TNPSC Group I And Group II General English And Grammar Notes

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TNPSC Group I And Group II General English And Grammar Notes Powered By Docstoc
					                                English Words - Meanings

1   Words and Meanings:
    unique - only one of its kind
    humane - kind hearted
    humanism - respect for human interests
    ancient - of the past
    values - ideals and principles
    Cordial - friendly
    response - reply
    monk - saint
    tolerance - accept without protest
    universal - relating to all
    acceptance - agreeing
    hymn - a song of praise to God
    mingle - mix with
    cease - come to a stop
    abusing - wrong treatment
    sleek - soft
                                                             t
    leap - jump
                                                        S of
    liar - one who tells lies
                                                    a m
                                                 ar
    bow - bending the head or body as a sign of respect
                                               g
                                            Si
    grave - serious
    sympathy - feeling of pity
                                          )
    bliss - great joy                  (c
    delayed - late
    happened - occurred
    information – news
    countryside -village
    grumbled - complained in a low voice
    chugged - the slow movement of an engine
    dreadful - unbearable
    terrible - unpleasant
    lemonade - lemon juice
    nibbled - took small bites of food
    strange - not familiar
    delicious - tasty
    slab - flat piece
    huge - big
    cheese - a food item made of milk
    thunder - loud noise heard after lightning
    whispered - murmured
    quite – completely
    lone - single, without a partner
    testing - provoke, to make a person or an animal angry
bay - bark
fat souls - fat dogs
parade - military exercise
impending - an unpleasant event to happen very soon
disturb - to break the calm of
incomparable - that nothing can be compared to
dynasty - succession of rulers belonging to one family
ascended - became a king
conquer - to defeat enemies
embrace - to accent a set of beliefs
sanctuary - an area where animals are protected
prevalent - that exists at a particular time or place
ardent – enthusiastic
strings - thread for tying things
pop - short, sharp bursting sound
highways - main roads
nap - short rest; in this poem, it means ‘caught’.
cactus - a desert plant with thorny stems.
pile - one on top of the other bacon - meat of a pig
porcupine - a small animal covered with thorns
                                                          t
                                                       of
clinic - hospital
dirty - not clean                                    S
toilet – lavatory
                                                 a m
debut - the first appearance in sports
                                            g ar
                                         Si
hailed - praised and called
prodigy - person with a remarkable )    ability
pinnacle - the highest point         (c
Guinness - book of world records
instantly - immediately
perseverance - continuous effort for an achievement
performance - notable action
core – totally
swings - moves forward and backward
message - information
stamped - having an official mark
anon - not known
deposit - a sum of money paid into a bank account.
soiled - dirty
appearance - the way that somebody looks.
co-existence - live together
fortunes - chance or luck
reptiles - creeping creatures
panic - great fear
ill omen - a bad sign
set its eyes - attacked
myth - stories of olden times
mate -Partner
stuff of lore - subject matter for stories
mysticism - belief in God through
prayer
ecological - connection between the plants and the animals and surroundings
slithering - moving smoothly close to the ground
fit of rage - anger
aversion -strong dislike
pest control - control of insects or animals that destroy plants, food etc.
misinformed - wrongly informed
Geckos - a kind of lizard
sort - type
blondish - pale golden colour
invented – found
fair - an exhibition
impressed - liked most, to fix deeply in the
mind
put up - arranged/erect
preference - choice
portrait – picture
imported - buy goods from another country to sellftin your country
fascinated - very interested                        So
                                                 m
dismantled - take apart a machine into separate pieces
mechanism - how a machine and its parts ra      work.
                                              a
flourished - was very successful           ig
fleet - a group of buses, taxis, etc. ) S
amenities - basic comforts           (c
crave - longing for
bushes - plant with thick and woody stems
thrushes - singing birds
gushes - rushing flow
sovereign cry - heard above all other sounds
hollow - empty space
pious - believe in God
torn - damaged
offered - worshipped
wrought - made it happen
Hermit - a holy person
unaware of - not knowing
customs - age old habits
miracles - wonders
manifested - shown
naive - simple
invocation - prayer
prescribed - ordered
undignified - without respect
radiant – bright
discerned - understood
revered - respected
hastened - hurried
dumb founded – surprised
dew- pearled - dew drops are compared with pearls.
lark - a small song bird
snail - a small soft animal with a round shell on its back
heaven - the place of god
independent - free
patriot - one who loves his/her country
discontinued - stopped
meagre - Small
honest - True
sob - to cry noisily
oblige - perform a service of favour for
adorn - make more attractive or beautiful, decorate
charming - attractive
portrait - a painting, drawing
graceful – beautiful
                                                         t
                                                      of
fatal - causing death
valuable - worth a great deal of money
                                                    S
pious - deeply religious
                                                a m
shrewd - clever
                                           g ar
                                        Si
fear-stricken - full of fear
gathered - came together              )
alerted - warn of a danger         (c
shelter - a place to stay
overpowered - use stronger force
yearning - longing; strong desire for something
pounce – attack
butcher - a person who cuts and sells meat
solve - find an answer to
thy - your
long - to wish for something
murmured - complained
argument - disagreement, quarrel
cologne - a mild perfume
heroically - showing the qualities of a hero
trooped - moved together in a group
goodwill - kind feelings towards people
bare - empty
miserable - very unhappy
escort - to go with someone
festivities - merry-making
amazed - very surprised
treat - something that gives great pleasure
stared - looked steadily at somebody or something
fairies - small imaginary creatures with magical powers
hushed - silent
mortal - one who cannot live forever; a human being
panted - took short, quick breaths
gulping - swallowing quickly
groaned - (here) cried in pain
distress - great pain
rehearse - to practise a play, piece of music, etc.
crumb - a very small piece of food
fate - destiny; the power that controls all events
meadow - grasslands
gallop - the movement of a horse when all the four feet are off the ground
whinnied - neighed softly
sweet temper - pleasant attitude
breaking - in - the act of training and
disciplining a horse
saddle - a leather seat for a rider on the horse
bridle - a set of leather bands attached to the reins
halter - strap                                        ft
harness - a set of straps and metal pieces wornSo   around the body and the head of a horse
stable - place where horses are kept              m
pony - a type of small horse
                                             a ra
mare - a female horse                     ig
mane - the long hair on the neck of )aS  horse
                                     (c
intuition - the ability to know something by your feelings
reins - two leather straps that are fastened around a horse and held by the rider
snare - trap
aid - help
frightened - being afraid of
wrinkling - the lines or folds in the face caused by pain
paw - animal’s foot that has nails or claws
estuary - the wide part of a river where it goes into the sea
shark - huge fish with very sharp teeth
crocodiles - big reptiles with a long mouth and sharp teeth that live in rivers and lakes
afraid - full of fear
environment - the natural surroundings such as air, water, land
podium - a small raised platform
prevalence - large existence
glaciers - masses of ice which move slowly down a valley
scanty - not enough in quantity
palmyra - a palm tree commonly seen in southern parts of Tamilnadu
resource - means of help
harvesting - gathering or storing
sump - a hollow area where water
fiery - like fire (hot and bright)
clatters - makes a loud noise
tramp of hoofs - the sound made by the feet of running horses
gushes - flows out suddenly
spout - an opening of a pipe or vessel from which liquid comes out
pane - sheet of glass in a window
gutter - channel for water is collected
shoulder - bear; accept
academy - school or college for special training
career - job in a particular area of wor
bunker - strongly built shelter for soldiers or guns
altitude - height above the sea-level
crucial - very important
sacrifice - the act of giving up something for a noble cause
ambition - strong desire
trouble spot - a place where there is danger
volunteer - to do something of one’s own will
launched - (here) sent a weapon into the sky
hurdle - difficulty
terrain - rough land
                                                           t
                                                        of
fierce - severe
retreat - moveback
                                                      S
unmindful - not taking into account
                                                  a m
injury - wound
                                             g ar
                                          Si
immortal - that will live forever
fatal - causing death                   )
determination - strong will          (c
grit - courage
posthumously - after death
heart-rending - causing deep sorrow
warrior - soldier good at fighting
swooned - became unconscious
uttered - said
stole - moved silently
worthy - deserving
foe - enemy
tempest - storm, in the ocean
torture - to cause great pain
fled - ran away from danger
annexe - extension of a building
recover - get back
seized - captured
clutches - tight grip
anxious - worried
woes - misfortunes
amusements – enjoyments
Held - kept
fragments - pieces
domestic - internal
tireless - determined
striving - trying hard
stretches - extends
perfection - excellence
dreary - dull
terrible - very severe
puny - very small
frothy - giving foam
Reared - bred
prosperity - good fortune
Assigned - allotted
harassed - tortured, troubled
compete - try to do better than others
providence - God’s care for
human beings
energetic - dynamic, full of force
ambitious - challenging, full of strong desire
                                                         t
                                                      of
strove - tried hard
relentless - tireless, unyielding                   S
architect - one who plans and designs
                                                a m
                                             ar
keeping the wolf from the doors - having enough money to avoid starvation
                                           g
                                        Si
honour’s sake - for the purpose of respect
stand fast - be firm                  )
dare - be brave                    (c
blood-shed - killing of people
acknowledged - accepted the existence of
fondled - caressed lovingly
despair - lack of hope
persuade - to make someone do something by repeatedly asking, reasoning, arguing, etc.
vanquish - defeat
amid - in the middle of
overwhelmed - filled with emotion
embrace - hug
lavished - (here) showed
parentage - being descended from particular parents
revealed - told the truth
protested - (here) disagreed
befriended - made friends
rebuked - scolded mildly
flung - threw
charioteer - one who drives a chariot
deserted - left
traitor - one who betrays
ingrate - thankless person
to muse on - to think deeply
paced - moved around
haunts - places often visited
traverse - pass through
friend of - close friend my bosom
wert - (old use) were
dwelling - place of living
departed -* left
blood-stained - smeared with blood
hurt - injured
veterinary doctor - one who treats animals
Blue Cross - an international organisation that takes care of animals
Hurry- great haste
port - harbour
life buoy - a ring-shaped object filled with air, to keep one afloat
life guard - swimmer employed to save those who drown
chubby - rounded, plump
dairy - a place where milk products are made
scolded - spoke angrily
                                                         t
                                                      of
peace - the state of being quiet
funny - laughable                                   S
hated - disliked very much
                                                a m
inn - a small hotel
                                           g ar
                                        Si
valley - an area of low land between hills or mountains
                                      )
                                    (c after a flash of lightning
barrel - a large round container
thunder - the loud noise that you hear
strange - unusual
beard - hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of a man
wicked - very bad
in vain - of no use
alas - used to show that one is sad or sorry
exactly – correctly
recognised - knew somebody or something by recalling tale - a story
discoverer - one who finds out something
wonderful - very good, pleasant
pied - of two or more colours
terrible - very unpleasant
bit - used teeth to cut through
sunburnt - suffering from sunburn
guilders - the unit of money in the Netherlands
marching - walking with stiff regular steps like a soldier
lame - unable to walk well
menial work - boring, unimportant work
dawn to dusk - morning to evening
rolled on - passed
magic wand - magic stick tale - story
rags - old torn clothes
wit’s end - worried stage
abrupt - sudden
in vain - without success
paediatrician - a child specialist
homage - dutiful reverence
pharmacy - a place where medicines are prepared and given out
measles - an infectious viral disease marked by red spots on the skin
chicken-pox - a disease especially of children causing fever and red itchy spots on the
skin
diabetes - a condition in which a person’s body cannot control the level of sugar in the
blood
AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (ACRONYM)
panacea - remedy for all troubles
greenwood - an area abounding in trees
note - tune
hither - here
ambition - strong desire
incurable - that which cannot be cured
                                                       t
                                                    of
congenital - at or from birth
pancreas - glands that produce insulin
                                                  S
                                                m
mucus - a thick liquid produced inside the nose and other parts of the body
                                              a
compose - steady oneself
disabled - (here) physically challengedig
                                           ar
                                         S
                                      c)
awkward - unsteady
gait - stride, the way one walks (
genetic disorder - improper combination of genes
Dystrophy - bodily disorder owing to the wasting of tissues
slumped - fell suddenly because of weakness
diagnose - find out the disease
wanton boys - boys who deliberately do things
exude - radiate
ventilator - a machine which makes persons breathe
ramp - a slope to move wheelchairs or wheeled stretchers
lone - all alone
chasm - a deep, narrow opening in
rock or ice
sullen - in an unhappy mood
tide - the alternate rising and falling of
the sea
twilight - darkness setting in the evening
span - distance between two points, especially time
eventide - (here) old age
naught - nothing
pitfall - an unexpected difficulty.
Amazed- surprised
absolute - complete
anxious - worried
suspicion - doubt
persuaded - convinced
usurper - one who takes up someone’s position
determined - made a firm decision to do something
hover - hang about, linger
rocking - moving gently
hum - sing with closed lips
distant - far away
gaze - look fixedly
distinction - excellence
a raw deal - an unfair treatment
aloft - high in the air
wizard - one who is specially good at
something
routed - defeated completely and easily
the German Fuhrer -the title used by Hitler
to eat humble pie - to admit that one is wrong about something
                                                          t
                                                       of
massive - huge
Colonel -an officer of high rank in the army
                                                     S
migrated - moved and settled
                                                 a m
IHF - Indian Hockey Federation viz - namely
                                            g ar
                                         Si
thoroughbred - of high quality
tranquil - quiet                       )
stirred - moved                     (c
trembling - shaking
whirling - moving quickly round and round
fascinated - attracted; charmed
exploding - bursting with a loud noise
transit - passage of a small heavenly body, such as a planet, in front of a larger one, such
as the Sun
pitch -to set up
scary - frightful; causing fear
Martian -an imaginary person supposed to live in Mars
space probe - a device for exploring space
envious - filled with jealousy
nasty - dirty
resemble - to look like
impressive - causing one to admire
features - characteristics or qualities
fluffy - soft
pierced - made a hole and went into
lava - hot liquid flowing from a volcano
pastures - lands covered with grass
exploited - used selfishly whims and
fancies - sudden desires or ideas
polluting - making impure
bickering - quarrelling; arguing
unique - being the only one of its kind; very special
quays places for loading and unloading
ships
squalling - screaming
squeaking - short high–pitched crying
howling - long mournful crying
cuddle - settle oneself comfortably
canine - related to dogs
commentary - a spoken description of an event while it is happening
commentator - a person who gives commentary
sumptuous - lavish
mongrel - a cross-bred dog
whining - crying in a complaining voice
mystery - something that is difficult to understand
encounter - clash
fireplace - a place with a chimney where fire-wood is burnt to keep the room warm
                                                       t
                                                    of
hailstorm - rain of ice balls
jostled - pushed roughly
                                                  S
                                                m
snarling - (of dogs) making a deep angry noise, baring the teeth
                                              a
                                            ar affection
whimper - a low weak cry that animals make when they are hurt
ruffled -run the fingers through the hairg
                                        Siis going to happen
                                           with
premonition - a feeling that something)
spectre - a ghost                  (c
spellbound - with the attention completely held by what one is watching
pretend - act
seldom - very rarely
Pekes - Pekinese dogs (a very small dog with long and soft hair, short legs and a
flat nose)
undignified - looking silly
gambol - to run about in a lively way
guffaw - to laugh noisily
lout - one who behaves rudely
maestro - master of an art
excelled - became the best
rapture - great joy
compositions - pieces of music
piano - a large musical instrument
violin - a four stringed wooden musical instrument
Bach and Mozart - famous music composers
stir - (here) lasting impact
concert - a musical performance
pull oneself together - control oneself
symphony - a long piece of music written
for a large orchestra
enthralled - held one’s interest and attention completely
operas - plays in which the actors sing the words to music
orchestra - a large group of musicians who play different musical instruments together
plausible - reasonable and likely to be true
benign - gentle
a-sprawl - lying or sitting with one’s arms or legs
stretched out
spiteful - nasty / disapproving
scullions - boys employed to work in a kitchen
tranquil - calm
Doom - death
espy - see suddenly
rampart - a wide pile of earth or a stone-wall built to protect a castle or city
ram - a male sheep
every nook - every part of a place
and cranny
slaughter - kill an animal for food
comrades - friends
                                                         t
                                                      of
snout - the long nose and mouth which stick
out from the face of some animals
                                                    S
                                                  m
eiderdown - a thick, warm cover for a bed, filled with
                                                a
feathers; a quilt
                                           g ar
                                        Si
nimble - able to move quickly and easily
hullabaloo - a lot of loud confusing ) noise
ruffians - violent men              (c
smock - a long loose piece of clothing
excel - to be good at doing something
bruised - injured
limped - walked with difficulty
tailed off - became weaker
smack - a loud sound
intermittent - happening repeatedly for short periods
howling - making a long, loud cry
sly - cunning
parapet - a low protective wall along the edge
of a bridge
hazy - not clear
spaghetti - a dish
bog - toilet
numbing - making a part of your body unable to
feel anything
daft - silly
dubiously - doubtfully
reckon - think
bust - break
despondent - sad, without hope
plop – fall
tube - underground railway
nettles - wild plants with leaves that have pointed
edges
flailing - moving around without control
anorak - a short coat
towed - pulled
slid - moved smoothly
divorced – husband and wife separated by a court of law
nicknamed – given a name (by friends etc.,) not one’s real
name
pocknamed – with marks left after small-pox
scorn – a strong feeling of contempt
lieutenants – (here) supporters
tripped – followed by walking or running
knuckel-duster – metal covering for the knuckles, for
attack or defence
triumph – victory, success
                                                            t
                                                         of
drawled – spoke slowly
remuneration – payment, reward
                                                       S
impotent – powerless, unable to act
                                                   a m
fury – violent anger
                                              g ar
                                           Si
vanquish – defeat, beat completely
miraculous – most remarkable             )
                                      (c
impudence – utter disrespect or rudeness
menacingly – in a threatening manner jabbing
movement – aiming a sudden blow
limp – not stiff or firm, lacking strength
grubby – dirty
penury - extreme poverty
disown - refuse to accept as one’s own
insolent - extremely rude
trifles - things that have little value or importance
phonetics : the study of speech sounds
dialect : form of language ina particular region
shabbily – dressed in old or torn clothes dressed
cockney – the dialect of a native of East end of England accent
dreadful – very bad
exquisite – very beautiful
depression – a low pressure area
indication – a sign or symptom
launch – to introduce
embassy – the official residence of an ambassador
convince – to make-one believe something
elegant – graceful
regal – royal/like a king or queen
stunned – filled with shock and surprise
divinity – state of being divine; a divine being; god or goddess
host/hostess – one who receives guests
bon-voyage – phrase used to wish one good luck on a journey
renowned – famous
prospects – chances for success
summing up – a summary
revolutionized - changed completely or radically
communication - methods of sending information
literates - (here) able to use computers
digitize - change data into a digital form
process -method of doing
internally - connected with the inside of a thing
computational - connected with computers
compact - small
version - slightly different form
portable - easy to carry
popular - famous
                                                          t
                                                       of
innumerable - a lot of
message - a piece of information
                                                     S
browse - look through the pages.
                                                 a m
                                              ar
download - to move data to a computer from other
                                            g
                                         Si
sources
software - programmes in a computer    )
astonishing - very surprising       (c
novelty - something new, different
alternative - one of two or more possibilities
ore-bed - rock from which metal can be mined
mine - place from where minerals are dug out
furnace - enclosed place for heating
wrought - shaped
file - to cut or shape something
gauged - measured
haul - pull with force
comprehend - understand
slip - slide or skid
vanish – disappear
hurdles – difificulties
tide – a strong current of water
matter – physical material that can be seen or touched
cosmologist – one who studies the science of the universe
Physicist – a person who studies and conducts research in Physics
Theory of Relativity – the relationship between time, size, and mass changes with an
increase in speed
Big bang – the explosion of a single mass of material from
which the universe began
black hole – an area in outer space, into which everything
near it, including light is pulled
analysis – examination by dividing into separate parts
phenomenon – a fact that is observed to happen
honorary – given as an honour
eminent – famous
clumsy – awkward in movement
incurable – that cannot be cured
sclerosis – a condition in which a tissue in a part of the body becomes hard
predicted – said that something will happen in the future
reputation – the opinion about someone
disability – the sate of not being able to move or use the body properly
menu – a list of different choices
synthesiser – an instrument which combines and produces sounds
taxing – needing great effort
exhibited – showed
defy – refuse to obey or respect
grit – courage and determination
                                                         t
                                                      of
crises – times of great danger or difficulty
emphasis – importance
                                                    S
wondrous - wonderful                              m
sigh - the act of taking a long deep breath ra relief
                                                of
mourn - to show sorrow for a loss          i ga
hapless - unfortunate                   )S
woe - great sorrow                   (c
enchanted - magical
Wiry - thin and strong
intense - very concentrated
conjured -called up by magic
barrier - something that comes in the way
interpreter - translator
distracted - not paying attention, to have something else on your mind
Paddy - rice in the husk
parboil - partly boil rice before storing for use
Vats - large tub or tank
clarified butter - butter that has been melted to separate and remove impurities
demolished - destroyed
Nuts – mad
collared - catch and hold someone by the collar so that they cannot escape
core - the hard central part of the fruit
rind - the thick outer skin of a fruit
pit - a single large seed
Score - a set of twenty
Emancipation - freedom from political or social restrictions
Proclamation - a public statement
Captivity - the state of being a prisoner
Crippled - damaged seriously
Segregation - keeping somebody away from others, isolation
discrimination - treating one group worse than others
exile - sent away from one’s native country
inalienable - that cannot be taken away
make up one’s mind – decide
fatal - causing or ending in death
protest - expression of strong disagreement
degenerate - Pass into a worse moral state
militancy - use of force or pressure
motel - a hotel for motorists on the highways
quicksand - a situation that is difficult to escape from; wet deep sand into which people
or things will sink
trials and tribulations - difficult and annoying experiences
oppressive - cruel and unfair
transformed - changed completely
oasis - an area with water and trees in a desert
despair - state of having lost hope
                                                        t
                                                     of
discord - disagreement, quarrelling
hamlet - a very small village
                                                   S
crystal – smooth, easy
                                               a m
stair – a set of steps between two floors ofra building
                                           g a
                                        Si has broken off a larger piece
tack – short pin with flat top
splinter – small sharp piece of wood) that
Crayons – coloured pencils or sticks (c
Transport – to take goods from one place to another
Apparatus – the equipment needed for a purpose
Sparrow – a brown and grey bird
Uncomplicated – simple
Shelter – to protect from weather
jolted out – acted on a sudden shock
enormous – very large
peep – to look secretly
tousled – untidy, uncombed
brandishing – waving something to threaten
glinted – gave out flashes of light
hobbling – walking with dificulty
proclaim – publicly tell people about something
confidentially – secretly
equalogy – the child’s term for ‘equality’
persisted – continued to do
yelled – shouted loudly
chant – words sung or shouted
crutches – supports to help a person who has difficulty in walking
wasted leg – leg thinned due to polio
kinship – feeling of being close
python - a large snake
rugged - strong
indented -uneven surface
summit - top, the highest point
gallantly - bravely
scarf - cloth worn around the neck
crimson - dark red
oft – often
casement - a window that opens like a door
delighted - pleased
crest - the top or the highest part of something like a wave
baboon - monkey
puny - weak, feeble, little
off spring - a descendant, a child
lcap -jump
hail - welcome
pastures - grass land for cattle
hoar - white
                                                         t
                                                      of
enmassed – surrounded
magnificence - extreme charm
                                                    S
companions - friends
                                                a m
intense - very strong
images -pictures, copy of the pictures ig
                                             ar
dirge - a sad and slow song             )S
                                       cbeach
shingle - mass of small stones on a  (
lament - expression of great sadness
eerie - strange and frightening
haply – perhaps
shriek - cry out in a high pitched voice
pet - a tame animal that you look after and keep in the house
in style - (here) in a grand way
excitement - strong feelings or great activity
object - oppose or not want
vendors - people who sell things at the wayside
nip - pinch or bite sharply
tweak - twist or pull
doze off - sleep
tugged - pulled
evidently - clearly
clamour - loud shouting and disorder
casually - coolly, without a fuss
curled up - rolled up in a coil
timid - shy, not brave
whip - a long thin piece of rope or leather,
attached to a handle
exhausted - tired
gigantic - huge
splinter - a thin, sharp piece of wood tender - soft
stadium - a large sports ground surrounded by rows of seats
astonishment - a feeling of great surprise
cripple - someone unable to use their legs - disabled
brace - a metallic support
hustle - move quickly
prematurely - happening before proper time
paralyzed - unable to move part or a side of the body
perseverance - constant effort to achieve something
indomitable - courage that cannot be defeated
wobbly - unsteady
stride - walk quickly
inspiration - a sudden good idea
grit - determination
incredible - unbelievable
aptitude - natural ability
ovation – applause
                                                          t
                                                       of
abolish - put an end to a practice
anecdote - a short story about a real person         S
remarkable - unusual
                                                 a m
quit - stop doing something
                                             g ar to make or change laws
                                          Si
legislature - a body of people with the power
                                        )
Congress - (here i.e in the USA) a governing body that makes laws
                                     (c
Senate - the upper house of a law-making body
nomination - the formal proposal to choose someone for position
convention - (here) a conference of a political party
dysgraphia - impairment of writing ability
psychiatrist - a doctor who treats mental illness
sloppy - untidy
smudgy - dirty with ink stains
botched - badly done
cramp - sudden and painful tightening of the muscles
magnificent - splendid, remarkable
challenge - a difficult task that tests one’s ability
alms - food or money given to poor people
take a vow - make a solemn promise
radiant - very bright
gorgeous - extremely beautiful
awe-inspiring - making one feel great respect
abject poverty - being extremely poor
benevolent - kind or generous
boon - favour
abundantly - in large quantities
omniscient - knowing everything
omnipotent - powerful
aura - a distinctive atmosphere that surrounds someone
overwhelmed - having a strong emotional effect
euphoric - feeling very happy
bliss - perfect happiness
jest -joke
enigmatic - mysterious, difficult to understand
surrender – yield
native - belonging to a place
enormous - huge
bulbous - round and fat like a bulb
gnarjed - twisted and rough
legend - a story from the ancient past
pulpy - fleshy
edible - suitable for eating
baboon - a type of monkey, with a large face
crevices - narrow openings
endurance - ability to tolerate a difficult situation for a long time
conservation - the care and management of the natural environment
                                                          t
                                                       of
absolutely - completely
                                                     S
crop dusting - spraying plants with pesticide from a plane to keep them healthy
                                                   m
cloud seeding - the technique or process of scattering substances such as silver iodide
                                                 a
                                              ar
into clouds from an aircraft in order to precipitate rain
                                            g
                                         Si
unrestricted - without any limits
potential – capability                 )
destiny - fate                      (c
mettle - courage
pace - speed
passion - zeal, enthusiasm
initial - first
tutelage - guidance
unpretentious - humble, simple
suburban - relating to the area on the outskirts of a city
strategy - plan
virtues - good qualities
credo - belief, philosophy
saga - legend
surpassing - exceeding
aggregate - total
prestigious - remarkable
unorthodox - unconventional, untraditional
circumstance - situation
plied - worked at
musing - thinking
tread - walk, stride
convict - a person imprisoned for a crime
galley - a ship usually rowed by prisoners
alcove - a partly enclosed space in a room
stifling - suffocating
mantel - ashelfaboveafireplace
devour - eat up something greedily
sentence - punishment given by a court of law
sob - draw in breath noisily while crying
lash - strike with a whip
hound - a type of dog used in hunting
reflecting - thinking deeply
shudder - shiver with cold, fear,etc.
conscience - a person’s awareness of right and wrong
contemplating - considering something thoughtfully
sergeant - a police officer
strove - tried very hard
oppressed - people treated in an unfair way
downtrodden - people ruled or controlled tyrannically
destitute - a person without money, food and other things
behold - to see something
outcast - a person expelled from the community
dread - fear of something bad that might happen
                                                          t
                                                       of
hath - has
shalt - shall                                        S
thou - you
                                                 a m
                                              ar
partake - share
                                            g
                                         Si
nay - no or not
ere - before                           )
prying - searching                  (c
enkindleth - kindles
hast - has
slew - killed someone violently
thee - you
yearn - long for
thou art - you are
avenge - take revenge
decree - judgement
palatial - (of a house) large and splendid
bovine - like a cow; (here) dull
gleam - shine
summoned - called to appear
royalty - royal persons
counterfeit - made in imitation
bewilderment - confusion
chided - scolded
zeroed in on - focused
lukewarm - (here) not enthusiastic
ploy - a cunning act that is performed to gain an advantage
fake - false
impostor - a pretender; deceiver
hostage - person kept prisoner for a
demand
impersonate - pretend to be another person
shoved - pushed
fret - be worried
unearth - discover
serendipity - the occurrence of events by chance
horizon – the line where the land or the sea seems to meet the sky
Literally – exactly
Zoom – go fast
Blurs – smudges
Swank – posh
Bedlam – confusion
cleaving – cutting
scrumptious – delicious, tasty
mesmerising – captivating
locomotives – steam
hypnotise – spelbind
convenient – handy, suitable
Cockpit – part of a plane where the pilot sits
                                                         t
                                                      of
incessant – non-stop
diverged - deviated                                 S
undergrowth - bushes
                                                a m
                                             ar
claim - assert
                                           g
                                        Si
wear - erosion
trodden - walked on                   )
sigh - breath of relief            (c
sole - only
recording - (here) writing
prompt - words to remind somebody what to do
beyond me - impossible
regard - respect
indelible - unforgettable
impression - mark
recollection - remembrance
blemish - something that spoils perfection
corporal - physical
disciplinarian - a strict person
gymnastics - physical exercises
abstaining - not doing something
hardy - strong
constitution - physique
notion - idea
reminiscences - memories of the past
proposition - statement
Euclid – Greek Mathematician
Waterloo - the place where Wellesley defeated Napoleon
armour - metal clothing for soldiers
passions - powerful emotions
soul - mind or spirit of a person
princely - beautiful or impressive
vulgar - rude or offensive
rumours - unofficial information that may be true or untrue
conscience - the voice of the mind
retreat - go back
flatterer - one who praises others
accuser - one who charges another of a fault
entertain - make people enjoy
servile - willing to obey
crinkly - showing wrinkles
awfully - terribly
gee - (American English) an expression of surprise
telebook - a book read on the television screen
attic - room in the roof of a house
scornful - sarcastic
slot - narrow opening
punch code - a system of words, letters and signs .........
sector - area or region
                                                          t
                                                       of
geared - adjusted
blanked out - disappeared                            S
nonchalantly - showing no interest
                                                a m
                                              ar as addition, multiplication, etc.
tucked - put into a position
                                            g
                                         Si
arithmetic - mathematical calculations such
                                       )
sigh - a deep breath of sadness longing, relief, etc.
quit - leave                        (c
toil - hard work
strife - fighting
linnet - sweet singing bird
hark - listen
blithe - happy
throstle - a bird
spontaneous - happening in a natural way
impulse - strong feeling
vernal - appearing in spring
sages - hermits
barren leaves - here, the book
enamoured - fascinated
video jockey - a person who comperes a TV programme
program - sequence of encoded instructions to a computer
compere - person who provides the link between entertainment
surfing - switching channels often
devices - physical parts of a system
inflation - increase in prices
negotiation - bargain
enhanced - increased
software - computer programs
binary - using only 0, 1 as a number system
denary - relating to the number 10
advent - arrival
domain - scope/range
half-wit - a stupid person
perplexed - confused
err - commit a mistake
cog - one of the teeth round the edge of a wheel
the running band - a wide belt on which things move from one place to another
dead as mutton - completely dead
armaments - weapons
devastations - destructions
minced - cut into small pieces
scrap - get rid of
reverberate - reecho
eliminate - remove
prophetic - correctly saying what will happen
voracious - eager to read a lot of books
recuperation - getting better
parole - permission to leave prison
                                                            t
                                                         of
solace - comfort
inducted - included, taken in                          S
momentous - very significant
                                                   a m
                                                ar
rest on laurels - to be satisfied with one’s success/achievement
                                              g
                                           Si
set aside - quash
at the stake - tied to a pole to be burnt) alive
incessantly - continuously            (c
inseparable - that cannot be separated
imitated - copied
assimilation - fully understanding the idea
crestfallen - sad and disappointed
alleviate - lessen
celebrity - famous person
alchemy - a form of chemistry studied turning a base metal to a superior metal (i.e) gold
inextricable - inseparable
succour - aid given in time of need
tidings - piece of news exploring : going through, travelling around
Anti-Fascist - against Fascism (the brutal dictatorial rule initiated by Mussolini)
obsession - something that absorbs the mind completely
inextricable - incapable of being extricated or freed
vortex - violent activity (like a whirlpool or whirlwind)
mammoth - huge (like the large hairy, longtailed extinct elephant called the mammoth)
ensued - followed
adhere - stick firmly to
junta - political group controlling a government after a revolution
stature - rank; status
fetters - shackles; something that restrains
indomitable - unyielding, invincible
posterity - all future generations
alderwoman - a senior member of the town below the rank of a mayor chosen by other
members of the council
indignity - unworthy treatment
unpalatable - difficult to accept
crusade - campaigning for a noble cause
perseverance - constant hard work
suppression - denying one’s right
eradicate - remove
abolish - put an end to
oncologist - specialist in treating tumours (cancer)
woods - a small forest
nobles - persons of high rank in a king’s court
crowned - made king
slackness - being lazy
besiege - to surround with armed forces
reinforcements - additional force of soldiers
righteousne ss - being morally good
bearing – appearance
bon voyage - ‘have a good journey’
                                                            t
                                                         of
chasm - a deep narrow opening
canopy - a type of roof                                S
yonder - over there
                                                   a m
incredible - unbelievable
                                              g ar
                                           Si
retina - a layer at the back of the eyeball that receives light and sends pictures of what
the eye sees to the brain                )
siblings - brothers and/or sisters    (c
aeronautical - of the study of travel through air
relented - gave in
constellations - groups of stars forming a pattern
incessantly - endlessly
glider - a light air-craft without an engine
aerobatics - feats of flying performed for an audience
aero-astro - relating to the air and stars/space
Milky Way - the galaxy of which our solar system is a part
astronaut - one trained to travel in a spacecraft
steely resolve - firm determination
thriving - very successful
manned - operated by men
intimidated - frightened
fascination - keen interest
rigorous - difficult
arduous - requiring a lot of effort
deter - prevent
space shuttle - a rocket-launched spacecraft
absolved - cleared of blame
terrific - great
mind-boggling - over whelming
curvature - the degree to which something is curved
domain - region
fragile - delicate
in the course of justice - if strict justice were to take its course
mitigate - lessen I crave the law : I pray for what the law entitles me
to. . .
forfeit - give up as penalty for doing something wrong
suffice - be sufficient
beseech - earnestly ask for
nominated - mentioned
tarry - wait
expressly - directly shown
confiscate - take or seize
soft - wait
parched - dry
wilted - having lost freshness
jostled - pushed roughly
submerged - under the surface of water
                                                         t
                                                      of
culminated - reached the final stage
consternation - feeling of anxiety
                                                    S
breaches - openings
                                                a m
soliloquising - speaking to oneself
perpertrated - did something wrong ig
                                             ar
infamy - a bad and shocking act or ) S   event
spillage - amount spilt               (c
relinquish - give up
prodigally - spending money wastefully without thinking of the consequences
fallow - land where nothing is planted
germinate - (of a seed) to start growing
piqued - angry as a result of one’s pride being hurt
shoot - the first part of a plant to appear above the earth
chaff - the outer layer of seeds
repartee - a quick, amusing remark in a conversation
yon - yonder, beyond
highland - Scotland
vale - valley
Hebrides - a group of islands
plaintive - sad
chaunt - chant
sickle - a tool used for cutting grass and crops
slime - sticky liquid. In this context, hypocrisy
oozed - flowed out slowly
affected - pretentious or artificial
abominable - causing disgust, detestible
appropriated - taken for one’s own use without permission
plagiarism - act of taking someone else’s ideas, words and using them as if they were
one’s own.
anguish - severe mental or physical pain.
archives - place where historical documents, records or research writings are kept.
knack - skill or ability
induces - persuades or influences
superficial - having no depth of character feeling etc., trivial
cautiously - carefully to avoid danger
stimulate - arouse the interest of somebody
conventional - based on customary practice
civilities - politeness
mortification - shame or embarasament
congenial - agreeable or pleasant
lucrative - monetarily profitable
subtleties - deep ingenuious, refined or sensitive presentations
controversy - public discussion or argument
curatorship - post held by the person in charge of a museum, art gallery etc.
embroiled - got oneself involved (in a quarell or difficult situation)
enhanced - increased
                                                       t
                                                    of
harness - to use a natural source of energy to produce power
optimal - most favourably                         S
niche - comfortable and suitable area
                                              a m
                                           ar
transcend - to go farther than normal human experience
endogenous - produced from within ig
psyche - mind or soul                 )S
                                     cpower
hierarchy - order of importance or (
tenacious - determined, firm
retaliate - to do something unpleasant or harmful in return
cynicism - an attitude that makes one think people are not good
academia - academic world
initiate - to cause (something) to start to happen
conservative - supporting traditional ways
xenophobia - an abnormal fear of strangers
culmination - end of something usually happening after a long time
strategy - intelligent means to achieve success
phyto-sanitary - concerned with hygienic provisions
                                    English Grammar

English Grammar
S.N      Topics                                    Description
 o
 1    Noun          A noun is the name of an,
                    object,
                    concept,
                    person or place
                     A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or
                    car.
                     An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a
                    decision or happiness.
                    A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example:
                    bottle, song, dollar).
                    An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for
                    example: water, music, money).
                    A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc.,
 2   Pronoun        A word like
     A pronoun      I,
     replaces a     Me,                                    t
     noun           You,
                                                      S of
                    He,
                                                  a m
                    Him,
                                             g ar
                                           Si or state.
                    It etc,
 3   Verb           A verb describes an )action
                                       (c
                    A word like (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin
 4   Adverb         An adverb modifies a verb.
                    A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc.
 5   Auxilary       A verb that is used with a main verb.
     Verb           Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs.
 6   Modal Verb     An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and
                    expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary
                    verb".
 7   Adjective      An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
                    A word like big, red, easy, French etc
 8   Article        The "indefinite" articles are a and an.
     [a, an, the]   The "definite article" is the.
 9   Participle     The -ing and -ed forms of verbs.
     [ing – Present The -ing form is called the "present participle".
     Part           The -ed form is called the "past participle"
      Ed – Past
     Part]
10   Conjunction    A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses
     [and, but, if] (for example: and, but, if).
11   Interjection   An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical
                   connection.
                   (for example: oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!).

12   Preposition   Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about
                   things like time, place and direction.
                   A word like at, to, in, over etc.




                                                         ft
                                                      So
                                                 am
                                           g  ar
                                          i
                                       )S
                                     (c
I   Verb [-ify, -ize, -ate, or –en, at the end of the word, signifies it is a verb]
1   Definition:
    A verb always has a subject.
                                                             t
    (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.)
    In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs of words that tell us what a subject does
                                                           are
    or is; they describe:                                S
                                                     a m
                                                  ar
        1. action (Ram plays football.)
        2. state (Anthony seems kind.)         ig
    There is something very special aboutS
                                            ) verbs in English.
                                         (c
    Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although
    nouns can have singular and plural forms).
    But almost all verbs change in form.
    For example, the verb to work has five forms:
    ** to work, work, works, worked, working.
2   Verb Classification:
                    Helping Verbs                                     Main Verbs
     Imagine that a stranger walks into your            Now imagine that the same stranger walks
     room and says:                                     into your room and says:

            I can.                                       I teach.
            People must.                                 People eat.
            The Earth will.                              The Earth rotates.

     Do you understand anything? Has this          Do you understand something? Has this
     person communicated anything to you?          person communicated something to you?
     Probably not! That's because these verbs      Probably yes! Not a lot, but something.
     are helping verbs and have no meaning         That's because these verbs are main verbs
     on their own. They are necessary for the      and have meaning on their own. They tell
     grammatical structure of the sentence, but    us something. Of course, there are
     they do not tell us very much alone. We    thousands of main verbs.
     usually use helping verbs with main verbs.
     They "help" the main verb. (The sentences
     in the above examples are therefore
     incomplete. They need at least a main
     verb to complete them.) There are only
     about 15 helping verbs.
3




                                                            t
4   Helping Verbs:”Auxilary Verbs”
                                                       S of
    Primary Helping Verbs:
    These are the verbs be, do, and have.          a m
    Modal Helping Verbs:
                                              g ar
                                           Si
    We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A
                                         )
                                      (c
    modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that
    sense. These are the modal verbs:

          can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to

5   Main Verbs:”Lexical Verbs”
    Main verbs have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs).Forms of Main Verbs:
6   Tense and Time:




7   Basic Tenses:
    Basic tenses with the regular verb work. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+),
    the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?).




                                                           ft
                                                        So
                                                   am
                                             g  ar
                                            i
                                         )S
                                       (c
Be:




                          ft
                       So
                  am
            g  ar
           i
        )S
      (c
8   Present Tense:




          the action is general
          the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
          the action is not only happening now
          the statement is always true
                                                           ft
                                                        So
                                                   am
                                             g  ar
                                            i
                                         )S
                                       (c
9    Present Continuous:




           action happening now
           action in the future




                                                       ft
                                                    So
                                               am
                                         g  ar
                                        i
                                     )S
                                   (c




10   Present Perfect Tense:
        1. experience
        2. change
        3. continuing situation




                                                          ft
                                                       So
                                                  am
                                            g  ar
                                           i
                                        )S
                                      (c
11   Present Prefect Continuous:

        1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped
        2. An action continuing up to now.
12   Past Tense:

           the event is in the past
           the event is completely finished
           we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event

                                                          ft
                                                       So
                                                  am
                                            g  ar
                                           i
                                        )S
                                      (c




13   Past Continuous:
        1. Action at a particular moment in the past.
        2. To express a long action
14   Past Perfect:
        1. Expresses action in the past before another action in the past




15   Past Perfect Continuous:
                                                           t
                                                        of
     The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses longer
                                                      S
     actions in the past before another action in the past.
                                                    am
                                              g  ar
                                             i
                                          )S
                                        (c




      John was very tired. He had been running.
      I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.
     Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well for a long
     time.
16   Future Tense:




        1. when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the
           decision spontaneously at the time of speaking
        2. to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying
           what we think will happen.
                                                        t
                                                     of
        3. When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a
           firm plan or decision before speaking. S
                                                  am
17   Future Continuous:
                                            g  ar
                                           i
                                        )S
                                      (c




        1. expresses action at a particular moment in the future
              What will you be doing when I arrive?
              She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.
              We 'll be having dinner when the film starts.
              Take your umbrella. It will be raining when you return.
18   Future Perfect:




        1. Expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past
           in the future

           You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
           They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
           "Mary won't be at home when you arrive."ft
            "Really? Where will she have gone?" So
                                                   am
19   Future Perfect Continuous:
                                             g  ar
                                            i
                                         )S
                                       (c




        1. To talk about a long action before some point in the future

           I will have been working here for ten years next week.
           He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.
20   Active Voice:
     In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject performs the action denoted by
     the verb. These examples show that the subject is doing the verb's action.




     Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such sentences, the sentences are said
     to be in the active voice.
21   Passive Voice: One can change the normal word order of many active sentences (those
     with a direct object) so that the subject is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted
     upon by the verb - or passive. Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship
     has changed.
                                                            ft
                                                         So
                                                    am
                                              g  ar
                                             i
                                          )S
                                        (c


     Because the subject is being "acted upon" (or is passive), such sentences are said to be in
     the passive voice.
22   Gerunds: [-ing] Word.
     Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -ing are called gerunds.
     It can follow a preposition, adjective and most often another verb.

     The -ing form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause:

           Swimming is good exercise.
           Doctors say that smoking is bad for you.

     The -ing form is used after a preposition:

           I look forward to meeting you.
           They left without saying "Goodbye."

     The -ing form is used after certain verbs:
     - avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind/not mind, practise

           I dislike getting up early.
           Would you mind opening the window?

23   Infinitive:
     The infinitive form is used after certain verbs:
     - forget, help, learn, teach, train
     - choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like
     - agree, encourage, pretend, promise, recommend
     - allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse

           I forgot to close the window.
           Mary needs to leave early.
           Why are they encouraged to learn English?
           We can't afford to take a long holiday.

     The infinitive form is always used after adjectives, for example:
     - disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised

           I was happy to help them.                       ft
           She will be delighted to see you.            So
                                                   a m
     This includes too + adjective:
                                              g ar
            The water was too cold to swim) Si in.
                                       (c
        
           Is your coffee too hot to drink?

     The infinitive form is used after adjective + enough:

           He was strong enough to lift it.
           She is rich enough to buy two.

24   Tag Questions:
     A "tag" is something small that we add to something larger. For example, the little piece
     of cloth added to a shirt showing size or washing instructions is a tag.
                    ft
                 So
            am
      g  ar
     i
  )S
(c
25   Questions:




                                      ft
                                   So
                              am
                        g  ar
                       i
                    )S
                  (c
26   Plurals:




                                    ft
                                 So
                            am
                      g  ar
                     i
                  )S
                (c
                    ft
                 So
            am
      g  ar
     i
  )S
(c
27   Simple      A simple sentence, also called an ft   independent clause, contains a subject
     Sentence:                                      S o
                 and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.
                                                  m
                 In a Simple Sentence, we have one finite verb and it is the main clause of
                                                a
                 the sentence.
                                           g ar
                                         Si university students.
                 Ex:
                                       )
                 This classroom is full of
                                    (c
                 The brown dog with the red collar always barks loudly.
28   Compound    A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a
     Sentence:   coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet,
     For         so.
     And         In a Complex Sentence, we have two clauses, one main clause and one
     Nor         subordinate clause.
     But         (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells
     Or          FANBOYS.)
     Yet         Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a
                 comma.
                 In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in
                 green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.




29   Complex     A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more
     Sentence:   dependent clauses.

     Because     In a Compound Sentence, we have two main clauses connected by a
      After          coordinating conjunction “and”, “so”, “but”, etc.
      Although       A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since,
      Since, So      after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
      That           In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in
      Who            green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in
      When           red.
      Which




 30   Examples       We have been learning English for the past seven years. (Simple
                     Sentence)
                     As we feel the need for English, we have been learning it. (Complex
                     Sentence)
                     English is a useful language and so we’ve been learning it. (Compound
                     Sentence)                          t
                                                         of
                                                        Shim. (Complex Sentence)
                     When I met my friend, I greeted
                                                      m
                                                   ra
                     On meeting my friend I greeted him. (Simple Sentence)
                                                 a
                                              ig
                     I met my friend and I greeted him. (Compound Sentence)
                                            S
                                       ( c)
                     The match was cancelled due to heavy rains. --- Simple Sentence
                     The match was cancelled because it rained heavily. --- Complex
                     It rained heavily (and) so the match was cancelled. -----Compound.

                     Though he is rich, he is very simple. — Complex Sentence.
                     In spite of being rich, he is very simple. — Simple Sentence.
                     He is very rich but is very simple. — Compound Sentence.

                     If you work hard, you will get good marks. — Complex Sentence.
                     In the event of working hard, you will get good marks. — Simple
                     Sentence
                     Work hard and you will get good marks. — Compound Sentence.

                     The problem is too difficult for me to solve. — Simple Sentence.
                     The problem is so difficult that I can’t solve it. –Complex sentence.
                     The problem is very difficult and I can’t solve it. — Compound Sentence



31: Positive, Comparative and Superlative:
32   Sentence   Subject : It denotes the person or thing about which something is said. It
     Pattern    can be a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive, a gerund, a noun phrase or clause.
                                                   ft
                                                  So are called intransitive verbs. They
                Verb : Write, read... are called transitive verbs. Trasitive verbs have
                                                m
                objects. Sleep, come, go, become....
                                             ra
                have no objects. If the transitive verbs have two objects (answer to what
                                           a
                and to whom) they are igcalled ditransitive verbs.
                                      S
                                 ( c)
                Complement : It completes the predicate of a sentence. It is an essential
                part. The subject complement describes or characterises the subject. The
                object complement describes or characterises the object.

                Trees/ preserve/ the soil.
                  S       V          O
                The neem trees / are grown/ in villages and towns.
                        S             V                  A
                We/ have planted/ neem saplings/ in our school campus.
                S         V                O                    A
                Trees / give / us / shade.
                  S      V IO DO
                The villagers / call / the neem tree / their village pharmacy.
                     S           V          O                     C
                The neem trees / are / useful / in many ways.
                        S         V        C        A
                Raicharan warned the child.
                    S          V         O

                He became incompetent at his work.
 S     V        C             A
Note: A sentence is a group of words arranged in a specific order which
makes complete sense. It comprises smaller units called elements. They
are: Subject (S), Verb (V), Complement (C), Object (O) and Adjunct (A).

Janani met her uncle yesterday.
  S    V      O         A

Jo held out mother’s shoes over the fire.
 S    V          O              A

He is a doctor in America.
S V       C         A

He was a soldier in the army.
S V       C           A

He gave her a gift.
S V IO DO

                                 t
                              of
Their mother had given them a dollar.
     S         V        IO    DO
                                   S
It made her happy.         r  am
                          a
S V      O    C        ig
                   )S
                  chappy.
                (
Sharing made them
  S      V      O      C

Geetha wrote a test yesterday.
  S     V     O        A

The teacher granted her full marks.
     S        V     IO     DO

Geetha was the best student in the class.
  S    V         C               A

The principal nominated her the leader.
     S          V        O       C

It made Geetha happy
S V      O       C


Anand gave me a book
                      S     V   IO    DO

                    Antony painted the car green
                      S      V        O      C

                    The World Bank gave India a big loan.
                         S          V    IO     DO

                    The students elected Kanmani their president.
                         S         V       O            C

                    My father named the baby Sukanya.
                       S       V      O        C

                    Her father was a soldier in the army.
                        S       V      C          A

                    Jo held out mother’s shoes over the fire.
                     S     V          O             A

                    Sharing made them happy.           t
                      S       V O       C
                                                  S of
33   Prepositions                              m
                    Prepositions of Time: at, on, in
                                                 a
     :
     At                                      g ar times.
                    We use at to designate ispecific
     On                                   ) S p.m.
                    The train is due at 12:15
     In                                (c
     To             We use on to designate days and dates.
                    My brother is coming on Monday.
                    We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

                    We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a
                    year.
                    She likes to jog in the morning.
                    It's too cold in winter to run outside.
                    He started the job in 1971.
                    He's going to quit in August.

                    Prepositions of Place: at, on, in

                    We use at for specific addresses.
                    Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

                    We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
                    Her house is on Boretz Road.
                    And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states,
                    countries, and continents).
                    She lives in Durham.
                    Durham is in Windham County.
                    Windham County is in Connecticut.

                    Preposition of Movement: to

                    We use to in order to express movement toward a place.
                    They were driving to work together.
                    She's going to the dentist's office this morning.




34   Article – a,   ** "A" is used if the letter before the next word starts with a constenent
     an, the        (not a vowel a, e, i, o, u).

                                                           t
                                                        of
                    ** An is used if the letter for the next word starts with a vowel (a, e, i, o,
                    u).                               S
                                                   am
                                             g  ar
                                            i
                                         )S
                                       (c
                                  ft
                                   So
In the following cases, a/an must be omitted-
(i) Before plural nouns          m
e.g. dogs, books, eggs
                            a ra
                         ig
(ii) Before uncountable nouns
                      )S
e.g. oil, hay, breakfast, water, jam
                  (c
We use the definite article ‘the’,
1. before a noun when we want to refer to a particular one.
e.g: The man in red shirt
The boys of this class
The milk bought in this shop

2.when a noun is repeated in a sentence that follows.
e.g: The dog has a tail. The tail is curved.

3.when a singular noun represents the who ie class.
e.g: The cow is a useful animal.

4.before the names of rivers, seas, mountains, etc.
e.g: the Kaveri; the Ganges;
the Arabian Sea; the Bay of Bengal
the Himalayas; the Western Ghat

5.before the names of some books
the Bible; theHoly Koran; the Gita
              6.before the names of things, unique of their kind
              the sun; the earth; the sky

              7.before superlatives
              the best; the most beautiful

              8.before an adjective to make it a noun
              the rich ; the poor ; the English

              9. before the names of jobs or profession
              the Teacher; the Doctor; the Manager
35   Adverb   How to tell if a word is an adverb?

              A word is an adverb if it answers one of the three questions, when, where
              or how.

                       Time                       Place               Manner


                                                    ft
                                                 So
                                            am
                                      g  ar
                                     i
                                  )S
                                (c




              In most cases adverbs are created by added -ly to the end of an adjective.
              Some common adverbs are quietly, quickly, beautifully etc.

              Spelling rules of adverbs: Adjectives that end in y - change the -i to -y as
              easy-easily, happy-happily

                         1. Adjectives ending -y change to -ily; lucky-luckily
                         2. Adjectives ending -ble only -y is added; present -
                            presentably, respectable -respectably.
36   Pronouns:




                 I -me                      You - You               He/She/It – him/her/it




                                                       ft
                 We -us                             So
                                             You – You                   They - them
37   Prefix                                       a m
                     A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its
                     meaning.
                                             g ar
                                            i
                                         )S
                                       (c
                    ft
                 So
            am
      g  ar
     i
  )S
(c
                    ft
                 So
            am
      g  ar
     i
  )S
(c
38   Suffix




                                  ft
                               So
                          am
                    g  ar
                   i
                )S
              (c
                                                  ft
39   Homophone
                                              So
                 A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but
     s           differs in meaning.      m   a
                                             r
                 Example               i  ga
                                      S
                  bear, bare      c)(
                  capitol, capital
                  karat, caret, carrot
                  cite, sight, site
                  council, counsel
                  dear, deer
40   Synonymns   Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar[ meanings.

                 Example

                        baby and infant (noun)
                        petty crime and misdemeanor (noun)
                        student and pupil (noun)
                        buy and purchase (verb)
                        pretty and attractive (adjective)
                        sick and ill (adjective)
                        quickly and speedily (adverb)
                        on and upon (preposition)
                        freedom and liberty (noun)
                        dead and deceased (adjective)
                       cop and police officer (noun)
                       movie and film (noun)
                       War – Battle; Brave – Bold; Supreme – Greatest; Volunteer –
                        Offer; Fierce –Severe; Happy – Glad; Fresh – New; Hurdle –
                        Obstacle; Perform – Accomplish; Serious – Thoughtful;
                        Encounter – Confront; Extraordinary – Peculiar; Moan – Lament.

41   Antonyms    The term antonym has also been commonly used as a term that is
                 synonymous with opposite.

                 Example:

                 smooth x rough; perfect x imperfect ; ill-tempered x sweet-tempered;
                 bright x dull; pleasant x unpleasant ; Defend X Attack; Minor X Major;
                 Untrue X True; Die X Live; Friend X Foe; Worst X Best; Unsuccessful X
                 Successful; Mortal X Immortal; Hot X Cold; Advance (Go Forward,
                 Improve) X Retreat, Regress; Woe X Fortune; Anxious X Composed;
                 Terrible X Wonderful; Interesting X Boring; Deep X Shallow; Easy X
                 Hard; Bad X Good; Rich X Poor; Public X Private; Smallest X Biggest;
                 Sweet X Bitter; Harmful X Harmless; Friendly X Hostile; Modern X
                 Ancient;                           ft
42   Verb into                                     So
     Noun
                                              am
                                        g  ar
                                       i
                                    )S
                                  (c
43   Noun to
     Adjective




44   Infinites and   Infinites and Gerunds:
     Gerunds         I. Teacher : What are you going to do during the summer
                     holidays?                                t
                     Vani : I want to learn karate.
                                                         S of
                                      I
                                                     a m learn karate?
                                                   ar me self- confidence and teaches me self-
                     Teacher : Why do you want to
                                                 g
                     Vani : Learning karate igives
                     defence.                ) S
                                 G        (c
                     Devi : I want to read books.
                                        I
                     Teacher : Yes, reading maketh a full man.
                                          G
                     Kani : I want to watch television.
                                       I
                     Teacher : Watching television all the time is not good for your eyes and
                     mind.
                                    G
                     The underlined I’s are ‘to infinitives’ and the G’s are ’gerunds’
                     ‘To infinitive’ is the base of the verb followed by ‘to’. ’Gerund’ is a form
                     of the verb which ends in -ing and has the force of a noun and a verb.

                     I want to write an article.
                             I
                     Writing is my hobby.
                        G
                     Saravanan volunteered to fight.
                                                 I
                     Fighting for the country was his passion.
                       G
                    Joining the army was his ambition.
                       G
                    Saravanan refused to heed.
                                         I

                    In the above sentences ‘I’ is an infinitive and ‘G’ is a gerund.
45   Sentences      Sentences:
                    Read the following sentences taken from the text.
                    1. A frog lived in a well.
                    2. How big is the sea?
                    3. Turn him out.
                    4. What nonsense you speak!
                    Sentence 1: is a declarative sentence. It is usually used to give
                    information.
                    Sentence 2: is an interrogative sentence. It is usually used to ask for
                    information.
                    Sentence 3: is an imperative sentence. It is usually used to get things
                    done.
                    Sentence 4 is an exclamatory sentence. It is usually used to express
                                                              t
                                                           of
                    strong feelings.
                    Note:                                S
                    1. An interrogative sentence m followed by a question mark (?)
                                                      is
                    2.An exclamatory sentencea followed by an exclamation mark (!)
                                                   r is
                                                ga
                                             Si
                    3. The subject is implied in an imperative sentence.
46   Odd Word       Circle the odd word)in each of the following sets.
                                        (c
                    a. stove, table, grinder, tree
                    b. sunlight, book, window, sofa
                    c. refrigerator, lamp, road, umbrella
                    d. plant, bed, street, sand
                    e. temple, shop, clinic, bath
                    f. market, verandah, gate, hall
                    g. bus, car, soap, cycle
                    h. shelf, dress, lorry, tap
                    i. flower, leaf, bud, radio
                    j. television, ground, fan, light
47   Singular       a. Read the following sentence:
     Verb/ Plural   1. The book is open.
     Verb           The books are open.
                    2. The kite is beautiful.
                    The kites are beautiful.
                    3. The bird is in the sky.
                    The birds are in the sky.
                    In the first sentence the singular verb is used for the singular noun. In the
                    second sentence the plural verb is used for the plural noun.
                    ft
                 So
            am
      g  ar
     i
  )S
(c