes
                      are clouds.
                      Minute water particles and ice particles stick to dust particles
                      that are present in the atmosphere. They join together to form
                      clouds.
58   Dew              These tiny water droplets are called as dew. Dew is formed.
59   Rainfall         The falling of water droplets from the atmosphere is called as
                      rain fall.
60   Fog              When condensation takes place near the Earth’s surface fog
                      is formed. Fog is defined as a cloud whose base is at or very
                      near the ground.
61   Mist             Mist is also a kind of fog, much thinner than the fog. Mist
                      reduces visibility slightly.
62   Deccan Plateau   Rain Shadow region.


                                                ft
                                             So
                                        am
                                  g  ar
                              ) Si
                           (C
Class Seven : Chapter 7
 63    Equatorial Climate     5 N- 5S. The annual average temperature of this zone is 27°C
                              the annual average rainfall is about 250 cm.
 64    Tropical Climate       5 – 25N and 5 – 25S. The tropical region receives rainfall
                              only for a few months of a year. So, there are well marked
                              rainy and dry season in a year. The average rainfall is lesser
                              than the rainfall of the equatorial region.
 65    Sub Tropical Climate   25 – 35N and 25 – 35S. The subtropical belt experiences
                              warm summers and cool winters.
 66    Temparate Climate      35 – 60N and 35 – 60S. Summers are cool and winters are
                              very cold.
 67    Sub Polar Climate      60- 70 N and 60 – 70S.
 68    Polar Climate          The region lying beyond 70° North and South of the
                              equator experience polar climate. Temperature is below
                              freezing point throughout the year.
Class Seven : Chapter 8
 69    Soil                   “Soil is made up of minute particles of disintegrated rocks,
                              containing minerals, decomposed organic matter and
                              Bacteria”.
                              River Bed – Sand
                                                         t
                                                      of
                              Ponds and Lakes – Alluvial Soil.
                              Red Soil, Black Soil. S
 70    Sand                                     a m
                              Sand is not suitable for agriculture.
                                             ar
                              However coconut trees grow well in this soil where the
                              rainfall isSig
                                          heavy. Trees like casuarina, cashewnuts etc., also
                                        ) in sandy region.
                                     (C
                              grow well
 71    Alluvial Soil          Rich – Potassium and
                              Deficient – Phosphorous.
                              Suitable for agriculture. Crops like paddy, sugarcane,
                              plaintain etc., grow well on Alluvial soil.
                              Fertile alluvial soil is used for making bricks.
 72    Red Soil               Ion Content is very high.
                              Red soil is moderately fertile and suitable for agriculture.
                              Crops like redgram, Bengal gram, Greengram and oil seeds
                              like groundnut, castor seed etc., grow well in this soil.
 73    Black Soil             Hence, this soil is capable of supporting plant growth even if
                              the rainfall is very low.
                              It is rich in calcium, pottasium, magnesium, aluminium, iron
                              and other carbonates. This soil is poor in nitrogen content.
                              Black soil is suitable for agriculture. Crops like cotton,
                              tobacco, chilli, oil seeds, jowar, ragi, maize, etc., grow well
                              in this soil.
Class Seven : Chapter 9
 74    Natural Vegetation     They germinate and grow naturally without the effort of man
                              and are known as ‘natural vegetation’.
 75    Decidious trees        Teak and Sal.
 76    Coniferous Trees          Pine , fir, Laurch and Spruce.
 77    Evergreen Forests         Evergreen forests are found in the equatorial regions where
                                 the temperature and rainfall is very high. Due to heavy
                                 rainfall throughout the years, these forests are evergreen.
                                 Trees like teak, mahogany, ebony and rosewood are found
                                 here. These forests are found in the Amazon basin of South
                                 America and Congo basin or Zaire in Africa. The Silent
                                 Valley in Kerala is the best example of evergreen forests in
                                 India.
 78    Deciduous Forest          The trees of the deciduous forests shed their leaves at a
                                 particular time of the year. They are also called
                                 monsoon forests.
                                 The important trees found here are teak, sal, sandalwood and
                                 pillamarudhu.
                                 They are Oak, Cyprus, Maple and Olive. These are used to
                                 make furniture.
 79    Deserts                   Hot: Cactus, prickly pear aloe and thorny bushes
                                 are found here. Such vegetation are found in the Sahara and
                                 Kalahari deserts of Africa. Thar desert of India and the great
                                 Australian desert.
                                                         ft
                                 Cold: These deserts are Gobi deserts of China ‘Taklamakan’
                                 of Tibet. PatagonianoS desert of South America.
 80    Plants                                       m
                                 Plants provide us with oxygen.
                                                  a
 81    Silent Valley in Kerala                 ar
                                 Evergreen Forests
                                             g
Class Eight : Chapter 1,2,3
                                         ) Si
 82    Mountain                  A mountain can be defined as an area of land that rises
                                       (C
                                 abruptly from the surrounding region
 83    Lava                      Temparature: 1100 deg Celsius.
 84    Mauna Loa                 Hawaii
 85    Paricutin                 Mexico City
 86    Barren Island             Only active volcano in India Subcontinent, located 135 km
                                 east of Port Blair, in east Andaman Sea and is a part of
                                 Andaman Nicobar chain of islands in the Indian Ocean
 87    Tiltmeter                 Tiltmeter to measure the expansion of a volcanoe.
 88    Thermometers              Thermometers to check temperature increases in the area,
                                 and gas detectors to measure the amount of gas.
 89    Ajanta Caves              Ajantha Caves Curved in the basaltic lava
 90    Geothermal Energy         This geothermal energy is used to produce electricity.
 91    Krakotoa                  One of the most spectacular volcanic eruptions in recorded
                                 history occurred in 1883 with the explosion of Krakatoa, an
                                 island in the Sunda Strait near Java.
 92    Lava Plateau              Lava plateaus are built by the accumulation of basalt released
                                 by volcanic activity. The Deccan Traps are one of the largest
                                 volcanic provinces in the world.
 93    Geothermal gradient       Gradual Increase in temp with depth is called geothermal
                                 gradient.
Class Eight : Chapter 4
 94    January 26th 2001      Bhuj in Gujarat , India experienced a major earthquake
                              recently on January 26th 2001, The damage was extreme
                              with nearly 20,000 people killed and over 150,000 injured.
 95    Epicentre              The point on earth surface above the focus is called as
                              epicenter.
 96    Earthquake Waves       Seismic Waves
 97    Ritcher Scale          Earthquakes are measured using something called the Richter
                              scale.
Class Eight : Chapter 5
 98    Igneous Rocks          Basalt(extrusive) and Granite.(Intrusive)
 99    Sedimentary Rocks      One of the commonest sedimentary rock is sandstone, lime
                              stone and coal
100    Cement                 Cement made from limestone and other rocks serves to bind
                              crushed stone into strong, long-lasting concrete for buildings,
                              dams, and highways.
101    Ores                   Metals such as aluminum, iron, lead, and tin come from
                              rocks called ores. Radium and Uranium.
102    Peridodite             Diamonds mined in Africa and Arkansas come from a rock
                              called peridotite.
                              Emeralds are found inftblack limestone in Colombia.
                                                 So
103    Black Limestone
104    Erosion                The removal of rock and soil by natural processes is known
                              as Erosion.     am
                                            ar
                                         ig
Class Eight : Chapter 6- 13
105 Great Canyon              Northern SArizona.(Colorodo River)
                                      )
106 Cauvery
                                   (C
                              River Cauvery is the only major river in Tamilnadu. This is
                              an interstate river with many tributaries lying in Karnataka
                              and Tamilnadu States.
                              Origin: Coorg
                              Middle: The tributaries such as Bhavani, Amaravathi, and
                              Noyyal join the river cauvery while flowing through
                              the Deccan plateau.
107    Canyon                 A deep, steep-walled, V-shaped valley cut by a river through
                              resistant rock is often called a canyon.
108    Gorges                 Smaller valleys of similar appearance are
                              called gorges .
109    Delta                  The forward motion of the river is checked upon when a
                              river enters an ocean. So, the river deposits its load of
                              sediments near the mouth of the river. This is known as
                              Delta.
110    Glaciers large         In Europe. Malaspina Glacier on Yakutat Bay in Alaska
111    Size of Waves          Wind speed.
112    Yellow River           Hwang Ho
113    Pacific Ocean          Largest Ocean
114    Shallow Seas           The Caribbean, Mediterranean, Baltic, Arctic Seas, and the
                              Gulf of Mexico
115   Indian Ocean             Smallest of the three Oceans.
116   Continental Self         Northwestern Europe and the coastal areas around Japan
                               are the largest fishing grounds in the world.
117   Hazard                   Hazard is a natural event.
118   Disastar                 It is nothing but the consequence of hazard.
119   Pirpanchal Foothills     Himalayas. Known for avalanche.
120   Flood Prone Areas        Ganga and Brahmaputra Basins.
121   Eastern Coast line       The eastern coastline of India, is more prone to cyclones as it
                               hit by about 80% of total cyclones generated in the region.
                               About 4 to 6 such storms originate in the Bay of Bengal and
                               the Arabian Sea every year.
122 Nilgris                    Avalanche Valley.
123 Kumbakonam Tragedy         2004.
124 Bhopal                     Methyl Iso Cyanate. Union Carbide India Limited. 1984
Class Nine : Chapter 1
125 Capitalism                 Capitalism is an economic system in which capital goods are
                               owned, operated and traded by private individuals,
                               businesses, or corporations for the purpose of profit.
126   Socialism                Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social
                               organization advocating state or collective ownership and
                                                      ft
                               administration of theomeans of production and distribution of
                                                    S
                               goods, and the creation of an egalitarian society
127   Nationalism                                a m to an ideology, a sentiment, a form of
                               Nationalism can refer
                                            g ar
                               culture, or a social movement that focuses on the nation.
128   Total Countries          193.      Si
                               The top )three countries with very high density are Monaco,
129   High density of Pop.
      (Countries)
                                     (C
                               Singapore and Vatican city.
130   Worlds largest City      Mumbai.
131   High per Capita Income   Luxembourg ($ 45,348), Japan ($ 34,556), Norway, ($
                               34,356), United States of America ($ 33,922), and Sweden ($
                               27,536).
132   Low Per Capita Income    Congo ($ 18), Ethiopia ($ 94), Myanmar ($ 122), and Bhutan
                               ($ 147).
133   Indo European            French, Portugese, Spanish and English
      Languages
134   Dravidian Languages      Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
135   Cold War [ USA,Russia]   They were aggressive against each other, spied on each
                               other, and also fought proxy wars in the third world
                               countries.
136   Tiger Economy            A tiger economy is the economy of a country which
      Hongkong, Singapore,     undergoes rapid economic growth, usually accompanied by
      Taiwan, Malasyia,        an increase in standard of living.
      Thailand, South Korea.
137   January 9th              Pravasi Bharathiya Divas
138   BRIC                     Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
Class Nine : Chapter 2
139 GDP – Gross Domestic       The GDP is actually the market values of goods and services
       Product                 produced in that country.
140 Standard of Living         The GDP of a country divided by the number of its
                               population gives rise to ‘standard of living’.
141    Human Development       The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index
       Index 1990              combining normalized measures of life expectancy, literacy,
                               educational attainment, and GDP per capita for countries
                               worldwide.
142    WWW                     World Wide Web
143    Third World Countries   All economically backward countries, trying hard for
                               developing their societies, were called the Third World
                               countries.
Class Nine : Chapter 3
144 Productivity               Among the criteria used in dividing the world into regions is
                               productivity.
145    Vegetative lands        Savannas (Africa, India, Australia and in the north of the
                               South America) and Mediterranean and mid latitude
                               grasslands.
146    Worlds largest desert   Sahara – Africa.(North)
                                                      t
147    Coniferous forests
                                                   of
                               Canada, Russia and Scandinavian Countries.
                                                 S
148    Nomads – Midnight Sun   Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.
       countries.                             am
Class Nine : Chapter 4,5
                                          gar
149 Nilgris                             Si
                               Eastern and Western Ghats meet.
                                      )
       Thottabetta
150 Rivers in Tamilnadu
                                   (C Then Pennai, Palar, Vaigai and Tamiravaruni, they
                               Cauvery,
                               depend on the seasonal rainfall.
151    Madras presidency       Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh and Kerala.
152    January 14th 1969       Madras State was renamed as ‘Tamil Nadu’
153    Time                    Sirupozhuthu – A day – 6 – Vaigarai, Kalai, Nanpagal,
                               Yerpadu, Malai and Yamam.
                               Perumpozhuthu – A Year – 6 Seasons( 2 months) – Kar,
                               Kuthir, Munpani, Pinpani, Ilavenil and Muduvenil.
154    Thinai                  Every thinai has the three aspects of mudal, karu, and uri.
                               These five regions were deliberately sung as the ulagam or
                               the world by Tholkappiyar.
155    Hills                   Anamalai, Palani, Kodaikanal, Kutralam, Mahendragiri or
                               the Agathiyar hills.
156    Anaimudi                Highest peak in South India.
157    Palghat                 Gateway to Kerala.
158    Kurunji Flower          Blossoms for every 12 years.
159    Kambam Hills            It separates the Aundipatti hills and Varushanad Hills.
160    Eastern ghats           The Eastern Ghats extend in the form of detached hills such
                               as the Javadhus, Shevroys, the Kalrayans, the Kollimalais
                               and the Pachaimalais.
161    Yercaud                  Shevroy hills, Salem
162    Solaikadu, Kolli hills   Bauxite
163    Pachaimalai              Black Granite.
164    Baramal Plateau          Continuation of Mysore Plateau
165    Coimbatore Plateau       Coimbatore, Salem, Erode.
166    Nilgris Plateau          This is separated from the Mysore plateau by the Moyar river
                                in the north.
167    Plains                   (a) the Cormandel coastal plains;
                                (b) the Cauvery Alluvial Plains and
                                (c) the dry southern Coromandel coastal plains.
Class Nine : Chapter 6 - 9
168 Climate                     The average weather conditions of a place from anywhere
                                between 30 years to 150 years become the climate of that
                                place.
169    Seasons                  January to March : Dry Weather
                                April and May : Hot Weather
                                June to September : Southwest Monsoon
                                October to December : Northeast Monsoon
170    Venirkalam               Period of Scorching Sun.
171    Alluvial Soils           Cauvery in Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, and Nagapattinam
                                                          t
                                                       of
                                districts and also in Villupuram, Cuddalore, Thirunelveli and
                                                     S
                                Kanyakumari districts.
                                                   m Magnesium.
                                                ra
                                Rich: Potassium and
                                Crop: Paddy,asugarcane, banana and turmeric are the main
                                              g
                                           Si
                                crops grown here.
                                         )
172    Black Soils
                                      (C Found.
                                Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram, Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai
                                Gypsyum
173    Saline Soil              Vedaranyam
174    Laterite Soil(Red in     Iron Oxide Content.
       Colour)
175    Sex ratio                986/1000
176    Nilgris                  It is here the tribes such as the Todas, the Kotas and the
                                Kurumbas live.
177    Malayali Tribes          Javadhu hills, Pachaimalai, Kollimalai and Yercaud hills are
                                the places where Malayali tribes live in very large numbers.
178    Chennai                  Detroit of India
179    Coimbatore               Manchester of India
180    Literacy Rate            73.5%
                                Kanyakumari – 80%
                                Urban Literacy – 82.07 %
181    Growth and development   2nd , Tamilnadu is next to kerala.
182    Agro based Industries    Cotton and Textile Mills, Sugar and Paper Mills.
183    Geographical Area        13 Million hectares
                                45P for Agriculture, 18P Forest, 15P Non Agri, 15P fallow.
                                Paddy, millets, sugarcane, cotton and groundnut are some of
                                the important crops of the State.
184    Paddy                    Tamil Nadu is the third ranking state in the production of
                                paddy after Andhra Peadesh and West Bengal. Paddy is
                                cultivated in 3 million hectares and the production is nearly 5
                                million tonnes.
185    Cotton                   Cotton is the much needed fibre crop. It is a commercial
                                crop.
                                There is government support and incentives for cotton
                                textiles through cooperatives and Sarvodaya Societies. Cities
                                such as Salem, Dharmapuri, Erode, Coimbatore, Vellore,
                                Thanjavur, Madurai and Virudhunagar are important cotton
                                textiles centres.
186    Coffee and tea           Coffee and tea are the crops cultivated in the plantations of
                                Tamil Nadu. These crops are grown on the slopes of the
                                Nilgiris, Anaimalai, Kodaikanal and Yercaud.
187    Silk Weaving             This industry buys the silk from Karnataka and processes it
                                before dyeing and using in weaving. It mixes the zari in a
                                good blend and weaves then the silk products.
                                Salem, Dharmapuri, Kanchipuram, Arani, Thirubhuvanam,
                                Kumbakonam and Madurai are some of the important centres
                                of silk weaving.
188    Sugar Mills              37 Sugar Mills.           ft
189    Match Industries         Match industries areo  S concentrated in places such as
                                                     m
                                Virudhunagar, Vellore and Sivakasi.
                                                   a
190    Paper Mills                              ar
                                Paper Mills use soft wood and sugarcane waste known as the
                                              g
                                           Si
                                bagasse. Kakithapuram, Sivaganga, Theni, and Thirunelveli
                                         )
                                are the places where such mills are found. Printing industries
                                      (C widespread in the State.
                                are however
 191   Coach Factory            Perambur, Chennai.
192    Enfield                  Spare parts in vellore.
193    Pertroleum refineries    Manali Chennai.
194    Neyveli                  Lignite Corporation
195    Nuclear Power Plant      The Nuclear Power Station at Kalpakkam is functioning
                                very well. Efforts are afoot to install a nuclear power plant in
                                Kudankulam with assistance from Russia.
196    Sankar Cement            Thalayuthu.
197    Industrial Development   Tamilnadu Ranks 5th in India
198    Govt. Organisations      Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO),
                                the State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu
                                (SIPCOT), and
                                Tamil Nadu State Small Industries Development Corporation
                                (SIDCO) help with the setting up of industries.
Class Nine : Chapter 10,11
199    Vedic Schools            Gurukuls
200    Birth and Death Rate     Birth : 20.7%
                                Death: 8.8%
201    Christian Medical          Vellore
       College
202    Cartography                Cartography is both a science and art of drawing maps and
                                  diagrams.
Class Ten : Chapter 1,2
1      Tropic of Cancer           The Tropic Cancer divides India into Peninsular and
                                  Extra-Peninsular India.
2      Land border                As for the land border, it shares its common border with
                                  Afghanistan and Pakistan - Northwest,
                                  Indo-China and Bhutan -North, and
                                  Bangladesh - East.
3      Palk Strait                Sri Lanka is separated from India by a strait, known as the
                                  Palk Strait.
4      Scheduled Languages        18 accepted in the Constitution.
5      Aryabhatta                 Zero was invented.
6      Bhaskaracharya             Timetaken by the earth to rotate round the sun.
7      Bhdhayana                  The value of "pi" was first calculated by Budhayana, and he
                                  explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean
                                  Theorem.
8      Jagdeesh Bose              Wireless Communication.
9      Sushruta                   Father of Surgery. oft
10     Vindhya Mountains                                S
                                  Runs Parallel to the Narmada Valley.
11     Satpura Mountains                            a m
                                  The Satpura mountains are found between the rivers
       Seven Folds                             g ar
                                  Narmada and the Tapti.
12     Western Ghats                        Si
                                  Talkad, Porkad, and Palghat.
                                  MountC)
13
14
       Highest Peak on Aravalli
       Himalayas
                                        ( Abu highest summit known as the Everest is on these
                                  The world's
                                  mountains. Everest is found at the border of Nepal. On the
                                  Himalayas of the Indian borders are the peaks such as those
                                  of the Kanjan Janga, Daulagiri, and Nanga Parbat.
15     Kahmir Valley              In Himalayas is beautiful.
16     Plains                     Indo Gangetic Plains, Sutlej Plains and Brahmaputra Plains.
17     East flowing River         Mahanadi, Godavari(AP), Krishna(AP) and Cauvery(KA-
                                  TN).
18     Bakra Nangal               Across Sutlej, Benefits Punjab.
Class Ten : Chapter 3,4
19     Summer                     March – September
20     Winter                     October – February
       High Pressure -
       Northwest
21     North East Monsoon         Retreating Monsoon.
22     Cyclones                   Bay of Bengal – October to December
23     Rain Water Harvesting      The process of catching rainwater when and where it falls for
                                  use during non-monsoon months is called rainwater
                                  harvesting.
24    Rain Water               Fresh Water
25    Arid Region              Thar Desert
26    Evergreen Vegetation     Ebony, Deodar, Rosewood and Karungali are the evergreen
                               varieties of vegetation.
27    Decidious Vegetation     The important trees of these forests are the teak, sal, red
                               wood, sandal and bamboo.
28    Andaman and Nicobar      Mangroves here are a special type of vegetation.
29    'vana mahotsav           July-August
30    Kumari Cultivation       This is particularly encouraged towards quicker yield and
                               quality improvement of the forests.
31     Kumaridhars             Forest Department.
32     Marshy Lands            Sundarbans.
33     Thurukkal               Hill Soil
Class Ten : Chapter 5
34     Paddy Production        Andhra ranks first and Tamilnadu ranks second.
35     Thanjavur               Rice bowl of Tamilnadu
       Samba,Kuruvai,Thaladi
36     Pongal                  Thanksgiving for the sun.
37     Aduthurai               In Aduthurai of Thanjavur district, a Regional Research
                               Centre for Rice has been established and it is doing yeoman
                                                         t
                               service.
                                                    S of
38    Sugarcane                Sucrose
                                                  msugarcane, the farmers do not cut the cane
39    Ratooning                When harvesting ra
                               completely ga leave the stumps in the field. Sugarcane
                                             but
                                          Si
                               grows from the stumps leftover in the field This process is
                                        )
                                     (C
                               known as the rattooning.
40    Kerala                   In the littoral areas of Kerala, oil crops such as the cashew
                               and coconut are grown in vast areas.
41    Cotton – Tropical Crop   Maharashtra(1) and Gujarat.
42    Coffee                   The parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu where coffee
                               is grown are in the Western Ghats area of the states.
                               Kodagu hills of Karnataka and Palani Hills of Tamil Nadu
                               are the two important areas of coffee cultivation.
                               Over 80 per cent of the coffee grown in India is from the
                               state of Karnataka.
43    Tobacco                  Coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat States.
44    Kerala                   Crops such as rubber and spices such as pepper, cardamom
                               and cloves are some of the crops grown on the slopes of the
                               Western Ghats, particularly in Kerala.
45    Wheat                    Punjab (1) and Uttarpradesh
46    Punjab                   Wheat granary of India.
47    Holi                     After wheat harvest holy is celebrated.
48    Tea                      Assam, Darjeeling of west Bengal.
49    Jute                     West Bengal ranks 1 in jute production.
50    FCI                      Food Corporation of India.
Class Ten : Chapter 6
51     Iron and Manganese ore     Bihar, Orissa, and West Bengal are the important states
                                  where metallic minerals are found.
52     Bauxite                    Tamilnadu
53     Gold                       Karnataka – Kolar
54     Mica, limestone and        Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya
       gypsum                     Pradesh.
55     Coal, petroleum and        Petroleum – Maharashtra, Assam and Cauvery delta of
       natural gas                tamilnadu.
56     Tata Steel (TISCO)         Jamshedpur – 1907
                                  Coal-Damodar Valley
                                  Manganese – Bihar
                                  Orissa – Dolomite
                                  River - Subarnareka
57     Chittranjan – West         Railway Engines
       bengal
58     Perambur                   Railway Coaches
59     Timber                     Andaman Islands [Asias largest saw mill]
60     Nepa Nagar                 Madhya Pradesh, NewsPrint Industry
61     Mumbai                     Cotton Textile Industry.
62     Mumbai                     Manchester of India.oft
Class Ten : Chapter 7 - 12                             S
63     Indian Railways                              a
                                  India's railways arem the densest in Asia.
       1833                                    g ar
                                  Railways Headquarters
       Bombay – Thane             Central - SiMumbai, Victoria
                                  Eastern ) Calcutta
       34 KM
                                        (C - - New Delhi
                                  Northern
                                  Northeast - Gorakhpur
                                  Northeastern - Border Malegaon
                                  Southern - Chennai
                                  South Central - Secunderabad
                                  Southeastern - Calcutta
                                  Western Mumbai - Churchgate
64     Satabti Superfast trains   Chennai – Coimbatore, Mysore, Newdelhi
65     International Airports     Chennai, Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad
                                  and Thiruvananthapuram are the International Airports in the
                                  country.
66     Professor Dave 1991        Minimum levels of learning.
67     India                      Second most populous and seventh largest country in the
                                  world.
68     Census                     Census is a collection of data on a country's population
       (Every 10 Years)           number and its social and economic statuses.
69     Gangetic Plains            States such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and the
                                  northern Madhya Pradesh with large populations are found in
                                  the Gangetic Plains.
70     Kerala                     Only in kerala women are more than the men.
71   Eighth Plan 1992 -1997   Human Resource main focus / Economic Reforms
72   Wheat                    India is the third largest producer of whear. (1.china,2.USA)
73   Exports                  Most of them are Industrial Products.
74   Social Data              Data regarding individuals, family, village and town people
                              belong
                              to this group of data.
75   Economic Data            Data in regard to all economic activities by human beings are
                              economic data.
76   Cultural Data            Cultural data include all kinds of other data. Indian cultural
                              structure, its divisions, services in India (transport, health,
                              and education), technology and new innovations and
                              inventions are all examples of cultural data.
77   Spatial Data             Location
78   GPS                      Global Positioning System
79   Field Work               Fieldwork is literally data collection, whether it is soil or
                              plant types or religious patterns; so consistency is important
                              for accurate results.
80   Samples                  Select people who provide us data.


                                                        ft
                                                     So
                                                am
                                          g  ar
                                      ) Si
                                   (C