CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis CANOE SAFETY TEST Purpose of Award This award has two purposes. Firstly, to provide a paddler with the necessary safety awareness which will enable them to ensure the safety of themselves and others. Secondly, to provide a paddler with rescue skills which can be used to help themselves and/or others in difficulty. Validity This award is valid for 3 years from the date of the test. A current award is a pre-requisite for the BCU Level 1 Coach (Supervisor) and Level 2 Coach (Instructor) awards. Pre-Requisites Hold the BCU 2 Star Test. Be able to swim 50m in normal canoeing clothing suitable for the prevailing conditions, including a buoyancy aid. A First Aid certificate is not a pre-requisite. However, the holding of a First Aid certificate such as the BCU Aquatic First Aid is strongly recommended to all paddlers. 1. General Theory and Skills This training module covers the following topics: a. The safety features of canoes/kayaks, buoyancy aids, and other canoeing clothing and equipment. b. The hazards which may be encountered on placid water, grade 1 water, and/or sheltered coastal waters or estuaries. c. The effects on paddling and paddlers of different weather conditions, e.g. rain, wind, fog, etc. In particular, the effects on the paddler of sudden immersion in cold water and/or prolonged exposure to the cold, precautions which will reduce those effects, and what to do if someone becomes dangerously cold. d. The use of simple signals for "come to me", "go left", "go right", "stop", "go back" and "acknowledge". e. How to handle a basic canoeing emergency, including the safety of the rescuer(s) and how to summon help. f. The various services and other assistance which could be called on during an incident. g. Good lifting techniques. This includes not only emptying boats in deep water, but safe handling of craft on land, for example, onto a roof rack. h. The value of holding a first aid certificate and where one can be obtained. 2. Lifesaving This training module covers the following topics: a. How to coach a swimmer in difficulty to shore. How to perform a safe reaching rescue, using either a rigid or non-rigid reaching aid. Throwing a buoyant object to a casualty. Wading to get nearer to a casualty. b. How to correctly pack a throwline into its bag and then use it to execute a throwline rescue over a distance of 15m with sufficient accuracy to land within reach of a casualty. CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis c. How to coil an unpacked throwline and then use it to execute a throwline rescue over a distance of 15m with sufficient accuracy to land within reach of a casualty. d. How to safely approach a struggling swimmer when paddling. How to effectively transport a casualty using various techniques such as the bow tow, bow carry, stern tow and stern carry. The suitability of these techniques in different situations. 3. Canoe/Kayak Rescue Skills This training module covers the following topics: a. Deep water rescue techniques for dealing with a capsized canoe/kayak, including returning the casualty to their craft and the suitability of a variety rescue techniques ('X' rescue, 'H' rescue, 'T' rescue, 'The Curl', etc.) for different situations (solo or assisted, different craft, different paddlers, etc.). b. Eskimo rescues, including both paddle presentation and bow presentation. c. Towing systems and alternative methods of getting a tired canoeist to land with their craft. Effective release of a towing system in an emergency. d. How to execute an "all in rescue". e. How to rescue a paddler in an upturned CCK in deep water, either as a swimmer or from another canoe/kayak. 4. Assessment The candidate must present themselves suitably equipped for the assessment and normal canoeing kit should be worn throughout the practical parts of the assessment. 4.1 Theory Answer a selection of questions to show an understanding of the theory covered by the training modules. 4.2 Practical a. Demonstrate a throwline rescue of a struggling swimmer in deep water over a distance of 10m. There is a time limit of 60 seconds for the throwline to land within reach of the casualty, but there is no limit to the number of attempts allowed within that period. b. Demonstrate an Eskimo rescue, both as a casualty and a rescuer. c. Rescue a paddler in an upturned CCK in deep water. d. Demonstrate a deep water rescue of a capsized craft, placing the casualty back in their craft. e. Capsize the kayak, retaining all equipment. Swim the upturned kayak, etc. 50m to shore. 4.3 Unknown Incidents Deal with a simple canoeing incident involving up to two casualties. CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis Kayak Types Marathon Kayak (Double Dutch Panther) Wavehopper (Perception) Slalom Kayak K-1 (Dagger Dinger) Polo Boat (Dagger Vampire) Creek Boat (Pyranha Micro Bat) Play Boat (Pyranha ProZone) Safety Features of Kayaks Buoyancy, air bags – help prevent boat sinking Foot plates, back straps, thigh straps, good seat, hip pads – prevent body injury and allow control over the boat Toggles – aids rescue Bright colour – aids finding boat and spotting swimmers (if you stay with the boat) Strong material – prevents breaking with going over small rocks – plastic vs fibreglass Deck release – available on some pyranha boats, aids deck removal and swift exit from boat! CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis Equipment Good buoyancy aids are… Comfortable Warm Non-restrictive Equipped with a suitable pocket (or place to keep keys) Strong Equipped with a good chest harness A bright colour Able to carry a knife Able to provide good body protection and last but not least buoyant. Recommended buoyancy for a buoyancy aid is 50 Newtons. Good Decks are… Easy to remove if required (good quick release) Water-proof Comfortable The right size Possible to put on by yourself Good Helmets are… Comfortable Able to protect against very hard impacts and adsorb the blow Protective of the face as well as the rest of the head Firmly attached to the head – they don not wobble even when upside down hitting head on bottom of river No impairment to vision Retire any equipment if it is not safe or it does not perform correctly anymore. This can be costly but your life may depend on it! CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis Other Equipment Throw lines Construction :- Nylon + Cordura shell, Polythene floatation, Polypropylene rope Features :- • 8mm nominal floating polypropylene rope • Cordura reinforced floating bag • Length identification on bag • Belt loops for optional carry belt system • Optimal shape for throw performance • Retro-reflective piping, also aids release timing • Hi Vis Red / Hi Vis Yellow http://www.nookie.co.uk/products/throwlines.htm Tow Lines Waist towline for instructor use Construction :- Nylon webbing and fabric, Polyethylene foam, Alloy krab Features :- • Quick Release Belt with toggle • Adjustable tow length • Shock Absorber • Anodised mini krab • Entire unit floats even with krab! • Distinctive webbing http://www.nookie.co.uk/products/towline.htm Suitable Clothing and (ways to keep your stuff dry) (http://www.nookie.co.uk/products) Dry Cag Dry Trousers Skull Cap Dry Bags CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis Signals – NOTE: THESE ARE MY SIGNALS, OTHERS MAY USE DIFFERENT ONES or or repeat the signal Go left Go right Acknowledge or or Pump once – ONE come down Come to me STOP Repeated pump – ALL come down General Hazards on Placid Water Rowers (and all other craft) Weirs, dams, locks, etc. Disease (Weils Disease) Animals (Swans) Litter (esp. shopping trolleys in shallow parts of the Cam) Other canoeists (esp. instructors when on CST course!) Strong Currents (esp. in Spate) Other Hazards Too cold/hot No food or drink (on long trips away from civilisation) No first aid (on long trips away from civilisation) Weather – wind, fog or rain (or worse snow!) Sunset (in the winter this can be terrible, if you are not at your destination and it is dark this can be worrying) CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis General Good Lifting Techniques – (http://www2.uwsuper.edu/humanres/Related/Lt.pdf) 1. Test the load. Prior to lifting an object, test the weight of the object by lifting a corner. You should also inspect the object for any slivers, nails, sharp edges, or slippery conditions. 2. Plan the move. Check your path of travel to make sure that it’s clear of any obstacles and there are no hazards in your path of travel, such as spilled water or oil. Remove any obstacles or hazards before picking up the object. 3. Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot ahead of the other. A solid base of support reduces the likelihood of slipping and jerking movements. 4. Grip the load firmly. This prevents the object from suddenly slipping out of your hands. You may need to use gloves or lifting handles if the load is too difficult to gasp. 5. Bend your knees. (This is the single most important rule to follow.) When you bend your knees instead of at your waist, the forces on your back are more evenly distributed. This also lets the strong muscles in your thighs do the lifting. 6. Bring the object as close to your body as possible. Keeping the load close to your body reduces the force it exerts on your back. 7. Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins. This allows your stomach muscles to help support your back as you lift. 8. Keep your head and shoulders upright. This helps to keep the normal inward curve in your lower back. 9. Lift with your legs. Using the strength of your legs to lift the object decreases the stress on your lower back. 10. Set the load down carefully. Slowly lower the object by bending your knees and keeping your back upright. Don’t let go of the object suddenly. BAD lifting technique GOOD lifting technique CANOE SAFETY TEST Prepared by Richard Jarvis Hypothermia –http://www.hypothermia.org/fieldchart.htm BODY SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Actions TEMPERATURE (RECTAL) 37.5ºC Normal Seek dry shelter, replace wet clothing with dry 36ºC Feel Cold including socks, gloves and hat. Cover neck, insulate whole body including HEAD from cold. Exercise but avoid sweating. External warmth (bath, fire) ONLY if CORE TEMP above 35ºC. 35ºC Shivering Warm sweet drinks and food (high calories) BODY COR TEMPERATURE BELOW 35ºC = HYPOTHERMIA = HOSPITAL NO EXERCISE, HANDLE GENTLY, REST NO EXTERNAL WARMTH (except to chest and trunk) Clumsy Warm sweet drinks and calories. 34ºC Irrational Internal warming via warm moist air, (exhaled Confused air, steam) or warm moist oxygen (40 - 42ºC at mask) (may appear drunk) Monitor pulse, breathing. Restrict all activity, lie 33ºC Muscle Stiffness down with feet slightly raised 32ºC SHIVERING STOPS, COLLAPSE, TRANSFER TO HOSPITAL = URGENT 31ºC Semi-conscience Nothing by mouth. Check airway remains open. 30ºC Unconscious May tolerate plastic airway, put in recovery (No response to pain position. Check airway, turn every 2 hours to protect skin, monitor pulse and breathing. stimuli) Slow mouth-to-mouth breathing at victims own 29ºC Slow Pulse and Breathing rate (may be very slow) Check airway. CPR with mouth-to-mouth 28ºC Cardiac Arrest breathing. Aim for normal CPR rates of 12-15 breaths/min and 80-100 compressions/min but (No obvious pulse or slower rates of 6-12 breaths/min and 40-60 breathing, pupils dilated) compressions/min may be adequate. Continue for as long as you can. BELOW 28ºC, NO VITAL SIGNS, COLD. DO NOT GIVE UP TREATMENT NOTE: NOT DEAD UNTIL WARM AND DEAD Avoid rapid rewarming and HANDLE GENTLY AT ALL TIMES Core temperature may lag behind skin temperature and continue to drop, so keep monitoring.