CANOE SAFETY TEST

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					CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                             Prepared by Richard Jarvis


                               CANOE SAFETY TEST
Purpose of Award

This award has two purposes. Firstly, to provide a paddler with the necessary safety awareness which will
enable them to ensure the safety of themselves and others. Secondly, to provide a paddler with rescue
skills which can be used to help themselves and/or others in difficulty.

Validity

This award is valid for 3 years from the date of the test. A current award is a pre-requisite for the BCU
Level 1 Coach (Supervisor) and Level 2 Coach (Instructor) awards.

Pre-Requisites

Hold the BCU 2 Star Test. Be able to swim 50m in normal canoeing clothing suitable for the prevailing
conditions, including a buoyancy aid. A First Aid certificate is not a pre-requisite. However, the holding
of a First Aid certificate such as the BCU Aquatic First Aid is strongly recommended to all paddlers.

1. General Theory and Skills

This training module covers the following topics:

   a. The safety features of canoes/kayaks, buoyancy aids, and other canoeing clothing and equipment.
   b. The hazards which may be encountered on placid water, grade 1 water, and/or sheltered coastal
      waters or estuaries.
   c. The effects on paddling and paddlers of different weather conditions, e.g. rain, wind, fog, etc. In
      particular, the effects on the paddler of sudden immersion in cold water and/or prolonged
      exposure to the cold, precautions which will reduce those effects, and what to do if someone
      becomes dangerously cold.
   d. The use of simple signals for "come to me", "go left", "go right", "stop", "go back" and
      "acknowledge".
   e. How to handle a basic canoeing emergency, including the safety of the rescuer(s) and how to
      summon help.
   f. The various services and other assistance which could be called on during an incident.
   g. Good lifting techniques. This includes not only emptying boats in deep water, but safe handling of
      craft on land, for example, onto a roof rack.
   h. The value of holding a first aid certificate and where one can be obtained.

2. Lifesaving

This training module covers the following topics:

   a. How to coach a swimmer in difficulty to shore. How to perform a safe reaching rescue, using
      either a rigid or non-rigid reaching aid. Throwing a buoyant object to a casualty. Wading to get
      nearer to a casualty.
   b. How to correctly pack a throwline into its bag and then use it to execute a throwline rescue over a
      distance of 15m with sufficient accuracy to land within reach of a casualty.
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                                Prepared by Richard Jarvis

   c. How to coil an unpacked throwline and then use it to execute a throwline rescue over a distance of
      15m with sufficient accuracy to land within reach of a casualty.
   d. How to safely approach a struggling swimmer when paddling. How to effectively transport a
      casualty using various techniques such as the bow tow, bow carry, stern tow and stern carry. The
      suitability of these techniques in different situations.

3. Canoe/Kayak Rescue Skills

This training module covers the following topics:

   a. Deep water rescue techniques for dealing with a capsized canoe/kayak, including returning the
      casualty to their craft and the suitability of a variety rescue techniques ('X' rescue, 'H' rescue, 'T'
      rescue, 'The Curl', etc.) for different situations (solo or assisted, different craft, different paddlers,
      etc.).
   b. Eskimo rescues, including both paddle presentation and bow presentation.
   c. Towing systems and alternative methods of getting a tired canoeist to land with their craft.
      Effective release of a towing system in an emergency.
   d. How to execute an "all in rescue".
   e. How to rescue a paddler in an upturned CCK in deep water, either as a swimmer or from another
      canoe/kayak.

4. Assessment

The candidate must present themselves suitably equipped for the assessment and normal canoeing kit
should be worn throughout the practical parts of the assessment.

4.1 Theory

Answer a selection of questions to show an understanding of the theory covered by the training modules.

4.2 Practical

   a. Demonstrate a throwline rescue of a struggling swimmer in deep water over a distance of 10m.
      There is a time limit of 60 seconds for the throwline to land within reach of the casualty, but there
      is no limit to the number of attempts allowed within that period.
   b. Demonstrate an Eskimo rescue, both as a casualty and a rescuer.
   c. Rescue a paddler in an upturned CCK in deep water.
   d. Demonstrate a deep water rescue of a capsized craft, placing the casualty back in their craft.
   e. Capsize the kayak, retaining all equipment. Swim the upturned kayak, etc. 50m to shore.

4.3 Unknown Incidents

Deal with a simple canoeing incident involving up to two casualties.
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                            Prepared by Richard Jarvis


Kayak Types

     Marathon Kayak (Double Dutch Panther)                          Wavehopper (Perception)




        Slalom Kayak K-1 (Dagger Dinger)                          Polo Boat (Dagger Vampire)




         Creek Boat (Pyranha Micro Bat)                           Play Boat (Pyranha ProZone)




Safety Features of Kayaks
Buoyancy, air bags – help prevent boat sinking
Foot plates, back straps, thigh straps, good seat, hip pads – prevent body injury and allow control over
the boat
Toggles – aids rescue
Bright colour – aids finding boat and spotting swimmers (if you stay with the boat)
Strong material – prevents breaking with going over small rocks – plastic vs fibreglass
Deck release – available on some pyranha boats, aids deck removal and swift exit from boat!
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                            Prepared by Richard Jarvis


Equipment
Good buoyancy aids are…

Comfortable
Warm
Non-restrictive
Equipped with a suitable pocket (or place to keep keys)
Strong
Equipped with a good chest harness
A bright colour
Able to carry a knife
Able to provide good body protection
and last but not least buoyant.

Recommended buoyancy for a buoyancy aid is 50 Newtons.


Good Decks are…

Easy to remove if required (good quick release)
Water-proof
Comfortable
The right size
Possible to put on by yourself




Good Helmets are…

Comfortable
Able to protect against very hard impacts and adsorb the blow
Protective of the face as well as the rest of the head
Firmly attached to the head – they don not wobble even when upside down hitting head on bottom of
river
No impairment to vision



Retire any equipment if it is not safe or it does not perform correctly anymore. This can be costly but your
life may depend on it!
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                           Prepared by Richard Jarvis


Other Equipment
Throw lines

                                                       Construction :- Nylon + Cordura shell, Polythene
                                                                       floatation, Polypropylene rope
                                                       Features :-
                                                          • 8mm nominal floating polypropylene rope
                                                          • Cordura reinforced floating bag
                                                          • Length identification on bag
                                                          • Belt loops for optional carry belt system
                                                          • Optimal shape for throw performance
                                                          • Retro-reflective piping, also aids release timing
                                                          • Hi Vis Red / Hi Vis Yellow
http://www.nookie.co.uk/products/throwlines.htm


Tow Lines
                                                       Waist towline for instructor use

                                                       Construction :-   Nylon webbing and fabric,
                                                                         Polyethylene foam, Alloy krab
                                                       Features :-
                                                          • Quick Release Belt with toggle
                                                          • Adjustable tow length
                                                          • Shock Absorber
                                                          • Anodised mini krab
                                                          • Entire unit floats even with krab!
                                                          • Distinctive webbing
 http://www.nookie.co.uk/products/towline.htm


Suitable Clothing and (ways to keep your stuff dry) (http://www.nookie.co.uk/products)




    Dry Cag                Dry Trousers                  Skull Cap                         Dry Bags
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                                Prepared by Richard Jarvis


Signals – NOTE: THESE ARE MY SIGNALS, OTHERS MAY USE DIFFERENT ONES




                                                                                          or

                                                                             or repeat the signal
       Go left                         Go right                                 Acknowledge




                                                                                or
                                         or
                          Pump once – ONE come down
    Come to me                                                                       STOP
                         Repeated pump – ALL come down

General Hazards on Placid Water
Rowers (and all other craft)
Weirs, dams, locks, etc.
Disease (Weils Disease)
Animals (Swans)
Litter (esp. shopping trolleys in shallow parts of the Cam)
Other canoeists (esp. instructors when on CST course!)
Strong Currents (esp. in Spate)

Other Hazards
Too cold/hot
No food or drink (on long trips away from civilisation)
No first aid (on long trips away from civilisation)
Weather – wind, fog or rain (or worse snow!)
Sunset (in the winter this can be terrible, if you are not at your destination and it is dark this can be
worrying)
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                                 Prepared by Richard Jarvis


General Good Lifting Techniques – (http://www2.uwsuper.edu/humanres/Related/Lt.pdf)
1. Test the load.
                    Prior to lifting an object, test the weight of the object by lifting a corner. You should
                    also inspect the object for any slivers, nails, sharp edges, or slippery conditions.

2. Plan the move.
                    Check your path of travel to make sure that it’s clear of any obstacles and there are no
                    hazards in your path of travel, such as spilled water or oil. Remove any obstacles or
                    hazards before picking up the object.

3. Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot ahead of the other.
                  A solid base of support reduces the likelihood of slipping and jerking movements.

4. Grip the load firmly.
                  This prevents the object from suddenly slipping out of your hands. You may need to use
                   gloves or lifting handles if the load is too difficult to gasp.

5. Bend your knees. (This is the single most important rule to follow.)
                 When you bend your knees instead of at your waist, the forces on your back are more
                 evenly distributed. This also lets the strong muscles in your thighs do the lifting.

6. Bring the object as close to your body as possible.
                  Keeping the load close to your body reduces the force it exerts on your back.

7. Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins.
                  This allows your stomach muscles to help support your back as you lift.

8. Keep your head and shoulders upright.
                This helps to keep the normal inward curve in your lower back.

9. Lift with your legs.
                   Using the strength of your legs to lift the object decreases the stress on your lower back.

10. Set the load down carefully.
                  Slowly lower the object by bending your knees and keeping your back upright. Don’t let
                  go of the object suddenly.




               BAD lifting technique                                    GOOD lifting technique
CANOE SAFETY TEST                                                     Prepared by Richard Jarvis


Hypothermia –http://www.hypothermia.org/fieldchart.htm

    BODY SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
                                                                    Actions
    TEMPERATURE (RECTAL)
37.5ºC  Normal
                                                  Seek dry shelter, replace wet clothing with dry
36ºC    Feel Cold                                  including socks, gloves and hat. Cover neck,
                                                insulate whole body including HEAD from cold.
                                                  Exercise but avoid sweating. External warmth
                                                 (bath, fire) ONLY if CORE TEMP above 35ºC.
35ºC        Shivering                               Warm sweet drinks and food (high calories)
 BODY COR TEMPERATURE BELOW 35ºC = HYPOTHERMIA = HOSPITAL
                                                NO EXERCISE, HANDLE GENTLY, REST
                                                NO EXTERNAL WARMTH (except to chest
                                                and trunk)
            Clumsy                              Warm sweet drinks and calories.
34ºC        Irrational                          Internal warming via warm moist air, (exhaled
            Confused                            air, steam) or warm moist oxygen (40 - 42ºC at
                                                mask)
            (may appear drunk)
                                                Monitor pulse, breathing. Restrict all activity, lie
33ºC        Muscle Stiffness                    down with feet slightly raised
32ºC SHIVERING STOPS, COLLAPSE, TRANSFER TO HOSPITAL = URGENT
31ºC        Semi-conscience                     Nothing by mouth. Check airway remains open.

30ºC        Unconscious                            May tolerate plastic airway, put in recovery
            (No response to pain                  position. Check airway, turn every 2 hours to
                                                   protect skin, monitor pulse and breathing.
            stimuli)
                                                 Slow mouth-to-mouth breathing at victims own
29ºC        Slow Pulse and Breathing                         rate (may be very slow)
                                                    Check airway. CPR with mouth-to-mouth
28ºC        Cardiac Arrest                       breathing. Aim for normal CPR rates of 12-15
                                                 breaths/min and 80-100 compressions/min but
            (No obvious pulse or                   slower rates of 6-12 breaths/min and 40-60
            breathing, pupils dilated)            compressions/min may be adequate. Continue
                                                              for as long as you can.
                  BELOW 28ºC, NO VITAL SIGNS, COLD.
                     DO NOT GIVE UP TREATMENT

NOTE: NOT DEAD UNTIL WARM AND DEAD
     Avoid rapid rewarming and HANDLE GENTLY AT ALL TIMES
    Core temperature may lag behind skin temperature and continue to drop, so keep
    monitoring.

				
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