Dangerous Goods Dangerous

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					Dangerous Goods
Dave Brennan
Head of Cargo Safety and Standards

To represent, lead and serve the airline industry




                                                    1
 Agenda
      What are dangerous goods
      IATA’s role
      EasyDGR
      Challenges for 2011 and beyond




Cargo Media Day 2010                   13 December




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          What are Dangerous Goods?
               Definition: Dangerous goods are articles or
               substances which are capable of posing a
               risk to health, safety, property or the
               environment and which are shown in the list
               of dangerous goods in the IATA Dangerous
               Goods Regulations (DGR) or which are
               classified according to the DGR



         Cargo Media Day 2010                                               13 December




The classification of dangerous goods is developed through the United Nations
Subcommittee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. The classification criteria
are almost completely universal across all modes of transport.


Most dangerous goods, with some specific exceptions, can be transported by air on a cargo
aircraft. A great many of those may also be transported on a passenger aircraft, although
typically the quantity of material in a single package will be smaller.


While there are no hard statistics on volumes of dangerous goods being shipped by air, it is
widely accepted that dangerous goods shipments represent approximately 5% of total air
cargo shipments.




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 Examples of Dangerous Goods
              Ammunition
              Wet cell batteries
              Compressed gases
              Aerosols
              Lithium batteries
              Paints
              Perfume
              Radiopharmaceuticals
Cargo Media Day 2010                 13 December




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 IATA’s Dangerous Goods Activities
      Overseen by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board
      (DGB) - 12 member airlines

      Voting member of the ICAO Dangerous Goods
      Panel

      Participate at the UN Subcommittee of Experts

      Participate at IAEA TRANSSC meetings
Cargo Media Day 2010                              13 December
 IATA’s Dangerous Goods Objectives
      Work with governments, international organizations
      and trade groups to develop regulations

      Regulations must be practical, economically sound
      and advance safety

      Optimum balance between safety and economic
      considerations

      A change in this balance causes an overall
      decrease in safety

Cargo Media Day 2010                               13 December
 IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations
      Based on the ICAO Technical Instructions
      Recognized as the “field guide” for the transport of
      dangerous goods:
            the DGR incorporates all of the legal requirements of the
            ICAO TI;
            includes all of the additional requirements
            airlines enforce requirements at point of acceptance
            ensure safe, efficient, operationally sound transportation
            including interlining


Cargo Media Day 2010                                            13 December
Cargo Media Day 2010   13 December
Document. Pack. Fly.

To represent, lead and serve the airline industry
 What is EasyDGR
      An easy-to-use web tool
      Ensures shipments are prepared in
      accordance with the most current DGR
      Creates compliant and valid dangerous
      goods declarations for all shipments
      Completed Shipper’s Declarations can be
      exported as XML compliant with IATA e-
      freight standards
Cargo Media Day 2010                        13 December
          Addressing Industry Issues
               Shippers must be in compliance with
               international regulations
               Non-compliance can lead to safety incidents,
               rejected shipments, delays and heavy fines
               The need to prepare dangerous goods
               shipments faster and more efficiently is a
               business reality for shippers
               Balance between speed and safety
         Cargo Media Day 2010                                               13 December




•Shippers are responsible for proper classification, packing, marking and labeling a
shipment and proper completion of the dangerous goods declaration
•The industry needs to be able to carry out dangerous goods related tasks and functions
faster and more efficiently without compromising safety.
 Benefits to Users
      EasyDGR provides peace of mind
      Eliminates wasted effort because of faulty documentation
      Increase efficiency with smart, customizable software
      Always have online access to the correct regulations
      More information: www.easydgr.com




Cargo Media Day 2010                                       13 December
          Future Challenges
               Consistent application of regulations
                       Many States don’t have appropriate oversight
                       and enforcement programs
                       States unilaterally impose more restrictive or
                       differing requirements for transport, e.g.
                       radioactive materials.




         Cargo Media Day 2010                                                  13 December




•The different international modal regulations, road, rail, sea and air, are largely
harmonized, which facilitates the multi-modal transport of dangerous goods. However, there
remains the issue of consistent application of the regulations across modes and even within
modes.


•Of particular concern is where States do not meet their obligations as signatories to the
Chicago Convention on International Air Transport. For dangerous goods, Annex 18 sets
out specific responsibilities for States. These responsibilities include: approval of training
programs, oversight, surveillance and where required enforcement and analysis of incident
reports. Unfortunately ICAO has identified through their Universal Safety Oversight Audit
Program (USOAP) that many States lack the resources or the capacity to fulfill these
obligations. In many States this means that the airlines operating out of the airports in those
countries become the de facto regulator.


•Another concern with the application of the regulations, particularly in the ease of
movement of dangerous goods across the world is where States impose additional
requirements over and above the regulatory requirements, or impose more restrictive
requirements. This puts barriers in the movement of dangerous goods that adds to the cost
and complexity for operators, shippers and others in the supply chain. One commodity
where this has created very significant challenges is in the transport of radioactive materials.
Radioactive materials are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. A great
many of the radiopharmaceuticals though are very perishable and air transport is the only
practical method to get the material from the point of manufacture to the hospital and the
patient. Any barrier to the movement of these products has the potential to adversely affect
healthcare.
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          Future Challenges
               Current oversight by States is focused on
               operators:
                     Oversight needs to be risk based and should
                     look at supply chain
                     Based on risk, focus should be on shippers
                     Promote an open reporting system, “no blame”
                     for reporting undeclared dangerous goods



         Cargo Media Day 2010                                                13 December




As previously mentioned, Annex 18 to the Chicago Convention places obligations on the
States. One of these obligations is that States are required to conduct oversight and
surveillance to identify and verify the level of compliance with the dangerous goods
regulations.


The wording of Annex 18 is such that States should be looking at the entire supply chain.
But the ICAO audits have identified that almost all oversight by the regulatory authorities is
on the operators, and almost none is being done of shippers. IATA believes that regulatory
oversight programs should be risk based and should look at the entire supply chain to
address the areas that pose the highest risk.


In this respect we believe that States should be focusing much more effort on shippers of
dangerous goods, the companies that are putting dangerous goods into air transport. It is the
shippers that are responsible for correctly preparing dangerous goods shipments for air
transport. While the airlines are required to conduct an acceptance check of dangerous
goods shipments; the airline though can only see the outside of the package, not what may
be inside the package.


States are moving to require that operators develop and implement safety management
systems in accordance with ICAO requirements. For safety management systems, incident
reporting is a key component to be able to determine the relative health of the safety system.
In this respect IATA supports an open reporting system where there is “no blame”
associated to an airline dangerous goods report.

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          Future Challenges
               Internet auction sites, e-Commerce and mail:
                       significant quantities of dangerous goods are
                       being offered for sale online
                       Not compliant with dangerous goods
                       regulations, e.g. gallium, lithium batteries,
                       chemicals
                       lack of recognition by internet auction sites
                       dangerous goods being detected in the mail as
                       a result of new security screening requirements

         Cargo Media Day 2010                                                  13 December




Another significant issue for air transport is the growth of internet auction sites and online
stores. There are significant quantities of dangerous goods being offered for sale on these
websites and in many cases the sellers are either ignorant of the dangerous goods
regulations or chose to ignore the regulations. While some products may appear to be
relatively benign such as perfumes or aerosols, there are also some very dangerous
substances like gallium, explosives and chemicals.


The result of this is that many of these products are being shipped undeclared through
courier companies or in the mail which poses a significant safety risk to the airlines, airline
passengers and airline employees. There have been a number of approaches to these internet
auction sites to get them to exercise more control of what they allow to be advertised. But to
date their attitude is very much one of all care and no responsibility.


The Universal Postal Union is also concerned about the extent that dangerous goods are
being detected in the mail. As postal administration have implemented new screening
procedures to address security requirements the amount of dangerous goods being found has
grown exponentially. For example Royal Mail in the UK found 22,000 articles of prohibited
dangerous goods in one month at one sort centre. Mail is widely moved by air on both
passenger and cargo aircraft and is almost always in anonymous mail bags or sealed unit
load devices.




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