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					                               Glossary                                      Birth weight: the weight of a calf recorded within 24 hours of birth using a
                                                                             calibrated scale and reported to the Association on the Herd Inventory and
Abnormal calf: a calf that has phenotypical malformations                    Application for Registration CAAFORM11; expressed in pounds

Aborted: a calf which has died and is not carried to full term by the dam    Body condition score: a Beef Improvement Federation guideline for
                                                                             scoring the amount of muscling and fat on an animal’s body where 1 equals
Accuracy: the measure of the reliability of an EPD                           very thin and 9 equals extremely fat

Adjusted 205-day weight: a calf’s weaning weight corrected to 205 days of    British breed: a breed of cattle originating from the United Kingdom;
age                                                                          Angus is an example of a British breed

Adjusted 365-day weight: a calf’s yearling weight corrected to 365 days of   Calf: generally refers to an animal who is less than 1 year of age
                                                                             Calving ease: describes the difficulty (or lack thereof ) of a calf’s birth. It
Age verification: the recording of a date of birth to a CCIA tag number in   is reported to the Association on the Herd Inventory and Application for
the national CCIA database                                                   Registration CAAFORM11.

Agri-Traςabilité Québec (ATQ): the organization responsible for              Calving season: a block of time during the year in which calving takes
identifying and age verifying cattle under the Health of Animals Act in      place. The Canadian Angus Association splits herds into two seasons, spring
Quebec                                                                       and fall. Cows calving between January and May are typically considered
                                                                             to be part of the spring calving season and cows calving between June and
Allele: a version of a gene; most genes have two versions or alleles         December are fall.

Artificial insemination (AI): the technique of manually placing semen        Canadian Cattle Identification Agency (CCIA): an industry-run
into a female’s reproductive tract during ovulation                          organization responsible for identification and age verification of cattle
                                                                             under the federal Health of Animals Act in Canada, excluding Quebec
Average daily gain (ADG): the increase in weight over a period of time
divided by the time span in days. This is calculated by the Canadian Angus   Carrier: an animal that has a particular allele for the gene being referenced;
Association from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling.              typically the allele is recessive

Bred: a female which is known to have been served by a bull either through   Clone: an animal that is a genetic replica of another
natural breeding or artificial insemination
                                                                             Conformation: the shape and arrangement of the different body parts of an
Breed: animals which have a common origin and common characteristics         animal
which distinguish them from other groups of animals within the same
species                                                                      Congenital: a genetic or birth defect or condition

Breeder: the owner (or lessee) of the dam at the time of conception          Contemporary group: a grouping of animals that can fairly be compared
                                                                             to each other for evaluation; the Association generates contemporary groups
                                                                             based on management group, sex, age of dam, calving season, number in
                                                                             birth and nurse code

1 • Glossary                                                                                                                                       January 2011
Continental breed: a breed of cattle originating from Europe; otherwise         Free-martin: a female calf that is born as a twin to a male and that is sterile
referred to as an exotic breed                                                  as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male
                                                                                while in the uterus. Not all female twins are free-martins; a blood test can
Crossbred: an animal whose genetic makeup is comprised of two or more           be performed to determine if the female is fertile.
distinct breeds
                                                                                Futurity: show class or classes in which owners nominate their animals
Culling: the process of slaughtering less productive or less desirable cattle   before the competition and usually includes higher fees. The proceeds are
                                                                                pooled and given to the top placing animals.
Dam: the mother of a bovine animal
                                                                                Gene: a section of DNA that codes for a particular amino acid, and
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): the most basic level of genetic                    ultimately, physical trait
                                                                                Genetic correlation: the amount of common genes that contribute toward
DNA parentage testing: a DNA test performed using hair samples that             two traits; the higher the correlation, the more genes in common the two
uses parentage markers to match an animal to its genetic sire and/or dam        traits have

Dominant gene/allele: the allele or version of the gene that is expressed       Genetic defect: an abnormality that is caused by a specific allele; in Angus
regardless of the nature of the second allele                                   these are usually the recessive allele for a gene

Donor dam: the biological mother of a calf produced by embryo transfer          Genotype: the allele of an animal at a particular gene, or the animal’s
                                                                                genetic fingerprint as a whole
Embryo transfer: the process of removing fertilized ova (embryos) from
a donor dam and implanting them into a recipient dam to carry the calf to       Gestation: the time from conception to birth, also referred to as pregnancy.
term                                                                            An Angus female has an average gestation length of 282 days.

Expected Progeny Difference (EPD): the measure of an animal’s                   Heifer: a female bovine that has not yet given birth
breeding value. EPDs indicate the average performance expected from an
animal’s progeny in comparison to another animal or to the breed average.       Herdbook: the official record of all Angus animals in Canada maintained
                                                                                by staff at the Canadian Angus Association office
Fitting: the preparation of livestock for a show, both in conditioning and
the outer appearance of the animal including the clipping and dressing of       Herd name: a name chosen by the member and registered on the
the hair                                                                        Association records, to be used when naming Angus animals to identify the
                                                                                owner of the animal at birth
Frame: the overall height and size of an animal
                                                                                Heritability: the proportion of a trait that is influenced by genes rather
Frame score: a numeric value related to the height and size of an animal,       than by environmental factors. Traits that are controlled to a large degree by
calculated using Beef Improvement Federation methodology                        genetics, such as birth weight, scrotal circumference and carcass weight have
                                                                                high measures of heritability.

                                                                                Heterozygous: an animal that has two different alleles for a specific gene

January 2011                                                                                                                                        Glossary • 2
Hip height: a measurement taken by recording the height of an animal            National Cattle Evaluation (NCE): a genetic evaluation based on Best
at its hip bones, recorded in inches and reported to the Canadian Angus         Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) methodology, designed to estimate the
Association on the yearling weight worksheet                                    portion of variation in animals’ performance that is due to genetic merit as
                                                                                opposed to environmental factors. Genetic evaluations are used to calculate
Homozygous: an animal that has only one allele for a specific gene              breeding values or Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) to use as selection
Index: an in-herd evaluation for specific traits where the group average is
100 and animals are ranked accordingly                                          Open: female which has not been served or which has been served but
                                                                                declared not in calf
Interim EPD: an EPD that is generated utilizing Parental EPD information
and the animal’s own performance data in comparison to its contemporaries.      Owner: the individual, partnership or corporation in whose name an animal
This EPD is more accurate than a Parental Average EPD but not as reliable       is registered
as a National EPD.
                                                                                Parentage verified: the process of using DNA parentage testing to confirm
Lease: an official agreement between a lessor (owner of an animal on            an animal’s genetic sire and/or dam
record) and a lessee (the person leasing the animal), whereby the lessee will
be considered the owner of the progeny of leased females for the term of the    Parental Average EPD: a simplistic EPD calculated by averaging the
lease                                                                           EPDs of a calf’s dam and sire. This EPD is a good starting point to evaluate
                                                                                genetic merit for calves but is the least accurate.
Management group: a grouping of animals that have been raised in the
same manner and been given the same opportunity to develop a specific           Pedigree: the record of ancestry for a registered animal verified by the
trait. For example, for weaning weight, calves that have been creep fed         Canadian Angus Association
should be placed in a different management group than those which were
not creep fed. Management groups must be assigned a mumber between              Pedigree extract: a service offered by the Association to extract pedigree
1 and 99.                                                                       and performance data on a set of animals for the preparation of a member’s
                                                                                sale catalogue
Marbling: the distribution of intramuscular fat in muscle tissue; evaluated
for recording between the 12th and 13th ribs                                    Performance data: measurements of specific economically relevant traits
                                                                                such as birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight and ultrasound data
Member: an individual, partnership or corporation who has paid their
yearly membership dues in the current year to the Canadian Angus                Phenotype: the physical manifestation of an animal’s genetics and
Association                                                                     environment

Membership name: the individual, partnership or corporation a Canadian          Polled: an animal with no horns. Angus cattle inherit the dominant polled
Angus Association account is listed under                                       allele for the horned gene and are distinctively polled.

Microsatellite (DNA): a repeated length of DNA that is inherited                Premier breeder: an award presented at shows to a herd that has bred the
                                                                                highest placing animals at the show. Points are awarded in each class to the
                                                                                entries and calculated at the end of the show to determine the recipient.

3 • Glossary                                                                                                                                      January 2011
Premier exhibitor: an award presented at shows to the exhibitor who is           Trait leader: an animal that has been recognized as a herd leader for
most successful in the show. Points are awarded in each class for the placing    breeding value for a specific trait
and calculated at the end of the show to determine the recipient.
                                                                                 Ultrasound scanning: the process by which carcass traits such as rib eye
Progeny: the offspring of an animal or a pairing of animals                      area, marbling and back fat are measured

Purebred: a purebred Angus is one that is registered and has a known             Weaning weight: an actual weight taken within a week of weaning. The
pedigree verified on a registration form issued by the Canadian Angus            acceptable age range for Red Angus animals is between 130–280 days of age
Association                                                                      and for Black Angus animals is 120–280 days. Weaning weights are reported
                                                                                 to the Association on weaning weight worksheets and are required for
Ratio: an in-herd evaluation method whereby animals are compared to the          Canadian Angus Performance Program herds.
group average of 100 for a specific trait                                        Yearling: generally refers to an animal between one and two years of age

Recessive gene/allele: the version of the gene or the allele that is not         Yearling weight: an actual weight measured when an Angus animal is
expressed in the presence of the dominant version or gene                        between 290–440 days of age. It is reported to the Association on a yearling
                                                                                 weight worksheet.
Recipient dam: a female that has been implanted with embryos from
another female

Red carrier: a black-hided animal that has inherited the allele that codes for
red coat colour but does not display the phenotype as the allele is recessive
to the allele that codes for black hide colour

Scrotal circumference: the size of a bull’s scrotum, measured around the
largest part of the scrotum and reported to the Association on the yearling
weight worksheets

Scur: any cartilaginous or horny growth which may develop from natural
causes through the skin or on the surface of the skin on that part of the
head where horns grow on horned cattle

Showmanship: the manner in which livestock are presented and exhibited
while in a show ring or in front of a judge

Sire: the father of a bovine animal

Steer: a bull that has been castrated

Stillborn: a calf carried to full term but born dead

January 2011                                                                                                                                       Glossary • 4