The Dentaid IOM Literature Analysis is available to - IOM by dfsiopmhy6


									IOM Literature analysis                                                                                    Dentaid 2010                                                                                                Chronological

                                                                                                                    TITLE /                       COUNTRY of
                  YEAR                 RELEVANCE                       AUTHORS              IOM COUNTRY                                                                    SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
                                                                                                              JOURNAL or PUBLISHER                   study
                                                                                                              Problems with Teething in
                             Reports the inaccurate historical
                                                                                                           children Pediatric Oncall (serial
                  2010       association between teething and        Sood M, Sood S                                                                  India
                                                                                                          online) 2010 (cited 2010 April 1); 7.
                             significant morbidity and mortality
                                                                                                                        Art # 20

                                                                                                              Socio-cultural practices of
                                                                                                                                                                There is need for TBAs to be continuously trained
                            Reports the influence of Traditional Mutai J, Muniu E, Saw                       deciduous canine tooth bud
                                                                                                                                                                 and monitored with a view to advancing feasible
                  2010     Birth Attendants (TBAs) in continuing J, Hassanali J, Kibet P,     KENYA       removal among Maasai children.            Kenya
                                                                                                                                                                strategies to address the main causes of illnesses
                                    the practice of IOM.               Wanzala P                          International; Dental Journal (2010)
                                                                                                                                                                                amongst children.
                                                                                                                        60: 94-98

                                                                                                           Orthodontic Consequences of
                           First report of Chad immigrants in
                                                                                                            Ritual Dental mutilations in                          First account of Angolan immigrants having
                          France. In 1998 and 2000, both at 3 Khonsari RH, Corre P,
                   2009                                                                        CHAD        Northern Chad            J.Oral          France      undergone the practice from so northern a region
                          months of age, 2 children had IOM in  Perrin J-P, Piot B
                                                                                                            Maxilofac Surgery 67:902-905,                                           as Tchad.
                                                                                                             Comparative study of the
                                                                                                             primary dentition with the
                  2009         Report of IOM in DR Congo                Dhego G              DR CONGO
                                                                                                            eruption of the teeth called
                                                                                                                                                   DR Congo
                                                                                                           Refugee Teeth or Plastic Teeth

                                                                                                          Removal of Dental Facilities in
                            Somalian migrant to Norway - case                                             African folk medicine (translated
                                                                                                                                                                 Somalis are the fifth largest immigrant group in
                   2009      report. 10 yr old girl had IOM in     Espelid E, Agnalt R        SOMALIA      from Norwegian)            Nor           Norway
                                 Somalia in 2000/2001?                                                    Tannlegeforen Tid 2009: 119:294-

                            Report of 2005 study interviewing
                                                                                                          Killer canine teeth: knowledge,
                           parents, medical staff and traditional
                                                                                                          attitude and practice in Bardege                         "Traditional healers and community members
                            healers. 125 people from 11 tribes
                                                                  Odong P O; Laruni C;                    Division, Gulu district, Northern                     should be sensitized about safety practices in the
                   2009   were interviewed: they had 404 children                             UGANDA                                                Uganda
                                                                  Opio A; Okullo I et al                        Uganda.J Kenya Dental                           treatment of false teeth and traditional extractions
                           between them. 210 children had Xns;
                                                                                                           Association Vol 1. No 2. January                                   should be discouraged."
                          48% from the Acholi tribe. 6 tribes had
                                   no children with Xns.
                            3 year old Ethiopian child, recently                                           A Timely Article Journal of the
                  2008      adopted in USA, with missing lower         Mestman, S              USA        American Dental Association 2008           USA
                                    deciduous canines                                                              Vol 139: 659

                                                                                                          Erupted compound odontoma:
                                                                                                           case report of a 15-year-old                           A rare case. Australia has a large population of
                           Sudanese migrant to Australia - case
                                                                                                          Sudanese boy with a history of                        recent immigrants from areas in Africa where IOM
                  2008       report. 15 yr old boy has IOM in      Amailuk P, Grubor D        SUDAN                                                 Australia
                                                                                                                                                                 is practised and more patients with abnormalities
                                                                                                                  dental mutilation
                             Uganda when a toddler 1994-5?
                                                                                                           British Dental Journal 2008 Vol                                          are likely.
                                                                                                                    204(1): 11-14

                          VERY IMPORTANT: The overview is
                                                                                                             Extirpation of the Primary                            Importance of dentists and allied personnel in
                          excellent Definition of IOM: performed
                                                                                                           Canine Tooth Follicles: A Form                         developed countries being aware, when treating
                              for perceived medical reasons;     Edwards P C, Levering
                  2008       performed on infants who cannot      N, Wetzel E. Saini T
                                                                                              SUDAN           of Infant Oral Mutilation              USA:         refugees from undeveloped areas, of the social
                                                                                                            Journal of the American Dental                      factors being IOM and the dental and physiological
                           consent; can have disastrous health
                                                                                                          Association 2008 Vol 139: 442-450                                         sequelae

IOM Literature analysis                                                                               Dentaid 2010                                                                                          Chronological

                                                                                                      'Meno ya plastiki': A literature
                                                                                                     review and prevalence study on                      Culturally sensitive education programmes
                          VERY IMPORTANT Use as a basis for
                  2008     updated paper and seek publication?
                                                                        Gollings J        TANZANIA     a group of Tanzanian school       Tanzania    required. Also health centres in the UK should be
                                                                                                                  children                             aware of the practice and educate accordingly.
                                                                                                          Unpublished report. 2008

                               Emphasises the importance of                                          Knowledge and practice: using
                              sustained and informed support                                                water in the home                         Essential to have ongoing education to achieve
                  2008        (respecting cultural traditions) if
                                                                        Veloso Y C                                                       Honduras
                                                                                                     Footsteps; Tearfund 2008 71-80:
                             changes in practice are needed.                                                        74
                               FDI paper. Community Health
                                                                                                                                                      "IOM could be addressed through WHO/AFRO
                            Education programmes have been
                                                                                                       Enucleation of Deciduous                        Regional Strategy for oral health in Africa with
                           carried out amongst the Maasai since
                                                                    Hassanali, Jameela;              Canine Tooth Buds in Infants in                  sharing of experiences of intervention strategies
                  2008    the 1990's. Evaluation in 2005 showed
                                                                      Wanzala, Peter                                                                   being implemented by key researchers in the
                                                                                                     Sub-Saharan Africa Developing
                             72% of mothers had IOM on their
                                                                                                        Dentistry Vol 9. No 1.2008                       SubSaharan region in workshops and field
                            children. Knowing the hazards, only
                            20% of the people advocate it to be

                           VERY IMPORTANT: 2007. Strategy                                                The "Nylon teeth myth"
                                                                                                                                                      DDS students (2006-7) recommended a strategy
                  2007       against IOM recommended for              Kahabuka F K        TANZANIA   Tanzania Dental Journal 2007 Vol    Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                        for the dental school at Muhimbili to adopt.
                               Muhimbili Dental School.                                                         14(1): 5-6

                                                                                                     Using qualitative methodology
                           VERY IMPORTANT Describes IOM                                                 to elucidate themes for a
                          education strategy used in Uganda in                                          traditional tooth gauging                         Increased awareness. Ebino education
                  2007    2003 (?) and subsequent effect after         Jamieson L M       UGANDA       education tool for use in a        Uganda:    incorporated into other areas of hospital services.
                           1.5 years Analysis of beliefs VERY                                         remote Ugandan community                            Topic of discussion in church services.
                                     IMPORTANT.                                                      Health Education Research 2006
                                                                                                            Vol 21(4) 477-487

                                                                                                      False Teeth "ebiino" and millet
                          Interesting reversal of ideas: Some of    Nuwaha F, Okware
                                                                                                      disease " oburo" in Bushenyo                   1 in 2 families reported a child with false teeth or
                  2007       the respondents believe that the        J,Hannigtone T,      UGANDA                                          Uganda
                                                                                                                                                             millet disease in the past five years.
                                                                                                     district of Uganda African Health
                               diarrhoea causes false teeth .       Charles Mwebaze
                                                                                                      Sciences. 2007. Vol 7 (1); 25-32

                                                                    Africare- Community                                                                 Both beliefs still widespread with more people
                                                                     Based Integrated                Operations Research into Oburo                  believing in ebiino than oburo . Recommended that
                  2006            VERY IMPORTANT:                     Management of       UGANDA     and Ebiino Folk Diseases Report
                                                                                                                                                     Africare and its health partners carry out increased
                                                                     Childhood Illness                      prepared July 2006                           sensitization and health education about the
                                                                       (CIMCI) project                                                                               dangers of extraction.

IOM Literature analysis                                                                               Dentaid 2010                                                                                                       Chronological

                                                                                                                                                                 Systemic complications of IOM are mostly infective
                                                                                                      Complications from traditional                               due to late presentation of the original illness or
                                                                                                        tooth extraction in South-                                 complications of the procedure. Poor growth in
                  2005                                               Ellis J, Arubaku W     UGANDA                                                 Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                  infants has been noted. Local complications are
                                                                                                      western Uganda         Tropical
                                                                                                      Doctor 2005 Vol 35(4) 245-246                              haemorrhage and chronic damage to erupting teeth
                                                                                                                                                                                    and/or bone.

                                                                                                     The impact of ebinyo, a form of
                                                                                                        dental mutilation, on the
                                                                       Bataringaya A,                                                                             The practice of ebinyo can impact on the occlusal
                  2005                                              Ferguson M, Lalloo R
                                                                                            UGANDA   malocclusion status in Uganda                 Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                    status in the permanent dentition years later.
                                                                                                      Community Dental Health 2005
                                                                                                           Vol 22(3): 146-150

                                                                                                       Tooth follicle extirpation and
                             IMPORTANT: Comprehensive               Johnston N L, Riordan                        uvulectomy
                  2005    overview of IOM especially its history             PJ
                                                                                                       Australian Dental Journal 2005
                                                                                                             Vol 50:4 267-272

                                                                                                          Parents' and medical                                    Almost all parents , the majority of nurses, and
                          IOM not mentioned, but an interesting
                                                                    Sarrell EM, Horev Z,              personnel's belief about infant                            many physicians believe teething is associated with
                  2005     study into the beliefs of parents and
                                                                       Cohen Z et al
                                                                                                                                                                  minor symptoms. A substantial minority ascribe
                                                                                                     teething             Patient Educ
                              health workers about teething.
                                                                                                      Couns 2005 Vo 57(1) 122-125                                    potentially serious symptoms to teething.
                                                                                                                                                               Further studies exploring both the child health care
                                                                                                                                                                professionals’ and the mothers’ understanding of
                                                                                                                                                                         Further studies aimed at an in-depth
                                                                                                     The mothers' experience of their
                                                                                                                                                               exploration which could probably provide a deeper
                                                                                                          infants teething at three
                                                                                                                                                               insight into the mothers’understanding of teething.
                                                                                                     different settings in Uganda and
                                                                                                                                                                       Prospective observational studies will be
                                                                                                     South Africa                 Submitted
                                                                                                                                                                 valuable to probably clarify and/or evidence the
                                                                                                            in part fulfillment of the
                                                                                                                                                               signs and symptoms that could be associated with
                           IMPORTANT paper on beliefs about                                            requirements for the degree of         Uganda and South
                  2004              teething
                                                                        Kasangaki A         UGANDA
                                                                                                                                                                       the eruption of the primary dentition.
                                                                                                      Master of Science in dentistry in
                                                                                                                                                                   Educate mothers what teething is and what it is
                                                                                                     the Faculty of Dentistry and World
                                                                                                                                                                 not and how to respond to the various ascribed
                                                                                                      Health Organisation Oral Health
                                                                                                                                                                         signs and symptoms to teething
                                                                                                     Collaborating Centre, University of
                                                                                                                                                               Bearing in mind parental health beliefs in relation to
                                                                                                           The Western Cape 2004
                                                                                                                                                                  diarrhoea, much harm could be prevented by
                                                                                                                                                                counselling mothers on the possible causes and
                                                                                                                                                               presentation of diarrhoea and on how and how not
                                                                                                                                                                                  to respond to it.

                                                                                                        World Medical Association
                          2004 World Medical association called          Odigwe C
                                                                                                      'appalled' at oral mutilation in
                            for an end to IOM, at the first ever    (Report on speech by
                  2004     planning conference for oral health in     James Appleyard
                                                                                                       parts of Africa         'British             Africa
                                                                                                       Medical Journal 2004 Vol 328
                                           Africa.                        (below)
                                                                                                                (7446): 976
                                                                                                        World Dental Development
                                                                                                        Fund: Rwanda Project Visit
                  2003    Only mention so far of IOM in Rwanda           Benzian H          RWANDA                                                 Rwanda                  Still ongoing when report written
                                                                                                       Report. Developing Dentistry
                                                                                                                 2003 Vol 3:

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                  Dentaid 2010                                                                                             Chronological

                                                                                                            The burden of traditional                     Hospital based studies are prone to selection bias.
                            IMPORTANT: very comprehensive
                                                                                                        practices, ebino and tea-tea , on                 The authors plan to supplement this with population-
                           review of current literature. Excellent   Accorsi S, Fabiani M,
                  2003     introduction. Gives many more local         Ferrarese N et al
                                                                                              UGANDA    child health in northern Uganda.       Uganda       based studies in order to better understand the
                                                                                                        Social Science and Medicine 2003                   sociological and cultural factors, prevalence and
                                      terms for ebino .
                                                                                                               Vol 57:11 2183-2191                                  impact of these interventions.

                                                                                                        Infant Oral Mutilation - a tragic
                          The first article introducing Dentaid as
                  2003       a force in the fight against IOM
                                                                           Wordley J                    misconception         Developing       Overview
                                                                                                          Dentistry 2003 Vol 3: 19-20

                                                                                                                                                            Diseases traditionally known as Ibyinyo (dental
                                                                                                        KAP Study on Infant and Young
                                                                                                                                                            swelling due to bad tooth pressure) and Uburo
                             Refers to Ibyinyo as a disease -                                             Child Feeding Consultancy
                                                                       Dresch-Bogale S.,                                                                     are quite frequent in some areas like Muhura,
                  2002     "swelling due to tooth pressure". No
                                                                          Rwamfizi V
                                                                                              RWANDA     Report               Ministry of      Rwanda
                                                                                                                                                           Kibungo Health District and Nyanza. There is no
                              mention of IOM or treatment.                                              Health, Kigali, Rwanda / UNICEF.
                                                                                                                                                          mention of IOM as a treatment for Ibyinyo or for
                                                                                                                    Oct 2002

                              Opinions of parents and health
                              professionals on tooth eruption                                           Tooth eruption symptoms: a survey
                                                                                                                                                            Differences exist regarding teething symptoms
                           symptoms. Only 9% of paediatricians       Barlow B S. Kanellis M             of parents and health professionals
                  2002      believe that diarrhoea is associated         J; Slayton R L.                    ASDC journal of dentistry for
                                                                                                                                                USA         between parents, paediatricians and paediatric
                            with teething compared with 56.7%                                            children 2002 Vol 69 (2) 148-50
                           parents and 52% paediatric dentists.
                                                                                                                                                           The mother of these children intimated that tooth
                           An example of IOM at the Eastman
                                                                                                        Traditional tooth bud gouging in                   bud gouging might be practised in Britain but not
                            Dental Hospital, UK. The first such
                                                                                                            a Ugandan family: a report                      directly admitted due to fear or embarrassment.
                             report of a family emigrated from       Dewhurst S N, Mason
                  2001        Africa.(2001). Author suggests                  C
                                                                                              UGANDA          involving three sisters            UK             Improvements in sanitation, nutrition and
                                                                                                        'International Journal of Paediatric               vaccination are probably the best ways to reduce
                           prevention of febrile illness the most
                                                                                                         Dentistry 2001 Vol 11: 292-297                   the prevalence of IOM by preventing severe febrile
                            important way of preventing IOM.
                           IMPORTANT: Criteria for suspected                                            Ilko dacowo:' canine enucleation
                          canine enucleation very useful for future                                       and dental sequelae in Somali                       Culturally sensitive education is indicated to
                                                                    Rodd H D, Davidson L
                  2000          studies. Need for UK dental
                                                                                              SOMALIA    children              International     UK       discourage this ritual practice. Dental professionals
                            professionals to be aware of these                                             Journal of Paediatric Dentistry                    should be aware of such cultural practices.
                                     cultural practices.                                                       2000 Vol 10: 290-297

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                Dentaid 2010                                                                                              Chronological

                                                                                                                                                            Consequences of IOM: mandible has been
                                                                                                                                                             documented to be smaller in IOM cases;
                                                                                                        Dental Injuries due to African
                              VERY IMPORTANT: Excellent                                                                                                    hypoplasia of abutting primary and permanent
                                                                    Graham E A, Domoto                traditional therapies for diarrhea
                  2000        overview; the best summary of
                                                                      P K, Egbert M A.
                                                                                           SOMALIA                                           USA         teeth; retention of lower B's with distal eruption of
                                                                                                      Western Journal of Medicine 2000
                                    consequences yet.                                                                                                  lower 2's along with displacement and impaction of
                                                                                                               Vol 173 135-137
                                                                                                                                                           lower 3's ; Odontoma; infection, fatal sepsis;
                                                                                                                                                          decreased growth for up to 4 months after IOM.

                                                                                                      'False teeth' and real suffering:
                                                                                                            the social course of
                          VERY IMPORTANT Comprehensive
                                                                                                         'Germectomy' in Eastern                         'False teeth' as a disease, appeared in the late
                  2000    account of beliefs (often verbatim); in     Mogensen H O         UGANDA                                           Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                          1970's or 80's.
                                                                                                      Uganda                   Culture,
                            depth analysis of the whole topic.
                                                                                                      Medicine and Psychiatry 2000 Vol
                                                                                                                 24: 331-351

                                                                                                        Killer' canines: the morbidity                   Use of same unsterilised tool on several infants
                          VERY IMPORTANT: Health education
                                                                                                          and mortality of ebino in                    has serious implications in Gulu District because of
                          has been implemented in the hospital       Iriso R Accorsi S,
                  2000       including videos and education             Akena S et al
                                                                                           UGANDA              northern Uganda              Uganda         the high HIV rate. Health education has been
                                                                                                      Tropical Medicine and International               implemented in the hospital including videos and
                                sessions targeting ebino.
                                                                                                       Health 2000 Vol 5:10 706-710                              education sessions targeting ebino.
                                                                                                                                                        Increased biting, drooling, gum-rubbing, sucking,
                                                                                                                                                         irritability, wakefulness, ear-rubbing, facial rash,
                                                                                                                                                            decreased appetite for solid foods, and mild
                                                                                                                                                              temperature elevation were all statistically
                                                                        Macknin ML,                      Symptoms associated with
                                                                                                                                                            associated with teething. Congestion, sleep
                  2000                                              Piedmonte M, Jacobs                teething: a prospective study.        USA
                                                                                                                                                           disturbance, stool looseness, increased stool
                                                                       J, Skibinski C.                   Pediatrics 2000; 105: 747-52
                                                                                                                                                          number, decreased appetite for liquids, cough,
                                                                                                                                                          rashes other than facial rashes, fever over 102
                                                                                                                                                           degrees F, and vomiting were not significantly
                                                                                                                                                                   associated with tooth emergence.
                          IOM not mentioned but a useful study                                        Teething and Tooth Eruption in
                                                                                                                                                        Did not confirm the expected strong relationships
                          concluding that there is good evidence    Wake M, Hesketh K,                    Infants: a Cohort Study
                  2000      that tooth eruption is not strongly         Lucas J.
                                                                                                                                                         between tooth eruption and a range of teething
                                                                                                        Pediatrics 2000 Vol 106: No
                                                                                                                                                            symptoms in children 6 to 30 months old.
                          associated with significant symptoms.                                                 6.1374-1379

                                                                                                        A case of dental mutilation
                            The first report of a case of dental      Eriandsson AL,                                                                       Indicates that the practice was still in use in
                  1999     mutilation from Ethiopia (in Sweden)        Backman B
                                                                                           ETHIOPIA    Journal of Dentistry for Children    Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                      Ethiopia in the 1980's.
                                                                                                          1999 July/Aug 278-279

                                                                                                       "Ebino" (false teeth): how the
                                                                                                                                                          Education of students and TDP's can reduce
                  1999                                                  Kirunda W          UGANDA      problem was tackled in Tororo        Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                        practice of IOM
                                                                                                        Tropical Doctor 1999 July: 190

                                                                                                         Traditional nutritional and
                                                                                                        surgical practices and their
                            Careful methodology indicates that                                        effects on the growth of infants
                                                                     Asefa M, Hewison J,                                                                A reduction in unnecessary uvulectomy and milk
                  1998    extraction of milk teeth in the infant can
                                                                          Drewett R
                                                                                           ETHIOPIA        in south-west Ethiopia           Ethiopia
                                                                                                                                                              teeth extraction would be desirable.
                                     cause weight loss.                                                     Paediatric & Perinatal
                                                                                                       Epidemiology 1998 Vol 12: 182-

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                   Dentaid 2010                                                                                              Chronological

                                                                   National Committee on
                                                                                                         Children's Teeth and their Care.                    IOM reported to be decreasing in 55% of regions
                  1997                                             Traditional Practices of   ETHIOPIA
                                                                                                              Booklet published 1997
                                                                                                                                                              but no change in 30% and an increase in a few.

                                                                                                          Cross-cultural medicine and
                            Importance of understanding the
                                                                                                             diverse health beliefs.
                            Ethiopian beliefs about health and                                                                                              Health education must address Ethiopian concerns
                  1997     medicine when preparing educational
                                                                          Hodes R             ETHIOPIA        Ethiopians abroad.                 Israel:
                                                                                                                                                                              and customs
                                                                                                         Western Journal of Medicine 1997
                                                                                                                  Vol 166: 29-36

                                                                                                                                                              Most of the parents went to a hospital more than
                                                                                                             Tooth bud extraction and
                             IMPORTANT: Since 1983 several                                                                                                   three times before they went to a healer, reflecting
                                                                                                          rubbing of herbs by traditional
                          interventions condemning the practice                                                                                                 inadequate management in the hospitals. It is
                                                                                                         healers in Tanzania: prevalence,
                           have been begun in Tanzania; public                                                                                                recommended that intensive health education on
                                                                                                                and sociological and
                  1997    addresses by politicians; use of mass Kikwilu E N, Hiza J F R       TANZANIA                                          Tanzania    the causes, treatment and prevention of fevers and
                                                                                                               environmental factors
                             media for health education; police                                                                                                     diarrhoea, in conjunction with effective
                                                                                                             influencing the practices
                            arrests of traditional healers. Useful                                                                                          management of these diseases by health facilities,
                                                                                                         International Journal of Paediatric
                              questionnaires for future studies                                                                                              should be instituted to combat the beliefs that lead
                                                                                                            Dentistry 1997 Vol 7: 19-24
                                                                                                                                                                      to treatment by traditional healers.

                                                                                                                                                              There is a strong belief among the Maasai that
                                                                                                         Removal of deciduous canine                           fever etc is caused by 'nylon' teeth. A multi-
                                                                                                           tooth buds in Kenyan rural                              disciplinary approach involving social
                                Suggests including social           Hassanali J, Amwayi
                  1995     anthropologists to combat the belief.       P, Muriithi A
                                                                                               KENYA       Maasai                  East          Kenya      anthropologists in addition to dental and medical
                                                                                                         African Medical Journal 1995 Vol                   personnel is recommended in order to discourage
                                                                                                                  72:4 207-209                               this harmful operation that appears to be on the
                                                                                                                                                                              increase. (1995)

                                                                                                         Training teachers to implement
                                                                                                         a school oral health education
                                                                   Nyandindi U, Milen A,                                                                     Investment in workshops is necessary to assure
                  1995                                             Palin-Palokas T et al
                                                                                              TANZANIA       programme in Tanzania              Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                                        correct teaching of OHE.
                                                                                                          Health Promotion International
                                                                                                              1995 Vol 10:2 93-100

                                                                                                           Extraction of primary canine
                                                                                                            tooth buds: prevalence and
                          IMPORTANT: Evidence that IOM is still                                          associated dental abnormalities
                  1994       practised among the Ethiopian          Holan G, Mamber E         ETHIOPIA    in a group of Ethiopian Jewish         Israel               Practice still continuing (1994)
                               community in Israel (1994)                                                children      'International Journal
                                                                                                         of Paediatric Dentistry 1994 Vol 4:

                                                                                                            Knowledge, attitudes and
                                                                                                         practices of mothers regarding
                               EDUCATION TECHNIQUE
                                                                Ahmed I S, Eltom A R,                     diarrhoea among children in a                        Importance of education as to the causes of
                  1994    Important to teach mothers the causes
                                                                   Karrar Z A et al
                                                                                               SUDAN                                             Sudan
                                                                                                                                                                      diarrhoea and its prevention.
                                                                                                           Sudanese rural community
                                        of diarrhoea
                                                                                                         East African Medical Journal 1994
                                                                                                                   Vol 71: 716-719

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                  Dentaid 2010                                                                                                Chronological

                                                                                                        The role of traditional healers in
                                                                                                                                                            Many patients went to healer first and only went to
                          IMPORTANT: describes importance of                                             the treatment of toothache on
                                                                  Ngilisho L A F, Mosha                                                                    health centre if still in pain. Many healers claimed to
                  1994      traditional healers to villagers. Not
                                                                     H J, Poulsen S.
                                                                                             TANZANIA       Tanga Region, Tanzania              Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                             refer patients to clinic if their treatment did not
                                         about IOM                                                       'Community Dental Health 1994
                                                                                                                 Vol 11: 240-242

                                                                                                                                                            More children of married mothers had undergone
                                                                                                         Killer" canine removal and its
                                                                                                                                                            killer canine removal. In spite of comprehensive
                            Women may have better access to          Welbury R R, Nunn J                   sequelae in Addis Ababa
                  1993      modern health care than the men.         H, Gordon P H et al
                                                                                             ETHIOPIA                                           Ethiopia       health care available at Gemini Trust, some
                                                                                                         Quintessence International 1993
                                                                                                                                                               parents still rely heavily on traditional health
                                                                                                                Vol 24:5 323-327

                          "Haifat" - the lancing of the gum- is the
                                                                                                            Enamel defects in primary
                           practice described here. Says that the                                                                                          The most serious problem may be that the belief in
                                                                                                          canines related to traditional
                          'lugbara' practice of removing the tooth Rasmussen P, Elkhidir                                                                    teething as the cause of severe health problems
                  1992     buds is new in southern Sudan (1992) Elhassan F, Raadal M
                                                                                              SUDAN        teething problems in Sudan            Sudan
                                                                                                                                                            will distract parents; attention from the real cause
                                                                                                        'International Journal of Paediatric
                                brought in by refugees from                                                                                                of disease and thus from necessary medical help.
                                                                                                           Dentistry 1992 Vol 2: 151-155
                                  neighbouring countries.

                            Reports that the government has                                                Missing primary teeth due to
                          condemned the practice, (doesn't say                                          tooth bud extraction in a remote
                                                                                                                                                            The practice of tooth bud extraction still exists in
                  1992    when) but in 1990 it was still prevalent   Hiza J F, Kikwilu E N   TANZANIA            village in Tanzania            Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                                        some parts of Tanzania.
                          and practised secretly because of the                                          'International Journal of Paediatric
                                      government.                                                            Dentistry 1992 Vol 2: 31-34

                                                                                                                                                            Practice still prevalent in Singida, Dodoma, Tanga
                                                                                                                                                           and Morogoro regions and in the Acholi tribe. Other
                                                                                                                                                              tribes - Basigus, Bakigas and Batoros - did not
                                                                                                         Extraction of 'nylon teeth' and
                              IOM not practised everywhere in                                                                                               show this type of mutilation. In Tanzania, pregnant
                                                                        Matee M I N,                       associated abnormalities in
                          Tanzania. Important for health workers                                                                                               women and under-5's attend Maternal & Child
                  1991    to determine the practices of their local
                                                                    Palenstein Helderman     TANZANIA           Tanzanian children              Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                              Health clinics for monthly prenatal and medical
                                                                          W H van                       African Dental Journal 1991 Vol 5:
                           area and educate accordingly. (1991)                                                                                             checkups preceded by a health talk. Once a year,
                                                                                                                                                             this contains an OHE talk. Dental workers should
                                                                                                                                                           determine the existence of the 'nylon' teeth problem
                                                                                                                                                                in this area to give appropriate OHE. (1991)
                            Quotes a 1905 American health care
                           "A very common cause of diseases of
                            the stomach and bowels, and also of
                          convulsions in children, is to be found in
                                                                                                          Teething as a cause of death
                          the hardening or induration of the gums Gibbons HL, Hebdon
                  1991    at the time of teething, and this blunder       CK
                                                                                                           West J Med 1991 Dec 155               USA
                              of nature's ought to be promptly
                          remedied whenever the gums in infants
                             at the time of the first dentition are
                           found to be red, swollen and hot to the
                               touch, by the use of the lancet."
                                                                                                           Response of parents to five
                             IOM not mentioned here - but an
                                                                                                         killer diseases among children
                           interesting insight into the perceived                                                                                              Teething was the major cause of diarrhoea
                  1991       relationship between teething and
                                                                         Adetunji J A                   in a Yoruba community, Nigeria          Nigeria
                                                                                                                                                                         reported (about 44%).
                                                                                                         Soc.Sci. Med. Vol 32: 12 1379-
                                                                                                                    1387. 1991

                                                                                                        Traditional health practices in
                                                                                                          communities in north-west
                                                                     Dagnew MB, Damena                                                                      After milk teeth extraction, complications such as
                  1990                                                       M
                                                                                             ETHIOPIA               Ethiopia                    Ethiopia
                                                                                                                                                                 ostitis and osteomyelitis were observed.
                                                                                                        Tropical Doctor 1990        Vol
                                                                                                                   20: 40-41

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                Dentaid 2010                                                                                           Chronological

                                                                                                      Appendicitis in Soweto, South
                                                                                                       Africa: Traditional healers and
                           Importance of educating traditional                                                 Hospitalization
                  1989                  healers
                                                                   Walker ARP et al    SOUTH AFRICA                                        Africa
                                                                                                       The Journal of the Royal Society
                                                                                                      for the Promotion of Health 1989
                                                                                                              Vol 109.6: 190-192

                                                                                                        The mythology of the killer
                                                                                                         deciduous canine tooth in
                                                                                                                                                     A major educational campaign should be launched.
                  1989                                             Baba S P, Kay E J      SUDAN               southern Sudan               Sudan
                                                                                                       Journal of Pedodontics 1989 Vol
                                                                                                                   14: 48-49

                                                                                                      Relationship between habits and
                           PROVISION OF TOOTHBRUSH:                                                                                                    INTERESTING: no difference in caries levels
                                                                                                         dental health among rural
                          Recommends the local chewing stick                                                                                          between brushing with nylon toothbrush or using
                                                                                                             Tanzanian children
                  1989     rather than an old toothbrush. Not  Normark S, Mosha H J      TANZANIA                                         Tanzania     local chewing stick (miswaki). Chewing sticks
                                                                                                            Community Dent Oral
                          relevant to IOM group, but to School                                                                                          probably preferable to worn-out toothbrush.
                                                                                                      Epidemiology 1989 Vol 17: 317-
                               Sponsorship programmes!                                                                                                   Therefore the miswaki is recommended.

                                                                                                       Uganda: newborns, false teeth
                  1989    INTERESTING USE OF PLACEBO.                 Bwengye E          UGANDA       and diarrhoea       Dialogue on     Uganda
                                                                                                        diarrhoea 1989 Issue 39 6

                                                                                                          "Ebiino: Belief or Fact?
                           Lists preventive measures used by                                            Half-yearly Dental News Letter                A challenge for dental health workers to educate
                  1988              traditional healers
                                                                     Rawal, Yogini       UGANDA
                                                                                                       Uganda Dental Association. Dec
                                                                                                                                                                  people out of this belief.
                                                                                                                 1988. 18-23

                                                                                                                                                           Recommendations: 1) A health education
                                                                                                                                                       programme which teaches the mothers: (a) that
                                                                                                                                                     both milk teeth and permanent teeth are true teeth;
                                                                                                       Traditional practice as a cause
                                                                                                                                                      (b) The cause of diarrhoea and vomiting and how
                          IMPORTANT: Recommendations on                                               of infant morbidity and mortality
                                                                                                                                                          to treat it at home or in hospital using Oral
                  1987    teaching how to treat diarrhoea etc in    Wahab M M A           SUDAN              in Juba area (Sudan)          Sudan
                                                                                                                                                      Rehydration Salt ; (c) The possible complications
                             the first place should be noted                                             Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
                                                                                                                                                        that can result from extraction of milk teeth. 2)
                                                                                                               1987 Vol 7: 18-21
                                                                                                                                                      Medical personnel, especially those who practise
                                                                                                                                                       extraction, should be informed that it is an illegal
                                                                                                                                                      procedure and asked to stop doing the operation.

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                 Dentaid 2010                                                                                                   Chronological

                             VERY IMPORTANT: 'Excellent                                                Influence of education on local                       A "curative" approach implies acceptance of the
                                                                                                                                           Uganda (Acholi
                  1987    description of technique, sequelae, and        Stefanini A        UGANDA     beliefs                Tropical
                                                                                                                                                            practice. Younger mothers were more reluctant to
                                     spread of practice                                                   Doctor 1987 July 132-134                            allow IOM, some escaping from their families.

                                                                                                                                                              This practice is encouraged to make money for
                                                                                                       Dental mutilation and associated
                                                                                                                                                            local practitioners. It was surprising to find that well
                                                                                                          abnormalities in Tanzania
                  1983                                                   Mosha H J          TANZANIA                                         Tanzania         educated and high officials in the community fall
                                                                                                        Odontostomatol.Trop 1983 VI:4
                                                                                                                                                                victim to this bad practice, which was even
                                                                                                                                                               performed by some private medical doctors.

                           IMPORTANT: States: Duku (1976)
                                                                                                         Lugbara teeth germectomy of
                           reported that this phenomenon had
                                                                                                       canines for the newborn babies                       Parasitic infestations are common and can occur in
                          started among Sudanese refugees in
                                                                                                        a magico-religious phenomena                        the oral cavity. None seen in this study. Not easy to
                  1979    Zaire in 1967, initiated by a dismissed       Abusinna I M        SUDAN                                              Sudan
                                                                                                                                                                solve medically because of magico-religious
                                                                                                            in some African tribes
                             Zairian medical assistant. IOM
                                                                                                       Egyptian Dental Journal 1979 25:3                                          dimension.
                             procedure witnessed and tissue
                                 excised was investigated.
                            The myths and the true facts about
                                                                                                                 Teething Myths
                          teething. Shows that serious symptoms      Editorial. No author
                  1975        have been wrongly attributed to                listed
                                                                                                          British Medical Journal 1975
                                                                                                                   Dec 13. 604
                               teething from very early times.

                                                                                                        Indigenous Dental practice in
                               The association of teeth with                                                                                                    Throughout Uganda the teeth have a special
                  1971      superstitions. Only description of a       Halestrap D J        UGANDA                                            Uganda           significance and folklore indicates they have a
                                                                                                        British Dental Journal 1971 Nov
                              "fundi" - village tooth extractor                                                                                             strong association with witchcraft and superstition.
                                                                                                                 16. Pg 463-464

                                                                                                       Dental mutilation and associated
                                                                                                          abnormalities in Uganda.
                                                                                                                                                            None of the Acholis subjected to IOM could give a
                  1969       First use of the term "mutilation"         Pindborg J J        UGANDA       American Journal of Physical         Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                         reason for the custom.
                                                                                                       Anthropology 1969 Vol 31. Pg 383-

                             VERY IMPORTANT: the earliest                                                 Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic
                                                                       Seligman C G,                                                                         This book details the customs and beliefs of the
                  1932    reference so far found of IOM, but as a
                                                                       Seligman B Z
                                                                                             SUDAN                 Sudan.                      Sudan
                                                                                                                                                             pagan tribes of the Nilotic Sudan in great detail
                                       prophylaxis.                                                          Book published 1932

                             The earliest mention of IOM as a
                                                                                                              Difficult teething.
                           treatment for febrile illnesses - in an
                                                                                                       Medicology - Home Encyclopaedia
                   1905     American Home Encyclopaedia of            Richardson J G                                                           USA
                                                                                                        of Health. New York 1905. Page
                           Health 1905. Has this teaching been
                            taken to Africa etc from the USA?


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