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									COURTS STANDARD DESIGN
         BRIEF

        MARCH 2009




                         i.
COURTS STANDARD DESIGN BRIEF


Document Version Control

Issue 1:    Client Issue – Monday 5th June 2006

Issue 2:    Client Issue – Friday 14th July 2006. Changes to Section D 1.2, 1.3 & 1.8.

Issue 3:    The following changes/additions completed on Fri 28th July 2006.
            Addition to Section A – “2. “Relationship of the Legislature, Judiciary and
            Executive to Courts and Court Building” and “3. The Judiciary in Western
            Australia”.
            Search & Replace “tipstaff” with “usher”
            Addition to Section B – “1.2. Siting”

Issue 4:    Client Issue – Friday 13th October 2006.

Issue 5:    Client Issue – Friday 17th November 2006
            General Amendments.

Issue 6:    Client Issue – Monday 20th November 2006
            General Amendments.

Issue 7:    Client Issue – Friday 19th January 2007
            Amendments following review.

Issue 8:    Client Issue – 4th April 2007
            Amendments following Graham Brawn’s review.

Issue 9:    Client Issue – 6 March 2009
            General Amendments.




                                                                                         ii.
Work in Progress:     The current issue of the Court Standard Design Brief represents work in
                      progress and is currently subject to updating and review. Each project to
                      be procured utilising the Design Brief will require a supplementary
                      document providing project specific information and its own relevant
                      schedule of accommodation.




Acknowledgement
The contribution of the following two documents in regard to forming the framework of the
Courts Standard Design Brief is acknowledged:
• The Department of Justice of Victoria Courts Design Guide 2001.
• The Western Australia CBD Courts Project Brief 2004.




The Department of the Attorney General contact for this document is
Tina Arthur, Manager Capital Asset Planning and Procurement
on + 61 8 9425 7990

Department of the Attorney General
Level 18
26 St Georges Terrace
Perth WA 6000 Australia
GPO Box F317 Perth WA 6001
T + 61 8 9264 1209 F + 61 8 9264 1207


                                                                                             iii.
•    TABLE OF CONTENTS
Definitions ......................................................................................................................1
A.           Scope and Legislative, Executive and Judicial Contexts ............................1
1            Scope of the Brief............................................................................................1
2            Relationship of the Legislature, Judiciary and Executive to
             Courts and Court Building .............................................................................1
             2.1          General ...............................................................................................1
             2.2          The Legislative Function in Relation to Courts....................................1
             2.3          The Judicial Function ..........................................................................2
3            The Judiciary in Western Australia................................................................4
             3.1          General ...............................................................................................4
             3.2          Hierarchy of Courts .............................................................................4
             3.3          The Supreme Court of Western Australia ...........................................5
             3.4          The District Court of Western Australia...............................................8
             3.5          Criminal Jurisdiction in the Supreme and District Courts ....................9
             3.6          Magistrates Courts............................................................................10
             3.7          A Typical Day in a Large Magistrates Court......................................11
             3.8          Children’s Court ................................................................................13
             3.9          Coronial Service of Western Australia ..............................................13
             3.10         SAT (State Administrative Tribunal)..................................................14
B.           Building Requirements Generally................................................................16
1.           Applicable Codes, Standards and Statutory Controls ...............................16
             1.1.         Compliances .....................................................................................16
             1.2.         Siting.................................................................................................17
2.           Architectural Design and Construction Principles.....................................17
             2.1.         Design Philosophy ............................................................................17
             2.2.         Construction Principles .....................................................................18
             2.3.         Architectural Considerations .............................................................18
             2.4.         Security Philosophy ..........................................................................27
3.           Western Australian State Sustainability Strategy ......................................30
             3.1.         Building Design for Sustainability......................................................31
             3.2.         Waste Reduction and Recycling .......................................................31
             3.3.         Energy Use for Sustainability ............................................................33
             3.4.         Water Use for Sustainability..............................................................33
             3.5.         Reduced Travel and Vehicle Use for Sustainability ..........................33
             3.6.         Occupational Health and Safety .......................................................34
             3.7.         Public Engagement...........................................................................34
             3.8.         Social Responsibility .........................................................................34
4.           Architectural Psychology Brief ....................................................................34
             4.1.         Introduction .......................................................................................34
             4.2.         Architectural Psychology and Courts Environments .........................35
             4.3.         Architectural Requirements...............................................................35
5.           Aboriginal Cultural Brief...............................................................................40

                                                                                                                                iv.
         5.1.         Introduction .......................................................................................40
         5.2.         Objective...........................................................................................40
         5.3.         Cultural Brief .....................................................................................41
         5.4.         Notes About People and Place .........................................................42
         5.5.         Physical Aspects of an Aboriginal Court ...........................................45
         5.6.         References .......................................................................................46
6.       Multicultural or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD)
         Brief ................................................................................................................47
C.   Operational Needs of a Courthouse ..................................................................48
1.       Introduction ...................................................................................................48
         1.1.         Facilities Design Brief .......................................................................48
         1.2.         Conceptual Model of a Courthouse...................................................48
         1.3.         Circulation Systems ..........................................................................51
         1.4.         Access Controls ................................................................................53
2.       Public Realm..................................................................................................53
         2.1.         Overview...........................................................................................53
         2.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................53
         2.3.         Accommodation Requirements .........................................................54
3.       Administration ...............................................................................................57
         3.1.         Functional Group ..............................................................................57
         3.2.         Registries and Courts Administration................................................57
         3.3.         Jury Management .............................................................................62
         3.4.         Court Recording Service Areas.........................................................63
         3.5.         Records and Stores (Including Exhibits) ...........................................63
         3.6.         Training and Education .....................................................................66
         3.7.         Staff Amenities..................................................................................66
4.       Trials...............................................................................................................68
         4.1.         Overview of the Component .............................................................68
         4.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................68
         4.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provision, Location &
                      Relationship) .....................................................................................71
         4.4.         Specific Courtroom Elements ...........................................................74
5.       Jury.................................................................................................................77
         5.1.         Overview...........................................................................................77
         5.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................78
         5.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location and
                      Relationships) ...................................................................................79
6.       Judiciary ........................................................................................................81
         6.1.         Overview...........................................................................................81
         6.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................81
         6.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location &
                      Relationships) ...................................................................................82
7.       Trials and Hearings Support ........................................................................83
         7.1.         Overview...........................................................................................83
         7.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................84


                                                                                                                               v.
      7.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location &
                   Relationships) ...................................................................................86
8.    Custody..........................................................................................................88
      8.1.         Overview...........................................................................................88
      8.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................89
      8.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Locations &
                   Relationships) ...................................................................................90
9.    Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences ..........................................................95
      9.1.         Overview...........................................................................................95
      9.2.         Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................96
      9.3.         Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location and
                   Relationships) ...................................................................................96
10.   Legal and Support Agencies (External) ......................................................98
      10.1.        Overview...........................................................................................98
      10.2.        Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)..........................99
      10.3.        Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location &
                   Relationships) ...................................................................................99
11.   Schedule of Accommodation.....................................................................100
      11.1.        Space Planning Criteria and Standards ..........................................100
12.   Activity Flow Diagrams...............................................................................106
      12.1.        Section C.5 – Jury...........................................................................106
      12.2.        Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences ............................................. 111
      12.3.        Trials and Hearings Support ...........................................................115
      12.4.        Legal and Support Agencies...........................................................117
      12.5.        Judiciary..........................................................................................118
      12.6.        Custody...........................................................................................121
13.   Police Courts ...............................................................................................127
D.    Building Engineering Services Specification ...........................................130
1.    Introduction .................................................................................................130
      1.1.      General ...........................................................................................130
      1.2.      Communications Services ..............................................................131
      1.3       Electrical Services...........................................................................143
      1.4       Electronic Security ..........................................................................151
      1.6       Fire Services ...................................................................................161
      1.7.      Hydraulic Services ..........................................................................166
      1.8.      Mechanical Services .......................................................................169
      1.9.      Structural ........................................................................................180
      Vertical Transportation Services ...................................................................183
E.    Information Services and Directional Signage .........................................188
1.    Overview ......................................................................................................188
2.    Special Considerations...............................................................................188
3.    Building Listing Display (This section is optional depending on
      the size and type of proposed courthouse) ..............................................188
      3.1.         Placement and User Ergonomic .....................................................188


                                                                                                                      vi.
     3.2.        Logos and Emblems .......................................................................188
     3.3.        Timing of Display Information .........................................................189
     3.4.        Arrangement of Listing Information .................................................189
     3.5.        Search Engine and Sub-Display ..................................................... 189
     3.6.        Technology .....................................................................................189
     3.7.        System Availability and Resiliency..................................................190
4.   Electronic Signage - Courtrooms and Mediation Rooms ........................ 190
     4.1.        Placement and Position ..................................................................190
     4.2.        Logos and Emblems .......................................................................190
     4.3.        Timing of Display Information .........................................................190
     4.4.        Arrangement of Listing Information .................................................190
     4.5.        Status of Proceeding.......................................................................191
     4.6.        Technology .....................................................................................191
     4.7.        Availability of Display System .........................................................191
F.   Acoustic & Sound Reinforcement Specification ......................................192
1.   Introduction .................................................................................................192
     1.1.        Environmental Noise.......................................................................192
     1.2.        Background Noise...........................................................................192
     1.3.        Acoustic Isolation ............................................................................193
     1.4.        Speech Privacy ...............................................................................194
     1.5.        Reverberation .................................................................................195
     1.6.        Room Acoustics ..............................................................................195
     1.7.        Hearing Conservation .....................................................................196
     1.8.        Mechanical Services - Acoustics.....................................................196
     1.9.        Hydraulic Services- Acoustics.........................................................197
     1.10.       Electrical Services- Acoustics .........................................................197
G.   Audiovisual and Transcription System .....................................................199
     1.          Introduction .....................................................................................199
     1.1.        Scope Overview..............................................................................199
     2.          State’s Policy and Requirements ....................................................199
     2.1.        IT Policy and Standards..................................................................199
     3.          Audiovisual Standard Operating Environment ................................200
     4.          Audiovisual Operations ...................................................................200
     5.          Electronic Courtrooms and Audiovisual Facilities ........................... 200
     5.1.        Electronic Courtroom Types ...........................................................200
     5.2.        Courtroom Assignment Matrix ........................................................202
     5.3.        Other Audiovisual Facilities.............................................................202
     5.4.        Portable AV Equipment...................................................................205
     6.          Structured Cabling System .............................................................205
     6.1.        Audiovisual and IT Cables .............................................................. 206
     6.2.        IT Communication Outlets in Courtrooms and AV Facilities ........... 206
     7.          Cabling and Associated Infrastructure ............................................207
     7.1.        Cabling standards ...........................................................................207
     7.2.        Audio...............................................................................................207
     7.3.        Composite video .............................................................................207
     7.4.        RGBHV & XGA ...............................................................................207
     7.5.        Network...........................................................................................208
     7.6.        Control ............................................................................................208
     7.7.        Rack specification ...........................................................................208


                                                                                                                    vii.
7.8.    Patch Panel specification................................................................208
7.9.    Future Proofing, Conduit and Cable Access ................................... 209
8.      In-Court Equipment and Housing....................................................209
9.      Master Clock Synchronisation ........................................................210
10.     System Characteristics and Design Criteria.................................... 211
10.1.   Scalability and modularity ...............................................................211
10.2.   Connectivity ....................................................................................211
10.3.   Transparency of Signals .................................................................212
10.4.   Capacity of Systems .......................................................................212
10.5.   Availability of Systems ....................................................................212
10.6.   Security and Access .......................................................................212
10.7.   User Ergonomic and Interface ........................................................212
10.8.   Maintainability and Manageability ...................................................213
11.     Audio System – System Design......................................................213
11.1.   Audio System Characteristics .........................................................213
11.2.   Microphones ...................................................................................214
11.3.   Processing equipment ....................................................................214
11.4.   Sound reinforcement system .......................................................... 215
11.5.   Audio switching unit ........................................................................216
11.6.   Audio teleconferencing unit.............................................................216
12.     Video System – General ................................................................. 216
12.1.   Video System Standards ................................................................217
12.2.   Camera equipment .........................................................................217
12.3.   Video switcher equipment...............................................................218
12.4.   Video Playback and Recording .......................................................219
12.5.   Displays ..........................................................................................220
12.6.   Videoconference CODEC(s) ...........................................................222
13.     System Support ..............................................................................224
13.1.   Defects liability period service levels............................................... 224
13.2.   Remote access ...............................................................................224
13.3.   Software..........................................................................................224
13.4.   Intellectual property.........................................................................224
13.5.   Reporting ........................................................................................224
13.6.   Maintenance ...................................................................................224
14.     AV Touch screen control system ....................................................225
14.1.   General requirements .....................................................................225
15.     Voice Over IP..................................................................................226
15.1.   Audio Standards .............................................................................226
15.2.   Video standards ..............................................................................227
15.3.   Communications Standards............................................................227
15.4.   Encryption & Collaboration Standards ............................................ 227
15.5.   Jitter & Latency ...............................................................................227
16.     Applicable and Relevant State-of-Art Technologies........................ 228
16.1.   General ...........................................................................................228
16.2.   Relevant Technologies ...................................................................228
17.     PC Playback Positions....................................................................228
18.     Digital Recording, Monitoring and Transcription Systems............... 229
18.1.   Digital Recording.............................................................................229
19.     AV Controller Interface and System................................................ 230
19.1.   AV Controller Interface....................................................................230
20.     Switching and Routing Functions.................................................... 232
20.1.   Audio Switching ..............................................................................232


                                                                                                          viii.
            20.2.        Video Switching ..............................................................................232
            20.3.        Self Test..........................................................................................232
            21.          System Performance ......................................................................233
            22.          System Change-out Facilities .........................................................233
            23.          Statistical Reports ...........................................................................233
            24.          User Manuals and Documentation..................................................233
            24.1.        Quick Reference Guide...................................................................234
            24.2.        Audiovisual Operation Manual ........................................................ 234
            25.          Documentation................................................................................234
            26.          Telecommunications .......................................................................234
            26.1.        Summary ........................................................................................234
APPENDICES .............................................................................................................241
1.          BCA Alternative Solution for Custodial Accommodation........................ 241
2.          Courtroom Analysis Report .......................................................................241




                                                                                                                            ix.
Definitions

"AHU" means Air Handling Unit.
"ALS" means Aboriginal Legal Service.
"Australian Standard" means standards approved and published by the Standards
Association of Australia (Standards Australia).
"AV LAN" means AV system communications cabling.
"BMS" means "Building Management System"
"CCA" means copper, chrome and arsenic.
"CCM" means the "Standards Australia Communications Cabling Manual".
"CCTV" means closed circuit television.
"Court Users" means persons, other than PICs, Bailees, who attend the Facilities for a
legitimate purpose, including Judicial Officers, and their support staff, parties to and witnesses
in proceedings, journalists, employees of the State and other members of the public.
"Cultural Briefing Report" means the Cultural Briefing Report; Barker and Spring, 2003.
"Custodial Areas" means the custodial centre and sally port within the building which are
secured as part of the custodial environment.
"CWS" means Child Witness Service.
"DHW" means the Department of Housing and Works.
"DotAG" means Department of the Attorney General
"DPP" means Director of Public Prosecutions.
"ECP" means Emergency Control Panel.
"EWIS" means Emergency Warning and Intercommunication System.
"Extranet" means an extension of the Department of the Attorney General internet which gives
authorised outsiders controlled access to parts of the intranet.
"FESA" means the Fire and Emergency Services Authority.
"FIP" means a fire indicator panel.
"Judicial Officer" includes justices of the Supreme Court, judges and registrar’s of the District
Court, judge of the Liquor Licensing Court, president of the Children’s Court, deputy presidents
of the State Administrative Tribunal, magistrates and Family Court judges, registrars and
magistrates.
"KVM" means keyboard, video and mouse.
"Legal Aid" means the Legal Aid service of Western Australia.
"NEBB" means National Environmental Balancing Bureau.
"OH& S" means occupational health and safety.
"OOS" means "occupational overuse syndrome".
"Primary Security Checkpoint" means location at or close to the main entry at which Court
Users will be searched to prevent Unauthorised Articles entering the secure areas of the
buildings.
"PTZ" means Pan Tilt Zoom".
"RSI" means repetitive strain injury.
"RT" means Reverberation Time.
"SAT" means the State Administration Tribunal.
"SFIP" means the sub-fire indicator panel.
"SOE" means Standard Operating Environment.
"SRV" means Small Rigid Vehicle".
"Unauthorised Articles" means: Category 1 Articles and Category 2 Articles.
"UPS" means Uninterruptible Power Supplies.
"VESDA" means very early smoke detection and alarm system.
"VSS" means Victim Support Services
“WAPOL” means Western Australia Police




                                                                                             1
                                                                                    SECTION A

A.   Scope and Legislative, Executive and Judicial Contexts
1    Scope of the Brief

     1.1     Each functional area has been described within an Overview, Design Criteria
             (Operational & Planning Principles) and Specific Accommodation Requirements
             (Provisions, Location & Relationships).
     1.2     Accommodation provisions have been discussed or described under each
             functional area and quantified in the Schedule of Accommodation in Section
             C.11.
     1.3     The Schedule of Accommodation identifies net area requirements to be used as
             a guide to the expected size of required accommodation.
     1.4     Activity flow diagrams and supporting descriptions are provided in Section C.12.
             These descriptions provide useful courts operational information.
     1.5     Technical criteria to be addressed include the following:
             D. Building Engineering Services;
             E. Information Services and Directional Signage; and
             F. Acoustic and sound reinforcement.
     a.      Aboriginal Cultural Brief and Architectural Psychology Brief (Sections B.5 and
             B.4)
             These sections provide outcomes of studies/ research regarding the effect of
             court environments on the users of courthouses as recommended by The Law
             Reform Commission (1999).

             G. Relationship of the Legislature, Judiciary and Executive to Courts and
                Court Building

                    a. General

             Our system of government functions through three separate but interrelated
             arms: the legislature (the Parliament), the judiciary (the judges), and the
             executive (the ministers of state and the departments or agencies for which they
             are responsible). The expression 'the Government' is used commonly in
             everyday speech to refer only to the executive branch of the government and not
             to the totality of the three arms that together constitute our government.

                    b. The Legislative Function in Relation to Courts

             The most obvious function of the legislature in relation to courts is the enactment
             of statutes. Such statutes establish, confirm, change, or restrict the rights and
             obligations of individuals in their relationships with each other and with the State.
             The judiciary has developed and continues to develop doctrines, rules, and
             principles known as 'the common law'. The legislature has the power to abolish
             or amend any part of the common law and frequently exercises that power.
             Thus, the judiciary is subordinate to the legislature in that the legislature makes
             the laws and the judiciary applies those laws. The judiciary cannot change
             statute law.

             The legislature allocates funds for provision and maintenance of court buildings,
             for judicial salaries, and for the services necessary to enable the courts to
             operate satisfactorily. Generally fees paid to and fines imposed by the courts go
             into consolidated revenue, although in some cases the legislation requires that
             they be applied to specific purposes.




                                                                                                1
                                                                        SECTION A

       c. The Judicial Function

An individual who seeks to enforce a right against another individual or against
the State may institute civil proceedings in a court against that individual or the
State. When an individual is alleged to have committed a breach of criminal law
an appropriate officer may institute criminal proceedings in a court against that
individual.

       d. The Executive Function in Relation to Courts

               i. General

     The judiciary decide civil or criminal proceedings by applying the law,
     whether statutory law or common law. In civil proceedings the judicial
     officer makes appropriate orders in favour of the successful party or, in
     criminal proceedings, makes an appropriate order against the accused.
     The judiciary has the sole responsibility for deciding what law is relevant in
     the circumstances of the particular case.

     The source of money for running the court is the legislature. The
     conversion of such funds into the provision of the required resources is the
     function of the executive. The executive is a party to many civil
     proceedings and is always one of the parties to criminal proceedings. It is
     of fundamental importance that the judiciary be independent of the
     executive, which provides those resources and which is so frequently a
     party in court proceedings. It is of equal importance that the judiciary be
     perceived as being independent of the executive. In litigation involving the
     executive, an unsuccessful litigant is likely to be dissatisfied if the judiciary,
     which has ruled against him, appears to be associated with the executive.


     If the public were to lose confidence in the impartiality of judicial officers
     then this would result in a public loss of confidence in our system of law
     and of courts as dispute-resolving mechanisms, ultimately leading to a
     threat to the stability of our society. If there is a suspicion that a judicial
     officer was prejudiced or partial in a particular case, he or she should stand
     down, even if there is no suggestion of actual bias or partiality. Judicial
     officers have a duty to exercise their powers in whatever ways may be
     necessary to ensure that they are, and are seen to be, independent.
     Courts are under a duty to ensure that there is no possibility that they may
     appear to be subject to interference or influence by the executive arm of
     government because in that event the courts might appear to lack
     impartiality.

     A significant difference between the way in which the judicial and the
     executive functions are performed is the openness to public scrutiny of the
     former and the relative privacy of the latter. The parties, their legal
     representatives, the press, and the public generally are able to see how
     judicial officers perform their functions. Judicial officers are required to
     publicly state their reasoning process and to decide cases upon the basis
     of material publicly presented.

     Members of the public must have advance notice of when and where cases
     are to be heard and the building in which the court is situated must be
     adequately identified. The public must be given free access to the building


                                                                                     2
                                                                 SECTION A

and to the courtroom. Sign posting within the building and adequate
seating within the court must be provided. While in court, members of the
public must be able to see and hear what is happening. People should be
free to exercise their right to attend court and not be restricted in the use of
doors or lifts. Whilst, generally there is no impediment to access to the
courtrooms, those attending may be asked by court security officials for
evidence of identification or for information as to what their business in the
building might be. Articles being brought into the building may be x-ray
scanned or physically searched if there appears to be good reason to
require this.

The design of courtroom facilities has a direct impact on the quality and the
effectiveness of proceedings in court. For example a miscarriage of justice
could result from a juror who is distracted because his or her seat is
uncomfortable, he or she cannot hear proceedings or the air conditioning is
too hot. Such problems are detrimental to the administration of justice as
they can affect public confidence in the judiciary.

         ii. The Executive

The executive is that part of our democratic system commonly referred to
as 'the Government' or as 'the Public Service' and is the ministers of state
and the departments for which they are responsible.

         iii. The Treasurer

The Department of Treasury and Finance considers submissions made by
departments and makes recommendations to the Cabinet as to the
allocation of funds and, in particular for present proposals, funds for the
construction, refurbishment, and maintenance of court buildings.

         iv. The Minister for Police and Emergency Services

Members of the Western Australian Police are informants in criminal
proceedings in Magistrates Court, are significant witnesses in criminal
proceedings in the courts at all levels, and provide security services to the
courts and the judiciary, other than where security is provided by private
organisations contracted to Government to provide such services.

         v. The Minister for Corrections

Officers of the Department of Corrective Services are involved in various
ways in relation to the sentencing process and adult or juvenile persons in
custody, whether awaiting trial or undergoing sentence.


         vi. The Attorney-General

The Attorney-General is the Minister assigned responsibility for the Courts
and Tribunals. He is one of the Ministers of the Crown whose Ministries
comprise the Department of the Attorney General.




                                                                              3
                                                                      SECTION A

              vii. Activities of the Department of the Attorney General

     The employment of officers who carry out the required judicial
     administration of the courts (subject to the control of the judiciary) and
     officers who carry out the non judicial administration of the courts (subject
     to the control of the department).
     • The provision of administrative and operational support for the courts.
     • The provision of court recording services for the courts.
     • The provision of buildings for the courts.
     • The provision of services for the courts, including administrative policy
          and program direction, management information, administrative
          systems, communications equipment and systems, computer services,
          and the like.
     • Attention to the budgeting requirements implicit in the operation of the
          courts.

     The Director General of the Department of the Attorney General (DotAG) is
     the chief administrator of the department.

              viii. Summary of Executive Involvement with Court Buildings


     The provision of new court buildings involves the following procedures:

     •    Determination by the Department of the Attorney General in
          consultation with the judiciary, of a requirement for the building work.
     •    Submission by the Department of the Attorney General of a proposal for
          a feasibility study of the work (along with all other works and services
          proposals of the department) to the Department of Treasury and
          Finance as part of the budgetary process.
     •    Approval by Cabinet of major capital works.
     •    Invitation, evaluation of submissions and the engagement of
          consultants.
     •    The carrying out of the work by, or under the control of, the Department
          of the Attorney General.


H. The Judiciary in Western Australia

         a. General

This chapter provides a succinct overview of the operations of the courts in
Western Australia as relevant to building designers and consultants.

         b. Hierarchy of Courts

The Supreme Court of Western Australia is the superior court in the State. Next
in the hierarchy is the Family Court of Western Australia followed by, the District
Court of Western Australia, the Children’s Court and the Magistrates Court of
Western Australia. Additionally, there is the State Administrative Tribunal which
is not a court but its most senior judicial officers are a Supreme Court Justice and
two District Court Judges. The higher courts hear more serious criminal cases
and civil cases with a higher jurisdictional monetary limit. There is a separate
Children's Court and Coroner's Court, although these functions are exercised by
the local Magistrates and registry staff in regional areas.


                                                                                  4
                                                                 SECTION A


 c. The Supreme Court of Western Australia

          i. Supreme Court Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, which
are not excluded by statute. (The following comments about the facilities
required in the Supreme Court are generally relevant to the District Court
as well). The main activities of the court take place in Perth at the Supreme
Court complex however the court sits on circuit at Albany, Broome,
Bunbury, Busselton, Carnarvon, Derby, Esperance, Fremantle, Geraldton,
Kalgoorlie, Karratha, Kununurra, Rockingham and South Hedland.
Regional court buildings must therefore accommodate sittings of the
Supreme Court, District Court and Family Court of Western Australia when
they go on circuit as well as the more frequent sittings of the Magistrates
Court, the Children's Court and the sittings of the State Administrative
Tribunal.

         ii. The Operations of the Supreme Court

The Supreme Court has two divisions: The General Division deals with very
serious criminal charges, such as wilful murder, murder, armed robbery and
serious breaches of Commonwealth drug enforcement laws. Generally, it
hears civil cases where the amount involved in the dispute is more than
$500,000.

The General Division also deals with probate (including disputes over wills),
Admiralty (disputes involving ships), disputed elections and applications
under the Corporations Act.

The Court of Appeal hears appeals from single judge decisions of the
Supreme Court and from lower courts and various tribunals. Decisions of
the Supreme Court bind all inferior jurisdictions, as well as having a
persuasive effect throughout the common law world.

         iii. Court Sitting Hours

Courts usually sit from 10.00 a.m. until 1.00 p.m. and from 2.15 p.m. to 4.30
p.m. Trial procedures in the Supreme Court and District Court are similar.

         iv. Court Lists

The court divides its workload into different lists which cover different areas
of law.

         v. Separation of Court Staff

Accommodation for members of the judiciary must be physically separate
and isolated from the public areas. The judiciary must be provided with
separate points of ingress and egress to the building and the courtrooms as
well as separate facilities. It is vital that the judiciary accommodation be
separate from the public and from members of the legal profession. They
must never come face to face with litigating parties, potential witnesses, or
jurors outside the courtroom.



                                                                             5
                                                                SECTION A

         vi. Associate, Secretary and Orderly/Usher

Each judge has an associate, a secretary and an orderly/usher, each of
whom is a personal appointee of the judge. Each associate and secretary
occupies or shares a room close to the relevant judge's chambers.
Orderlies/ushers may be accommodated together or some may have their
own office.

        vii. The Masters

Masters of the Supreme Court hold judicial office and sit in court. They are
appointed by the Governor-in-Council, and they assist the judges in
discharging the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the court.

        viii. The Library and Its Staff

The Supreme Court Library is used by the judiciary, the legal profession,
and persons who have obtained the permission of the librarian. There are
court libraries at the various court buildings throughout the State where a
Magistrate is located. The library is maintained under the control of a
librarian.

         ix. Chief Executive Officer

The Executive Director of Court and Tribunal Services is responsible for the
non judicial administrative arrangements and supports of the court as well
as being responsible to the Director General of the Department of the
Attorney General.

         x. Court Registry

The Principal Registrar oversees the administrative aspects of actions and
appeals coming within the jurisdiction of the court. Registry staff are
responsible for the general administration of the court. Civil proceedings
are instituted in the court by issuing a writ of summons out of the Registry,
and all documents related to proceedings are filed in the Registry. Many
thousands of proceedings are instituted each year, and the task of
adequately and properly recording all proceedings and of filing documents
is a complex task. Officers in the Registry are responsible for the listing of
civil cases and for providing the appropriate file to the judge or master
dealing with each case.

         xi. The Sheriffs Office and its Staff

The Sheriffs office and its staff enforce writs and warrants of the Supreme
Court in Western Australia in civil matters and in some criminal matters and
is responsible for the provision and supervision of jurors for the Supreme
Court. Accommodation for any other Supreme Court Sheriff's office
function should not be provided in court buildings.

        xii. Juries and Persons Required to Service Them

In Western Australia, criminal trials in the Supreme Court are required to be
held before a jury. Whilst only twelve jurors are called upon to determine
guilt or innocence at the end of the trial, up to six additional jurors may be


                                                                            6
                                                                 SECTION A

empanelled in long trials to ensure that the withdrawal of jurors through
illness or other reason during the course of the trial will not abort the
proceedings.

        xiii. Juries and Persons Required to Service Them

Civil proceedings in the Supreme Court can be heard before a judge alone
or a judge and jury of six people.

       xiv. Parties to Cases

Litigants, witnesses, and counsel attend the court not only in the
courtrooms and their ancillary areas but also in the administrative and
custodial areas of the building.

        xv. Recording Services

The recording of proceedings in the court and the provision of transcripts of
those proceedings is the responsibility of the court reporting contractors.

       xvi. Court Security Contractor’s Officers

Court security contractor’s officers and police officers attend the court each
day to provide security in the building and, in particular, in the courtrooms.

       xvii. Department of Corrective Services Officers

Court security contractor’s officers transport persons in custody to and from
the court and are responsible for their safe custody while within the
building.
       xviii. Court Registrars

Clerks of the Court (Registrars) are responsible for the general
administration of the State's courts outside of Perth. The number and
composition of the support staff varies according to the size of the court.
Typically it would include registrars, deputy registrars, and other persons
appointed to the administrative staff. Registrars perform a variety of
administrative, advisory, and quasi-judicial functions. The administrative
functions include maintaining records, issuing summonses, listing cases,
receiving fine and other payments, and generally being responsible for the
running of the court. They are employed in administrative areas in
Magistrates' and District Courts. In Magistrates Courts, administrative staff
also perform the function of judicial support officers to magistrates.

Registrars are required to provide a range of advice, assistance, and
referral services because the court is often used as the first point of call by
those who need help with their problems, whether of a legal or a general
nature.

       xix. Clerical Assistants

Under the direction of court registrars, persons appointed to the
administrative staff of the court perform a variety of functions, which include
issuing process, filing documents, receipt and banking of moneys, and the
preparation of courts lists.


                                                                             7
                                                                   SECTION A


        xx. Other Staff in the Building

There may also be building facility managers, cleaning staff, security and
other staff within the building.

        xxi. Other People in the Building

Other people include the parties to the proceedings listed for hearing that
day and the relatives and friends of such parties, accused persons whether
on bail or in custody, witnesses, members of the legal profession (both
barristers and solicitors), practitioners and clerks attending to file
documents, practitioners and their clients attending pre-trial conferences,
persons involved in jury service including jury room supervisors, the jury
pool, jurors already empanelled, police officers, members of the press,
members of the public visiting the courts, and official visitors meeting with
judicial officers and the like.

Agencies involved in providing assessments of offenders’ suitability for
certain sentencing options, (e.g. Community Justice Officers) often have
dedicated facilities within a major court building, as do the Aboriginal Legal
Service and Legal Aid Commission in those courts where they provide a
Duty Solicitor Service.

Also found in a court building on a typical day include representatives of the
press, members of the public attending the courts including school groups,
court security officers, Court Network and Salvation Army officers and other
welfare groups.


 d. The District Court of Western Australia
          i. General

The District Court has concurrent criminal jurisdiction with the Supreme
Court over indictable offences other than wilful murder, murder, armed
robbery and serious breaches of Commonwealth drug enforcement laws.
Indictable offences are serious criminal offences that cannot be dealt with
in a Magistrates Court. However, some such offences can be dealt with by
a magistrate with the consent of the defendant.

The judicial activities of the District Court fall substantially into the exercise
of three jurisdictions:

The criminal jurisdiction, in which significant criminal matters (other than
     wilful murder, murder, armed robbery and serious breaches of
     Commonwealth drug enforcement laws) are dealt with.
The civil jurisdiction.
The appellate jurisdiction deals with appeals from decisions in relation to
     civil matters in Magistrates Courts.




                                                                                8
                                                                SECTION A


         ii. Appellate Jurisdiction

A person convicted or sentenced in a Magistrates Court may appeal
against his conviction or sentence to the Supreme Court and have the
matter re-heard.


 e. Criminal Jurisdiction in the Supreme and District Courts


          i. General

The exercise of the criminal jurisdiction embraces the trial of persons
charged with criminal offences and the sentencing of persons who plead
guilty or who are convicted at trial. Many cases involve multiple accused
persons.

         ii. Pleas

When an accused person pleads guilty, submissions are made to the judge
by or on behalf of the offender directed towards the imposition of a lenient
sentence. Where appropriate, submissions are also made on behalf of the
prosecution.

Depending upon the nature of the case, the judge may be able to
determine the appropriate sentence immediately, or a delay of some hours,
days, or weeks may ensue. If sentencing is delayed, the offender is
returned to the court for sentence. If a custodial sentence is imposed, the
offender is immediately taken into custody. The offender may be remanded
in custody or released on bail between the time he pleads guilty and the
time the sentence is imposed.

         iii. Jury Trials

The trial procedure occurs where an accused person pleads not guilty. A
judge often has to make rulings as to admissibility of evidence and other
such matters prior to the empanelment of a jury.

When the jury is empanelled, a number of potential jurors (usually about 30
for a single accused and an additional 5 for each additional accused) are
brought to the courtroom from a jury pool room. The jury courtroom must
sometimes accommodate and seat up to 100 people.                   During the
empanelment process, an accused and the State may peremptorily
challenge up to five potential jurors each. When 12 jurors have been
selected, they are sworn. In lengthy trials up to 6 additional jurors may also
be selected and sworn. From time to time during the trial, the jury may be
sent to the jury deliberation room whilst legal argument takes place. The
trial proceeds with witnesses being called by the prosecution and cross-
examined by the defence.

Following the closure of the prosecution case, the accused may stand mute
give evidence and in either case may call other evidence.




                                                                            9
                                                                 SECTION A

Following the closure of the defence case, addresses are made to the jury
by the prosecutor and defence counsel and the judge charges the jury. In
charging the jury, the judge informs the jury of the relevant law and gives a
summary of the evidence.

The members of the jury then retire to the jury deliberation room to consider
their verdict. During their deliberations they may wish to ask questions
concerning the law or the evidence. In that event, the court is reassembled
and the question is dealt with. The jury has to be kept together and
secluded from public contact during its retirement.
The whole of the proceedings upon the trial are recorded, and in many
cases a transcript of the proceedings is made available to the judge and to
the lawyers, but not to the jury.

When the jury has agreed upon a verdict, the court reassembles and the
verdict is announced. A jury may take from an hour to several days to
reach a verdict. In the event of a guilty verdict, any prior convictions of the
accused are alleged and either admitted by him or proved by the
prosecution. Thereafter, the procedure is similar to that following a plea of
guilty and the accused is sentenced by the judge. In the event of a verdict
of not guilty, the accused is discharged from custody (unless he/she is in
custody for other unrelated matters). A criminal trial may last from a day to
several months. A typical trial would occupy three to four days.

         iv. Mentions, Pre-trial Hearings and Other Proceedings

In addition to the criminal proceedings outlined above, criminal matters may
be dealt with for the purpose of a mention or for the purpose of a pre-trial
hearing. Such procedures are directed to determining the readiness of the
matter for trial or applications for adjournment. They are also directed to
exploring the possibility of agreement between the Prosecutor and the
Defence as to a plea of guilty to particular charges or to narrowing of the
issues and thereby shortening the trial or nolle prosequi.

A judge may have to deal with proceedings relating to the breach of non-
custodial sentences. If a person is released upon a bond, a community-
based order, or a suspended sentence and fails to comply with the non-
custodial sentence, proceedings may be taken in relation to the breach. In
such a situation, a further hearing occurs and appropriate orders are made,
whether by way of resentencing or otherwise. Where an offender fails to
pay a fine, enforcement proceedings are dealt with by a judge or a
registrar.

 f. Magistrates Courts
          i. General

By virtue of their varied jurisdiction, Magistrates Courts are the courts that
the average member of the community has most contact with. They
provide the community with the most accessible, simplest, and cheapest
court proceedings. Magistrates Courts commence at as early as 9.00am
and adjourn at 4.30 p.m. or when all business has been concluded.
Magistrates Courts vary greatly in both the volume of business and the
populations they serve. Some sit on an irregular basis in single courtroom
buildings; others sit continuously in several divisions. By far the largest and


                                                                            10
                                                                      SECTION A

     busiest Magistrates Court in Western Australia is the Perth Magistrates
     Court. All proceedings in the Magistrates Court are tape recorded either by
     a judicial support officer or Court Reporting Contractor. Parties to actions
     may purchase transcript of the proceedings.

               ii. Criminal Jurisdiction

     In the criminal jurisdiction, the Magistrates Court hears and determines
     indictable offences triable summarily and all summary offences, as well as
     conducting committal mentions for indictable offences that are to be
     committed to the Supreme & District Courts. In essence, summary
     offences are less serious crimes than indictable crimes.

     Summary offences make up the bulk of criminal, quasi-criminal, and traffic
     matters dealt with by the Magistrates Court. Summary offences extend to
     any offence under any act or regulation of Parliament that provides that the
     offence or breach may be prosecuted summarily and to all offences for
     which no means of enforcement is provided. They may include street
     offences, such as disorderly conduct, offensive behaviour or minor
     assaults; traffic matters, such as drink-driving offences or speeding and
     other prosecutions under various legislation.

     If the matter is contested, evidence is called and witnesses are examined
     and cross-examined. The magistrate makes findings of fact, rules upon
     questions of law and the admissibility of evidence and ultimately
     determines the guilt or otherwise of an accused. If the accused is found
     guilty, prior convictions (if any) are alleged, and plea material is put to the
     court on behalf of the accused as it is upon a plea of guilty.

     All matters dealt with in the Magistrates Court are heard and determined
     without a jury.

              iii. Magistrates Courtroom integral with Police Station

     Some regional police stations include facilities for a Magistrates Court. It is
     referred to in this Brief as a Type C Court. A dedicated court within a local
     police complex is provided in regional locations where there is a moderate
     workload, ie where a Magistrate convenes a court at least 12 times
     annually.

     In regional police localities with a low court workload, court proceedings are
     held in the operations room of the local police station.


       g. A Typical Day in a Large Magistrates Court

On a typical day, the building is opened to the public at 8.30 a.m. By 9.00 a.m.,
all foyers and court building corridors are heavily congested with public, accused,
witnesses, legal practitioners, and informants plus a variety of other interested
people. This congestion can be mitigated if sufficient formal waiting areas and
interview rooms are provided. Accused and barristers congregate around a
notice board in the main foyer where all matters for hearing and the courtrooms
in which the matters will be heard are listed. Floor attendants assist to direct the
public to court rooms or to the Legal Aid lawyer. Accused and practitioners then
make their way to the appropriate courtroom. As the courtrooms may be widely


                                                                                 11
                                                                      SECTION A

dispersed throughout the building, adequate sign posting is essential. Other
activities at this stage of the morning include; unrepresented accused queuing for
legal aid; practitioners and prosecutors reporting to the court coordinator's office
to seek adjournments or otherwise discuss their cases; officers of the Court
Welfare Service and Salvation Army mingling with the crowd and offering comfort
and advice; and barristers and their clients sitting in urgent conference in private
areas. The public address system is constantly in use, primarily to locate
barristers, missing witnesses, or accused. Public telephones are available,
however many accused, their supporters and lawyers use their personal mobile
phones to communicate outside of the court building.

By 9.00 am, prisoner escort vans arrive with prisoners on remand. Those
arrested overnight are transported from the Watch House and on arrival
transferred to the custodial area of the court building. Between 9.30am and
10.00 am, magistrates report to their allotted courtrooms via a secure route and
not through public areas. All courts then commence, and accused and witnesses
are called either by court orderlies or judicial support officers. The public address
system is sometimes used for this purpose.

Prior to and after the court commences, accused in custody are escorted via a
secure route from the custody area to the dock of the appropriate courtroom.
User traffic in and out of a large Magistrates Court is constant and heavy.
Barristers, accused, witnesses, interested observers, school groups, members of
the press, and court officials come and go while the court is in progress;
therefore, the courtroom requires adequate acoustic treatment.

Accused that are to be further remanded are called according to a pre-
determined order of appearance. Those in custody are brought into the dock,
remanded to a further appearance date and returned to the custody area. Those
returning from bail are then called, remanded to a further appearance date with
bail extended and they then leave the courtroom.

Bail applications are made on behalf of persons held in custody. They are often
contested. Those granted bail are returned to the custody area where bail
paperwork is completed prior to their release on bail. Where surety approval is
necessary, court officials ensure that the relevant paper work is transmitted to the
duty Justice of the Peace, where the proposed surety/ies are directed. On
occasions accused are called and advised by the court that they are able to seek
legal aid. Such matters are often stood down and the court deals with other
matters or adjourns while instructions are sought.

Guilty pleas are then heard for charges ranging from a simple shop lifting to the
consolidation of charges for serious indictable offences. A large number of guilty
pleas may be dealt with during a sitting.

In other courtrooms, contested matters and committals for trial are proceeding.
Lunch is normally taken between 1.00 and 2.00 p.m. Appropriately located
vending machines may dispense hot and cold beverages and confectionery for
members of the public and staff. More substantial items of food may be
purchased from the coffee cart located on Level 2 of the Central Law Court
Building. A magistrates' common room with basic tea-making facilities is located
within the judicial zone. The courts resume between 2.00 p.m and 2.15pm.
Magistrates who are not required to sit in the afternoon, retire to chambers or the
library. Courts customarily rise for the day at 4.30 p.m. Accused in custody are
then returned to the custody area via a secure route. Magistrates and court staff


                                                                                  12
                                                                         SECTION A

exit the courtroom via the secure judicial corridor and lifts to chambers, clerical
areas or the secure judicial car park. The court building is usually cleared by
6.00 p.m.


        h. Children’s Court

The Children's Court deals exclusively with Children's Court matters. These are
divided into Criminal and Protection and Care Divisions. In Perth there is a
special Children's Court building but in regional courts, the courtrooms are
usually multi-purpose. The Children's Court of Western Australia sits as and
when required as directed by the President of the Court, generally between the
hours of 9.00am and 4.00pm. In practice, this means that the Children's Court
sits within the court building but separate from the other court activities. There
may be a separate entrance, waiting areas and public toilets to the courtroom
which functions as a Children's Court or alternatively, sittings may be held on a
day when the Magistrates Court is not sitting. Generally in regional Western
Australia, the Children's Court sits as required.

Proceedings in the Children's Court are conducted in a less formal manner but
the courtroom must still have the formality of a raised bench and adequate
distances between the bench and the floor of the courtroom. The sensitive nature
of proceedings in the Children's Court and the large number of government
agencies involved mean that there are issues of privacy and public access to the
courtroom may be restricted while it acts as a Children's Court. Children's Courts
are open to the public, but the court may exclude certain persons for part or all of
the proceedings by its own motion or on application by any party to the
proceedings or any other interested person. The publishing or broadcasting of
Children's Court proceedings are subject to restrictions.

Persons attending the Children's Court include magistrates, administrative staff,
including the registrar of the Children's Court, clerical assistants, secretarial staff,
legal practitioners, including Legal Aid solicitors, social workers from the
Community Justice Service, Salvation Army officers of the Court Welfare Service,
police prosecutors, children and their parents, relatives, friends and witnesses.


        i.   Coronial Service of Western Australia

The State Coroner and Deputy State Coroner are full-time coroners specialising
totally in the work of the Coronial Service of Western Australia. Their
investigations are based at the State Coroner's office in Perth. Most inquests are
held at the State Coroner's office, but some inquests are conducted by the State
Coroner or Deputy State Coroner in country Magistrates Courts. In country
areas, magistrates who are appointed coroners conduct coroner's investigations
and inquests in country Magistrates Courts.

The Coronial Service of Western Australia is an institution of civilian government
whose functions are to investigate, analyse, and learn from tragic events
involving reportable death and fire, to recommend means of avoiding
unnecessary repetition, and to inform the community and government by public
hearing and by formal report of what has been learned and what could be done
to avoid unnecessary repetition of tragedy.




                                                                                     13
                                                                       SECTION A

The Coronial Service is a coordinated state-wide operation administered by the
State Coroner's office at Perth and has the jurisdiction to investigate reportable
deaths and fires. Reportable death means any death that is unexpected,
unnatural, or violent or has resulted directly or indirectly from accident or injury;
any death that occurs during or as a result of an anaesthetic; the death of a
person who was held in a psychiatric institution, by police, in prison, in an alcohol
or drug rehabilitation centre, or in any institution of the Department of Corrective
Services; the death of a person whose identity is unknown; and any death not
certified as to cause by a doctor under the Western Australian Registration of
Births, Deaths and Marriages Act or its equivalent outside Western Australia.
From the moment of death until release by the Coronial Service of the body of
the deceased person, the Coronial Service has exclusive and absolute control
over the body for the purpose of investigation.

Throughout country Western Australia each magistrate is appointed a coroner
and conducts coroner's investigations subject to the direction of the State
Coroner and within the administration of the state-wide Coronial Service by the
State Coroner's office. From time to time, each Magistrate’s Court is required to
conduct coroner's investigations.

These investigations may involve a public hearing or inquest requiring the use of
a courtroom, or they may be concluded in chambers without an inquest.

The increased demand for coroner's investigations, whether with or without
inquest, requires country Magistrates Courts to have sufficient allocation of
chambers and court space to cover these needs.

While coroner's investigations are being conducted, the following people are
expected to be in attendance; State Coroner or Deputy State Coroner;
administrative staff, including the coroner's clerical assistants and secretarial
staff. Also present are police officers who appear to assist the coroner in the
conduct of inquests; members of the legal profession who appear on behalf of
persons or institutions with a sufficient interest in a coronial proceeding;
witnesses both professional and non-professional; relatives and friends of the
deceased or of witnesses called upon to give evidence; school groups; media
personnel; court recording personnel; and service staff.


       j.   SAT (State Administrative Tribunal)
The State Administrative Tribunal (SAT) is a relatively new independent statutory
body, the leadership of which is through the President, a justice of the Supreme
Court.    The Tribunal represents the single most ambitious reform of
administrative law in Australia and has both original and review jurisdictional
powers, including the review of many of the decisions of Government made in
respect of the citizens of the State.

The (SAT) operates from premises at 12 St Georges Terrace Perth with 12
Hearing Rooms, 4 mediation rooms and 8 meeting/ break out rooms. Where the
Tribunal holds hearings in regional areas it may do so by using existing DotAG
court premises or by hiring alternative local facilities. The SAT has jurisdiction for
over 140 Acts and it is expected that its jurisdiction will expand into the
foreseeable future. With such jurisdiction comes eclectic demands on the fit out
design of hearings rooms and increase use of office workspace.



                                                                                   14
                                                                       SECTION A

As a general premise, SAT does not operate with the formality of a court
however the hearing room and waiting area design must still cater for those
matters where critical incidents and challenging behaviours can be expected
from the parties. For example, in jurisdictions where the applicant or a person to
whom an application relates has a mental illness or cognitive disorder, the design
must incorporate both passive and active security considerations to ensure the
safety of members, parties and the public.

In matters where the risk of challenging behaviours is less likely, hearing rooms
will offer a mix of designs. In particular, designs will be conducive to the conduct
of hearings where the parties are more likely to be self represented. The current
facilities offer Tribunal members a range of hearing room options that they can
consider best appropriate for any particular matter. Options include close and
less informal designs to a greater distance and height between member and
parties if a greater degree of formability is needed and larger table tops on which
the lay out plans and large documents with large format papers. Hearing rooms
also offer large witness tables to facilitate concurrent evidence from up two
witnesses at any one time.

As the Tribunal operates throughout the State, integrated computer, telephone
and video conferencing technology has emerged as a matter of strategic
importance for the Tribunal and its provision in existing or new fit outs will require
careful examination.

Accessibility is and continues to be an issue of importance for Tribunal members
and staff and parties that attend hearings. Selection of space and fit out design
should meet the contemporary needs of people with disabilities and if necessary
be above the building code applicable to the premises under consideration.




                                                                                   15
                                                                               SECTION B

B.   Building Requirements Generally
1.   Applicable Codes, Standards and Statutory Controls

     1.1.    Compliances

            A.    Construction of the works and provision of services shall comply but not be
                  limited to the following legislative requirements, Government policies and
                  guidelines.

                  Generally:
                  •   Building Code of Australia.
                  •   Australian Standards and Codes.
                  •   Disability Discrimination Act 1992.
                  •   Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984.
                  •   Occupational Health, Safety & Welfare Regulations 1988.
                  •   Health Act 1911.
                  •   Health (Public Buildings) Regulations 1992.
                  •   Health (Food Hygiene) Regulations 1993.
                  •   Heritage Council of Western Australia, Policies, Guidelines &
                      Conservation Plans.
                  •   Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972.
                  •   Public Works Act.
                  •   Builders Registration Act.
                  •   Western Australian Planning Commission Guidelines.
                  •   City of Perth Town Planning Scheme 1985.
                  •   Government / Private Utility Service provider’s requirements.
                  •   FESA Regulations and Requirements.
                  •   Insurance Council of Australia Requirements.

                  Custodial Provisions:
                  •    Western Australia Police Building Code 3.0 – Planning Guidelines.
                  •    Inspector of Custodial Services Act.
                  •    Court Security and Custodial Services Act 1999.
                  •    Court Security and Custodial Services (Consequential Provisions).
                  •    Young Offenders Act 1994.
                  •    Prisons Act 1981.
                  •    Police Act 1892.
                  •    Bail Act 1982.
                  •    Supreme Court Act 1935.
                  •    District Court of Western Australia Act 1969.
                  •    Justices Act 1902.
                  •    Sentencing Act 1995.
                  •    Sentence Administration Act 1995.
                  •    Sentencing (Consequential Provisions) Act.
                  •    Children’s Court of Western Australia Act 1988.

                  Other relevant Western Australian legislation includes:
                  •    The Criminal Code.
                  •    The Criminal Practice rules.
                  •    Financial Administration and Audit Act 1985.
                  •    Equal Opportunity Act 1984.
                  •    Freedom of Information Act 1992.
                  •    Family Court of WA Act 1978.
                  •    Road Traffic Act 1974.
                                                                                           16
                                                                                   SECTION B

                  •     Parliamentary Commissioner Act 1971.
                  •     State Supply Commission Act 1991.
                  •     Coroners Act 1996.
                  •     Transport Coordination Act 1996.
                  •     Victims of Crime Act 1994 Schedule 1 "Guidelines As To How Victims
                         Should Be Treated".

            B.    The State is not able to provide a release from compliance with BCA
                  requirements in relation to fire egress from the custody centre. Refer to the
                  “BCA Alternative Solution for Custodial Accommodation” Report included
                  as Appendix 1.

     1.2.    Siting

             Court buildings must be seen to be removed from and free of ordinary
             commercial and partisan pressure. A court building should be constructed as a
             single-purpose building, physically separate and distinct from other community
             institutions. It should be sited in a prominent position and surrounded by
             sufficient space to set it apart from day-to-day activities. Where the court building
             is part of a regional justice complex comprising a Police Facility and Sheriff's
             Office (Bailiff) and Community Justice Services it must have its own identity and
             entrance. Materials, colours and details must distinguish it from the Police
             Facility and Community Justice Services. It is also most desirable for a joint
             Court/Police/Community Justice Services site to have separate street frontages
             for both the Court and Police. Entry to car parking for both Courts, Police and
             Community Justice Services is preferred to be via separate driveways with no
             shared access. It is allowable to have a Police emergency exit through a gate
             (normally kept locked) into the Court carpark in the case that persons other than
             the police intentionally block the Police driveway. In the undesirable event that
             Court/Police/Community Justice Services Complex must share the same street-
             front there are a number of requirements:

            A.    Each public entry to the Court, Police and Community Justice Services
                  must have very separate identities.
            B.    Each public entry must be separated as physically far as possible and must
                  include a public courtyard or recess between the two entries with
                  appropriate planting to accentuate the separation.
            C.    The custody connection between the complexes must be discrete at the
                  rear of the building.



2.   Architectural Design and Construction Principles

     2.1.    Design Philosophy

            A.    General
                  i.  The new building must reflect the importance of the State justice
                      system to the community. It should be architecturally impressive and
                      of a style commensurate with the dignity of the Court. It should also
                      be attractive to those who use it and those who may visit it. Design
                      proposals shall conform to contemporary Court standards unless
                      noted otherwise.
                  ii. The Facilities should be full of light and particular attention should be
                      given to the use of interior space as a powerful design element e.g.
                      increased volume in busy public waiting area etc. Natural light,

                                                                                               17
                                                                             SECTION B

                   meaningful views out (views that afford a sense of orientation and/or
                   the prospect of some surrounding landscape/streetscape scene) and
                   easy access to the outdoors. The design should respond to the
                   climate fluctuations as well as providing a welcoming presence
                   indicating openness and accessibility. Therefore appropriate passive
                   design elements shall be incorporated to mitigate negative impacts.
            iii.   The finishes and materials to be used throughout the Facilities are to
                   be of a high and durable quality, reflective of the importance of the
                   building and the Judicial Administration that operates within it.
                   Durability is a keynote criterion in public and custody areas.
            iv.    With all of these criteria in mind, the following key design success
                   factors for the Facilities have been developed. The Project shall
                   provide:
                   a.    A new focus for and contribution to the civic architecture for the
                         City, Town or Metropolitan Region;
                   b.    An architecture that reflects the buildings function as an
                         instrument of Justice for the State;
                   c.    A design solution that clearly identifies and provides easy
                         access to all functional elements of the Facilities use of signage
                         shall not be considered on acceptable default position;
                   d.    The ability to take as much advantage as possible of natural
                         light in the Facilities as a means of “de-stressing” interiors;
                   e.    An energy efficient solution for the Facilities;
                   f.    The maximum and effective use of technology in the Facilities,
                         which meets the Courts functional requirements;
                   g.    A low maintenance design outcome for the Facilities;
                   h.    Minimum risk in relation to security, OH&S and public safety
                         within the Facilities;
                   i.    Ease of access for disabled persons;
                   j.    A high degree of “constructability”;
                   k.    Through a number of design initiatives as outlined in studies
                         undertaken on Aboriginal culture and psychology of the effects
                         of court environments ensure a less threatening experience for
                         all users of the Courts; and
                   l.    A landscape solution, which provides a high degree of high
                         quality but at the same time is low maintenance.

2.2.   Construction Principles

       The construction of the new building is to encompass Best Industry Practice in
       the use of modern construction methods and technology. The inclusion of these
       methods and technology will help to produce time and cost savings and also to
       provide a thoroughly modern, technologically advanced building.

2.3.   Architectural Considerations

       A.    Materials
            The types of materials to be used for the construction are to be high quality,
            robust and low maintenance and must contribute to the overall physical
            impression and attractiveness of the Facilities, in reflecting the qualities of
            permanence, stability and strength without being ostentatious.
       B.    Finishes
            Surface treatments and applied finishes must be durable, longwearing, low
            maintenance and must also be visually appealing. Preference shall be
            given to finishes that are repairable on site as surfaces will be subjected to
            continuous hard wear.

                                                                                        18
                                                                SECTION B

i.    External
      a.   Glazing to windows shall take due account of thermal
           requirements and if appropriate to the design shall incorporate
           heat reflective glass (reflective and severely tinted glazing shall
           be avoided). All windows to the ground floor entrance shall be
           glazed with an appropriate material and protected by an
           approved security film to prevent fragmentation in the event of a
           bomb explosion.
      b.   Vulnerable solid external walls are to be treated with an
           approved anti graffiti coating up to a height of 3.0m.
      c.   A qualitative hierarchy of external wall finishes will be
           considered in that a high quality is expected on the main
           façade. Appropriate lighting must be provided for security
           purposes and possible night-time use of the Facilities.
      d.   Adequate provision is to be made to ensure ease of access for
           cleaning of all external and internal glazed surfaces throughout
           the building.
      e.   Landscaping design proposals shall conform to contemporary
           public landscape standards. All planting and methods of
           installation shall conform to Australian Standards. All planting
           shall be able to withstand the local climate and soil conditions.
           All irrigation shall be to the BCA and Australian Standards
           Codes. Where possible, irrigation heads should be vandal
           proof.

ii.   Internal
      a.    Glazing
                    Glazing is to comply with AS 1288 and AS 2208 and to
                    be clear laminated safety glass unless detailed to a
                    different specification elsewhere in this Design Brief.
                    Notwithstanding glazing type shall be a result of privacy
                    needs/function and location that shall determine use of
                    clear, obscure or semi-obscure glass.
      b.    Floor Finishes
                    All floor finishes shall be the commercial grade of their
                    type, suited to their application and the function of their
                    location. They shall comply with current, relevant fire
                    indices and require only easy and effective long-term
                    maintenance needs. Heavy-duty floor finishes shall be
                    used in areas with heavy traffic flows. Hard and resilient
                    floor surfaces shall be of a type not requiring regular
                    refinishing.
      c.    Carpet
                    Generally carpet shall be used as the floor finish to be
                    applied throughout the Facilities, excluding wet areas
                    and other special areas as noted in this Design Brief.
                    Carpet shall be high commercial quality. Carpet in
                    areas where computers or other electronic equipment is
                    concentrated shall have appropriate anti-static
                    treatment.
      d.    Wet Area Floor Finishes
                    All wet areas shall be provided with an impervious floor
                    finish that runs up to the recess of fitments and form a
                    skirting to walls. Behind the floor finish shall be a
                    proprietary waterproof membrane properly detailed,
                    turned up at walls and sealed at joints forming a
                    watertight barrier to the structure.
                                                                            19
                                                         SECTION B

e.   Vinyl Floor Finish
             Sheet vinyl shall be weldable and flexible for coving to
             wall junctions and fitments. If vinyl is used in wet areas,
             it shall be coved 100mm up walls or to the recess of
             fitments, whichever is greater. All newly installed sheet
             vinyl shall be cleaned and sealed to the manufacturers
             specifications prior to commissioning.
f.   Entry Area
             Hardwearing and low maintenance finishes shall be
             used from the entry to the public counter areas.
g.   Door and Door Frames
             Except where noted otherwise in the Design Brief, doors
             shall be flush solid core doors with timber edge trims to
             all sides or shall exhibit similar performance.
             In order to provide a high degree of protection from
             noise in the public foyer and courtroom waiting areas,
             public entries to courtrooms must be via an
             airlock/sound lock arrangement.
             Purpose built acoustic doors shall be used to comply
             with the requirements of Part E of this Design Brief
             (Acoustic and Sound Reinforcement). Architectural door
             hardware shall generally be heavy-duty lever type
             stainless steel.
             All public entry doors to courtrooms shall be fitted with
             heavy duty automatic door openers with direct control
             activators and locking devices to facilitate easy access
             by people with disabilities.
             Courtroom entrances (incorporating sound locks and
             automatic doors) shall be physically designed and
             electronically controlled to negate the potential for noise
             transfer directly into the courtroom from adjacent public
             areas whilst being accessed (i.e. operation of doors
             shall be such that they do not open simultaneously but
             have the first door in the path of travel closing prior to
             the second opening).
h.   Painting
             General areas with paint finishes shall be treated with a
             two-coat application of durable acrylic paint. Wet areas
             shall be treated with a two-coat application of durable
             enamel paint. Both finishes shall be applied over
             preparatory undercoats.
i.   Ceiling Systems
             Generally, ceilings shall be commercial office standard,
             modular, demountable system on non-combustible
             materials that shall conform to acoustic performance
             requirements.
             Courtroom ceiling heights must be suitable to
             accommodate the various elements in the room that are
             to be raised from the litigation floor, in particular the
             judicial bench and jury box. In determining ceiling
             heights, consideration must also be afforded to the
             number of expected occupants and the air circulation /
             ventilation requirements.
             Selection and performance of ceiling systems shall be in
             accordance with the acoustic requirements set down for
             each space or area. If a continuous plasterboard ceiling
             is to be used, partitions may not need to extend from
                                                                     20
                                                                           SECTION B

                             floor to slab above. If mineral fibre ceiling tiles are used,
                             partitions must extend from floor slab through to ceiling
                             to the slab above to achieve a rating greater than
                             FSTC35.
                             Decorative timber veneer ceilings or similar shall define
                             public waiting areas, reception areas, foyer, courtrooms
                             and the like.

    C.    Furniture
          i.   Furniture shall comply with Australian Standards to ensure OH&S of
               all employees. Generally ergonomic furniture should be selected to
               help prevent RSI, OOS etc. Special consideration shall be given to
               courtroom environments as participants will be seated for lengthy
               periods.
          ii.  All activity spaces within the Facilities are to be furnished and fitted
               out in an appropriate quality and have visual appeal that ensures “fit
               for purpose and function” criteria. In addition all furniture and fit-out
               shall respond to requirements of longevity and ease of maintenance.
          iii. Furniture generally and workstations in particular shall be provided on
               a ‘system’ basis that is consistent in construction, look and finish
               within each of the quality categories detailed in following sections.
               Work stations shall be modular and capable of being modified (with
               inter-changeable sections) to suit particular functional demands.
          iv.  Computers, printers, facsimile machines and photocopiers (unless
               otherwise specified) are excluded from this Design Brief.

Judiciary and Support Staff
          •    Courtrooms – Built in fittings namely judges’ bench, judges’
               associates, counsel, accused dock, jury box and witness box shall be
               finished in a material reflecting the formality and status of the
               courtroom. All built-in furniture shall accommodate all in-court
               technology to achieve ergonomic functionality and maximise aesthetic
               appeal as well as optimising sightlines between all participants in the
               court process. Lengths of all benches and modesty panels enclosing
               seating positions shall be to suit numbers of seating positions within
               each courtroom and as identified in the Trials section. Lockable
               exhibit storage and equipment storage shall be integrated within the
               court built-in joinery. In criminal courtrooms this shall comprise of an
               exhibit table and lockable cupboard under, adjacent to or part of the
               judge’s associates bench. In civil courtrooms this storage shall
               comprise perimeter wall benching with lockable cupboards under,
               subject to the courtroom configuration.

                Furniture, fittings and overall fit-out and décor shall adopt an
                integrated interior design approach and encapsulate the objectives
                articulated elsewhere in this Design Brief. Decorative acoustic wall
                linings to public galleries shall not be located at head height (in the
                seat position) thereby avoiding requirement for frequent removal and
                cleaning. Obtrusive supports for all built in bench fittings shall be
                avoided.

                Fully ergonomic gas operated height adjustable chairs with arms and
                infinite locking positions shall be provided to the judicial benches and
                the associate's benches, with judges chairs being of a high executive
                standard. The standardised proprietary selection for judicial chairs
                must have a range of varying seat pad sizes and back heights.
                Armrests shall be adjustable or retractable to allow the chair to fit
                                                                                       21
                                                              SECTION B

    under the bench when using a computer keyboard. Associates chairs
    shall be to an executive standard. Fully ergonomic, gas adjustable
    semi-executive chairs shall be provided to all bar tables and the jury
    officer.   Fully ergonomic interconnected fixed seating shall be
    provided to jury boxes and witness boxes. Jury seating shall be
    provided with individual armrests and writing tablets and spaced to
    ensure maximum comfort for jurors with flip-up seats to assist with
    access. Fixed seating shall be provided to PIC docks and public
    galleries.

•   Interview Rooms/Special Trial Support Rooms – Provide either
    rectangular or circular meeting table sized to fit the room with the
    number of fixed leg upholstered chairs to suit table size.

•   Judicial Chambers – Furniture and fittings are to be of a high
    executive standard and be fully ergonomic. Gas operated height
    adjustable chairs with arms and infinite locking positions shall be
    provided to chambers. The standardised proprietary selection for
    judges’ chairs must have a range of varying seat pad sizes and back
    heights. Armrests shall be adjustable or retractable to allow the chair
    to fit under the desk when using a computer keyboard.

    Desks with built in drawers (or mobile pedestal alternative) and
    integrated returns fitted with adjustable keyboard trays and matching
    but moveable monitor stands. Appropriately sized occasional tables
    and chairs to accommodate up to four people. An integrated décor
    design approach shall be taken in selection of all furnishings/furniture.

    Provide full-length, 1800mm high bookshelves with cupboard space
    under one wall (minimum 4m length) to accommodate each judicial
    officer’s personal library and documents.          Wardrobe space
    accommodating judicial gowns and wigs shall be provided and shall
    include a full-length vanity mirror. A minimum of two matching three
    drawer filing cabinets shall be provided to each chamber for
    permanent judicial officers. Provide same for circuiting judicial
    officers’ chambers but only 2m of bookcases and no filing cabinets.

•   Ante Rooms – Accessible only from the judicial bench and secure
    corridor and used as a waiting space during adjournment, these
    spaces shall be furnished with occasional chairs and a full-length wall
    mirror.

•   Support Staff (Judges Associates and Researchers, Registrars
    Associates, Secretaries and Receptionists) – Fully ergonomic
    furniture of clerical standard must be provided with gas height
    adjustable chairs with full lumbar support provided. Desks and or
    workstations are to be fitted with adjustable keyboard trays and
    matching but moveable monitor stands. Mobile, lockable drawer
    pedestals shall be provided to each workstation or desk. Shelving
    units shall be integrated with workstation privacy screens and/or
    located adjacent as built-in wall units.

•   Ushers – Provide fully ergonomic furniture of clerical standard with
    gas height adjustable chairs with full lumbar support. Desks are to be
    fitted with adjustable keyboard trays, matching but moveable monitor
    stands and lockable drawers.
                                                                          22
                                                                         SECTION B


          •     Conference/Meeting Rooms (Judicial and Generally) – All facilities
                shall be provided with furniture and fittings of a high executive
                standard and be fully ergonomic. Size of conference tables and
                numbers of chairs to accommodate user numbers as
                scheduled/described in this Design Brief. Conference rooms shall be
                equipped with a pull down projection screen, whiteboard/pin-up board
                and below bench cupboard/drawer units.

          •     Judicial Library – Provide furniture and fittings of a high executive
                standard and fully ergonomic. One workstation shall be provided for
                the research and for the librarian. Provide shelving in modular units
                to house current collection with 10% spare capacity. Approximately
                20 bays at 1800mm high x 900 wide shall be provided.

          •     Public and Waiting Areas (Outside Courtrooms and Mediation
                Pre-Trial Conference Facilities) - Public waiting areas shall have
                comfortable interlocked seats, with appropriate durable upholstery
                panels capable of being removed for cleaning or replaced. Seating
                arrangements shall be in a ratio to suit numbers of persons
                accommodated in courtroom galleries, seating shall not be configured
                in back-to-back arrangements screens.

          •     CCTV Rooms (Remote Witness Rooms) – Provide purpose made
                joinery (table and shelving unit) to accommodate two monitors and
                cameras with bench mounted fixed microphone point. The shelving
                unit shall be as unobtrusive as possible in respect to scale given that
                children largely use these facilities. Provide two fixed ergonomic
                chairs and occasional table.

          •     Mediation Rooms – Mediation rooms shall be furnished with modular
                tables of 800mm depth capable of being arranged in a number of
                formats (e.g. ‘T’ configuration) accommodating up to 15 people
                maximum. Provide a wall unit to accommodate videoconference
                equipment in all rooms with one fitted out with equipment. Fixed
                height semi-executive chairs shall be provided for participants and a
                fully ergonomic gas operated height adjustable chair shall be
                provided for the Registrar.

          •     Meeting Rooms – Meeting rooms shall be furnished with a meeting
                table and chairs appropriate to the size of the room as scheduled in
                Section C.13 Schedule of Accommodation. Generally, furniture in
                large rooms shall accommodate up to 8 people, in medium rooms
                shall accommodate up to 6 people and in small rooms shall
                accommodate up to 4 people.

Courts Administration Accommodation
         •    Registry Counters – Counters shall be designed to afford staff a
              degree of physical protection whilst at the same time creating an
              approachable image. An equal number of public sit down desk height
              counters and stand up height counters shall be provided. Wheelchair
              access shall be provided to one counter position. Staff shall be in
              seated positions not withstanding the alternative seating/standing
              positions for the public. Chairs to the public side of the counter shall
              be upholstered with arms and legs (i.e. non-swivel). Staff counter
              chairs will be fully adjustable and ergonomic. Counters shall be fitted
                                                                                    23
                                                                          SECTION B

               with security features including duress alarms to ensure staff safety is
               monitored and appropriately responded to.             Counters shall
               accommodate stationery storage and built-in provision for IT
               equipment (including CPU, monitor, keyboard, receipt printer and bar
               code reader) and lockable cash drawer.

         •     Open Planned Offices – Provide each staff member as scheduled a
               workstation configuration providing capability to operate a computer,
               adequate bench space to prepare files, storage capacity above
               benches for case files, a mobile pedestal for storage of personal
               effects, stationery etc and space adjacent to the workstation for
               parking of a file trolley. Refer to “Furniture Generally” for workstations
               screen/pin up requirements. Ergonomic chairs for each staff member
               will be of a “Semi-executive” standard.

         •     General Storage: Open Offices – Allow for concealed general wall
               unit storage capability to accommodate staff personal effects (coats,
               raincoats, umbrellas etc), miscellaneous files and reports. This
               requirement is seen as design specific with utilisation being made of
               circulation space.
         •     Enclosed offices – Each enclosed office shall be fitted out with the
               following matching “Executive” standard furniture.
               • Workstation with integral or separate meeting table and credenza
                   (cupboard/drawer) return.
               • Bookshelf unit (1800w). The bookshelf component shall have
                   cupboards below desk height and open shelves above.
               • 2 no. four drawer filing cabinets.
               • 1 fully ergonomic executive chair and four matching visitors chairs.

         •     File Storage Areas – Shall be provided with a standing height work
               bench, 1.5m long and 16 no. pigeonhole storage units for A4 sized
               documents. Note: Filing requirements are specified in Section C.3.5
               Records and Stores.

         •     Lunch Room – Provide “Meeting Room” tables and chairs to suit
               space size and a wall unit accommodating sink, bench space with
               cupboards/drawers, under and overhead cupboards. The wall unit
               shall provide space and include a free standing (integrated)
               refrigerator, dishwasher and microwave oven.

         •     Utility Room – Located within designated work areas shall be
               equipped with perimeter storage units with adjustable shelving and a
               collation worktable or bench sized to suit room configuration. Bench
               space shall also be provided to accommodate printers and facsimile
               machines. Recessed space for a photocopier shall also be included.

         •     Communications Room – Workstation (including data outlets and
               power) for one technician shall be provided.

Custodial Facilities
         •     The fit-out shall generally comply with the following criteria:
               • To meet OH&S standards;
               • Western Australian Police Building Code;
               • To provide a fit for purpose selection of furniture and building
                   fittings capable of withstanding rigorous wear and tear;

                                                                                      24
                                                                           SECTION B

                • Recognise through a range and quality of provisions the diversity
                  of users of the Facilities (i.e. staff, legal counsel, support groups
                  and PIC);
                • Adopt a sensitive integrated design approach aimed at material
                  selection and colour that will assist in having a positive outcome in
                  reducing stress levels encountered within these facilities;
                • Doorways providing access between Custodial Areas and other
                  circulation spaces shall be designed to open inwards or outwards
                  such that the door, frame and locking mechanism combine to
                  afford the greatest level of protection and delay against the most
                  likely direction of attack in the event of an attempted escape or riot.

Jury Facilities
          •     Jury Reception Counter – Provide an “L” shaped counter/work
                station area for up to 2 people that allows the following functionality:
                • Jury/court staff to check public into the dedicated jury pool area or
                   other multipurpose area designated for that purpose to enable
                   register of attendance;
                • Presentation of jury duty information and balloting of jurors; and
                • Dealing with enquiries.
          •     One side of the counter shall face the formal seating in the assembly
                area with the other side addressing the entrance to the assembly
                room.
          •     Jury Assembly Area – Provide fixed seating to accommodate 70
                persons in rows and casual lounge seating for a further 15 people.
                Row seating shall be interlockable and stackable without arms and
                provided with appropriate durable upholstery panels capable of being
                removed for cleaning or replaced. Seating shall be orientated
                towards a 2.5 metre staff bench workstation with storage underneath.
                Provide a beverage counter nominally 2.5 metres long with below
                bench cupboards. Build in a refrigerator, sink and boiling and
                refrigerated water dispenser.
          •     Tea Preparation Area – Contiguous with the jury assembly area
                shall be provided with storage and tea and coffee making facilities,
                refrigerator and overhead cupboards.
          •     Juror Personal Effects Storage – Provide discrete linear four tier
                laminate fronted keyed lockers to circulation areas within jury
                deliberation. Provide 18 lockers.

          •     Jury Deliberation Rooms – The shape of the table to be profiled to
                fit the shape of the room with a strong preference for an oval
                configuration to facilitate each juror being able to equally interact with
                all other jurors at the table. Jurors’ chairs shall be fully ergonomic
                gas height adjustable chairs with lumbar support. Table to be sized
                to accommodate up to 18 jurors. Provide also 2 club chairs and
                coffee table. Provide a wall unit accommodating sink, boiling water
                unit, bench space with cupboards/drawers under, overhead
                cupboards and pantry space. The wall unit shall include a free
                standing (integrated) refrigerator, microwave, video player and
                monitor.

Counsel Facilities
         •     Lawyers, Legal Aid and ALS, DPP: No special provisions are made
               for Legal Counsel as they have access to interview rooms adjacent to
               courtrooms as required.

                                                                                       25
                                                                         SECTION B


Furniture Generally
          •   Workstations - The design of office accommodation and the
              workstation systems must take into account the type of work being
              performed and conform to all OH&S and relevant government
              accommodation guidelines.

         •      Each workstation is to be fully equipped with telephone/data and
                power facilities to allow for the operation of PC’s and other required
                equipment and shall be fitted with adjustable keyboard trays and
                matching but moveable monitor stands.

         •      Workstation privacy screens shall be acoustically lined and provided
                with shelving units and pin-up boards.

         •      Utility Room Provisions – Utility rooms throughout the court
                complex shall be provided with bench space to accommodate
                photocopiers, printers, facsimile machines etc, with storage
                cupboards under (including adjustable shelving). Provide overhead
                cupboards to the full extent of benches below. Storage capacity shall
                be maximised within room configuration, including allowance for large
                recycle bins.

         •      Signage - A fully integrated signage system shall be provided with
                signage to all rooms, and as required by the BCA. (Refer to Section
                E. Information Services and Directional Signage specification of this
                Design Brief).

         •      Noticeboards, Whiteboards and Pin-up Boards - The requirement
                for functional allocation of noticeboards, whiteboards and pin-up
                boards shall generally be in accordance with the following guidelines:
                • Noticeboards – shall be provided in areas where staff are located
                   and accommodated in workstation environments, staff amenities
                   areas, offices and conference/meeting rooms.
                • Whiteboards and Pin-up Boards - shall generally be provided in
                   courtrooms, office environments, conference/meeting rooms,
                   counsel work areas and staff work areas.

    D.   Art
         i.     In accordance with the State’s ‘Percent for Art Scheme’ the
                consultant shall implement the DHW guidelines in respect to the
                provision of artworks for the project. DHW will engage an art
                consultant whose scope of service will include coordinating,
                commissioning and administering the selected artists as nominated
                by the artwork selection committee formed under direction of the
                DHW.
         ii.    The artworks may comprise significant sculptural pieces that maybe
                required to be integrated within the building fabric in addition to a
                more traditional response in the provision of selected
                paintings/murals etc. In both cases the consultant shall allow for the
                liaison with and the provision of all necessary attendance and
                backgrounds and structural requirements facilitating installation.
         iii.   Indigenous art is to be included as part of the public art and is to be
                tendered separately. This component is to comprise of not less than
                50% of the total art budget.

                                                                                    26
                                                                              SECTION B

2.4.   Security Philosophy
       A.   Court Security
            Court processes, and therefore, the Court environment, should reflect a
            respect for the rights, dignity and concerns of all participants.

            The security environment of a court is complex and multi-faceted. The
            significant variety and number of users, agencies and tenants of a court
            building along with the need for different circulation patterns incorporate to
            the environment the need for varying degrees of security across functions,
            processes and physical locations. This issue is complicated further by the
            need to ensure that court processes and the court environment reflect a
            respect for the rights, dignity and concerns of all participants.

            The potential for unexpected behaviours and deliberate actions that
            threaten the safety of judicial officers, staff and the public, as well as
            proceedings, is real in court buildings. Through effective policies and
            procedures, and effective and supportive technology, the potential for
            incidents needs to be reduced and the consequences of incidents
            minimised.

            Courts should communicate accessibility and assure that users’ safety,
            security and privacy are respected. Contributions to the process should be
            encouraged. Consequently security must be a key factor in the basic
            design of court buildings to ensure that the underlying principles of justice
            are attained whilst achieving effective security for the court.

            Design features that fail to contribute to effective security at a court will not
            be overcome by security technology and people. Court facilities should be
            characterised by the maximum and effective use of technology to meet and
            integrate the Courts functional requirements and security arrangements
            must be integrated into the design and operation.

            Commencing in the design phase, court security is achieved through the
            ‘security in depth’ principle where layers of tangible and overt measures
            supported by other discreet and covert measures are implemented.
            Security-in-depth adopts the concept of using sound architectural and
            design principles with a series of people, procedural, physical features, fit-
            out, spatial relationships, and landscaping features that provide multiple
            layers of protection to the exterior and interior of the building and its
            workings.

            The principle is applied in every work area, with every asset and resource,
            with each functional area of the building, each circulation area, and each
            process inside and outside the building so that no feature is reliant upon a
            single security measure.




                                                                                          27
                                                                      SECTION B


B.   Common Features
     i.  Access Control
         The ability to control access to all parts of the building underpins
         much of court security and the security-in-depth principle. All
         movement into, through and out of any part of the building must be
         controlled. The degree of access control required is determined
         through an assessment of the functions undertaken in each area, and
         the level of protection required for that function.

            Public access should be through a single access point or area
            wherever possible. All external components of the court building or
            complex should be designed to facilitate this through a combination of
            obvious and visible means and subtle more covert means. The
            proximity of heavy traffic areas such as parking, gardens and
            landscaping, cafeterias, registry and service areas to the entrance
            influence the achievement of this aim.

     ii.    Landscaping
            The landscape design must consider how the location of plants,
            garden beds, planters and other features outside the building
            contribute to maintaining the building set-back through the control of
            vehicle and people access to the building.

            There should be strategically placed features that contribute to the
            control of vehicle encroachment on the building.

            The choice of plants must not impede vision of the approaches to the
            building or provide places of concealment.

            The layout of the landscaping should contribute to the channelling of
            people to the appropriate entrance of the building.

     iii.   Parking
            Parking for judicial officers should be internal to the building wherever
            possible and be fitted with electronic access control. Where this is
            not possible such parking must be in a secure garage or other
            parking area that is fenced and fitted with electronic access control.

            Judicial officers must be provided with separate secured access to
            the building from the secure parking area. Access to the building
            must be separate to that provided for judicial officers if other court
            staff or users have access to the secure parking area.

            Parking for staff should be adjacent to or outside the building. The
            area should be fenced and fitted with electronic access control.

            Public parking should be adjacent to the building.

            Service vehicle access to the site should be through a single security
            access control point that utilises electronic access control, personnel
            security or hydraulic vehicle barriers.

            Vehicles should not be able to be parked against the side of the
            building without having passed through a security control point.


                                                                                  28
                                                                      SECTION B


     iv.   Doors and Locks
           Every door contributes to the security of the building. The location
           and use of the door determines its degree of hardening and the type
           of lock required to secure it.

           All access and egress doorways in the building must be assessed for
           purpose and fitted with an appropriately rated door and locking
           mechanism. The higher the level of security and access control
           required for an area or location the higher the security rating of the
           door and lock must be.

           Secured and restricted areas should be secured with an electronic
           access control.

           All doorways should be able to be retrospectively fitted with electronic
           access control devices and infrastructure.

     v.    Building Façade and Fittings
           All service points and fittings on the façade of the building must be
           situated in ways that do not permit them to be used as access or
           egress points. Drain pipes must be secured in such a way as to deny
           their use as a climbing device or to otherwise facilitate access to the
           building. Air conditioning and other service units and vents must be
           secured to deny the introduction of contaminants.

           Fittings and furnishings should contribute to the safety and security of
           people and the facility. All fittings should be of a design and
           robustness so as to support the safe movement and handling of PICs.

           Fittings and furniture used in a PIC custody or circulation area must
           be secured in ways that deny their removal through deliberate action,
           vandalism or as a result of collateral damage caused by a security or
           safety incident.

     vi.   Lighting
           Lighting must support the deployment of surveillance devices.

           Lighting must provide adequate illumination of judicial and staff
           parking areas along with pedestrian access paths. It must deny
           concealment in the vicinity of the building or other vulnerable places.

           Higher levels of illumination are required at all entrances.

C.   CIRCULATION CONTROL

     A critical element of the court design is the separation of public, secure and
     restricted circulation patterns. People participating in a court room process
     should not intersect at any point before entering the court and in most
     circumstances that separation must be retained inside the court room as
     well.

     i.    Judicial Circulation
           The judicial circulation must permit judicial officers to move from, to
           and between car parking, chambers, the court room and other
           restricted spaces under secure conditions. All access and egress

                                                                                29
                                                                                  SECTION B

                         between spaces and locations must be secured with an electronic
                         access control.

                  ii.    Juror Circulation
                         Juror circulation must permit jurors to move between floors and
                         spaces of the building without intersecting with public or secure
                         areas. All access and egress in the juror circulation must be secured
                         with an electronic access control.

                  iii.   PIC Circulation
                         PICs transport must be able to be moved into the sally port under
                         controlled conditions. PICs must be able to be moved from the sally
                         port to the central holding facilities, and to and from holding cells
                         adjacent to courtrooms without passing or entering public or restricted
                         spaces.

                  iv.    Restricted Circulation
                         Staff usually access the building through the same access point as
                         the public. Staff work locations anywhere in the building are
                         restricted areas. Access to staff work areas and locations must be by
                         electronic access control. Staff movement between work areas and
                         locations can be through the public circulation.

                  v.     Public Circulation
                         Public entry should be through the main entrance, regardless of the
                         number of additional access points on the exterior of the building.
                         Movement of the public to and from public areas of the building such
                         as court rooms, registry and juror reception must not intersect with
                         judicial, PIC or juror circulation.


3.   Western Australian State Sustainability Strategy

             A.   The Western Australian Government has released “Hope for the Future:
                  The Western Australian State Sustainability Strategy 2003” ("Government's
                  Sustainability Strategy"). The Government's Sustainability Strategy aims to
                  deliver developments that improve the total quality of life, both now and in
                  the future in a way that maintains the ecological process on which life
                  depends.

                  Refer http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/

             B.   The consultant is required to take account of the Government’s
                  Sustainability Strategy. There are eight Government wide commitments on
                  sustainability that impact on how developments are undertaken relating to:

                         •   Building design
                         •   Waste reduction and recycling
                         •   Energy use
                         •   Water use
                         •   Reduced travel and vehicle use for sustainability
                         •   OH&S
                         •   Public engagement
                         •   Social responsibility.


                                                                                             30
                                                                            SECTION B

       C.   As a minimum, the consultant shall comply with the requirements detailed
            below in sections B.3.1 to B.3.8.

3.1.   Building Design for Sustainability
       A.   The project is to be designed in a manner consistent with the principles of
            sustainable development. The Project must incorporate the principles of
            solar orientation, natural lighting, energy efficiency, accessible design, and
            other sustainability innovations.

            The project is to recognise sustainability issues in the assessment of value
            for money and ensure that the project’s procurement is consistent with the
            State sustainability strategy. The DHW has endorsed the Australian
            Institute of Quantity Surveyors publication ‘Evaluation of Sustainable
            Development’ Australian Cost Management Manual Volume 4, and
            supports the use of The Royal Australian Institute of Architects
            ‘Environment Design Guide’ by consultants.

            i.     Designing to Minimise Lifecycle Costs.

            ii.    Wilful and Accidental Damage to Public Buildings.
                   The booklet titled “Designing Buildings to Reduce Damage” is
                   intended for use by designers of public buildings and provides
                   information to assist designers incorporate features that are likely to
                   minimise damage.

            iii.   Maintenance Minimisation
                   The State wishes to minimise recurrent expenditure on all projects,
                   and life cycle costing must be considered with development design
                   proposals.

            iv.    Solar Control
                   Solar control shall be provided to all facades to ensure comfort of
                   building occupants and conservation of energy. This is to be
                   provided via means of external shading, high performance glazing,
                   window treatments or a combination of these means to mitigate
                   radiant heat and glare.

3.2.   Waste Reduction and Recycling


       A.    Designing to Maximise Recycling Opportunities
            The consultant is required to design to maximise the opportunities to recycle
            materials in future and consider inherent opportunities to recycle materials
            such as green waste and landfill on site within the works. The consultant
            shall only use recycled materials that achieve the required technical
            performance while at the same time providing reasonable comfort for the
            occupants.

       B.   Waste Management and Recycling
            i.   Prior to the commencement of the work on Site the consultant shall
                 ensure that the Builder prepares and implements a Waste
                 Management Plan relevant to the works under the Contract. The
                 Waste Management Plan shall be maintained, and where necessary
                 updated, throughout the Contract. The Waste Management Plan
                 shall be appropriate to the volume of waste associated with the work

                                                                                       31
                                                                   SECTION B

           under the Contract and shall contain provision for, but not be limited
           to, the following elements:

           a.    Evaluation of demolition materials for reuse on site;
           b.    Induction for all employees;
           c.    Information and education given to sub-contractors to ensure
                 understanding of waste minimisation plan;
           d.    Liaison with waste contractor to ensure effective recycling;
           e.    Details of proposed waste disposal and recycling certification;
           f.    Job planning to ensure appropriate separation/bins are
                 available for concrete, steel, timber and other materials as
                 volumes dictate;
           g.    Arrangements for packaging reuse/return to suppliers such as
                 pallets, tins, crates, etc;
           h.    Arrangements for on site reuse of material such as
                 grinding/mulching of materials;
           i.    Arrangements to monitor bins to ensure material separation
                 conformity;
           j.    Provide evidence of the destination of materials taken off site.

     ii.   Each element of the Waste Management Plan shall specifically
           address:
           a.   The person on the Site who shall take responsibility for the
                successful implementation of each element;
           b.   The hierarchal structure by which the responsibility is
                performed; and
           c.   The specific manner by which the element is performed.

B.    Induction Training
     The consultant shall ensure that the Builder does not permit its employees,
     the employees of other parties or other persons to commence work on the
     Site until they have been inducted. Such induction shall include but not
     necessarily be limited to familiarisation with the Waste Management Plan.

C.   Waste Management Plan Proforma
     The Waste Management Plan shall cover the following issues:
     i.    Site staff induction;
     ii.   Storage facilities;
     iii.  Materials decision sheets for:
           a.    Demolition
           b.    Construction
           c.    Other Waste
     iv.   Monitoring and Evaluation;
     v.    Method of demolition and equipment to be used;
     vi.   Method of containment and progressive clean up of dirt, dust, mud,
           water;
     vii. Method and extent of final site clean up and repair of damaged items
           (such as roads, kerbs, fences, storm water sumps and the like; and)
     viii. Written confirmation of final destination of materials taken off site
           (recycling, land fill and the like).

D.   Use of Timber
     The project shall rely on Natspec Guide number 3 ‘Timber in Context – A
     Guide to Sustainable Use’ in their selection and application of timber. The
     Consultant shall not specify CCA treated timber without the consent of the
     Project Director.

                                                                              32
                                                                             SECTION B

3.3.   Energy Use for Sustainability
       A.   Designing to Minimise Energy Operating Costs
            i.   The Project is to be designed to minimise energy operating costs
                 while at the same time providing reasonable comfort for the
                 occupants (as further specified in the Mechanical Services Brief.)
                      Refer to:
                      http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/buildings/publications/emissions.ht
                      ml
            ii.  It is intended that the Building be designed to achieve at least an
                 AGBR rating equivalent to a 3.5 star office building (base building
                 plus fit-out) taking into account the differences in equipment,
                 occupancy and hours of operation between the Building and an office
                 building.
            iii. All office equipment installed in the building shall comply with the
                 Energy Star standard and shall have all Energy Star features
                 enabled.
                      Refer to:
                      http://www1.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/pages/energy_smart_gov.asp

3.4.   Water Use for Sustainability

       The consultant will demonstrate responsible practise in water use through the
       use of efficient plant, equipment, fixtures, appliances and water wise
       landscaping.

3.5.   Reduced Travel and Vehicle Use for Sustainability

       A.   TravelSmart
            i.   State government agencies are required to reduce vehicle use by
                 promoting travel alternatives, improving workplace end of trip facilities
                 and managing car parking.
            ii.  The co-location of custodial facilities and the provision of audiovisual
                 conferencing facilities on the site will deliver operational travel
                 savings.
            iii. The consultant should be aware of the Government endorsed
                 "TravelSmart Workplace" program that promotes a green transport
                 plan.
                    Refer to:      http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/travelsmart/

       B.   Bicycle End of Trip Facilities in Government Buildings
            i.    The project is to incorporate long-term bicycle end of trip facilities for
                  staff. This is in accordance with the government endorsed cycle plan
                  ‘Bike Ahead: Bicycle Strategy for the 21st Century’.
            ii.   The appropriate bicycle end of trip facilities will be in accordance with
                  the standards set out in Bikewest’s ‘End of trip facilities in
                  Government Buildings’.
            iii.  Additionally, the consultant shall make provision for short term bicycle
                  parking adjacent to the main building entry. This shall be discretely
                  located and cater for couriers and the general public.
                      Refer to:
                      http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/cycling/documents/end_of_trip.pdf




                                                                                         33
                                                                                      SECTION B

     3.6.       Occupational Health and Safety

                A.    Health and safety in the workplace improves environment, economic and
                      social outcomes in government agencies. Statutory requirements in
                      respect of OH&S must be met.
                      Refer http://www.safetyline.wa.gov.au/

                B.    A sustainable building must provide appropriate indoor environmental
                      quality throughout its serviceable life. Research has demonstrated that
                      high quality indoor environments are associated with reduced absenteeism
                      rates.

                Indoor Air Quality
                     •     Off Gassing of Materials - No solvent-based paint systems shall be
                           used without the approval of the Project Director. Buildings are
                           required to be adequately vented prior to occupation, furniture must
                           be allowed to off gas and be naturally or mechanically air circulated
                           prior to occupation.

                Design for Minimum Dust Generation and Easy Cleaning
                     •    The Building is to be designed to maximise the use of self-cleaning
                          coatings and air filter quality required to ensure a high quality internal
                          air quality. The Building shall include appropriate dust trapping
                          mats.ances.


     3.7.       Public Engagement

                The Department of the Attorney General will undertake the process of public
                engagement for the Project through extensive stakeholder consultations.

     3.8.       Social Responsibility

                A.    Government agencies are required to examine strategies for community
                      building and social responsibility involving their own employees. This will
                      include cross-cultural awareness training, gender assessments, a
                      community focus through employee-adopted community programs and
                      place-based integration of services across government. The consultant
                      shall embrace these strategies wherever practicable.

                B.    The Project shall be designed to meet government office accommodation
                      standards and should provide an appropriate setting for diverse sections of
                      the community to meet.


4.   Architectural Psychology Brief

     4.1.       Introduction

            Origins of the Requirement to Consider the Architectural Psychology of the
            Court Environment
                A.   The Law Reform Commission of Western Australia's Review of Criminal
                     and Civil Justice System in Western Australia: Final Report, 1999, includes
                     a section on the court environment. In that section, the court environment,
                     described as the physical and social environment, was stated to affect the
                     users of the court system in various ways.

                                                                                                 34
                                                                                    SECTION B

           B.     The authors of the special study for the Commission, Louise St. Kennedy,
                  architect, and David Tait, PhD, academic, discussed how traditional court
                  architecture communicates an ambience of authority and exclusiveness.
                  They recommended that new and renovated courts should communicate
                  accessibility and assure that users’ safety and privacy are respected and all
                  contributions to the process are welcome.
           C.     As part of the project planning process there has been considerable effort
                  expended by DotAG in reviewing its processes and policies with the aim to
                  make the experience in all courthouses, for all participants, to be as user
                  friendly as possible. New staff training programs are in train to provide staff
                  with skills and sensitivities to assist them in their dealing with the public and
                  the professions.
           D.     The consultant study concentrated on the public realm of the Court
                  environment. The study took as its fundamental aim the Western
                  Australian Department of the Attorney General’s wish to operate ‘user-
                  friendly’ CBD Courthouse in Perth.

4.2.        Architectural Psychology and Courts Environments

       The term Architectural Psychology is wide ranging and has become a field that can
       involve:
            A.  Ergonomics (including comfort studies, how the senses work,
                anthropometrics and human physiology and human movement);
            B.  Psychology proper (where perception studies, psycholinguistics, cognitive
                mapping, individual motivation, memory and so on can be relevant);
            C.  Sociology (especially micro sociology and other studies of small group
                interaction, sociolinguistics, issues of class and so on); and
            D.  Anthropology (particularly, here, ethnography, symbolism and ritual).
            E.  Some specialists would include, additionally, aesthetics, studies of power
                relations and frames of reference (involving linguistics, the history and
                philosophy of science, perhaps political science and moral philosophy).

4.3.        Architectural Requirements

       Before individual requirements are listed, five recurrent principles are set out.

       Some of the requirements are clearly not requirements concerning the court
       environment, itself. However, they have been included here because were they not to
       be followed, then the burden of trying to achieve user-friendliness in the court
       environment falls unworkably heavily on the Facilities. Asking the architecture of the
       Courthouses to do what is often both less costly and more precise when done by
       other means is foolish.

       Further, the most fundamental principle of architectural psychology is that a working
       facility works as a whole and that the effects of the physical environment cannot be
       dissociated from the social and cultural environments within which it is situated.
             A.    Recurrent Principles for User-Friendliness
                   i.   The recurrent principles for user-friendliness that follow should be
                        regarded as requirements that apply to all issues in the design of the
                        court environment. Some of them (such as 4.3 d: Psychological
                        Relief) are discussed as detailed requirements, also.
                   ii.  Text in italics either amplifies a recommendation being made or
                        explains its intent.
                        a.    User-friendliness of the court environment will be very much
                              enhanced if any person not usually involved with the court is
                              comfortable being there and the need to deal with matters
                              important to them outside the court environment is respected;
                                                                                                35
                                                         SECTION B

b.   It is imperative that there can be separation of accused and
     their supporters (family, friends, colleagues and legal counsel)
     from victims and their supporters (partners, family, friends,
     colleagues and legal counsel) in criminal matters; and, similarly,
     separation of Consultant and applicant groups in civil matters.
     This can be accomplished subtly through design of waiting
     areas, circulation systems and the entries to Courts
c.   Similarly it is imperative that vulnerable persons required to give
     evidence are protected from additional stress by being able to
     avoid undesirable contact when moving through the building
     and when waiting outside courtrooms. This applies regardless
     of the reasons for being vulnerable, whether by reason of age
     (children), intelligence (intellectually disabled), or relationship
     with accused (partners) [practical and psychological issue].
         • At all times, people should have confidence that they are
            in a safe place.
         • The potential for unexpected behaviours and deliberate
            actions that threaten the safety of staff and all
            participants, as well as proceedings, is real in
            Courthouses.
         • Through effective policies and procedures, and effective,
            supportive technology, the potential for incidents needs to
            be reduced and results of incidents minimised.
d.   Psychological relief is required for victims (including secondary
     victims), witnesses and jurors. This is both for calming down
     and for letting off steam after being dismissed, after seeing
     forensic evidence and/or after verdicts and sentencing, and in
     order to be left alone as they leave the court environment (by
     the public, by supporters of the opposition, by the media).
              In Court matters, personal emotions can be quite close
              to the surface and break out at times when litigants,
              juries, witnesses, the accused, staff, legal personnel
              and judicial officers all have to concentrate and remain
              focused and attentive.
              The need for relief from these complex conditions, be it
              momentarily by focusing on something beyond the
              immediate, or symbolically, by getting “outside the area”
              is central to producing good order and less stress.
e.   Our legal system is adversarial. Presently, criminal courts’
     proceedings are regarded as being matters between accused
     and the State. The general public, however, is more likely to
     take the view that, like civil matters, criminal matters, too, are
     more symmetrical – being between victims and accused. Yet,
     unless they are witnesses or deceased, victims are not
     recognised by the justice system. A user-friendly justice system
     would give greater recognition to victims, direct and indirect,
     before, after and during trials.
              It is not assumed, nor implied, that there will be a
              change to our adversarial system of criminal justice.
              The concepts of a just society, however, do suggest that
              all participants should feel that Court processes, and
              therefore, the Courts' built environments, should reflect
              a respect for the rights, dignity and concerns of all
              participants in matters before the Courts.



                                                                     36
                                                                      SECTION B

B.   Architectural Requirements for a User Friendly Environment
     i.    Requirement 1: ADDRESS & ENTRY
           Courthouses should be clearly visible within the street as public
           buildings.
           It should be obvious where the main/front entry is. It should be
           perceived as a single entry.
           There should be two or more places to wait outside the Facilities for
           small groups. At least one should cater for up to fifteen people for a
           short time. At least one such area should be under cover from
           adverse weather (wind, sun, and rain).
     ii.   Requirement 2: GROUND FLOOR/ENTRY LEVEL
           Locate a single main reception point in a very obvious, centrally
           located, clearly signposted position — indicating that it is staffed by
           reception or information personnel, rather than security guards or
           similar.
           a.    Visibility
                 The entry level/ground level of the building ought to appear as
                 open and transparent from outside as possible.
           b.    Visibility of Support Services
                 All support services should be visible from the main foyer.
                       This may not be practically possible. But, the existence of
                       a Support Service and what it offers must be clear in the
                       main foyer and how to access it should also be clear.
           c.    Waiting Areas
                     • All waiting areas ought to allow people to separate
                        themselves from others if they wish.
                        Careful articulation of the waiting area, its seating and the
                        use of columns assists with this. Back to back seating is
                        not desirable, without a low screen separating the two
                        sides.
                     • There ought to be televisions in waiting areas. However,
                        unsuitable, stressing programs on televisions ought to be
                        avoided.
                        At least the capability should be possible on all floors and
                        close to all courts, like at airports, done in ways in which
                        the presence and sound is not all pervasive. The actual
                        installations should be at least where there can be large
                        numbers of people waiting for protracted times, usually
                        high turnover courtrooms.
                     • Where possible, waiting areas should have a view to the
                        world exterior to the court environment.
                     • The design standards and standards of finishes and
                        furnishes of waiting areas — as of all areas in the public
                        realm, ought to be similar to those provided in all other
                        areas of the Courthouse.
                        This is an issue of equity and of appearances. Being
                        equally valued can be expressed through equality of
                        accommodations.
           d.    Café
                 There should be a café at main foyer level, clearly visible on
                 entry. It should be outside the Primary Security Checkpoint or,
                 accessible from both sides of the Primary Security Checkpoint.
                       An alternative is two cafés – one either side of the Security
                       Checkpoint. A café-cart might suffice inside the Facilities.
                       Vending machines might suffice in smaller Courts where a
                       café would not be financially viable.
                                                                                  37
                                                                SECTION B

       e.  Sick Room
           There should be a room that can be used for emergencies as a
           sick room near the main foyer.
iii.   Requirement 3: INFORMATION
       a.  Notifications
              • Before attending court, persons called to the Court should
                  be issued with adequate information packs before they
                  arrive (accompanying hearing notices, summons for
                  jurors, witnesses). These should contain maps, times,
                  requirements, directions and instructions, descriptions of
                  court processes and court etiquette, estimates of time
                  commitment, help available (especially including childcare
                  and languages other than English).
              • Normal notifications/information packs should include a
                  CD with spoken information on it (in a number of
                  languages) — particularly who to contact for further
                  information, how to do so, and how people can recognise
                  that they have reached where they are expected to go.
              • Within the court environment/facility, notifications such as
                  calls for witnesses to appear or for the start of cases
                  should be both auditory and visual.
       b.  Signage
              • There ought to be signage at the point of arrival on every
                  floor that indicates what Courts, services and/or facilities
                  are available on that floor. Maps showing their location
                  should be included. Descriptions of the functions of main
                  items ought to be included.
              • Fire exits should be noted on the maps.
              • Court and hearing listings and other schedules should be
                  available in the same place.
                  The scale of the lettering should be the equivalent of that
                  for schedules at airports.
              • Information on how to behave in Court, on what is
                  expected of people, ought to be provided in the same
                  place.
              • In the same places, where similar information can be
                  found in languages other than English should be declared
                  in at least the following languages:
                                       • Arabic
                                       • Greek
                                       • Indonesian/Malay
                                       • Italian
                                       • Mandarin
                                       • Polish
                                       • Spanish
                                       • Vietnamese.
                 Touch-screens (with animation capabilities) would be one
                 way to solve many of these problems.
                 Televisions in waiting areas could provide similar
                 information. They are particularly suited to providing
                 schedule information – as at airports.




                                                                           38
                                                                SECTION B

iv.   Requirement 4: WAYFINDING
         In designing circulation areas, close attention should be paid to
         their legibility. Landmarks, paths, nodes, districts and edges in
         the court environment should be obvious.
         On accessing a floor, it should be obvious where the facilities
         sought are located.
         The form, arrangement and layout of the Facilities should
         “enable” unfamiliar users to anticipate and locate themselves and
         lead them to their destinations, making operations “plain to see”
         for all participants.
v.    Requirement 5: COURTS
      a.    Some Courts should be readily accessible without the use of
            lifts.
      b.    Proceedings in Courts should be amplified so that all in the
            court can hear clearly all that is said.
      c.    Courts should preferably have two doors for general entry
            purposes.
      d.    At least one of the courts continually in use for family-related
            (e.g. domestic violence) matters should be equipped with a
            glazed-off area at the back where mothers may look after
            children or breast feed without risk to the proper functioning of
            the Court.
vi.   Requirement 6: PSYCHOLOGICAL RELIEF
      a.    The opportunity to smoke outside should be made available to
            witnesses, jurors, litigants and victims; and
      b.    The same groups should have a view of the world outside the
            court environment. This view need not be constantly available.
            A view is NOT the same thing as fresh air.
                     The primary source of psychological relief from the
                     stress of being there when in the courts environment is
                     knowledge of what is going on, where to go and how to
                     behave. If the information recommended to be provided
                     under Requirement 3, above, is provided, much of that
                     stress will be alleviated or, at least, minimised.
                     However, more specific relief is required at specific
                     times – particularly for victims, witnesses, jurors and
                     some litigants. People will want to gather their thoughts
                     and wits before continuing, they may wish to cry, they
                     may wish to vent their anger or they may need to let
                     their anger subside. This should be possible away from
                     the scrutiny of others. If it is not possible, people may
                     be unnecessarily further stressed, they may not be able
                     to continue (and thus threaten the smooth operation of
                     proceedings) or they may upset others who observe
                     their distress — with similar possible consequences for
                     personal psychological trauma and disruption of the
                     operation of the courts.
                     In some cases, psychological relief may entail
                     counselling.
                 • Witnesses/Victims
                   There should be provision for discreet (unmarked) witness
                   areas each with views of the exterior and their own rest
                   room (unisex would suffice) at regular intervals in the
                   court environment.
                   Though witnesses, victims and others should be aware of
                   their existence (through their notifications/information

                                                                           39
                                                                                    SECTION B

                                    packages and or other sources), access to these facilities
                                    should be controlled by Courts staff.
                                • Jurors
                                    Jury deliberation rooms should have a view to the exterior
                                    of the court environment.
                                    Jurors need psychological relief both from Court
                                    proceedings and during deliberations. If there is a secure
                                    Jury circulation system, then outdoor relief somewhere off
                                    that system might well be adequate.
                  vii.   Requirement 7: EXITING THE BUILDING
                         a.  There should be a secure, discreet exit system for witnesses,
                             jury members and victims that avoids public areas of the
                             Facilities.
                         b.  At their discretion, Court staff should be able to offer that facility
                             to some litigants.



5.   Aboriginal Cultural Brief


     5.1.    Introduction

             A.   The importance of undertaking consultation with Aboriginal and Non-
                  Aboriginal stakeholders is pivotal to the ultimate design outcome of a courts
                  complex. Consultation with Aboriginal stakeholders ensures that there is
                  active Aboriginal involvement and interpretation in the design process.
                  Active involvement will have a positive impact upon all users of the
                  facilities.
             B.   The successful communication between the Consultants and Aboriginal
                  people in the cross-cultural design process needs to start with the
                  acceptance and recognition of cultural protocols for complying with customs
                  and cultural value systems. Note: Because cultural protocols can vary
                  across communities and or regions, consultation is essential to ensuring
                  that the protocols are consistent with the area. These protocols can then
                  be translated into design through interpretation, which can form a
                  communication link between a place and its visitors. Whatever the link; it
                  creates for the visitor an intellectual and emotional connection or identity to
                  the place, engendering feelings about a place, prompts ideas and reveals
                  meanings.
             C.   It is incumbent on the Consultants to embrace the Aboriginal Cultural Brief
                  in order to understand the indigenous concepts of design and landscape.
                  Understanding of indigenous concepts need to be incorporated with
                  activities, design and contributions that are appropriate and respectful of
                  the Aboriginal people specific and non-specific to the area and other
                  cultures generally.

      5.2.   Objective

             The primary OBJECTIVE of the Aboriginal Cultural Brief is to achieve a user-
             friendly environment (i.e. An environment that is less threatening to Aboriginal
             people) satisfying the following requirements:
                   •     Respectful of the diverse users;
                   •     Conducive to equitable participation;
                   •     Appropriate to users needs; and


                                                                                                40
                                                                                                   SECTION B

                        •      Comfortable in the full sense – physical, emotional, social, cultural
                               [spiritual] and psychological.
                        •      Design flexibility – to cater for the diverse users and ongoing and
                               continual development and refinement of court processes to meet
                               cultural and practical circumstances

        5.3.     Cultural Brief

                 A.     There are three essential areas of compliance for Consultants to cover in
                        their Design Proposals:
                        i.     Integration of cultural fabric with the urban or regional location
                               including the existing building, and the new development - building,
                               landscape and artistic contributions;
                        ii.    Range, location and quality of spaces; and
                        iii.   Adaptation of the physical environment to accommodate cultural
                               precepts.
                 B.     It is recommended that the development be approached as an Aboriginal
                        design-collaborative process. 1
                 C.     Integration of cultural fabric with the development setting
                        i.     Essential Considerations:
                               • Ensure access and entry to the Facilities considers specific cultural
                                  requirements of visitors from remote areas.
                               • Recognise convenient location of entry points in relation to public
                                  and private transport routes.
                               • Incorporate appropriate gathering and waiting areas external to the
                                  building.
                               • Incorporate cultural symbols into the development – external
                                  spaces and structures, landscaping, building form and finish.
                               • Undertake a “percent for art” project that brings together Aboriginal
                                  and non-Aboriginal artists from the beginning of the project.
                               • Recognise the importance of local Aboriginal concepts of seasons
                                  (Aboriginal society recognises six seasons) when considering the
                                  design landscape.
                        ii.    Opportunities:
                               • Research the proposed building site to determine if there is any
                                  heritage listing which can provide an opportunity for interpretation
                                  of Aboriginal views. That is, is there any colonial significance to
                                  the history of the area that can be translated in functional design
                                  that embraces Aboriginal involvement through shared space and
                                  activity.

                 D.     Range, Location, and Quality of Services and Spaces
                        i.  Essential Considerations:
                            • Ensure all Aboriginal service organisations are catered for in an
                                appropriate location with access to external gathering areas and
                                withdrawal [private] areas.
                            • Ensure provision for utility spaces to support family support
                                services, is allowed for, in the development proposal. This might
                                include a café and/or elder's support area.
                            • Ensure that spaces and facilities are functional, prominent and
                                appropriate for the service to be provided, by engaging relevant
                                agencies in the cross-cultural design process.


1
 An Aboriginal Design-Collaborative process is one where parties come together as equal partners [collaborators]
contributing in an interactive way to the development and implementation of a project from inception to completion.
                                                                                                                41
                                                                                                                         SECTION B

                                      • Include facilities for mothers with babies – e.g. change room, and
                                        quiet room for feeding and caring.
                                      • Ensure way finding and signage is clear, and appropriately
                                        incorporates symbols with wording for all the spaces, places,
                                        access ways and facilities.
                                      • Ensure appropriate visual links between related activities and
                                        spaces is designed for.
                                      • Provide for access to fresh air wherever possible (e.g. adjacent to
                                        waiting areas outside courtrooms).
                             ii.      Opportunities:
                                      • Cater for a range of indigenous groups coming together at the
                                        courthouse.
                                      • Waiting spaces should enable groups in feuding relationships to be
                                        able to avoid each other while waiting for court.
                                      • Provision of facilities to cater for the security and safety of victims
                                        from the risk of intimidation, harassment and re-traumatisation.
                                      • Withdrawal and gathering places at all levels of the building.

                     E.      Adaptation of Physical Environment to Accommodate Cultural Precepts
                             i.   Essential Considerations:
                                  • Ensure the environment is user friendly, appropriate and
                                     comfortable.
                                  • Incorporate Familiarity 2 elements that will enable favourable
                                     associations to be created between people and place – through
                                     colour, light, plants, artworks, materials, sounds, and images.
                                  • Ensure the sustainability of the environment by respecting the
                                     country [for example minimising waste] and having a sustainability
                                     policy for the project.
                                  • Ensure the safety and security of participants and visitors are
                                     maintained. This includes the provision of spaces for different
                                     cultural groups, so that there is choice for different groups to
                                     interact or come in contact with each other. This also includes a
                                     sense of security in knowing that children will be looked after when
                                     they go to the Facilities.
                                              Ensure Functionality, through spaces and places
                                              performing as required. The following refers to some of the
                                              important design and layout issues to be considered in the
                                              development of the new Facilities.
                             ii.  Opportunities:
                                  • Incorporate features that are innovative and different to the
                                     conventional.

          5.4.       Notes About People and Place

                     Making and creating a new facility is about recognising special requirements, and
                     ensuring that these are incorporated into the finished product, in such a way as
                     to be seamless and intentional. In other words, the cultural input is an integral
                     part of the landscape not something added into it.




2. Familiarity Elements refers to those physical, visual, aural, and tactile, elements, which enable people to make a connection to something
familiar to them in their life or home environment.
                                                                                                                                         42
                                                                                    SECTION B


Table 12 - Design Issues to be Considered
No Item             Requirement                           Notes
1     Approach      Raised podiums with steps provide Incorporate slopes in the landscape
                    barriers that inhibit ease of access. surrounding the building to facilitate
                                                          ease of access. This could also
                                                          include ramps for disabled access.
2     Gathering     Provide places for people to gather The sitting/waiting/gathering space
      Places        in private or collectively. At the could be partly enclosed, partly
                    same time it is important that semi-enclosed, and partly an open
                    people have pleasant outlooks and deck to cater for different climatic
                    stimuli that prompt a familiar conditions.
                    connection to home or an
                    appealing/calming         place    or
                    situation.
3     Reception     It is essential that the arrival and It is important that there be a
      and     Way- orientation process is understood reception as part of the information
      finding       and     facilitated    through    the counter whether dedicated or
                    provision of an obvious reception integral with the registry counter.
                    point and clarity of the complex
                    layout to ensure ease of way-
                    finding throughout the building.
4     Courtrooms To make the courtrooms more Consider high level glazing panels
                    user friendly and accessible to the from about 2000 (high sill level) to
                    various participants, optimise the ceiling and reflective ceilings in the
                    provision of natural light within the adjacent corridors etc so as to
                    courtroom.                            reflect light into the courtroom.

                     Aboriginal court shall have both     Provide an entrance with a
                     direct access to outdoor light and   recessed door and sidelight, which
                     wherever possible provide direct     allows people in the corridor to see
                     access to the outdoors without       who is present in the public sitting
                     compromising security.               area of the court.

5     Location  of Support       organisations     and
      Service   & associated services need to be
      Support      located in places where people
      Groups       can easily find their way, access is
                   not tortuous and the potential for
                   gathering and having access to
                   external fresh air access is
                   available
6     Other        Cater for the special needs of
      Services     families, groups and people with
                   specific needs. i.e. disabled
                   access, family support services to
                   provide for those participants that
                   need special care providers, a
                   child feeding and changing, and
                   availability of refreshments within
                   the restricted zone.
7     Ablutions    Privacy associated with amenities      Entrances to toilets in court areas to
      and          is critical especially for women.      be more deeply embedded within
      Amenities    The separation of men’s and            semi-concealed entry passageways
                   women’s entrances to toilets is        to make them less conspicuous.
                   also required, as opposed to co-
                                                                                                   43
                                                                                       SECTION B

No   Item           Requirement                      Notes
                    joining in the same vicinity.
8    External       Having visual connections to the
     Vistas         external world are important.

                    This enables connectedness to be
                    a positive influence on the
                    demeanour of participants while
                    they are in the building/facilities.
9    Fresh      Air Access        to     the      external    This might include strategically
     Options        environment is mentioned above in         positioned small balconies or
                    terms of accessing vistas.           In   courtyards that extend outside the
                    addition it is considered critical that   existing skin of the building.
                    there are opportunities for people
                    to breathe fresh air without having
                    to exit the complex.
10   Familiarity    Having connections to familiar            Public Art initiatives may include a
                    landscapes       colours    etc.     is   collection of landscape photographs
                    important for people to feel more         of WA, representative of the region
                    comfortable with their location.          or all regions as appropriate (for
                                                              metropolitan courthouses), and
                                                              distributed     across    walls   of
                                                              nominated courts and public
                                                              spaces.

                                                          Some of the strategies could include
                                                          the following:
                                                          Art      works,   murals,     fabric,
                                                          photographs, DVDs.
11   Vistas       Long and short distance vistas can Opportunities to connect with vistas
                  provide stimulation and interest, from inside areas and outside
                  potentially averting the focus away spaces are essential.
                  from internal spaces and activities.
12   Distractions Distractions are important, they Provide for more wall-mounted
                  provide alternate avenues for televisions in public waiting areas.
                  people’s attention span and
                  increase their comfort zone.
13   Signage      Good signage for all courts is Symbols and sign language have an
                  essential. Signage displaying the important place in indigenous
                  listings should clearly indicate in communication.         Some     specific
                  large letters, the different courts, to requirements include:
                  prevent missed appearances and
                  to ensure smooth operations.            •    Provide large and clear layout
                                                               maps of each floor opposite lift
                  Signage may be in both written               egress;
                  and symbolic form that has
                  significance       to      indigenous
                  communities. Reliance on signage
                  for way-finding however will not be
                  acceptable.
14   Relieving    Minimising the sense of being Opportunities to exit and withdraw
     Stress       enclosed and shut-in is important into private areas, such as outside
                  in order to alleviate stress. decks and spaces with vistas and
                  Reducing       stress    raises    the fresh air are seen as essential
                  potential to induce some sense of requirements.
                  confidence in the facilities.
                                                                                                     44
                                                                                      SECTION B

No   Item          Requirement                             Notes
15   Colour        Use of colour in different sections     Colours, scenes and materials that
                   to engage interest and provide a        enable a connection to country to be
                   calming effect is seen as critical in   made, are useful.
                   maintaining connections between
                   people and place. Some colours          These stimuli can result in
                   are not conducive to internal           connections being made that foster
                   spaces.                                 a sense of familiarity and ease with
                                                           the facilities.
                   Colour blindness may also be an
                   issue if relying upon coloured
                   images for direction finding.
16   Texture       Application of variable texture to      This can also include materials that
                   indicate transitions from spaces of     come       from     different  regions
                   different function are useful,          [approved        under      appropriate
                   especially for people with sensual      protocols] and therefore also
                   deprivation. It can also have an        provide       connections     between
                   aesthetic value.                        people and place.
17   Lifts         When it is a requirement to             Lifts are tightly enclosed spaces that
                   transfer between levels the use of      are not desirable for all people.
                   stairs offers a more open and
                   accessible mode than a lift.
                   Traditional people have in the past
                   expressed a particular aversion to
                   lifts.
18   Floor         Floors can be enhanced with             The use of indigenous artists and
     Surfaces      different treatments to enhance         craftspeople    would      ensure
                   transition between places/spaces,       authenticity    and      possible
                   as well as define different use for     recognition.
                   spaces or areas.
                   The use of mosaics and pathways
                   to follow are two examples where
                   the floor finish can be useful as a
                   way-finding tool.
19   Wall          Wall surfaces are ideal for             The use of indigenous artists and
     Surfaces      appropriate enhancement with            craftspeople    would      ensure
                   colour,        images,        murals,   authenticity    and      possible
                   photographs, symbols etc.               recognition.
20   Awareness If technology is introduced there
     of     Users must be people around to explain
     about         how it is to be used and accessed.
     Technology
21   Cold Wind Wind           protection    is    highly   A system of mounds in yards
     Protection in recommended especially in public        planted out with trees and bushes,
     Winter        spaces and gathering points.            as well as solid barriers could be
                                                           used.


     5.5.     Physical Aspects of an Aboriginal Court

              A.   Background
                   Flexibility is an important consideration when designing and creating an
                   Aboriginal Court. Currently, there are two different models that have been
                   applied in South Australia (SA) and New South Wales (NSW).



                                                                                                     45
                                                                           SECTION B

           i.     In SA, the court room designed to accommodate an Aboriginal court
                  is based on non-hierarchical principles, evidenced by a round table
                  that is fixed and chairs that are not fixed and can be moved around.
           ii.    In NSW Aboriginal courts are held in the community in open spaces
                  under a tree or in community buildings.

      B.   Design Principles
           In designing the physical aspects of an Aboriginal Court, the following must
           be noted:

           i.     Court Structure.
                   • Where possible, the court room should be on the ground floor or
                      lower floors.
                   • If possible an alternative to lifts should be considered, as some
                      Aboriginal people find them problematic and avoid using them.
                   • Access to the outside should be provided through doors,
                      windows or walls that can be moved to enable access and
                      provide a connection to the external environment.
                   • Entry and exit to a separate room that can be utilised by Elders
                      for deliberation.
                   • In consultation with the Aboriginal community determine fixed
                      and non fixed furniture.
                   • Allow for accommodation of Aboriginal people in avoidance
                      relationships in order to enable their participation in the court
                      process; without transgressing this relationship.
                   • Design of room should enable usage by multiple users.
                   • Technology should allow for Aboriginal people with hearing
                      problems to be able to follow court proceedings without difficulty.
                   • Cultural themes should be considered when communicating the
                      authority and importance of the justice process.
                   • Corridors adjacent to court should avoid bottleneck of people
                      attending court.
                   • Multi entrances to court room should be considered.

5.6. References

      The following reports are referenced as a source of supplementary information
      only and do not form part of the Design Brief. The purpose of these reports is to
      inform Consultants on some of the relevant cultural considerations, and they
      should be read as supplemental information to the Design Brief (which has
      primacy).
      A.    CBD Court Complex Cultural Briefing Report; Barker and Spring, 2003.
      B.    “Wha” tchew reckon, I reckon?!” Paper by Grant Revell and Jill Milroy to the
            CBD Courts Cultural Workshop, 25 August 2003.
      C.    “The Third Space – Indigenous Communities Teaching Landscape”, Revell
            & Milroy 2001. In: Kerb Journal Issue 10. RMIT University, pp. 14-19.
      D.    Nidja Goordandalup! Noonnookurt Nyinning Nyungar Boodjar: A Nyungar
            Interpretive History of the Use of Boodjar (Country) in the Vicinity of the
            University of Western Australia); Collard L. and Palmer D, 1998.




                                                                                      46
                                                                                        SECTION B

6.   Multicultural or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Brief

     6.1       Introduction

               Issues of diversity are never simple. Diversity is often defined by a broader set of
               concerns that encompass areas such as ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation,
               religious beliefs and experiences. Recent literature on multicultural issues and
               architectural design suggest that while significant strides are being made to
               include the needs of diverse ethnic groups the challenge is how to do this in
               spaces and environments which are designed to cater for the needs of many.

     6.2       Issues to be considered when designing and developing spaces for
               multicultural or CALD customer groups:

      A. Gender – Within a public waiting area such as courts, are there break out spaces
         which women or men can access if they wish to be separate.

      B. Experiences – For many CALD groups or individuals the law is synonymous with
         oppression as they may have suffered under the auspices of the law in their country
         of origin. Consequently people may view western courts with suspicion. CALD
         groups or individuals attending courts may come from countries where they have
         experienced torture, oppression and severe trauma. For these groups or individuals
         having access to spaces that are non threatening, non-confining or closed in and
         that have easy exits to the outside environment is essential.

      C. Religious beliefs – for groups that adhere to the Muslim faith which pray five times
            throughout the day, having access to a private space where they can practice their
            faith is important. This is particularly significant if the individual and their family who
            are waiting to attend court have to wait all day before seeing the magistrate.

      6.3      Objective of the Multi-cultural or CALD brief

      The primary objective of the multi-cultural and CALD brief is the same as the Aboriginal
      cultural brief which is, to ensure that multi-cultural or CALD groups feel safe, comfortable
      and non-threatened when accessing the court environment.




                                                                                                    47
                                                                                       SECTION C


C.   Operational Needs of a Courthouse
1.   Introduction

     1.1.   Facilities Design Brief

              This design brief specifies the generic requirements of a Courthouse. Depending
              upon the demand for court services that is to be accommodated in the
              Courthouse it could comprise of one the following models:

               Type A        i) Magistrates Court and Higher Court facilities;
               Court         ii) Magistrates Court and Higher Court facilities co-located with
                                 a police station
               Type B        Magistrates Court facilities only; or
               Court
               Type C        Magistrates Court courtroom and related facilities as part of a
               Court         Police station.

                  For the purposes of this briefing document the Type A Court shall only refer
                  to a two courtroom courthouse (higher courtroom and magistrates
                  courtroom), a three courtroom courthouse (one higher courtroom and two
                  magistrates courtrooms), or a four courtroom courthouse (one or two higher
                  courtrooms and two or three magistrates courtrooms).

                  A Type A or B Court could also incorporate facilities for related criminal
                  justice services (e.g. Department of Corrective Services and/or Police
                  Department) such as exists in some metropolitan and regional centre
                  Courthouses.       Each of these models reflects differing operational
                  requirements, particularly in light of segregation of parties (e.g. judiciary, jury,
                  police, offenders etc) and core functions. In a Type B facility the jury function
                  is not applicable.

                  Subject to the location and purpose of the facility, there are additional
                  functional requirements that may need to be considered during planning in
                  order to accommodate future expansion. Such additions may include
                  courtroom accommodation for criminal jury trials and related functions, court
                  custodial facilities, mediation facilities and specialist courtroom attributes to
                  accommodate alternative court processes.

                  The project Brief shall address the current and future strategic planning
                  requirements in the overall master plan.

                  Type C Court is fully described under Section C 13.0.

     1.2.   Conceptual Model of a Courthouse

             A.    The following affinity model of a courthouse graphically illustrates the
                   organisational structure proposed within a Courthouse.

             B.    The model divides vertically into a set of activities to which there should be
                   a check on the people and the effects they carry - a restricted zone.
                   Access into this restricted zone is via a primary security check point for
                   people, goods and materials. The checkpoint is strategically located at the
                   entrance of the courthouse.



                                                                                                   48
                                                                 SECTION C

     The majority of future courthouses proposed in Western Australia,
     particularly in metropolitan and larger regional centres anticipates this
     future model. However, smaller complexes are unlikely to provide with this
     level of security, with access control only being provided to nominated
     areas as indicated on the affinity model diagram. Refer also section B.2.4
     Security Philosophy.

C.   The model also divides horizontally between activities which are primarily
     people accessed and the places where vehicle access is the predominate
     mode of entry to the complex.




                                                                            49
SECTION C




       50
                                                                                  SECTION C


1.3.   Circulation Systems

        Subject to the size and scope of the facility there may be a requirement for up to
        six circulation systems in terms of the areas they serve and the principal
        connections they are to make to the outside and within the building.

        A.    Restricted Zone: General Circulation

              i.      Beyond the Primary Security Checkpoint is the first system, the
                      Restricted Zone that contains all accommodation and separate
                      circulation pertaining to the discrete functional requirements of each
                      court user. Subject to the prescribed scope of the facility, the
                      Restricted Zone may contain:

                       •   Registry and Courts Administration
                       •   Courtrooms
                       •   Mediation Facilities
                       •   Chambers
                       •   Judicial Library
                       •   Jury facilities
                       •   Court custody facilities (including secure loading/unloading)
                       •   Court security control facility
                       •   Secure judicial parking
                       •   Support service accommodation
                       •   Secure goods vehicle delivery/loading bay.

              ii.     At the Primary Security Checkpoint, Court Users will be directed and
                      supervised as they enter the various parts of the restricted circulation
                      zone. In some cases, visitors may need to wait at the Primary
                      Security Checkpoint for an escort to their final destination.


        B.    Jury Panel and Member Circulation

                    The separation of empanelled jury members needs to be maintained at
                    all times from other participants of the court proceedings.

                    This includes entry to and exit from the Courthouse by a discrete means
                    to avoid the possibility of jury influence, intimidation or contamination.
                    This circulation system (Juries) needs to be a direct and secure system
                    capable of accommodating the number of jury panel members and
                    support staff prescribed in the particular facility. This circulation system
                    must connect the jury assembly area, with the jury lounge, courtrooms
                    and jury deliberation rooms.


             C. Persons in Custody (PIC) Circulation

                    In the Magistrates Court, accused persons attending the court whilst on
                    bail will appear before the court directly from the public gallery or
                    adjacent public waiting space.

                    In a Higher Court (Supreme or District Court), accused persons
                    attending for court whilst on bail may be required to surrender into the

                                                                                             51
                                                                 SECTION C

    custody centre via the public realm prior to court commencing and
    thereafter appear before the court directly from the court custody centre.

    Whilst in custody they will move at all times in a separate, direct and
    secure circulation system. During the trial when momentarily excused
    from the courtroom, they need to be held adjacent to the courtroom in
    secure areas during longer adjournments they will be returned to the
    custody centre. The circulation system used for moving the PIC needs
    to be separate from all others, with no intersections. Support staff and
    goods and materials, necessary for the effective operation of the
    service, such as food for PIC, will move within this system.

D. Judicial Circulation (Justices, Judges and Registrars)

    This fourth circulation system should connect the secure parking to the
    chambers and support functions of the Judiciary with the courtrooms
    and the pre-trial conference and mediation rooms as well as the registry.
    Only authorised administration staff will have access to this system in
    addition to the judiciary. This system is also used to move case files
    between the registry, the chambers area and the courtrooms.

E. Protected Witnesses

    The fifth circulation system is necessitated out of the need at times to
    move, with a high degree of secrecy, protected witnesses, into the
    Courthouse and then to a particular courtroom. At these times, the
    escorts will determine with the court manager and/or security staff, the
    route to be used, and by temporal separation ensure that there is no
    contact made with others. The witnesses will need to be held in a
    segregated area while waiting to give evidence and throughout all
    adjournments.

F. Victim Support Service (Child Witness and Adult Vulnerable Witness
      Services)

    The sixth circulation system is for child witnesses and adult witnesses
    requiring special support. This system is to connect a discrete external
    entry/exit point to the remote witness and related support
    accommodation in the Courthouse. The circulation shall also have a
    conveniently located internal entry/exit point from the public waiting
    space outside the courtrooms.

G. Emergency Escape Stairs

    It is preferred that the Judiciary, jurors and PIC circulation systems have
    their own escape stairs and routes. It is acceptable for the Judiciary to
    share escape stairs with jurors but not the public or PIC. Victims and
    witnesses in the care of VSS can use public escape routes on a
    managed basis.

H. Janitorial and Maintenance Circulation

    The integrity of the various circulation systems is to be assured at all
    times if used for janitorial and maintenance services.



                                                                            52
                                                                                     SECTION C

     1.4.     Access Controls

                A.    In addition to the need to separate the movement of various parties to trials
                      and hearings the security systems will require some degree of control on
                      entry into various parts of the Courthouse. The controls will range from
                      hard key locks to proximity card access control and people access control.
                      For each of these, technology can be used in support of the people aspects
                      of entry control. The first level by control on who has keys, and use of non-
                      reproducible keys; the second level by cards which can be easily re-
                      assigned, and the third level by some form of ensuring that the person
                      seeking entry or release from an area is the person purported to be. The
                      Court Security Directorate is presently working towards achieving a
                      standard biometric control (via iris scan) to achieve this. This latter
                      requirement is particularly relevant to after-hours access and also to high-
                      security areas. Provision of an access control system that is compatible
                      with systems in other courthouses is highly desirable as would be the
                      capability to link locations into one access control network.

                B.    On occasions there will be the need to introduce additional access control
                      to some parts of an operational area, say a particular courtroom. At all
                      times there will be the need to not only allow Authorised Persons access
                      out of hours but to also account for where they go within the Courthouse.

2.   Public Realm

     2.1.     Overview

                      •    Within a Courthouse there are particular requirements of the general
                            circulation systems, by which people should be able to move easily.
                      •    This has been called the public realm and extends to the entrances
                            and reception points of the various components, and contains all the
                            support services and spaces available to people involved in cases
                            and hearings, except those who are in custody or part of a jury.
                      •    Within its limits, should be located all the general public amenities
                            such as vending machine areas.
                      •    It is important that, despite the need for a Primary Security
                            Checkpoint, people passing through maintain a sense of “open”
                            access to most of the building within this realm.
                      •    This includes access to amenities and beverages/snacks near a
                            courtroom or hearing rooms, and possibly to a courtyard(s) or
                            balcony(ies) in the Restricted Zone.
                      •    The public realm includes the circulation area, serving the courtrooms
                            and mediation facilities, and will be used as meeting and waiting
                            places by case participants, in addition to the actual rooms provided
                            for this purpose.

            2.2. Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

                A.    Ambience
                         The perceived ambience of the Courthouse relates to the need to
                         ensure that the occasional users are not intimidated or daunted by the
                         prospect of their involvement in a case.
                      i.   This user-friendly ambience should start during the approach to the
                           Courthouse, at entry and during the security checking process, as
                           well as while within all publicly accessible parts of it.


                                                                                                53
                                                                             SECTION C

            ii.   A high degree of visual transparency from outside to inside shall be
                  provided with natural controlled daylight to be optimised. External
                  view opportunities shall be maximised.

       B.   Orientation
               At a “central place”, or foyer, it should be possible for one to gain a
               sense of the order and organisation of the Courthouse. This includes a
               sense of the presence and location of the courtrooms. It should be
               quite clear where the registry is located, and the route to take to the
               courtrooms and mediation rooms. Similarly, the location of support
               services and amenities should be quite clear, or easily perceived. This
               is required to be a ‘generous’ space in terms of volume and the interior
               design shall respond to the requirement of reflecting the distinction and
               formality of the Court.

       C.   Persons with Disabilities
               It is mandatory that persons with permanent and temporary physical
               disabilities are able to approach, enter, orient and proceed from the
               same direction as the able users participating in any role or
               circumstance applicable in the court process.

       D.   Tour Groups
               Tour groups, which could be up to a school class size of 30-40
               including teachers and other escorts will use this area. These groups
               will tend to move more in a line, which could extend some distance.
               They will also cluster around the guide during information giving
               moments. This latter characteristic should be especially designed so
               that it does not interrupt the flow of people through the area.

2.3.   Accommodation Requirements

       A.   Security and Safety Provisions
            i.   A Primary Security Checkpoint (which may be required to include
                 scanning systems) shall be able to be provided at either the main
                 entrance of the building or at a point after the registry hall. A second
                 layer of security provision shall be able to be provided at the entrance
                 of the courtroom(s) if required. Notwithstanding the capability to
                 locate security at either the front entrance or after the registries, given
                 the requirement for openness and accessibility the preferred location
                 for security control is after the registries.
            ii.  Given the requirement to maintain a sense of openness and
                 accessibility within the public realm it is required that maximum
                 innovation in respect to incorporating passive, engineered and man-
                 power solutions which reduce the ‘overt presence’ of security
                 measures incorporated at the entrance of the building. The location
                 and integration of scanning equipment etc shall be well resolved
                 within the overall scope of interior design proposals.
            iii. Safety and/or security incidents (including self-harm) have the
                 potential to close down all or part of a Courthouse. The appropriate
                 treatment of all edges (internal and external) such as balconies and
                 open stairs is necessary to ensure that safety for all Court Users is
                 maintained throughout the public realm.




                                                                                         54
                                                                      SECTION C


B.   Information Counter
        An information counter shall be provided to facilitate way-finding and
        general enquiry service and may in some circumstances be
        incorporated into the planning and design of the court registry. This
        counter shall be sized to accommodate assessed demand.

C.   Announcements
       Within the foyer there should be display of the trials and hearings for the
       day and the courtrooms and mediation rooms in which they will occur.
       The location of the display(s) should be easy to find, able to be seen by
       a number of people, and not located where its use would interrupt the
       flows of people moving in and out. (Refer to – Section E. Information
       Services and Directional Signage).

D.   Waiting and Meeting
       A regular pattern of use will be that people involved in the same matter
       will agree to meet at the Courthouse. The foyer area is one place where
       this will occur. The location of this arrivals/orientation area shall be after
       the Primary Security Checkpoint. The layout of the area should be such
       that there are places in which people can wait, be seen by others, but
       not interrupt the flow of people moving directly to and from their
       destinations. Many find it easier to wait and greet outside the entrance,
       this is particularly so for indigenous people.

E.   Media
     i.   Requirements for the media shall be restricted to secure storage for
          camera gear.
     ii.  The tradition of “courthouse steps” interviews will certainly continue
          and the design of the Courthouse entry needs to be such that a group
          of journalists and camera crews cannot block the main entry to the
          Courthouse.

F.   Public Amenities
     i.   Public support facilities include food and drink vending machines,
          coffee cart, cold water drinking fountains, toilets, parenting room, play
          space for children and access to the outdoors, possibly in a number
          of places, or if in a single place, in a way that it is seen as readily
          available from all parts of the public realm.
     ii.  Toilets shall be provided for the public having regard to peak demand
          prior to and at the conclusion of court sittings, and shall be located
          such that they are reasonably accessible to the public in terms of
          travel distances.

G.   Beverage Facilities
       A coffee cart or automatic vending facilities shall be provided to service
       both Court Users and general public as long as security provisions are
       not compromised. The provision of this facility is encouraged as a
       “meeting place” and relaxing environment prior to entering the secure
       court environment as well as servicing the needs of the buildings users
       and public generally. The spatial and servicing requirements shall be
       met only with equipment to be provided by the courts.




                                                                                  55
                                                                    SECTION C

H.   Parenting / First Aid Room
     i.   The parenting / first aid room should be located within the Courthouse
          foyer and be accessible for ambulance staff with a stretcher. It is to
          service staff, jurors and public and shall also be co-located with an
          accessible toilet facility which shall include baby change facilities.
     ii.  The room itself is to accommodate a sink and two lounge chairs.
     iii. As most users of this room will only be there for short duration (one
          hour maximum), natural light is not required, but preferred.

I.   Children’s Area
     i.   The children’s area is for Court Users who have young children. It is
          designed for short-stay duration and as such, facilities are simple.
          Supervision will be by parents.
     ii.  This area could be best located as a discrete area with casual
          observation off the main public waiting area outside the courtrooms.
          A parenting room and a set of public toilets should be located nearby.

J.   Outdoor Areas
     i.   An outdoor area shall be provided for building users with fixed
          seating.
     ii.  This area would be best located adjacent to the main entry.
     iii. The area should preferably incorporate some natural landscaping and
          be large enough to cater for a high volume of building users -
          especially at peak times such as lunch.
     iv.  The design must allow for seasonal change so as to be inviting all
          year round. A degree of sun, rain and wind shelter will be required.
     v.   In addition access to the outdoors shall be provided within the
          Restricted Zone to satisfy the need for participants in the court
          process to experience natural ventilation and have access and the
          opportunity to relieve stress. Any use of a balcony or terrace, to
          satisfy the requirements for access to the outdoors is to ensure that
          all users are safe, and that contraband and unauthorised persons
          cannot enter the building via this space.
     vi.  An outdoor area for staff and judiciary shall also be provided in such a
          location as to afford privacy and security with direct access to the
          area from an immediately adjacent internal amenity area.




                                                                               56
                                                                                    SECTION C

3.   Administration

     3.1.       Functional Group

            C.3.2    Registries and Courts            C.3.5     Records and Stores          (incl.
                     Administration                             Exhibits)
            C.3.3    Sheriff‘s Office                 C.3.6     Training and Education
            C.3.4    Courts Recording Service         C.3.7     Staff Amenities




            3.2. Registries and Courts Administration

                A.   Overview
                     i.   The court registry has traditionally been the main point of contact
                          between the court and the community, the legal profession and
                          persons directly and indirectly involved in matters before the court.
                     ii.  The Clerk of the Court and court officers manage and coordinate the
                          non-judicial functions of the court, and provides administrative and
                          secretarial support to the judiciary.
                     iii. The responsibilities of court officers include the administration and
                          management        of     human      resources,    financial    services,
                          accommodation, information technology, court recording, security and
                          safety, the registries and support for all participants involved in
                          matters before the court. The Clerk of the Court also manages the
                          work of other Government agencies and assists volunteer groups
                          providing services in the Courthouse, and manages work and
                          performance of contractors.
                     iv.  The court provides internet based, hard copy and telephone enquiry
                          information and advisory services, through kiosk facilities. The



                                                                                            57
                                                                      SECTION C

            number of facilities will be dependant upon the size of the Courthouse
            and generally are located in the court registry.
     v.     Magistrates Court Registry.

          Functional Description

            a.   The registry will provide administrative support to the
                 Magistrates Court and circuiting courts (e.g. District and
                 Supreme Court) where the building provides for Higher Court
                 facilities. The administrative support to the Courts includes
                 provision of information, documentation preparation and
                 lodgement, storage and retrieval of materials before the Courts,
                 scheduling of cases into mediation rooms and courtrooms,
                 preparation of case files, storage of records and exhibits and
                 collection of fees and charges.
            b.   The registry will continue to be the place of most frequent
                 contact by the community, and therefore function as a major
                 information centre and be a guide to the use of the Courthouse.
            c.   The registry will be based primarily around Magistrates Court
                 operations but needs to incorporate where necessary the
                 additional support functions associated with the Higher Courts
                 (e.g. jury management).
            d.   Larger Magistrates Court registries are organised into two
                 service components these being customer services and listings
                 and judicial support.        Court administration and business
                 administration related functions are primarily performed by the
                 Clerk of the Court and/or the Registry Manager depending upon
                 the staffing structure. These service components administer
                 civil and criminal registry and listings functions, liquor licensing
                 court functions and administrative/corporate support. Some
                 locations will also provide jury services, coroners court services
                 and other Government agency services.
            e.   Generally, growth in staff numbers is not directly proportional to
                 case load increases. However, provision for growth over time is
                 essential to ensure the longevity of the facility and provide
                 flexibility for potential changes in use. Allow 15% for growth in
                 workstations.

B.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

     i.     Generally

            a.   Spatial qualities and views out are to produce a relaxing
                 environment in the waiting, counter and work areas for staff and
                 customers. This amenity shall be consistently provided in all
                 office environments throughout the Courthouse.
            b.   Staff amenities such as toilets and tearooms within staff work
                 areas shall be provided to a level that satisfies the local
                 population demand.
            c.   Administration, including court management, staff training
                 (possible reciprocal use of jury empanelling area) and
                 amenities, and the central core of registry to be on the one
                 level.




                                                                               58
                                                              SECTION C

      d.   The registry location is to allow access by court staff in the
           evenings and on weekends as and when required to meet work
           demands and extended court sittings.
      e.   As a place where some customers will be uncertain, anxious
           and at times shocked and even angry, the ambience and
           atmosphere should be friendly, business-like, but not
           oppressive, nor restrictive.

ii.   Registry Hall

      a.   The registry will be accessed from the Courthouse’s public
           foyer and able to be separately secured. The registry will
           comprise a public counter area with customer services staff
           work areas behind, contiguous or in proximity with other staff
           and functions of the court registry, including records and
           storage spaces.
      b.   Growth space in all aspects of administration is best located
           with the functional area.
      c.   The registry will include the interview and support spaces for
           the interface between the community and the courts, as well as
           waiting and file/material preparation counters.
      d.   A queuing system is to be installed.
      e.   The court registry must be identified as a distinct space with
           public counters. Back office work areas shall be screened from
           the counter area. The counters should be readily accessible
           from the waiting area, and have their own queuing lines at busy
           times.
      f.   The waiting area to the counters and required adjacent
           interview room is to be generous, with more than standing room
           in a queue. There should be self-help electronic information
           kiosks, pamphlet racks and display boards, as well as
           counter/table space for completing forms and other materials as
           well as places for e-lodgement and touch screen inquiries.
      g.   The counter area shall include ergonomic workstations at the
           counter planned for all interface functions, including payment of
           money.
      h.   All workstations shall be stand-up type for customers with the
           exception of a disabled access position. Workstations from the
           public side shall be wide enough for more than one person, and
           for people with children.
      i.   At the counter is to be provision for the temporary holding of
           lodged materials pending moving to the work areas for filing,
           and for the storage of supplies and handout materials.
      j.   Staff safety shall be ensured by a variety of means, but
           principally by the design of counters, the provision of duress
           alarms and strict control of who is allowed to enter the work
           areas, beyond waiting areas and the reception counter. The
           design shall incorporate the Department’s current standard
           applicable to counter security screening (detailed separately).
      k.   There shall be controlled access between the public and staff
           areas of the court registry.
      l.   A resource alcove within the registry waiting area providing
           computer based access to court documents, court process
           information, internet, document production/word processing,
           predominantly used by self-represented-litigants but available to


                                                                      59
                                                                SECTION C

            the general public and counsel. Within the resource alcove
            users shall also have the ability to listen to and read court
            transcripts and access photocopy services. An aspect from this
            space to the registry counter is required for supervision by
            counter staff.
       m.   Interview Room: An Interview Room shall be provided adjacent
            to the registry counter with secure access into both the
            Administration area and public waiting area. This space shall
            be multipurpose fulfilling also the requirement for document
            inspection albeit its primary function is for confidential
            interviews. Accordingly surveillance into this area will be
            required at times dictating the need for discrete observation by
            court staff from the Administration area.

iii.   Staff Office Work Areas

       a.   While the function of exhibit management will be undertaken in
            the general work area of registries, the actual storage of
            exhibits need not be. (see Storage below).
       b.   Court management is a function that can expect to change in its
            processes and workload patterns over time. Therefore, the
            spaces allocated to administration and registries should be
            capable of ready re-configuration and expansion or contraction.
       c.   Functional area provided for staff (refer C.11. Schedule of
            Accommodation) is nett space exclusive of circulation and
            general storage area.
       d.   The general staff work area is to ensure adequate provisions for
            paper waste management; storage of stationary and filing
            materials; preparation of case files for trials and hearings
            including photocopying/printing and collation; trolleys and push
            carts for moving files to judicial and courtroom areas, and,
            space for the annual file-culling processes.
       e.   The open planned area must be appropriately laid out and
            furnished to provide a pleasant atmosphere and must permit
            frequent and therefore direct movement of staff between desk
            and counter positions.
       f.   The Courts’ staff work areas within the registry shall consist of
            clusters of workstations in an open plan environment, clearly
            visible and accessible to the relevant manager’s office (Clerk of
            Courts). Accommodation provision should be in accordance
            with Department standards refer Schedule of Accommodation
            C.11.
       g.   A private room shall be provided adjacent to the work area in
            the registry to allow for telephone calls to be made or interviews
            to be conducted with staff in privacy. This functionality is
            overseen within the registry interview room and therefore shall
            be adjacent to the staff area.

iv.    Storage

       a.   Courts are required by statute to keep court documentation for
            lengthy periods of time. Every day business of the courts
            requires access to a considerable number of forms and notices
            for which suitable storage must be provided.



                                                                        60
                                                                     SECTION C

             b.    The registry will be a major generator of hard copy material
                   needed to be stored.
             c.    To maximise the use of space for storing current records in
                   offices and to eliminate the need for large short-term storage
                   areas compactus units shall be supplied and installed to fit the
                   nominated areas specified in the Schedule of Accommodation
                   (C.11).
             d.    Cash and monetary forms resulting from fines, fees or bail
                   processing, require appropriate security, in addition to data
                   generated by administration staff on caseloads, scheduling
                   information, budgeting, accounting and statistical analysis.
                   Storage of these items should all be contained within a secure
                   environment. Storage for cash and monetary forms shall be
                   provided by way of a safe located within a larger secure
                   storage/strong room the remainder of which may be used for
                   storing the other items mentioned.
             e.    The registry has overall responsibility for the safe custody of
                   exhibits and subpoenaed documents from trial or hearing until
                   disposal. The accommodation for exhibits storage need not be
                   planned as part of the registry space. It must however have
                   controlled access and contain a safe in addition to shelving and
                   lockable cupboards.

C.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

           The staff estimates scheduled in C.11. Schedule of Accommodation
           shall be used for accommodation planning purposes.

           The figures do not include any security presence that may be provided
           by way of contracted services. This needs to be considered in light of
           the circumstances that are likely to vary between locations.

     i.      Provisions
             Registry Hall:
             a.    A common registry hall catering for the court registry
                   (incorporating other functions such as jury enquiries, interface
                   with the public and legal profession).
             b.    These places are to be equally accessible for the disabled and
                   those with young children and perambulators/strollers.

     ii.     Registry/Office Areas
             a.   Enclosed office – Clerk of the Court.
             b.   Open planned offices – Staff work stations.
             c.   Public counter – Permanent workstation/positions that provide
                  an ergonomic workplace using standard office furniture. A
                  raised floor is required to achieve the best outcome for staff
                  customer relations and ergonomics. Counter detail shall be as
                  per Section B 2.3 Furniture.
             d.   Utility room – To accommodate networked printers, facsimile,
                  photocopier, stationery storage, recycling bins and shredders.
             e.   Strong room and safe storage – Used to secure valuables and
                  daily cash takings shall be located directly adjacent to registry
                  counters but visually discrete from the public area. Safe
                  storage for cash and lockable cupboard storage for accountable
                  forms shall be provided in this location.


                                                                             61
                                                                                 SECTION C


            iii.     Location
                     a.    The Court registry should be easily identifiable and accessible
                           from both inside and outside the Restricted Zone.
                     b.    The Court’s administration should be readily accessible to and
                           from the judicial and courtroom areas, by the restricted Judicial
                           Officer's circulation system. Access into this system is to be
                           controlled and limited to authorised persons.

                   iv.    Potential for Change
                          The activities contained within the administrative component are
                          likely to change substantially in the future. It is important,
                          therefore, that the design of the administrative facilities provide a
                          high degree of adaptability to change.

3.3.   Jury Management

       A.   Overview

            i.       The administrative functions of jury management are incorporated
                     into the general registry functions in regional Court locations where
                     Higher Courts circuit to conduct jury trials. Such functions include
                     jury summons management, preparation and planning, responding to
                     local juror enquiries including claims for reimbursement of loss of
                     wages and excusal from jury service.


       B.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

            i.       Generally

                     a.     The jury management function is principally an office and
                            administrative environment that supports the jury process and
                            requires public interface for dealing with public that have been
                            summoned to attend for jury duty.

                     b.     There is a requirement for access between the court registry
                            and the area that is designated for the purpose of jury
                            assembly. It would also be desirable for this entire area to be
                            co-located with or adjacent to the Court registry in order to
                            share common requirements relating to storage, office support,
                            amenities, meeting rooms, video conference and training
                            facilities should that be achievable.

            ii.      Registry

                     The public interface for jury management will occur at the entry point
                     to the jury assembly area and/or the court registry, depending upon
                     the reason for attending the court (enquiry or actual jury service).
                     The Schedule of Accommodation assumes a Magistrates Court
                     officer, located in the registry, performs the jury enquiry function. A
                     casual jury officer is employed as required to directly manage the jury
                     and shall work out of the court registry when not in court.

            iii.     Storage


                                                                                         62
                                                                            SECTION C


                  Storage of jury related documentation will be stored with the Court
                  records and general stores.

            iv.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

                  Refer to C.11 Schedule of Accommodation for provisions and related
                  comments.

            v.    Potential for Change

                  Provision will need to be made within the initial space allocation or
                  adjacent space reconfigured to accommodate growth in the number
                  of judges or courts predicted for future incorporation within the
                  proposed courthouse.

3.4.   Court Recording Service Areas

       A.   Overview
            The recording and transcription of all trials and hearings held within the
            courthouse is necessary, including those court proceedings that are
            conducted in mediation/conference rooms where these are provided.

       B.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

            i.    Provision of accommodation within the Courthouse is necessary to
                  house all systems/equipment to record and provide access to the
                  court to all court recordings.
            ii.   As for other IT networks, the “floor cupboards” (as required) cannot
                  be cupboards opening onto corridors and other spaces. They shall
                  be rooms, large enough so that the normal and regular maintenance,
                  operating and repair work can be conducted inside. The rooms shall
                  be secured from unauthorised entry.

3.5.   Records and Stores (Including Exhibits)

       A.   Overview
            i.   The court registry is a major generator of case records and files, is a
                 major consumer of stationery, a large user of technology, and, a
                 major producer of hard copy files. In addition, the registry receives
                 payments for fines and is responsible for the holding of exhibits and in
                 some cases they are held for lengthy periods of time.

            ii.   The case files and records making and keeping generate three types
                  of needs. The primary or current files and records need to be on the
                  floor associated with the office staff. The secondary files and records,
                  are in effect semi-active, and need to be readily retrievable but can be
                  somewhat remote from the registry.        Tertiary files and records are
                  those retained for the statutory holding period and are occasionally
                  retrieved and therefore located off site. Tertiary storage is therefore
                  excluded from this Design Brief. It is preferable that Secondary
                  Storage and the Clerk of the Court are located close to the Registry.
                  However, where floor space in Registry is not available, storage
                  areas can be located on an adjacent floor.



                                                                                    63
                                                                         SECTION C

     iii.   Where primary and secondary storage is physically separated
            (vertically or horizontally) there shall be minimal travel distance
            between the two. The movement of files by trolley must be possible
            and vertical transportation systems shall ensure minimum loading and
            unloading of trolleys between locations. Use of stairs to facilitate file
            movement is not acceptable.

     iv.    Hard copy records and case files will continue to be a pattern of work
            practice in the Courts. Old records, not electronically stored, will be
            part of case files. Therefore, the judiciary will continue to need hard
            copy files. These can be considerable in number and may need
            trolleys to move them between chambers and courtrooms.

     v.     Exhibits for trials and hearings are the responsibility of respective
            counsel until entered into the trial or hearing and then they become
            the responsibility of the Court.        Additionally exhibits may be
            subpoenaed directly by the court prior to trial. During the trial the
            responsibility for their safekeeping is with the associate or judicial
            support officer, and after the trial pending lodgement of an appeal,
            and if lodged until the appeal process is complete, they remain the
            responsibility of the registry. If an appeal is not lodged they are
            returned to counsel or the relevant party.

B.   Design Criteria (Operational Planning & Principles)
     i.    Security of records and documents is to be provided on a localised,
           as needs basis for physically held materials.
     ii.   Separate storage is required for financial records, exhibits, stationery,
           forms and records.
     iii.  The primary and secondary files areas will be divided into criminal
           and civil to match the criminal/civil split in registry and listing functions
           as well as court processes.
     iv.   All case files and records space needs are in addition to the registry
           office space planning needs briefed within this section.
     v.    All court documents are extremely valuable and need to be held
           secure from unauthorised access and tampering and protected from
           damage, while in use, in transit within the Courthouse, and while
           stored.
     vi.   Storage needs of the courtrooms need to be given special attention
           e.g. the number of magistrate/judge chairs needed for a tribunal panel
           (usually three) or justice of the peace (usually two) sittings. Extra
           demands arising from multiple accused persons (including dock
           guards), as well as the accommodation for counsel (prosecution and
           defence), media etc.
     vii. Storage for parties involved in civil cases should be available within
           the courtroom areas for the duration of the trial and generally is
           greater than the need within criminal courtrooms. For extent refer to
           Furniture provisions Section B 2.3.
     viii. On each court level of the building, there shall be a storage area for
           equipment and furniture, such as additional chairs for
           magistrates/judges, translators and security officers. It is to be readily
           accessible by court staff when needed.




                                                                                 64
                                                                       SECTION C

C.   Accommodation Requirements
     i.  Provisions - Records
         The full extent of the floor area of the registry staff work area is to be
         capable of accommodating compactus file cabinets to allow for re-
         configuration of layouts.

           In addition to the area for records and files, and adjacent to them,
           there is to be space for working on and maintaining the files, including
           during culling periods, and space for holding files trolleys. The work
           space shall be an alcove, or permanent bench or pull out workstation
           surface with the shelving system.

           There is to be a reproduction centre for preparing case files for trials,
           and to answer customer requests for hardcopy. Reproduction will be
           done by photocopying, printing from e-files, and involve collating and
           binding. Allow for recycling bins. This reproduction centre could
           provide the photocopying needed for primary storage and shall be
           collocated within the utility area.

           The reproduction centre should be in the primary files area and be
           equally accessible from both the counter and staff open office areas.
           Stationery and equipment stores could be with either the primary or
           secondary records file areas.

           All records and case files, as well as the major reproduction centre
           should be in areas where access can be limited to only authorised
           persons.

           The records and files storage areas connected to the registry shall be
           accessible to the judicial officers support staff and to the courtrooms
           using the judicial officers secure circulation.

     ii.   Provisions - Exhibits
           a.    There will be no provisions for counsel to store exhibits before
                 entering them into a trial (except by prior arrangement in
                 exceptional circumstances, in which case the Court’s secure
                 storage room would be utilised). On the trial day they can be
                 stored in the respective counsel’s day space (allocated
                 interview room).
           b.    After entry into the trial the exhibits shall be stored in either the
                 courtroom, within special storage cupboards in the judicial
                 circulation system, or in a shared special storage area in the
                 judiciary’s chambers areas. See section C.4. Trials and C.9.
                 Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences for provisions in the
                 courtrooms.
           c.    A central secure storage area will hold exhibits associated with
                 hearings and trials. Exhibits will also be held during the time
                 involved in lodging an appeal as well as items too large to be
                 held in the other places during a trial.
           d.    The exhibits are to be protected from deterioration & damage
                 while being stored.
           e.    The central exhibit storage area is to be fitted out with a range
                 of storage modes.
           f.    Within the exhibits storage area there needs to be a place for
                 staff to assemble exhibits whilst storing them or retrieving them


                                                                                65
                                                                          SECTION C

                         from storage. The area should also include space for trolleys
                         used to move the items to and from courtrooms.
            ii.    Provisions - Exhibits
            iii.   Potential for Change
                           Growth in files and records will be accommodated in a number
                           of ways including increased electronic file storage and
                           progressive introduction of compactus and conversion of
                           existing space.

3.6.   Training and Education

       A.   Overview
            i.   Staff training is a growing and continuing aspect of providing
                 improved justice services to the State of Western Australia. The
                 reform agendas will require new skills and awareness and court
                 support services (not accommodated within) will increase its offerings
                 to consumers and the general public in justice matters. These
                 offerings are likely to include regular sessions for self represented
                 accused and litigants, counselling and advisory programs for victims
                 and their families, briefing sessions with community agencies and
                 generally adding a pro-active stance to the delivery of justice
                 services.
            ii.  Training programs will be offered to all DOJ staff, including people
                 from other associated agencies. New technologies and information
                 systems will require up-skilling, new programs and services will need
                 to be integrated into day to day practice and new Judicial Officers and
                 staff will need to be introduced to systems and operations.

       B.   Design Criteria (Operational Planning & Principles)
            i.   Videoconference equipment connections shall be provided as
                 detailed elsewhere in this Design Brief.
            ii.  Generally, all ‘meeting type spaces’, including courtrooms and jury
                 accommodation, are to be available for use for training and education
                 offerings, when available and if compatible with the primary use of the
                 subject space and its immediate surroundings.
            iii. The jury assembly area need extended hours accessibility in the
                 event of after hour access for training and education purposes.
            iv.  All areas nominated for and equipped for training and education shall
                 have adjoining access to toilets and beverage points.

3.7.   Staff Amenities

       A.   Overview
            i.   When court staff or contracted service staff are required to be in
                 secure or separate zones, (e.g. with a sequestered jury or during
                 meal times) they will have the opportunity to have the same meals as
                 their charges, and/or managed access to the kitchenette/meals area
                 (lunchroom), and toilets.
            ii.  All staff shall have access to unisex shower and change facilities.
            iii. A staff amenity centre or lunch room/lounge is to be part of the court
                 staff area, and to have access to the outdoors, via a safe and secure
                 balcony or courtyard.
            iv.  Bicycle “end-of-trip” storage shall be provided within the building
                 within a secure enclosure at ground level and have a capacity to store
                 the appropriate number of bicycles for the number of occupants.


                                                                                  66
                                                                   SECTION C

     v.   The provision of staff amenities does not reduce the need for tea
          points in work areas and in support of meeting and conference
          rooms, and for volunteer groups providing participant support
          services (refer C.11. Schedule of Accommodation).
B.   Design Criteria (Operational Planning & Principles)
     i.   The lunchroom shall have basic kitchen facilities to heat and
          refrigerate food, sink and dishwasher and bench tops and cupboards
          to prepare lunches and store supplies, respectively.
     ii.  Adequate space and capacity is needed for honour-based systems of
          storage of personal supplies.
C.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)
     i.   Provisions
          a.     Ablutions
                 1. Judicial Areas
                        • Refer C.6
                 2. Court Staff
                        • Toilet provisions shall be separate to public amenities
                           and be co-located with staff amenities and work
                           areas. Numbers of facilities shall be calculated in
                           accordance to the BCA, relative to population
                           numbers.
                        • A unisex shower and change space shall be co-
                           located with the staff toilets and where possible the
                           bicycle storage area and provision shall be one unisex
                           shower. Provide half height lockers, clothes hooks
                           and wall bench seating within change space.
                           Numbers of lockers are as identified in C.11.
                           Schedule of Accommodation.
     ii.  Lunch Room
          a.     Judicial areas
                        • Judicial officers use a common kitchenette provided in
                           the chambers area.
                        • Associates, secretaries and ushers use staff area
                           provided for court staff generally.
          b.     Other Areas
                        • Shared accommodation for jury management and
                           court staff.
          c.     Custody Centre
                        • Separate facilities within the Restricted Zone.
          d.     Jury assembly area
                        • Use provisions for jury pool in the assembly area.
                        • Sequestered jurors have lunch in the jury deliberation
                           room(s).
          e.     Jury Officers
                        • Use shared court staff facilities.




                                                                           67
                                                                                  SECTION C

4.   Trials




     4.1.     Overview of the Component

              A.   The scope of trial work and hearings to be accommodated in the
                   courtrooms is primarily designed to suit the requirements of:
                         • District Court criminal and civil proceedings
                         • Magistrates Court criminal and civil proceedings (including
                           children’s, coroners and wardens)
                         • Supreme Court criminal trials
                         • Family Court proceedings
                         • State Administrative Tribunal
              B.   Courtrooms may also be used by the State for special purposes such as
                   royal commissions.
              C.   Higher Courtrooms are required to be fitted out for criminal trial work with
                   Juries. Civil trial work can be conducted in both Higher Courts or
                   Magistrates Courts. Higher Courts can be utilised for Magistrate Court
                   proceedings. Pre-trial matters will be dealt with in pre-trial conference and
                   meeting room accommodation.
              D.   A high risk courtroom suite shall be available to all courts, including the
                   Supreme Court of Appeal (Criminal).

     4.2.     Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

              A.   Courtrooms
                   i.   Principles of Courtroom Layouts
                        a.   Not all courtrooms need to be laid out the same way; at a
                             minimum satisfy the following criteria/ principles. Magistrates
                             Courts have no requirement however for Jury facilities which
                             apply only to the Higher Court layout.


                                                                                          68
                                                               SECTION C

•   Courtroom layouts shall reflect the appropriate level of respect for the
    law and courts representatives, the dignity of all participants and
    processes, and the degree of architectural formality appropriate to the
    formality of the proceedings (including courtroom crests, fixtures and
    fittings).
•   The courtrooms shall be planned to allow for clear lines of sight for all
    court participants, between each other, and screens and display
    boards.
•   The judge/magistrate should have good sightlines to all courtroom
    participants. Preferably within the 60o cone of vision from the centre,
    with the ability to observe the demeanour of the witness and person
    in the dock.
•   The sightlines should allow primary participants to overview the
    proceedings within a 600 cone of vision from centre. If a public
    seating gallery is provided, the upper seating needs to see the bench,
    the jury, the witness and the prosecutors.
•   The eye levels of all participants, including the standing, are to be
    below those of the seated judiciary.
•   Participants should be adequately separated, physically and
    psychologically while still allowing for visual and audible connections.
•   The jury box is to one side of the courtroom with good sightlines to
    the witness and custody dock. The jury must see both the witness
    and PIC’s face even when counsel is standing to address the court.
•   The proximity of the jury box to the public gallery must minimise
    ‘silent intimidation.’
•   Separation of jury box from counsel bar tables to ensure discrete
    conversations between defence and prosecution counsel is not
    overheard, nor notes be read.
•   The custody dock can be opposite the jury box or at the rear of
    counsel, but must be in front of the public gallery.
•   The prosecuting counsel sit on the jury side of the court and the
    defence counsel on the custody dock side.
•   The proximity of the dock to the defence counsel should allow low
    whisper communication and the discrete passing of notes.
•   The witness box is to be between the judicial bench and jury box. It
    cannot be on the same side of the court as the custody dock.
•   The path to the witness box must not pass the custody dock, nor
    across the front of the counsel table.
•   Both Jury and accused to have a clear view of the witness.
•   It is preferable that the witness enters the courtroom in front of the
    public gallery.
•   The associate and usher may sit at the same bench in front of a
    judge. The judicial support officer will generally be the only court
    officer to sit in front of the magistrate
•   The counsel tables will retain WA practice of all counsel facing the
    bench. The counsel support table may be divided into two.
•   Papers held by counsel and jurors should not be visible by others,
    including the press and public.
•   An area should be allowed adjacent to counsel tables for trolley
    storage.
•   Press seating – tablet arms on chairs and tables in lieu of fixed
    benches behind the rear counsel table are acceptable.
•   Courtrooms should be capable of completely separate waiting areas
    and public entrances to separate the parties associated with the


                                                                       69
                                                                SECTION C

      different sides of the matter before the court. Consideration to be
      given to larger courtrooms having two entrances.
•     Technologies and equipment required in courtrooms shall be visually
      integrated and not obstruct sightlines.
•     The courtroom layout shall include in-court storage and distribution of
      services cabling cupboards. All cupboards shall be lockable to
      ensure that no unauthorised access is available. The spaces shall
      provide for the concealment of whiteboards, pin-up boards, projector /
      slide screens etc., that may be used during a specific trial.
•     The above principles can be manifested in a variety of courtroom
      models. Note that circular or ‘in-the-round’ courtrooms are not
      acceptable in Higher Courts.
ii.   Additional Functional Requirements
      a.     Adjustment to higher courtroom layouts to increase numbers of
             various participants shall be possible on a temporary basis
             without the need for sophisticated equipment, skills or trades.

      b.   Waiting space for adjournments for all participants is permitted
           to be shared with other courtrooms, however, they must be
           near the courtroom the participant is using.

      c.   Secure, fire rated storage for the judiciary and court staff is
           required for exhibits and materials being used in a trial or
           hearing. The system is to include provision in each courtroom
           and in the judicial circulation, near to courtrooms. For long
           adjournments storage provisions are to be such that the
           courtroom can be used for other matters.

      d.   Access to and from, and movement within the courtroom needs
           to meet the intent of anti-discrimination laws, in that, ready
           access shall be provided for able-bodied people and those with
           disabilities alike. The precedence exists for the use of mobile
           step ramps for the access to the witness box and custody dock,
           if these elements are one step above the litigation floor. The
           use of such mobile ramps is acceptable.

      e.   In criminal courtrooms public galleries should be capable of
           holding the jury panels (refer to Table 1 below), the press and
           some general public. Some perimeter benching shall be
           allowed to accommodate panels.

      f.   In at least one higher courtroom it shall be possible to isolate
           physically, some or all accused persons in the dock while still
           allowing visual and audible connections. This ability is not to
           interrupt the normal workings of the courtroom at all other times
           and shall be achieved with readily fitted screens or similar.

      g.   The furniture for all participants in courtrooms should be
           ergonomically designed and of a quality that appropriately
           reflects the dignity of the court. It shall provide a high level of
           comfort and functionality as participants may be involved in
           protracted proceedings.

      Note: Refer to Appendix 2 “Courtroom Analysis Report” for further
      elaboration on courtroom layout principles.


                                                                        70
                                                                                SECTION C




   4.3.     Accommodation Requirements (Provision, Location & Relationship)

            A.   Provisions

            Table 1 - Courtroom Numbers and Types
                                                        Public
Courtroom           No. Bench Jury Counsel P.I.C               Press         Comments
                                                        (min)
CRIMINAL
                                                                         **paired pool + 12
Higher Courtroom           3      18      10        4     55**    4
                                                                               public
Magistrates Large
                           1               6        4     38      4
Courtroom
            Notes: 1. Custody docks to include 2 nos. seating positions for guard, extra
            over numbers specified above.
            B.   Location
                 i.   All courtrooms are to be located beyond the Primary Security
                      Checkpoint and be capable of having a temporary secondary security
                      check carried out prior to entering the courtroom.
                 ii.  The critical mass of courtrooms shall be on the ground floor of the
                      building connected to the entrance foyer by stairs as well as lifts.
                      Circulation systems and routes shall be designed to meet peak
                      demand in the early morning and around lunch adjournments.
                 iii. Consideration shall be given to ease of accessibility to public waiting,
                      interview rooms and public amenities when a court is at peak demand
                      or access is restricted due to security and/or safety precautions.
                 iv.  Access to an outdoor area within the secure area shall be provided.
                      This area shall be located to enable easy access from most
                      courtrooms and not allow the security regime within the building to be
                      compromised (e.g. avoids the possibility of weapons transfer from
                      street or non-secure area).
                 v.   The close proximity of courtrooms to the office, interview and remote
                      witness room spaces used by support programs is required. Refer to
                      Trials and Hearings Support under Section C.7.

            C.   Relationships
                 The following courtroom relationship diagrams indicate support functions
                 and facilities that directly influence planning issues.




                                                                                        71
                                          SECTION C


Figure 1 Typical Higher Court Courtroom
Functional and Relationship Diagram




                                               72
                                         SECTION C

Figure 2 Typical Magistrates Courtroom
   Functional and Relationship Diagram




                                              73
                                                                            SECTION C

       D.    Potential for Change
             i.   Layouts, fittings and furnishings within courtrooms are to facilitate
                  easy upgrading and change in technology. Such upgrading is to be
                  achieved with the minimum amount of lost courtroom time.

             ii.   The effecting of any internal courtroom changes will need to be done
                   with no interruptions, acoustically and operationally to adjacent
                   courtrooms and their support functions.

4.4.    Specific Courtroom Elements

       The design of joinery elements in the courtroom must achieve the appropriate
       ambience and functional requirements necessary for the administration of justice
       as well as reflect the equality of all participants

       A.    Judges/Magistrates Bench
             i.   The judge/magistrate is the community’s symbol of the justice
                  system. The position must therefore impart an appropriate sense of
                  dignity and symbolism of the state and the people of Western
                  Australia.
             ii.  The judge/magistrate position is the focal point of the courtroom and
                  its design should reflect the status of the judicial role in the chosen
                  setting.
             iii. The judge/magistrate bench shall have a solid front face to court
                  participants, and screening of papers and materials on the bench.
             iv.  The judge/magistrate bench shall be designed to provide a set of
                  drawers for stationery, forms, files etc. The bench is to allow for the
                  temporary storage and layout of reference books, documents etc.
                  The bench layout should allow for a case file and records trolley(ies)
                  to be positioned to one side of the judge/magistrate. Note: For
                  tribunal hearings each member may have papers and references that
                  need to be accommodated.
             v.   Each judge/magistrate will use a computer and its location and
                  screen should not interfere with their view of the courtroom
                  proceedings, nor of fellow tribunal members on a hearing bench. The
                  placement and integration of other technology shall also meet this
                  criterion.
       B.    Associates/Judicial Support Officers Bench
             i.   Traditionally in Western Australian courts, only the associate or
                  judicial support officer sits at the bench in front of the judge or
                  magistrate respectively, with the usher or court orderly located
                  elsewhere. The usher generally in proximity to the bench and witness
                  stand and the court orderly generally closer to the courtroom
                  entrance. The judges have expressed a preference for the usher to
                  be located at the bench with the associate.
             ii.  Associates/judicial support officers ensure that all court and hearing
                  proceedings run smoothly and efficiently. In addition, they pass and
                  receive documents from the judicial officer for reference and / or issue
                  to the court usher/court orderly.
             iii. Court ushers/court orderlies assist both the judges and the associates
                  in the day-to-day operations of a courtroom.             They are not
                  responsible for the integrity of exhibits, the associates or judicial
                  support officers are.
             iv.  Storage for religious texts such as the Bible, Koran, etc. must be
                  culturally appropriate.


                                                                                    74
                                                                    SECTION C


          In traditional arrangements, the associate is to be elevated above the
          litigation floor to enable the easy transfer of documents to and from
          the judicial officer.

          The associate/judicial support officer or usher/orderly will be
          responsible for monitoring lighting levels, acoustic levels, (not
          recording levels) and security issues. The associate/judicial support
          officer bench should have a solid front and vertically extended face to
          obscure papers etc on the desktop.

          The associate/judicial support officer should have full sightline
          coverage of the court participants, in addition to the judicial officer.

          The associates/judicial support officer and ushers bench needs to be
          large enough for all technology requirements, papers and files, a
          printer, telephone and any associated equipment specified.

          The usher should have adequate bench space for laying down
          exhibits during court proceedings.

C.   The Jury Box
     i.   Jurors should be extended the comfort and courtesies appropriate to
          people who must concentrate and remain alert for what can in some
          cases be for extended periods of time.
     ii.  The front row of seating in the box shall be provided with a modesty
          panel.
     iii. The primary entrance to the jury box is to be away from the public
          seating area and the custody dock however a secondary entrance at
          the public entrance to facilitate access for larger jury panels is
          desirable.
     iv.  Storage for notes, books and pens, etc. should be included.
     v.   In the event that there is a juror in a wheelchair, it is acceptable to
          have the last chair in the first row removable to achieve the area
          required for access and mobility.
     vi.  Seating provision for the Jury Officer shall be provided adjacent to the
          jury box and positioned to allow convenient viewing of jury members
          and also the public gallery in order to respond to potential
          interference of the jury by members of the public. A chair with a
          tablet arm shall be provided.

D.   Accused Dock
     i.   The entry/exit location to the courtroom holding cell(s) should be
          located away from the public seating area thus reducing the risk of
          public intimidation or communication with accused during trial
          proceedings.
     ii.  The dock area is to accommodate a disabled person in a wheel chair,
          and security attendants, and an interpreter.
     iii. Seating shall be ergonomic, of a robust design and fixed securely,
          and allow PIC to be handcuffed to the seating, if required. Writing
          tablets should be provided for each seated position, should the
          accused be defending themselves.
     iv.  The dock design should include a modesty panel, but also allow
          observation of the demeanour (body language) of the accused.



                                                                            75
                                                                    SECTION C

     v.    The dock and the seating arrangements shall be located to ensure
           that all of the accused can see and hear all participants.
     vi.   The dock and its surrounds shall be designed and located to minimise
           possibility of escape by PIC.

E.   Witness Box
     i.   Access to the witness box is to be via the litigation floor or from the
          rear of the witness stand to accommodate distressed / protected
          witnesses.
     ii.  The witness area is to be designed to facilitate easy access, including
          for the disabled, as well as accommodating language interpreters
          adjacent to it.
     iii. The witness stand must include a bench of sufficient depth to allow
          for placement and examination of exhibits, files etc. and water glass.
     iv.  The bench area is to be capable of accommodating IT equipment
          such as computer screens, VDU’s etc without compromising the
          witnesses or other court participant’s sightlines.
     v.   The witness stand design should include a modesty panel, but also
          allow the observation of witness demeanour.
     vi.  The height of the shroud to the witness stand should allow a witness
          to stand or sit (in an ergonomic chair or wheelchair).
     vii. A multi-purpose display panel shall be provided adjacent to the
          witness box to allow the display of hard copy maps/plans/diagrams
          referred to during evidence. The display panel shall consist of a
          magnetic whiteboard and hanging space positioned to allow
          maximum observation by jury members, the judge and counsel. It
          shall be capable of being hidden when not in use.

F.   Counsel Table(s)
     i.   The capacity of counsel tables varies depending on court size and is
          detailed in Table 1. A minimum width of 3.5 metres shall be provided
          for counsel tables in higher courtrooms. In all larger courtrooms a
          minimum of 900 millimetres width per counsel shall be provided.
     ii.  The front table of each courtroom shall be provided with a movable
          lectern / bookstand at the outer extremities of the table. An additional
          movable lectern shall be provided per courtroom to accommodate
          more than one addressing counsel. It should be stored out of view
          when not in use and may be shared between courtrooms.
     iii. The counsel table shall be of a depth to accommodate extensive files
          and trial material and be a minimum of 800 millimetres.
     iv.  The use of full height modesty screens to bar tables is discretionary
          and dependent upon courtroom aesthetics, computer installations etc.
     v.   In all courtrooms, include shelves for files between the bar and the
          public seating.
     vi.  The design of counsel tables should include the provision for
          connection of laptop computers.
     vii. All courtrooms shall be provided with at least two (2) bar tables for
          use by legal counsel, with the table layout enabling senior counsel
          (prosecution and defence) to be accommodated at the front table and
          junior counsel or support staff at the rear table.

G.   Miscellaneous Joinery
     i.   An exhibit table shall be provided adjacent to the court usher’s
          location. It may be mobile or integrated by way of extension to a
          bench.


                                                                            76
                                                                              SECTION C

              ii.    Lockable and fire-rated storage for exhibits is required. If located in
                     the courtroom, this may be a fire-rated safe within joinery.
              iii.   Book shelving and/or storage for trolleys adjacent to the counsel table
                     are desirable.
              iv.    Equipment racks required for accommodation of In Court Technology
                     may be housed in joinery within the courtroom, with access from the
                     litigation or associates/judicial support officers level.


  5.   Jury




5.1.   Overview

       A.     This component deals with jury activities outside of the courtroom. Jury
              activities inside of the courtroom will be dealt with under the preceding
              Section C.4. – Trials.
       B.     The jury functions of the courts are the responsibility of the Summoning
              Officer appointed at the court when not under the direction of the judge.
              There are three main functions:
                  i. Jury Pool Assembly
                  ii. Jury empanelling
                  iii. Jury adjournments and deliberations.
       C.     These functions result in two sets of facilities: a jury assembly area
              including access to the outside and deliberation rooms. Jury management
              and Jury Officers’ facilities shall be integrated within Court Administration
              under Section C.3. Administration.
       D.     The number of potential jurors needed on a peak day has been forecasted
              at a maximum of 70 persons for a court complex with two Higher Courts
              and 55 persons for a single Higher Court complex. In the event that there
              is demand that exceeds this number it is proposed that the court will



                                                                                      77
                                                                           SECTION C

            change its management procedures for jury pool selection. This will avoid
            future increases in space requirements.
       E.   The size of the jury pool at 55 reflects the following conditions:
                i. Continued use of “pairing” of two jury pools as normal procedure
       F.   An activity flow diagram and a detailed explanation of the
            functionality/process within the jury area is included under Section C12.1.
            ‘Section C.5 - Jury’.

5.2.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

       A.   Generally
            i.   The design cannot put at risk the integrity of the jury through
                 contamination from improper contacts once the jury has been
                 selected.
            ii.  Jury pools will move to the courtrooms via public circulation, but jury
                 panels will move by a dedicated jury circulation system.
            iii. There is the possibility of the occasional high risk trial using
                 anonymous jurors. The high risk courtroom, and its jury box, needs
                 to be designed to allow this to happen, in one or more ways. These
                 ways may include:
                 a.    Provision of CCTV; plus
                 b.    The use of one-way glass screening to restrict accused or
                       public gallery views into the jury box area (or around the jury
                       box area) as a temporary fit-out.
       B.   Jury Assembly Area
            i.   The jury assembly area is to be located and planned so that after
                 normal first day of circuit morning peaks, some of the area could be
                 used by others, without violating the integrity of the jury system, nor
                 compromising the overall effectiveness of courts operations.
            ii.  Possible other uses include:
                 a.    Briefing of school and other tour groups
                 b.    Counselling and advisory services for self litigants, victims, and
                       other groups being provided with support and advice
                 c.    Staff training
                 d.    Courts services management meetings
                 e.    Community purposes
                 f.    Staff functions.
            iii. The jury assembly area should have direct access to the outdoors
                 wherever possible. The outdoor area(s) should be safe and secured
                 from oversighting and penetration of contraband. The outdoor area
                 should include smoking and smoke free areas.               The seating
                 arrangement within the jury assembly area shall enable presentation
                 to the entire jury pool from a singular point.
            iv.  Supervision of assembly area will not involve technology, so the
                 layouts should facilitate easy supervision from the reception area and
                 by roving staff.
       C.   Deliberation Rooms
            i.   Deliberation rooms shall be attached and contiguous to each
                 courtroom.
            ii.  The deliberation rooms are to allow for more than sitting at a table.
                 The setting is to be conducive to reducing the stress and anxieties
                 that jury duty can generate. There needs also to be a sense of
                 spaciousness, and some informal seating.
            iii. Light meals will be provided only to those juries deliberating over a
                 mealtime, or sequestered. The State will provide the meals, which


                                                                                   78
                                                                             SECTION C

                 will mostly be lunches, but on rare occasions could also be dinner.
                 Jurors will eat in the deliberation room or in the assembly area.
       D.   Adjournment Spaces
            i.   The ability to “stretch the legs” during short adjournments is to be
                 encouraged.
            ii.  Access to the outdoors from adjournment spaces for stress relief and
                 smoking (if permitted by legislation), should not be into areas where
                 contraband and items of intimidation can be lodged.

5.3.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location and Relationships)

       A.   Provisions
            i.   Jury Assembly Area
                 a.    Entrance, reception and cloak/personal effects hanging
                       provision (lockers are not envisaged).
                 b.    A sub-dividable jury assembly area with row seating for 55
                       persons in Courthouses with one Higher Court and 70 persons
                       where two Higher Courts are provided.
                 c.    The area shall include capability for jurors or potential jurors to
                       operate laptops through the provision of dial up connection and
                       be accessible to convenient photocopying and fax services by
                       arrangement with the court administration, for use before or
                       after court sittings and during adjournments.
                 d.    Separate toilet and amenities shall be available for use by staff
                       within the administration area and jury pool members within the
                       assembly area. Toilet provisions shall meet the requirements of
                       peak demand.
                 e.    A kitchenette with storage, refrigeration (including storage for
                       jury members lunches) and re-heating facilities.
                 f.    Accessible safe and secure outdoor area to enable jurors to
                       gain temporary stress relief shall be provided adjacent to both
                       deliberation and assembly areas.
                 g.    Storage areas for furniture and equipment, supplies and
                       janitorial supplies.
                 h.    Staff area for Jury Officers (included in courts administration).
            ii.  Deliberation Rooms
                 a.    Jury deliberation rooms shall accommodate a range of jury
                       panels from 14 to 18 persons in accordance with the schedule
                       in Section C.4 – Trials.
                 b.    Each deliberation room shall be provided with two toilets with
                       proper airlocks from the deliberation room, a beverage making
                       counter unit with refrigerator, sink and hot and cold water, and
                       TV monitor and VCR for replay of recordings.                  Toilet
                       accommodation shall be one unisex WC and one unisex
                       disabled as a minimum. Provide vanities in each cubicle.
                 c.    Opportunities for external views are to be optimised but views in
                       (to the room) be discouraged.
                 d.    Comfortable waiting area outside each deliberation room for
                       attending Jury Officers.

       B.   Location
            i.   Jury assembly
                 a.   The jury assembly area should be readily accessible from the
                      foyer/lobby and it must be contiguous with the public circulation



                                                                                     79
                                                                    SECTION C

                system for jury pools going to court for empanelling, and to the
                dedicated jury circulation system.
           b.   The assembly area may be used by tour groups and the
                community. It needs to be close to the Courthouse entrance
                and after the Primary Security Checkpoint.
           c.   It is preferred that the jury assembly area be adjacent or in
                close proximity to one or more trial courts for empanelling of
                juries for large trials.
     ii.   Deliberation Rooms
                  Location contiguous with courtrooms.

B.   Relationships
     i.   Within the jury assembly, the way to lifts, toilets, and the kitchenette
          should be clear by the design and layouts. The area should feel light
          and airy, and have good views out so that the sense of enclosure and
          confinement is negated.
     ii.  The jury pools will be moved to the courtrooms for empanelling
          through the public domain, using the public lifts and the front door of
          the courtrooms.       Once empanelled, all juries will circulate to
          courtrooms via a stair and a lift within the jury circulation system.
     iii. There needs to be the ability to occasionally move juries discretely in
          and out of the Courthouse in vehicles from a point close to or part of
          the jury circulation system.
     iv.  There needs to be the ability for jurors, who have finished a
          controversial case, to leave the Courthouse in a discreet way.

C.   Technology
     i.   The jury assembly area is to have TV “entertainment” for pool
          members waiting for duty, CCTV/video monitors for information and
          announcements and IT data connections.
     ii.  Deliberation rooms need a call light and buzzer connected to the
          courtroom to seek the assistance of the Jury Officer during
          deliberation for a variety of reasons (e.g. to review evidence and
          other information presented during the trial).
     iii. The viewing of evidence via electronic means from a network shall be
          provided in all deliberation rooms.




                                                                            80
                                                                                   SECTION C

6. Judiciary




 6.1.    Overview

         A.    This component covers the accommodation for the judicial officers which
               may vary according to intended use from judges, primarily on a visiting
               basis to magistrates on a permanent basis.
         B.    The judiciary component shall be considered as an overall judicial suite
               with common support facilities.
         C.    It is in the judicial suite that judicial officers will prepare, research, discuss,
               reflect and resolve cases before them.
         D.    For the Higher Courts there is need for circuiting judges on criminal trial
               assignment and for tribunal maters heard by the State Administrative
               Tribunal on occasions.
         E.    The Magistrates Court will be a resident court and may circuit to outer
               suburbs or country locations. The registrar(s) involved in mediation and
               pre-trial hearings usually do not circuit.
         F.    Courtrooms may be used by other jurisdictions subject to its availability.
         G.    Activity flow diagrams and detailed explanation demonstrating the
               functionality and process within the judicial area are included in Section
               C.12 Activity Flow Diagrams.

 6.2.    Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

         A.    Generally
               i.  The atmosphere and surroundings in the judicial suite must accord
                   judicial officers the dignity of their office.
               ii. Judicial officers will normally arrive at the Courthouse through a
                   controlled entry to the secure car park and from there, access directly
                   into the restricted and secure judicial circulation system.


                                                                                           81
                                                                            SECTION C

         iii.    Dedicated secure parking will not be provided for court staff however
                 site parking may be made available to staff when not in use for other
                 higher priority circumstances.
         iv.     Other than the Judicial Officers the only other users of the judicial
                 circulation system will be judge’s personal staff, court staff and court
                 security staff as required.
         v.      Invitees will access the judicial suite via the public circulation system
                 to a reception point.
         vi.     Within the judicial suite, the staff of the court will escort visitors.
         vii.    Emergency egress for judicial officers and their staff should be
                 dedicated and away from other court users circulation (with the
                 exception of jurors should design solutions necessitate shared
                 egress).
         viii.   One dedicated and discreet entry / egress point shall be provided for
                 use by judicial officers on the ground floor. The egress point shall be
                 secure, located away from entry / egress points for other court users
                 and directly off the secure judicial circulation system.

    B.   Chambers
         i.   Chambers share areas which include beverage making, office
              equipment, storage, recycling bins, storage of case file trolleys and
              file carry boxes, and secure storage of exhibits.
         ii.  The chambers require a high level of privacy and security.
         iii. Acoustic privacy is a requirement of each separate chamber.
         iv.  The judge’s associate and usher are to be located adjacent to the
              judges they serve whilst on circuit. Provision should be made for
              secretaries/reception subject to the size of the facility. Where
              provided these provisions shall be located together and positioned
              such that they can perform a reception role for visitors to the
              chambers area.

    C.   Judicial Adjournment Areas
         i.   Associated with the restricted judicial circulation system there may be
              a requirement to include places where the judiciary can wait for short
              periods before, during and after a trial. A number of courtrooms can,
              normally, share these adjournment areas.
         ii.  The size/number of adjournment areas should be determined by the
              number of judiciary that could be involved in matters in the courts
              served by the area.
         iii. The adjournment areas can be alcoves off the judicial circulation, and
              are to provide a telephone with minimal comfortable seating. A full-
              length mirror for judges to check their appearance shall be provided
              in this space if readily accessible to all courtrooms or alternatively
              adjacent to the entry of each courtroom.
         iv.  All waiting and adjournment spaces are available for all courtrooms
              and not dedicated to anyone, except for times when there is a need
              for it to be isolated to provide enhanced levels of security and safety.

6.3. Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

    A.   Provisions
         i.   In the judicial accommodation there is to be on-floor storage for
              equipment and material needed for circuiting to other courts, and files
              for active cases. Also, there is to be adequate secure storage for
              evidence not held in a courtroom or the judicial adjournment areas.


                                                                                    82
                                                                               SECTION C

              ii.    Passage ways shall be sufficient to allow for easy movement of case
                     file trolleys including the passing of people and other trolleys in the
                     same passage way.
              iii.   Office space for support staff including associates will be open
                     planned.
              iv.    Shared but gender separate toilet facilities (including shower) are to
                     be provided for judicial officers with all other staff having access to
                     shared but gender separate toilet facilities.
              v.     Judicial support spaces to include:
                                    • Judicial chambers with open planned associates and
                                       ushers workstations subject to requirement.
                                    • Judicial library (including 1 x research work station).
                                    • Judicial kitchenette.
                                    • Central utility area.
                                    • Storage and file areas.
                                    • Male and female toilets and a shower.

         B.   Judicial Adjournment Provisions
              i.   Depending on the size of the courthouse, it may be necessary to
                   provide access to an adjournment area, a workbench and robe
                   hooks.



7. Trials and Hearings Support Including Witness Services




 7.1.    Overview

         A.   It is required that all the provisions for participants, support groups and
              storage spaces are adequately provided and well distributed amongst the

                                                                                       83
                                                                             SECTION C

            courtrooms to minimise delays and maintain the ability to achieve the high
            rates of courtroom usage.
       B.   The required provisions to support trial and hearing processes are:
            i.     Waiting and adjournment spaces for witnesses, counsel, support
                   groups/persons, and public attending the trial/hearing;
            ii.    Secure storage of exhibits and other storage. (Refer C3.5 Records
                   and Stores);
            iii.   Participant support services, including remote witnesses;
            iv.    Community justice services;
            v.     Support space made available to counsel (Refer C.10 Legal and
                   Support Agencies – External).
       C.   The support given to participants, excluding the legal profession, but
            including the self represented litigant, victims, witnesses, those on bail,
            those from non-English speaking cultural groups and Aboriginals, is from
            both DotAG and community groups and individuals.
       D.   The support can be as part of the sentence, or on an organised basis
            beginning with counselling and advice during the lead-up to the trial and
            continue well after the trial is finished, such as in VSS. It can also be ad-
            hoc and immediate when grieving, trauma or distress takes over during a
            trial or at its completion.
       E.   The current areas of support programs are:
            i.     Victim and Child Witness Service (incorporating Victim Support
                   Service, Child Witness Service and Family Violence Service.)
            ii.    Court welfare association (predominantly for accused in Magistrates
                   Courts – access to interview rooms is required.);
            iii.   Volunteer support groups (eg. Salvation Army) - access to interview
                   rooms is required.);
            iv.    Legal service providers;
            v.     Self represented litigants.
            vi.    Victim mediation service – access to interview rooms is required.
       F.   An activity flow diagram demonstrating the functionality and process for
            vulnerable witnesses is included in Section C.12 Activity Flow Diagrams.


7.2.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

       A.   On trial days participants in support programs should be able to find their
            own way to the location of the support programs through good Courthouse
            layout planning and clear way-finding.
       B.   All the activities involved in the functions of participant support services can
            involve people who are quite anxious and stressed and many can be
            waiting for some time. The interiors of all spaces need to be restful. All
            interview rooms and waiting areas are to be provided with either natural
            daylight or borrowed daylight. They are to have views out, and these are
            preferably direct to the outside.
       C.   The support services facilities should be located away from the normal
            Court Users’ movement and waiting patterns, and have meaningful views
            out. A preferred location would be close to courtrooms and on the same
            floor providing easy access for briefing the witnesses on the processes
            ahead, and what is involved in giving evidence.
       D.   All support programs are to have access to interview/waiting rooms on the
            courtroom floors.
       E.   If the trial judge allows, victims, vulnerable witnesses, and their supporters,
            will be able to follow the events of a trial from outside the courtroom



                                                                                      84
                                                                       SECTION C

      through CCTV in the company of a VSS staff member/volunteer, within the
      provisions of remote CCTV rooms.
F.    A discreet exit / entry from the VSS facilities to an external dedicated exit
      from the Courthouse is required.

Waiting and Adjournments

A.    Protected Witnesses
      i.   There is to be provision for accommodation at the Higher Courtroom /
           courtrooms, for protected witness, to be held outside the courtroom.
           The protected witnesses will need to arrive and leave the courtroom
           discreetly, access through public circulation routes shall be
           minimised.
      ii.  There also needs to be the ability for protected witnesses to give
           evidence remote from the courtroom by CCTV, but discretely located
           within the Courthouse.
      iii. Protected witnesses can include both people who are in and not in
           custody.
      iv.  Generally protected witnesses shall be assured of anonymity and
           safety by time and people separation management.
B.    Witnesses and Observers
      i.   Each courtroom requires use of witness waiting rooms and seating
           areas located off the public circulation area, within the public realm,
           with ready access into the adjacent court. Allocation of rooms for this
           purpose has been factored into the allowance for interview rooms
           generally at court floors.
      ii.  Open public waiting areas shall seat 30% of the public gallery within
           the courtrooms and provide for 20% of the public gallery via standing
           room. The seating in the open waiting areas shall be provided for in a
           variety of configurations and types. Generous passageways /
           circulation paths are needed between the open waiting areas so that
           at peak times, large numbers of waiting people do not block access to
           the courtrooms.

Participant Support Service
A.    Victims Support Services (VSS)
      i.    VSS are not limited to just the victim, it extends to the family and
            support networks of the victim and assists adult vulnerable witnesses.
      ii.   VSS workers assist victims with any aspect of being a direct or
            indirect victim of a crime, including counselling, providing information,
            referral to other support agencies, support at court, witness
            preparation, and assistance with filing statements and complaints.
      iii.  VSS is available before and after the trial and appeals as well as
            during the trial.
B.    Child Witness Service
      i.    The service is provided to meet the need of child victim/witnesses
            who give evidence in court.
      ii.   The service is to reduce to the lowest levels possible the trauma and
            distress associated with being involved in a trial. Facility planning
            and design should support this role of the service through provision of
            ample daylight and external views. Colours need to be bright,
            welcoming and calming.
      iii.  Parents and siblings, with approval, are able to stay with the witness
            in the facilities.



                                                                               85
                                                                           SECTION C

            iv.  It should be possible for CWS and VSS staff to discretely escort
                 witnesses and victims into, out of the Courthouse, and at least one
                 Higher Courtroom.
                 It is important to note that as this is being adopted as a model for all
                 courts that the VSS, CWS and FVS will be integrated with remote
                 witness facilities and other victim witness support facilities having
                 common utilisation.
       C.   Court Welfare Services and Volunteer Support Groups
            i.   At all times there should be the capability to accommodate volunteer
                 groups who add value to the overall justice service available to the
                 community within the courthouse.

7.3.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

       A.   Provisions
            i.   Waiting and Adjournments
                 a.    Protected Witnesses
                       The Higher Courtroom shall have contiguous with it, a small
                       sitting room including a unisex toilet for a witness and
                       accompanying protection officer(s).

                  b.   Witnesses and Observers
                       1. Open waiting areas shall be adequately separated from each
                          other so that the following activities can take place
                          concurrently:
                              • discreet conversation between parties to a matter with
                                 adequate separation from other users;
                              • enable the viewing of television without disruption to
                                 others; and
                              • enable quiet reflection/meditation by individuals.
                       2. Open waiting areas shall accommodate 50% of the public
                          gallery capacity (30% seated, 20% standing) within the
                          courtrooms and be arranged in two seating groups.
                          Generous passageways/ circulation paths are needed
                          between the open waiting areas so that at peak times, large
                          numbers of waiting people do not block access to the
                          courtrooms.
                       3. A refrigerated drinking water unit shall be provided for each
                          courtroom floor.
                       4. Toilets, general use and disabled use, are to be sized for
                          peak demand periods usually at starting and recessing
                          times.

            ii.   Participant Support Services
                  a.    Remote Witness Facilities
                        1. A minimum of two remote witness facilities including
                           waiting areas are to be provided and capable of being used
                           by adult and child witnesses in circumstances where it is
                           appropriate that their evidence is taken by the court without
                           them appearing in the courtroom in-person. Facilities shall
                           be located to ensure that child and adult vulnerable
                           witnesses can be separated when matters are being heard
                           simultaneously.
                        2. Proximity of the Remote Witness/CCTV rooms to the
                           courtrooms is essential due to a requirement for physical


                                                                                   86
                                                                  SECTION C

                   evidence being transferred readily from the courtroom to the
                   witness within the Remote/CCTV rooms via the public
                   circulation system.
          b.    Child Witness Service (CWS)
                1. Access to a minimum of two (2) remote witness CCTV rooms
                   for use by child witnesses and vulnerable adult witnesses
                   shall be provided and be in close proximity to Higher
                   Courtrooms. Access to dedicated toilet provisions shall be
                   provided on this same level. Adult and child witnesses can
                   share these toilet facilities.
                2. In addition to and co-located with the remote witness rooms
                   for children and toilet provisions, a suite of accommodation
                   shall be provided to include the following:
                       • Access and security into the accommodation
                          controlled by staff.
                       • Waiting area to accommodate separate groups of
                          children and adults.
                       • Separate individual offices for child witness
                          preparation officers/victim support workers/family
                          violence officers are required with desk and table
                          capable of accommodating up to 6 persons around a
                          table. Floor space to work with children and toy
                          storage shall be provided in child witness preparation
                          offices.
                       • Toilet facilities.
                       • Tea/coffee/drinks facilities.
                3. Additional Accommodation Required for CWS and VSS shall
                   be provided as follows:
                       • Hotdesk office space for volunteers
                       • Victim unisex toilet and for family court counsellors.

B.   Technology
     i.   In all parts of the public domain, including witness waiting rooms and
          lounges, it should be possible to use mobile phones and laptop
          computers. Power is to be available for laptop computers in each
          waiting room and at places in the public domain.
     ii.  TV monitors for free to air and cable TV programs are required in
          waiting areas for all high turnover courtrooms, waiting areas and
          mediation/hearing room suites, and near beverage points/coffee
          carts. The location of these and the seating arrangements related
          thereto should ensure that sound does not impact adjacent areas.
     iii. Clocks are to be located in all public areas and accommodation for
          support groups, so that users can easily monitor time.




                                                                          87
                                                                             SECTION C

8. Custody




 8.1.   Overview

        A.   This component covers the accommodation requirements for the accused,
             whether on bail or in custody, and witnesses who are in custody who are
             received and processed through to the Court. It also covers the needs for
             those witnesses (in custody) who are vulnerable witnesses or in a witness
             protection program.

        B.   The purpose of this component of the Design Brief is to provide the
             minimum requirements to enable the development of the optimum custodial
             areas. These areas must incorporate the necessary accommodation, plant,
             equipment, security and technology required to provide the Custodial
             Services efficiently, safely, economically and in accordance with State’s
             requirements. Reference is made to the Aboriginal Cultural Brief and the
             specific requirements therein that relate to the design of custodial areas for
             indigenous people, particularly in relation to the need for exercise areas,
             natural light and ventilation.

        C.   Custody accommodation will be located in either the courthouse or co-
             located Police lock-up.
             i.    The custody related accommodation facilities include the sally port, a
                   Custody Centre for persons in custody, Bail Holding Facilities,
                   circulation to and from courtrooms and if necessary, holding areas at
                   courtrooms. There is also to be a central control room to control
                   movement and supervise all custodial areas including outdoor area
                   for PIC and holding cells. A search room, decontamination facilities
                   and non-contact interview facilities are also required.



                                                                                     88
                                                                            SECTION C

            ii.   The planning, design, operation and management of the custodial
                  areas and the service are to meet the design capacities stipulated in
                  section C.8.3 Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Locations &
                  Relationships).

       D.   Activity flow diagrams and detailed explanation demonstrating the
            functionality and process within the Custodial Area are included in Section
            C.12 Activity Flow Diagrams.

8.2.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

       A.   Generally
            i.  The consultant is advised to review the report in Appendix 1 that
                relates to custody.
            ii. Design and construction of the custodial centre will be subject to
                assessment and commissioning tests at designated stages.
                Commissioning tests will include 'actual' performance testing by the
                State of any materials, fixtures, fittings and construction methods
                including simulated attempts by the State to escape from the
                Custodial Areas to ensure fitness for purpose.

       B.   Principles
            i.   The design of the Custody Centre will need to respond to the
                 following:
                 a.    Segregation for the various PIC categories to minimise risk and
                       maximise safety.
                 b.    The accommodation should be flexible to meet varying degrees
                       of security risk. Notwithstanding this, an emphasis shall be
                       placed on innovative accommodation solutions that support
                       active management strategies in dealing with PIC risk status
                       and behaviour.
                 c.    The cell designs shall:
                       1. Comply with WA Police Building Code (Version 3.0) with
                          amendments identified in this document.
                       2. Make provision for high risk PIC.
                       3. Have electronic surveillance (CCTV) and where possible
                          direct line of sight from operations desk into the cells.
                       4. In cell CCTV should not provide a full view of any person
                          using the in cell toilet. This is to be achieved through
                          placement of the camera in the opposite corner of the cell to
                          the toilet or through pixel algorithm changes.
                       5. Provide excellent visibility in and out of the cells using clear
                          front cells, viewing panels or similar.
                       6. Have AV screen for viewing proceedings of the Court from at
                          least one cell.
                       7. Have drinking water facilities.
                       8. Have a toilet pan with privacy screening.
                       9. Have television provided with capacity to play pre-recorded
                          videotapes to all cells from a central unit.
                       10. Where necessary, secure temporary holding areas are to
                          be provided from the sally port for the effective loading/
                          unloading and management of PIC from the transport
                          vehicles.




                                                                                    89
                                                                             SECTION C

                  d.    The custodial control room accommodating the operations
                        console shall be separately secure from but have direct access
                        to all cells and holding areas within the Custody Centre.
                        Windows of custody centre control rooms to be treated to
                        prevent PIC observation of seated custody officers, CCTV
                        monitors and other equipment and processes, while allowing
                        officers to look out. Tinting to be such that light levels in
                        custody centre areas conform to code.
                  e.    Design provisions and physical security systems must allow
                        effective operational responses to duress alarms, emergencies
                        or incidents in all parts of the Custody Centre. The Custody
                        Centre shall be designed to provide maximum delay to any
                        break-out or break-in attempt through physical layering/zoning
                        of custodial holding, circulation and related adjacent areas.
                  f.    Fire isolation provisions and a safe and secure means of
                        holding and evacuating PIC during an emergency. A secure
                        fire isolated refuge zone shall be identified. From the refuge,
                        there should be safe exits from which PIC can be loaded into
                        vehicles and moved off site. Fire exit doors shall be designed
                        and operated in such a manner that they do not compromise
                        the perimeter security of Custodial Areas. Fire doors should fail
                        secure.
                  g.    The public entry for the legal profession and authorised visitors
                        must be physically separated for security purposes, requiring
                        separated access and movement zones at all times. The entry
                        point must be CCTV monitored, have a physical security
                        system and a personalised identification process. Design
                        provisions and physical security systems must allow effective
                        operational responses to duress alarms, emergencies, or
                        incidents at the lawyers side.
                  h.    Natural light, access to ventilation (fresh air) and
                        circulation/exercise space is desirable in the Custody Centre.
                        Provide visual relief from within the Custody Centre and natural
                        light into cells and holding areas.
                  i.    Custody facilities are to be free from risk of contraband
                        incursion.
                  j.    All areas occupied by PIC are to be vandal proof.
                  k.    Provisions for PIC with disabilities.
                  l.    Provision of short-term food handling and storage.
                  m.    Acoustic isolation shall be provided to segregate the Custody
                        Centre from all surrounding activities of the Courts locations,
                        adjoining neighbours and Court Users.
                  n.    Have access hatches to enable passing of articles between the
                        cell and the adjacent circulation space and to allow the fitting of
                        restraints to PIC prior to releasing into adjacent spaces when
                        necessary.

8.3.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Locations & Relationships)

       A.   Custody Centre Capacity
            i.   The provision of a custody facility that can manage the receipt,
                 holding, welfare and movement of PIC/Bailees and custodial staff
                 securely and safely.
            ii.  Planning flexibility within the cells and Bail Holding room will allow for
                 a future increase in PIC holding numbers.


                                                                                     90
                                                                     SECTION C


B.   Accommodation Specification

     i.     The accommodation shall be designed to include:
            a.   Secure vehicle entrance (sallyport);
            b.   An arrival / assembly area;
            c.   Areas for PICs to be searched (including strip searching). In
                 particular;
                 1. The search area/room is not to be fitted with seating.
                 2. The area used to strip search is not to be fitted with a hand
                    basin.
            d.   Areas for PICs to be processed into and out of the custody
                 centre;
            e.   Areas (separate from the cells) for PICs to be held until required
                 to appear before a court;
            f.   An area to undertake decontamination procedures.                In
                 particular;
                 1. The decontamination area/room is not to be fitted with
                    seating.
                 2. Taps servicing the decontamination area/room are to be
                    fitted externally to the area/room.
                 3. The door is to open out only, be lockable only from outside
                    the area/room, and be fitted with a covered viewing hole.
            g.   Separate facilities for male, female and juvenile PIC allowing
                 each category to be held and managed separately from one
                 another. In addition there is a requirement for separate
                 accommodation for segregated PIC.              Similarly, separate
                 facilities are to be provided for juveniles appearing as
                 witnesses, protected witnesses, PIC from secure mental health
                 hospitals, and defendants on bail having surrendered to the
                 Court;
            h.   A minimum of five (5) cells is required;
            i.   Separate accommodation for legal counsel and authorised
                 visitors to enter, be received and then interview the PIC. Non-
                 contact interview facilities are to be provided; and
            j.   Self contained staff facilities to negate the need to move out of
                 secure custody area eg toilets, tea preparation.

C.   Security Precautions in Custody Centre

     i.     Maximum security is to be afforded to the Custody Centre perimeter
            and internal or external breaches of the perimeter are not permitted.
            Built facilities shall be designed and layered so that a single failure
            shall not result in an escape.
     ii.    Surveillance capability (visual, and/or CCTV) shall be available to all
            custody circulation areas.
     iii.   Physical security and circulation control systems should enhance the
            movement, containment and separation of PIC groups and allow for
            ease of supervision. Custodial circulation systems should not mix or
            cross over with other court user circulation systems.
     iv.    The entry design of the sally port and Custody Centre should provide
            search and short-term holding capability.
            a.     The Custody Centre holding cells should be designed as
                   maximum security cells with high surveillance.



                                                                             91
                                                                     SECTION C

             b.     Observation – There must be at least one (1) cell with high
                    supervision to prevent any self harm. The Control Room should
                    have direct observation to at least one (1) cell.
             c.     Bailee holding – Minimum Security Bail Holding room with
                    appropriate furniture.
     v.      The design should recognise the need for the flexible management of
             the various PIC classifications.
     vi.     The design of the PIC holding areas should provide physical security
             complimented with electronic surveillance and management systems,
             to allow effective operational supervision.
     vii.    Cell furniture to be secure and comfortable. It must be robust with
             vandal proof padding.
     viii.   A separately secured centralised operations centre is preferred to
             maximise sight lines.
     ix.     Secure staff amenities area.

D.   Electronic Security
     i.   Electronic security requirements are listed throughout this section.
     ii.  Refer to Section D.1.4 Electronic Security within this volume for
          technical requirements.

E.   Bailee Accommodation
     i.   There is to be a place for security searches of bailees proceeding to
          courtrooms via custody.

F.   Holding Cells
     i.   Courtrooms
          a.   To avoid any delays in the operation of the courts and maximise
               the management of PIC, holding cells should be provided at
               each court. These holding cells are to provide minimum safety,
               security and welfare amenity:
               1. Allow holding of PIC:
                   • Before and during trials, during short trial adjournments;
                   • Where the PIC has been disruptive in court;
               2. Allow segregation of PIC and facilitate efficient transfer from
                   holding cell to court/ Custody Centre.

G.   Interview / Visit Facilities
     i.    To facilitate confidential discussions during interviews/visits with PIC
           from legal representatives, welfare and other authorised visitors non-
           contact visit facilities are to be provided. Legal representatives and
           others are not to enter the custody side of the custody centre in order
           to conduct non-contact visits.
     ii.   The rooms should have CCTV monitoring, duress alarm on the legal
           representative side of the interview room, and fixed furniture.
     iii.  There must be provision to pass documents through a monitored
           lockable hatch controlled by the Custody Staff, with the hatch located
           in a position adjacent to the interview room but not in the room.

H.   Sally Port and PIC Loading Area
     i.    The function of the sally port is to provide an area to check PIC and
           escort vehicles entering and leaving the custody building.
     ii.   The loading area is to allow safe and secure loading and unloading of
           PIC.



                                                                             92
                                                                                SECTION C

              iii.   The sally port and PIC loading area shall be of sufficient size to
                     accommodate the current and future vehicle types.

Table 2 – Vehicle Access to Custodial Facilities
                                                  Actual    Recommended
                            Width     Length                                 Turning
        Vehicle                                   Vehicle     Clearance
                                                                Height        circle
                                                  Height
                                            (Dimensions in metres)



Future
Rigid Truck                  2.50     12.50        4.30          4.40         17.00
Omni bus                     2.50     14.50        4.30          4.40

Width dimensions do not include any clearances for mirrors.
Vehicle heights includes antennas and air-conditioning units & roof mounted
fittings.
No provision has been made for a property trailer to be added to the vehicle
combination

              iv.    The PIC loading area shall:
                     a.    Allow for the unloading of PIC from both sides and from the
                           back of the vehicles. A minimum of 2.5 metres must be allowed
                           on each side of the vehicle such that there is sufficient space
                           for the easy loading, unloading and checking of PICs prior to
                           them entering the Custody Centre.
                     b.    Be fitted with interlocking doors (all doors) to custody that must
                           not be capable of being opened whilst the vehicle entry/exit
                           roller doors/gates are open.
                     c.    Supervision and control from the Custody Centre, and full
                           CCTV monitoring.
                     d.    Be secure from intruders, public and press.
                     e.    Be impossible for any person or camera to observe into the PIC
                           loading area.
                     f.    Be on the same level as the Custody Centre.
              v.     The sally port shall be provided to:
                     a.    Allow a space for the checking of the vehicles, including
                           undercarriage and roof.
                     b.    Allow for the unloading and storage of firearms.
              vi.    The sally port shall incorporate electronic interlocking doors and
                     electronic surveillance.

       I.     Security and Monitoring Control Room
              i.  A control room shall be provided inside the Custody Centre within a
                  secure perimeter that allows:
                  a.     Optimum visual surveillance within the Custody Centre.
                  b.     Capacity for storage of security related equipment and other
                         items.
                  c.     Flexibility to accommodate future IT requirements.

       J.     Staff Amenity Provisions
              Provide secure staff amenities that include lunch area, change rooms,
              toilets and showers appropriate for the number of staff.



                                                                                          93
                                                                        SECTION C

K.   People with Disabilities
     Facilities for people with disabilities in the Custody Centre that will cater for
     their safety, security and special needs are required.

L.   Food Services
     The necessary facilities for the handling and distribution of food for PIC in
     compliance with the relevant food and hygiene regulations are required.

M.   Cleaning and Hygiene
     PIC must have access to:-
          a.   Water in all cells
          b.   Minimum of one shower facility within the Custody Centre
          c.   Toilet and wash basin facilities in all cells
          d.   Sanitary disposal units




                                                                                 94
                                                                                  SECTION C

9.   Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences




     9.1.   Overview

            In Western Australia there is a highly developed program of mediation and pre-
            trial conferences and in the District Court this results in less than 10% of civil
            matters going forward to trial. Most of this mediation work is in personal injury
            claims but there is also commercial mediation.

            Mediation, hearings and pre-trial conferences take place in conference type
            settings.

            Mediation hearings usually start with all parties together and if required they will
            adjourn to separate conferring (meeting) rooms to consider positions and then
            reconvene with the mediator. Sometimes the mediator will move between
            mediation rooms. They therefore need access to suites made up of mediation
            rooms with access to meeting rooms.

            In ‘personal injury’ mediation the matters tend to follow standard patterns with a
            small group of counsel and solicitors handling the bulk of the work for both the
            plaintiffs and the accused. Frequently the aim of the mediation is to establish a
            fair resolution and to gain its acceptance by the plaintiff who is frequently under
            significant stress. While this form of mediation is termed a pre-trial conference it
            has a very high success rate and usually avoids a trial. Frequently the benefit of
            the mediation is achieved simply by bringing the parties together and relatively
            little active mediation is required.

            In addition to the set mediation program there are numerous forms of hearings
            and conferences that are associated with matters before a Court, before and
            after the trial. There will be more in the future. These hearings include
            alternative dispute resolution, preliminary hearings on evidence and negotiation
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                                                                             SECTION C

       of numbers of witnesses and length of submissions, pre-trial conferences
       including the signing of orders, taxing of costs, presiding over procedural matters
       pre-hearing and case management determinations. These various hearings and
       pre-trial conferences will need access to the same rooms described above. The
       civil courtrooms shall be used for those matters that require more formal settings.

       Any mediation, hearing or conference involving a PIC will be conducted in a
       courtroom.

       Participants in mediation and hearings usually will be the registrar and
       sometimes an “associate” (clerical officer) plus the parties to the matter. In case
       management hearings the participants will be a registrar and a case
       management clerk, plus the parties to the matter. Sometimes a judge will sit in
       place of the registrar.

       Personal injury mediation can involve physically disabled people. Provisions
       should allow the occurrence of a number of disabled persons and their carers
       within the Facilities at the same time. Access to and within space provision shall
       therefore allow for ease of negotiation of wheelchairs.

       Activity flow diagrams and detailed explanation demonstrating the functionality
       and process within the pre-trial conference area in respect to the movement/
       activity of Judicial Officers and counsel and litigants are included in Section C.12
       Activity Flow Diagrams.

9.2.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

       A.   The judiciary, other Judicial Officers and administrators are to have access
            to videoconference facilities in mediation rooms.

            The videoconference capability within mediation rooms is to be available for
            scheduled use and may on occasions be booked for the use of other
            functions of the Court.

            On arrival for mediation, parties and counsel will report to a courts
            administration counter and be assigned to a meeting room. They will then
            go to the appropriate waiting area, where they should be able to sit and talk
            with other counsel, read, work and make phone calls. From the waiting
            area, access must be available to toilets.

            All mediation and meeting rooms are to have views out. Some can have
            borrowed views into passageways or across other spaces, as long as the
            activities of neither are compromised.

            Acoustical isolation of all the meeting and mediation rooms is of paramount
            importance (refer to Acoustic & Sound Reinforcement Specification under
            Section F).

9.3.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location and Relationships)

       Refer to section C.11 Schedule of Accommodation for the facility provision within
       the mediation and pre trial conference suite.

       A.   Provisions
                  • Waiting area at courts registry counter.
                  • Waiting area outside meeting and mediation rooms.
                  • Mediation rooms with video-conference capability.
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          • Meeting rooms.
          • Access to public toilets.
          • Mediation room layout shall provide for the accommodation
            requirements of 3 to 4 document trolleys.

B.   Location
           • Readily accessed from the Courthouse entrance lobby and
              registry.
           • To be accessible off the public realm for meeting and mediation
              rooms.
           • Registrars are to have the ability to leave mediation rooms by
              immediate access to a private staff circulation system, connecting
              via the Judicial Officers’ circulation system to their chambers.

C.   Technology
          • Technology could increase in diversity and usefulness in both
             recording and viewing, including participation by CCTV.
          • Concealed duress alarms shall be provided in all meeting and
             mediation rooms for the use of the Judicial Officer if he or she is
             under threat.




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10.   Legal and Support Agencies (External)




      10.1.   Overview

              This section includes:
                    •    Legal counsel
                    •    Legal Aid WA
                    •    Aboriginal Legal Service (ALS)
                    •    DPP
                    •    Self- represented litigants

              Accused persons appearing in the Magistrates, District and Supreme Courts are
              largely represented by lawyers. All lawyers require access to interviewing rooms
              adjacent to courtrooms as well as access to the non-contact interview rooms.

              Legal Aid is funded jointly by the Federal and State governments and will
              continue to have its operations off site. Legal Aid provides services to accused in
              all criminal jurisdictions. Presently some 80% of defence legal representation in
              trials in the District Court is funded by Legal Aid.

              The ALS is funded by the Federal government and will continue to have its
              operations off site. The ALS provides services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait
              Islander accused in all criminal jurisdictions.

              The role of the DPP prosecutor is to represent State in criminal matters. At
              present the DPP initiate and conduct trials in the Superior Criminal Courts.

              Self represented litigation is a growing phenomenon and the State is committed
              to providing appropriate support as part of its commitment to making justice more
              accessible to the community.
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                                                                            SECTION C


        Activity flow diagrams and detailed explanation demonstrating the functionality
        and process relating to legal counsel are included in Section C.12 Activity Flow
        Diagrams.

10.2.   Design Criteria (Operational & Planning Principles)

        A.   Counsel
             The interview rooms should be easily accessible in the public realm and
             readily identifiable for public needing to make contact with their counsel.

             Interview rooms are to be made available at the courtrooms, hearing
             rooms, and mediation rooms and at the Custody Centre.

             Cabling to provide for the connection of telephone, facsimile, modem and
             other office facilities shall be provided to all counsel work areas and
             activated as required on a “pay as use” basis.

             Self Represented Litigants
             Self represented litigants will have equal rights to members of the legal
             profession and book interview rooms.

10.3.   Accommodation Requirements (Provisions, Location & Relationships)

        A.   Provisions
             Shared interview rooms shall be distributed on courtroom floors. Provide
             two interview rooms per courtroom.

             Although all interview rooms are shared, there needs to be one interview
             room that is designed specifically for Legal Aid and one for the DPP.
             These two rooms for Legal Aid and the DPP are to include a desk, task
             chair, two visitors’ chairs, a 900 high lockable cupboard behind the desk for
             printer and three full length lockers.

             The location of the lockers needs to take into account the future possibility
             of robes being dispensed with and hence the space shall be capable of
             being re-used.

             All other interview rooms are to be furnished with a round table and four
             visitors chairs. These rooms will be used by ALS, self represented litigants,
             Community Justice Services, Police Prosecutions and social workers.
             All interview rooms are available for the above on a booking basis through
             Courts Administration.

             Locks, telephone and data points are to be provided for all rooms.

        B.   Technology
             Generally, work areas for counsel are short duration office space
             necessitating use of lap top computers via telephone / data line. Access to
             videoconference capability if required shall be booked through the court
             administration.




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11.   Schedule of Accommodation

      11.1.   Space Planning Criteria and Standards

              A.     Schedule of Area
                     i.   The following Schedule describes and groups the Facilities
                          accommodation spaces.
                     ii.  The m² unit area is not to be viewed as being restrictive or absolute
                          but is to be used as a guide only to the expected size and/ or
                          standard of required accommodation.
                     iii. Areas scheduled are nett areas or functional floor area. Functional
                          floor areas do not include any allowance for:
                          • Circulation and standard facilities provided for the common use of
                             occupiers and/ or the public such as corridors, passages, lobbies,
                             foyers, etc.;
                          • Areas set aside for building plant such as mechanical plant,
                             electrical equipment rooms, telecommunication switch rooms etc.;
                          • Non-habitable building space such at that occupied by internal
                             columns and other structural supports, internal and permanent
                             partitions, lift shafts, service ducts etc.;

                     iv.   In open office spaces (e.g. general office) the functional floor area
                           does not include any allowance for circulation space.
                     v.    A toilet amenity - The schedule of accommodation designates toilet
                           provisions in specific areas but does not schedule the requirements
                           for public use. Consultants are to calculate their own requirements in
                           this regard and distribute provisions throughout the Courthouse in
                           accordance with population demand.


       Table 3 – Schedule of Accommodation

 Functional Space             No.              Floor        Total      Comments
                              Of               Area         Nett
                              Items                         Area
 Trials
 Higher Courtroom             X                160                     18 Jurors. Area of
                                                                       courtroom is inclusive of
                                                                       sound lobbies.
 Magistrates Large            X                120
 Courtroom
 Magistrates Standard         X                90                      Also for Children’s Court
 Courtroom                                                             hearings.
 Subtotals
 Mediation & Pre-Trial
 Conf Rooms
 Mediation / Pre Trial        1                35           35         To include AV
 Conference Room                                                       equipment.
 Meeting Room                 2                9            18         As breakout space
                                                                       adjacent to pre-trial
                                                                       conference room.
 Subtotals
 Trials and Hearings                                                   Discrete access must be
 Support                                                               provided for Witnesses
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Functional Space           No.     Floor   Total   Comments
                           Of      Area    Nett
                           Items           Area
                                                   entering and leaving this
                                                   zone.
Child & Adult Witness
Services
Waiting area/lounge        1       15      15      Shall be segregated into
                                                   two areas, 1 for adults &
                                                   1 for children.
Remote Witness Rooms       2       8       16      2 CCTV Rooms co-
(CCTV rooms)                                       located in witness area.
                                                   A CCTV room shall be
                                                   located directly off each
                                                   waiting area.
Volunteers Office /        1       9       9       Co-located with adult
Protected Witness                                  waiting area.
waiting
Child Witness              1       12      12
Preparation / VSS Office
Unisex Disabled Toilet     1       4       4       Dedicated within child
                                                   and adult witness area.
Tea Prep                   1       2       2       Locate in alcove.
Courtroom Support
Waiting areas at each      X                       Waiting areas must have
courtroom                                          access to toilets. To
                                                   accommodate 50% of
                                                   public gallery of each
                                                   courtroom with 30%
                                                   seated and 20%
                                                   standing.
Interview rooms at         X       8               2 interview rooms per
Courtrooms                                         courtroom plus 1
                                                   additional for allocation
                                                   as day space for support
                                                   agencies e.g. Family
                                                   Violence.
Judicial Support
Exhibit Storage            X       0.75             Located in Judicial
                                                   circulation area.
Subtotals                                           Does not include VSS
                                                   & CWS
Jury
Reception/Enquiry          1       6       6       2 staff positions.
Workstation
Jury Pool Assembly Area    1       65      65      1 sqm per person plus
                                                   presentation space (55
                                                   jury panel).
Jury Deliberation Room     1       50      50      Includes juror personal
                                                   effects storage lockers 12
                                                   off (stacked 4 high),tea
                                                   prep and Unisex
                                                   Disabled WC and Unisex
                                                   WC.
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                                                                 SECTION C

Functional Space             No.     Floor   Total   Comments
                             Of      Area    Nett
                             Items           Area
Subtotals
Judicial Officers
Chambers                     X       24
Judicial Officers Toilets    2       6       6       Unisex / disabled WC
                                                     with shower and basin
                                                     plus 1 unisex WC and
                                                     basin.
Associates                   X       11              Includes small desk for
                                                     usher.
Library/Research             1       24      24      Includes workstation for
                                                     Research/Personal Staff.
Tea Prep                     1       4       4       Shared by Judicial
                                                     Officers and support staff.
Utility Alcove               1       4       4       Adjacent to library.
Storage                      1       5       5       Associates trolley and file
                                                     storage.
Subtotals
Custody Provisions
Holding Cells at the         1       6       6       Number assumes pairs of
Courtrooms                                           Court rooms with
                                                     combined holding cells.
                                                     All cells to include WC &
                                                     Basin.
Custody Centre
Custody Admission            1       12      12      Provide counter with
/Reception                                           support workspace
                                                     adjacent.
Custody Control Room         1       24       24     To accommodate 3 staff.
Duty Office                  1       12       12
Property Alcove              1       4        4
Search Room                  1       6       6

Non Contact Interview        2       2       4
Rooms
Bail Holding Room            1       8       8
Multiple Cells Medium (2     3       10      30      Includes allowance for
to 3 PICS)                                           WC and basin. 1 cell to
                                                     include CCTV.
Multiple Cells Large (5 to   2       12.5    25      Includes allowance for
6 PICS)                                              WC and basin.
PIC Meals Preparation        1       7       7
Staff Shower and WC          1       6       6       Unisex.
Detainee Shower              1       3       3
Vehicle loading/
unloading facilities
Sally Port                   1       150     150     To accommodate
                                                     maximum vehicle size of
                                                     14.5m length and 2.5m
                                                     width plus minimum
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                                                               SECTION C

Functional Space          No.     Floor   Total   Comments
                          Of      Area    Nett
                          Items           Area
                                                  clearances of 2.5m all
                                                  round.
Exercise Yard             1       12      12      Configuration to suit
                                                  ultimate design layout.
Subtotals
Administration
Registries
Registry Counter /        1       50      50      To include Counters/
Waiting (Public side)                             Carrels for document
                                                  preparation, waiting &
                                                  brochure displays.
                                                  Seating capacity for 4
                                                  minimum. Include
                                                  disabled access to
                                                  counter.
Interview Room            1       9       9       Adjacent to counter. Use
                                                  for document inspection
                                                  and confidential
                                                  discussion.
Service Counters /        1       25      25      Includes 4 counter
Registry                                          positions including 1 for
                                                  disabled.
Strong Room                                       Included within Exhibit
                                                  Store.
Clerk of Courts           1       15      15
Supervising Courts        1       9       9       Large open plan
Officer                                           workstation.
Open plan work stations   x       8               X staff in total including 4
(General Office)                                  permanent counter
                                                  positions.
Utility Room              1       12      12      Accessed from Counter
                                                  Positions and Staff/
                                                  Admin area. To include
                                                  space for fax /
                                                  photocopier / shredder /
                                                  printers / recycling bins
                                                  and paper storage.


Subtotals
Staff Amenities
Lunchroom                 1       20      20      Shall include facilities to
                                                  heat & refrigerate food,
                                                  sink & dishwasher, bench
                                                  tops, cupboards and
                                                  store supplies. Include
                                                  TV.
Shower/change space       1       6       6       Associated with bicycle
                                                  storage. Include 1 unisex
                                                  shower.
Staff Toilets             2       5       10      1 male WC urinal and
                                                  hand basin. 1 female
                                                                            103
                                                              SECTION C

Functional Space          No.     Floor   Total   Comments
                          Of      Area    Nett
                          Items           Area
                                                  WC and hand basin.
Staff Disabled Toilet     1       4       4       Unisex.
Subtotals
Courts Records &                                  Fire suppressant systems
Stores                                            are needed.
Primary Storage – File    1       20      20      To be located adjacent to
Storage                                           the Registry Counters.
Secondary Storage –       1       12      12      Allow for compactus.
Archival Storage
Exhibits Storage          1       9       9       Include safe.
Stationary Storage        1       4       4
Subtotals
Public Foyer spaces
Public Foyer              1       50      50      Includes entry orientation
                                                  information and listing
                                                  screens. Space
                                                  allocation to be separate
                                                  from Court waiting area.
                                                  Including vending
                                                  machine space provision.
Security Control          1       50      50      To accommodate airport
                                                  style security and a
                                                  security office.
Court Security Office     1       12      12      Located in Courts
                                                  Administration.
Reception/ Information    1       6       6       Counter space for 1
                                                  person and under bench
                                                  storage for media
                                                  cameras etc.
Children’s Area           1       10      10      To be located off either
                                                  public foyer space or
                                                  public waiting area
                                                  outside courtrooms.
Subtotals
Building Services
Cleaners Storage          1       3       3
Electrical & Mechanical
Plant Rooms
Switch room               X                       On merit.

Main Substation           X                       To be negotiated with
                                                  Western Power if
                                                  applicable.
Mechanical Plant Rooms    X                       On merit.
Communications
Telecommunications        X
Equipment Room (third
Party Equipment)
State’s Main              X
                                                                          104
                                                              SECTION C

Functional Space          No.     Floor   Total   Comments
                          Of      Area    Nett
                          Items           Area
Communications Room
Courts IT Room            X
AV Central Equipment      X
Room
Court AV Equipment                                Incorporated within each
                                                  court as min of 2 19"
                                                  racks.
Building Generally
Audio Visual Support      1       5       5       For guidance - every 1-4
(Control Room)                                    courtrooms allow space
                                                  for 1 Technician (5sqm).
Equipment Store           1       20      20
Parenting/First Aid       1       5       5
Vehicles
X parking bays at 28sqm   X       28              Undercover and secure
per bay                                           parking for all Judicial
                                                  Officers including 1
                                                  disabled, 1 for Clerk of
                                                  Courts, and 1 spare for
                                                  authorised use.
Bicycle Storage           1       10      10      Undercover secure
                                                  storage for up to 5 bikes.
Subtotals
Total Nett Usable Area




                                                                          105
                                   SECTION C

12.   Activity Flow Diagrams

      12.1.   Section C.5 – Jury




                                          106
                                                                    SECTION C

A.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – Jury

     i.     Arrival/Orientation
            Those summonsed for jury duty (jury pool members) arrive at the
            general entry to the courts complex, well in advance of court
            proceedings – from 8:00 am, and they should be allowed to enter the
            Courthouse for shelter.

            They may arrive in large numbers and will need clear directions to the
            jury assembly area, without clogging the public information desk or
            kiosk. Alternatively they may be directed in advance to enter the
            Courthouse via a dedicated Jury entry point.

     ii.    Security Check
            They will have passed through a Primary Security Checkpoint prior to
            entering the Courthouse.

     iii.   Enter Jury assembly area
            This will occur through a dedicated entrance at which jury reception
            will manage, check and control movement in and out.

     iv.    Book In/Out
            Jury pool members are checked in on production of their summons.

            On leaving the assembly suite, all jury persons will book out, and may
            receive documentation for jury duty payment if no longer required at
            the end of the trial. Alternatively this may be managed electronically
            directly into personal accounts.

     v.     Waiting
            Jury members will be encouraged to settle into the assembly area
            where they should be able to sit, relax, read, watch television, work
            and make phone calls.

            The assembly area should therefore be arranged in a formal seating
            configuration and have access to tea / coffee and refreshment
            facilities.

            The assembly area must be self-contained and have access to toilets,
            refreshment facilities and secure outdoor space. Adequate toilets
            must be provided to cater for peak times.

            An outdoor area is required. This space must have dedicated
            connection to the assembly area and should not be overlooked by
            other court areas. It should be designed to be available for smokers
            and non-smokers.

     vi.    Instruction / Induction
            Instruction is given on courtroom protocol and then jury panels are
            selected by ballot.



     vii.   Ballot
            A digitised ballot system will be used to select groups of pool
            members, now called a jury panel, to be taken to a courtroom for the
            selection of the jury.
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                                                                SECTION C


viii. Holding (at the courtroom)
      There can be need to hold a jury panel before entering the courtroom
      if legal discussion is taking place in the courtroom. On occasions, it
      will be required to exclude the jury panel from the courtroom for the
      same reasons. Under these circumstances there is the need for
      temporary holding of the jury panel.

      Jury recess/deliberation must accommodate all jurors including
      reserves leading up to the deliberation phase. Lengthy adjournments
      could see jury free to go to a more comfortable waiting area. Shorter
      adjournments/interruptions would require all the jury to stay close by.

      On day two onwards there is a need for empanelled juries to gather
      and wait prior to recommencement of the trial.

      A discreet entry to the jury zone and particularly for empanelled juries
      from the public realm needs to be provided away from general public
      view.

      Jurors, whether empanelled or otherwise, would be required to report
      at reception in the assembly room to be registered for the day’s
      proceedings.

ix.   Jury Selection
      The jury panel is seated in the public gallery from where they are
      challenged by both counsel and the accused. An empanelled jury is
      thus formed including alternates (reserve jurors) for lengthy trials,
      which could take the number of the jury to 18.

      The balance of the jury panel relocates to another courtroom and is
      again challenged to form a jury. The movement of this group to the
      next courtroom should be through public circulation.

      For trials involving multiple accused, the jury panel may be too large
      to be accommodated in a particular courtroom. In this case the
      selection of the jury can be conducted in any available courtroom,
      and then relocate to the listed courtroom after selection. Alternatively
      a large courtroom could be located close to the jury assembly room
      fitted with CCTV. This would enable the excess jury panel to sit in the
      assembly room and maintain contact with the proceedings. It would
      also enable jury persons to move efficiently to the courtroom.

      A Jury Officer is allocated to each empanelled jury and manages
      them to the end of the trial.

      The balance of the jury panel returns to the assembly room to wait for
      a new ballot or dismissal for the day.

x.    Adjournments
      Adjournment will occur for tea breaks, meals or short periods of
      exclusion from the proceedings of the trial.

      Minimum delay is required for the return of the jury to the
      proceedings.


                                                                           108
                                                                  SECTION C

       The deliberation rooms will need to be located close to the
       courtrooms.

       There can be between 14 and 18 persons on the jury at this stage. It
       is only on deliberation that a maximum of 12 jurors occupies the jury
       deliberation room (i.e. at the conclusion of a trial).

xi.    Meals
       Generally, empanelled jurors will not be provided with meals. They
       will be able to eat outside of the Courthouse, in the jury assembly
       area, or bring their own food to the adjournment space or deliberation
       room. These arrangements would be subject to order by the Judge.

       Facilities for jury persons to store personal food (small fridge) will
       need to be provided in the dedicated deliberation rooms, as well as
       storage of eating utensils and provision of a small sink.

       Jury persons whilst undergoing deliberation will be provided with
       quality meals, which will be brought in from outside caterers.

       Jury Officers will be served meals separate from the jury at a shared
       Jury Officers station adjacent to the courtrooms within the jury
       circulation area.

       Jury Officers will deliver meals, beverages and snacks to deliberation
       rooms.

       It must also be possible to provide food service into the assembly
       room to cater for other courts activities, when jury activities are not in
       session, or juries deliberating in this area.

xii.   Deliberation
       Only a jury of 12 retires to consider their verdict in the deliberation
       room. At this stage remaining empanelled jurors will be dismissed
       and escorted to the assembly room to book out.

       Deliberation can be a stressful experience. For this reason a
       comfortable environment is needed and space for dining provided.
       Each deliberation suite must include two toilets, one designed for use
       by the disabled.

       An external view to outdoor space is highly desirable. It would also
       be desirable to have access into a shared outdoor space (and for use
       by smokers) on a time separation basis with other juries, and
       managed to keep juries separated if required. This space must be
       out of view from surrounding buildings and from the public.

xiii. Sequestering
      The jury remain together until a verdict is reached.

       At the end of the day the judge monitors the likelihood of the need to
       continue deliberation into the next day. If so, the jury and Jury Officer
       can be sequestered at a hotel, for overnight accommodation.

       Access to the hotel will be through a secure vehicle access zone,
       where taxi’s can enter by special arrangement or, jurors can be
       transported by a court arranged bus.
                                                                              109
                                                             SECTION C


xiv. Verdict
     Once the jury has “reached agreement”, they return to the courtroom,
     and announce their verdict.

xv. Dismissal
     The jury is dismissed by the judge in the courtroom. The Jury Officer
     escorts the jury to the assembly room where they book out and exit
     discretely.

xvi. Special Requirements

     Movement of Jury Persons
     In all cases, the jury panels, and in particular sequestered and
     empanelled jurors are kept separate from all other trial participants.
     For this reason, jury persons must be able to move into and out of the
     Facilities via the following alternate routes:

     a.    Via a readily accessible access between the jury assembly
           room and the general entry area to the Facilities.

     b.    Direct access between the jury assembly room and a secure
           exit for access to group transport in special circumstances.

     c.    Via a dedicated circulation area without having to circulate
           through any public space.

     All jury persons must be able to return to the assembly room to book
     out, and / or receive documentation for payment, and also to retrieve
     personal items before leaving the Courthouse.

     Lockers for Empanelled Jurors
     They will be given access to individual secure lockers to store
     personal items if needed. A space for storing personal items such as
     umbrellas needs to be provided.




                                                                        110
                                                                            SECTION C


12.2.   Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences

        Activity Flow: Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences – Judicial Officers
        (Note: This diagram does not represent a floor plan)




                                                                                   111
                                                                        SECTION C

A.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – Mediation and Pre-Trial
     Conferences

     i.    Enter the Conference Room
           The Judicial Officer enters the conference room through a separate
           security controlled door from the judicial restricted circulation system
           or court administration area and summons the litigants from the
           waiting area into either Pre-Trial conference room or adjacent
           meeting room.

     ii.   Liaise with Litigants
           The Judicial Officer moves between the parties in either room to help
           the discussions reach a resolution.




                                                                                112
                                                                  SECTION C


B.   Activity Flow: Mediation and Pre-Trial Conferences – Counsel and Litigants
     (Note: This diagram does not represent a floor plan)




                                                                            113
                                                                     SECTION C

C.   Activity Description For Activity Flow - Mediations

     i.     Arrival/Orientation
            Litigants and counsel arrive at the general entry to the courts
            complex, in advance of proceedings. They may need reference to
            Listings information on their appointment. They may also need clear
            direction to the conference room area, or attend to the matters at
            court registry.

     ii.    Security Check
            They have passed through the public Primary Security Checkpoint at
            the entrance prior to moving to any other part of the Courthouse.

     iii.   Waiting
            Litigants and counsel arrive at the conference room and settle into a
            small waiting area, where they should be able to sit and talk with
            counsel, read, work and make phone calls. From the waiting area,
            access must be available to toilets and refreshment facilities. Parties
            should also have access to a user pay photocopy facility within the
            Registry.

            The waiting area must be arranged to afford litigants and their
            counsel some ability for private discussion and an ability to be seated
            away from the opposing party or parties.

     iv.    Conference
            All parties are called into the conference room to attend the
            mediation. Discussion can be heated and stressful, and can continue
            for lengthy periods. A view to the outside is highly desirable but if
            unachievable a minimum provision is the ability to achieve borrowed
            light to help relieve any tension.

            Parties may retire back into the waiting area for tea breaks and make
            use of other facilities.

     v.     Negotiate
            If required, the parties will separate, with one party moving to the
            adjacent meeting room for discussion amongst themselves. The
            parties eventually return to the pre-trial conference room for
            finalisation of the matter and then leave as they arrived. During
            negotiation the parties may retire back into the general public waiting
            area for tea breaks and make use of the facilities.




                                                                                114
                                                                             SECTION C


12.3.   Trials and Hearings Support

        Activity Flow: Trials and Hearings Support
        (Note: The diagram represents a generic circulation for Child and Adult
                   Vulnerable Witnesses).




        A.   Activity Description for Activity Flow – Trials and Hearing Support

             i.    Reception
                   Staff within area are responsible for the security of the area and
                   control access through the door. CWS clients are not to wait outside
                   the secured CWS area and are to be provided with tea / coffee or

                                                                                    115
                                                                   SECTION C

       cold drinks by the attending staff within the service not outside of the
       area.

       (The tea prep area within CWS needs to be arranged to ensure no
       access is possible by young children).

       A security intercom and CCTV system should be provided to allow
       CWS administration staff to see and talk to people wishing to enter
       the facility, and to unlock the door.

ii.    Waiting
       The general waiting area is organised into two small areas that can
       accommodate adults and children separately.

       It is critical to the success of this service that children feel welcome to
       use the space; ample sunlight, a view out, possibly a secured outdoor
       area, bright colours and a fun atmosphere will contribute greatly.

       It is important that the two (2) co-located CCTV rooms are
       acoustically isolated from adjacent waiting area, so that any noise
       generated by those waiting cannot transfer into a courtroom via audio
       visual links whilst evidence is being given.

iii.   Discussion
       This is the primary task of the service, where children are prepared to
       give evidence in court. This involves discussions between the child, a
       parent or friend, and the CWPO member as well as one on one
       preparation between the CWPO and the child. The offices of the
       preparation staff must be large enough for the children to play on the
       floor and to accommodate family members when information is to be
       discussed. The room should afford the children total privacy.

       The process of discussion occurs at several sessions of increasing
       frequency leading up to the trial. The purpose of this consultation is
       to explain the courts processes and to familiarise the child with the
       court and CCTV rooms so that the best evidence can be given.
       Furniture layout in these spaces is critical - with nothing to be
       between the child, the staff member and the CCTV rooms.

       The CWPO's offices require seating for six around a table, floor
       space to work with the children, and usually office furniture and
       equipment, including toy storage. CWPO's see all clients in their
       usual office not in a separate “discussion room”.

iv.    Giving Evidence
       Evidence is given in two ways, either in court, with a screen
       separating the child-witness from other participants in the trial, or via
       a closed circuit television (CCTV) system with a CCTV room as a part
       of the CWS. (Note: evidence in open court is rare).

       Evidence given in court is covered elsewhere in this document under
       section C - Trials and Hearings. Assumes access into the open public
       zone and through the security check to the courtroom.

       The CCTV facilities are acoustically attenuated rooms with two
       television monitors and a video camera that allows live
       communication between the child witness and other trial participants
                                                                               116
                                                                              SECTION C

                    in the courtroom. When the child is giving evidence there is a
                    “support person” (a relative or friend) and a CWS officer. There
                    should be only one entry into each CCTV room.

                    When, or after giving evidence in the CCTV room it is desirable that
                    the child be debriefed by the CWS officer. This takes place by the
                    child and worker returning to the CWS office, which will be located
                    near to the CCTV rooms. These facilities need to be located close to
                    one another.

             v.     Debriefing
                    This takes place after the witness has given evidence and occurs in
                    the staff offices as does stage 3 - discussion. The same design
                    principles apply, it is not an additional provision.


12.4.   Legal and Support Agencies

        A.   Activity Description for Activity Flow - Legal and Support Agencies
             (External)

             i.     Arrival/Orientation/Reception
                    Lawyers and general public arrive at the general entry to the Facilities
                    with public being directed by way of clear signage.

             ii.    Waiting
                    Clients who have arranged to meet lawyers will be expected to wait
                    outside of the respective courtrooms. The lawyers handling the case
                    will interview their client within interview rooms accessible from the
                    public waiting areas before making their way to courtrooms.

                    The interview room will be nominated by Courts Administration and
                    be lockable, with counsel provided with appropriate keyed access on
                    the day / days of the trial. Interview rooms will be used for robing and
                    workspace.

             iii.   Interview
                    Clients having passed through the Primary Security Checkpoint shall
                    have access to the interview rooms associated with courtrooms.
                    Clients or witnesses called by lawyers will be interviewed in these
                    rooms.

             iv.    Lawyers Entry Point
                    Lawyers shall access the Courthouse via the public entry through
                    security control.




                                                                                         117
                                                                               SECTION C

12.5.   Judiciary




        A.   Activity Description For Activity Flow - Judiciary

             i.     Approach by vehicle
                    The judicial officers will arrive by vehicle and enter the site through a
                    secure entry. The space through which the vehicle has to move, on
                    site and wait for entry, must be discrete and remote from public
                    gathering spaces.

             ii.    Parking
                    The Judicial Officer enters through a controlled access point into the
                    Judicial Secure Parking Area.



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                                                              SECTION C

iii.   Chambers
       The Judicial Officer then moves through the secure circulation to his
       or her chambers.

iv.    Support Facilities
       In the course of a day, Judicial Officers will move between chambers,
       the courtroom suite, library within chambers and meeting or
       conference rooms, within the restricted zone.

v.     Trials and Hearings
       From the chambers zone, the Judicial Officers will move to and from
       the courtrooms and Hearings, including their adjournment spaces
       through the secure judicial circulatory system. The associate and
       usher will assist in moving file trolleys and exhibits.




                                                                         119
                                                                     SECTION C




B.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – Judicial Visitors

     i.     Arrival/Orientation
            Visitors arrive at the general entry to the Facilities.
     ii.    Enquiry and waiting
            Visitors will be directed to chambers after they have registered at the
            reception desk (within public foyer) or the Registry.
     iii.   Chambers
            The visitor will be escorted to chambers by Courts Administration
            staff. Visitors then leave as they arrived, escorted or directed to the
            reception area, where they will check out.




                                                                                120
                                                                           SECTION C

12.6.   Custody




        B.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – Persons in Custody

             i.   Approach and Vehicle Access
                  The vehicle must be able to select its route of egress from the site,
                  irrespective of its route of arrival. The vehicle must enter and leave
                  the site in a forward direction. The space through which the vehicle
                  has to move, must be exclusive use and not accessible to or
                  overlooked by the public.
                                                                                     121
                                                                 SECTION C

ii.    Arrival
       On being positively identified by the courts security staff, the vehicle
       enters the vehicle sally port directly.

       In the event that the transport is provided by Police or Corrections
       officer and they need to proceed further into the Custody Centre, they
       must place their firearms in a secure firearms locker to be provided
       within the vehicle sally port.

       During the PIC management process, a number of actions occur and
       are recorded in court systems. These are:

          •   log PIC in and record, search, property, legal and interview
              requirements;
          •   record movements, record events (medication issue, meals,
              searches, phone calls, visitors, incidents etc.) and location;
          •   record theme of court results and record receipt of correct
              paperwork ex court;
          •   facilitate bail or release and discharge from custody including
              log out.

iii.   Assemble
       The PIC are managed out of the vehicle. During this process the
       driving officer remains in the vehicle or the vehicle keys are secured
       outside the sally port.

       The PIC are stood in line and subjected to a search. A handover
       then occurs to court custody with relevant identification and
       documentation.

iv.    Processing/Search
       Prior to moving into the Custody Centre there may be a requirement
       for a more intensive search which is conducted in a search room.
       Occasionally, there may be a need for a PIC to shower. (A PIC may
       attempt to soil themselves to sabotage a trial). Showers are
       conducted in a PIC shower.

       Each PIC is recorded as entering the Custody Centre and taken
       directly to a cell.

v.     Bailee Holding Facility
       Accused on bail who are required to surrender to the Custody Centre
       will report to the registry counter and then be escorted to the Custody
       Centre and held in the Bail Holding room before proceeding to court.
       Depending on current operational policy or direction of the court,
       accused could proceed to court via the public circulation, rather than
       attend the Custody Centre.

vi.    PIC Interview/Meetings
       PIC need to receive visits from officials and their lawyers. Visits will
       take place in non-contact interview cubicles.

       Provision must be made to transfer documents between parties
       during non-contact visits. This must occur through a centralised
       security lock within which appropriate and efficient screening for
       contraband can take place. Staff will manage the process and the
                                                                            122
                                                                SECTION C

       document transfer unit shall be of an open style to allow full visual
       surveillance of all transactions.

       PIC may require controlled / monitored access to a telephone to call a
       lawyer or contact a person to go surety for bail.

       Legal counsel or visitors to accused will communicate with the
       Custody Centre via intercom at the visitors entry to the Custody
       Centre located off the public waiting area and then be directed to the
       relevant non-contact interview room.

vii.   Courtroom Holding
       It should be possible to move those PIC involved in matters in a high
       risk courtroom directly between the sally port and the holding cells of
       that courtroom.

       These holding rooms are also used for adjournments and need to be
       self-contained with access to a toilet and a washbasin. Separate
       holding for males and females needs to be provided, and for singles
       and groups.

viii. Trial
      Accused PIC activities within the courtroom are dealt with under
      Section C.4 Trials.

       Accused PIC who are found guilty are returned directly to the Custody
       Centre and are then managed in reverse flow to the above.

       Accused PIC found not guilty (provided that they are not on a "Return
       to Prison Order" or subject to other charges that they do not have Bail
       on) need be given the opportunity to walk free from the dock into the
       courtroom. Currently an officer accompanies them back to the
       visitor’s entry lobby at the Custody Centre area, where they gain
       access, and collect personal items before being discharged.

       However, most will be taken back to the Custody Centre through the
       secure circulation system, and discharged through the Courthouse
       entry lobby.

       Accused persons from Bail who are found guilty and given an
       immediate sentence, or remanded into custody to await sentencing
       will return to the Custody Centre, via PIC circulation.




                                                                           123
                                                                     SECTION C




C.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – PIC on Bail Surrendering to the
     Courtroom


                                                                                124
                                                                 SECTION C

i.     Arrival/Orientation
       Accused may require directions from the courts entry after passing
       through security check.

ii.    Support and Check-in
       Accused may report to Legal Aid, a welfare support group, or meet
       with counsel, prior to checking in at the Registry and then being
       accompanied or directed to a court room.

iii.   Waiting
       Will wait either in or directly outside the courtroom with their counsel.
       When called, will attend to the front of the Court as directed (either
       into the dock or at the table with their legal representative).

iv.    Trial
       If found not guilty, the accused leaves in reverse order to the above.

v.     Search
       If found guilty and a custodial sentence is imposed, or if bail revoked,
       the accused is taken from the dock into the secure circulation
       corridor, where he or she has a pat-down search prior to accessing
       the Custody Centre.

vi.    Holding
       As for PIC held in custody.




                                                                             125
                                                                    SECTION C

(Note: This diagram does not represent a floor plan)




D.   Activity Description For Activity Flow – Surrendering from Bail into Custody
     Centre
                                                                               126
                                                                                   SECTION C


                  i.     Arrival/Orientation
                         The accused may require directions from the courts entry.          The
                         reception point may be after the Security Check point.

                  ii.    Security Check
                         The accused will then pass through the public Primary Security
                         Checkpoint.

                  iii.   Support
                         The accused may report to Legal Aid, a Welfare support group, or
                         meet with counsel prior to checking in at the Custody Centre or
                         courtroom.

                  iv.    Check in / Reception at Custody Centre
                         On being identified, the accused will enter the Custody Centre
                         through the visitor’s entry and report at the reception desk. Secure
                         storage needs to be available for the safekeeping of bailee’s personal
                         property.

                  v.     Check in at Courtroom
                         On being identified by the dock guard, the accused will enter the
                         courtroom dock. Subject to the trial Judicial Officer’s direction, there
                         may be a requirement for the accused to be searched at the
                         courtroom holding cell prior to the trial commencing. Secure storage
                         needs to be available for the safekeeping of bailee’s personal
                         property within the holding cell area.

                  vi.    Processing/Search
                         If surrendering to the Custody Centre (as per paragraph 4), prior to
                         moving to a courtroom, the accused will be subject to a search.

                  vii.   Interview
                         The PIC may need to receive visits from officials and their counsel.
                         This will take place in non-contact interview rooms.

                  viii. Courtroom Holding/Adjournment
                        (As for activity flow for PIC held in custody)

                  ix.    Trial
                         (As for activity flow for PIC held in custody)

                         If found not guilty, the accused leaves in reverse order to the above.
                         If found guilty, the accused is taken from the dock back to the
                         Custody Centre.

13.   Police Courts

                  These are Magistrates Courts integral with police stations.

                  Type C Court:

                  The WAPOL shall provide visiting DotAG staff with access to the police
                  station’s amenities room, staff toilets and vehicle parking compound.
                  Where a dedicated Magistrate’s room is not provided the Magistrate he/she
                  shall be given access to a room with a desk and telephone.

                                                                                              127
                                                                SECTION C

Visiting Counsel shall have access to the interview rooms.

The WAPOL will ensure that the courtrooms external building fabric and
areas are maintained to a standard consistent with the overall complex.


The following is to be provided:

•   Dedicated courtroom minimum size 6.5 metres x 10 metres to cater for
    up to 24 people.
•   Conduits for future AV System.
•   Conduits for transcription equipment cabling. Provide audio recording
    equipment including fixed microphones for the bench, witness stand,
    accused dock and bar table x 2 together with a telephone line into the
    courtroom situated on the JSO bench with speakers for the telephone
    on the bench and bar tables.
•   Separate entries to be provided for the police station and for the
    courtroom.
•   Dedicated Magistrates room that is accessible directly from secure
    parking for the Magistrate’s motor vehicle. Room to include:
•   Desk and chairs (allow 2 for Justices of the Peace) with a dedicated dial
    up line and telephone line.
•   Sufficient power points, telephone and computer port.
•   Secure access between Magistrate’s room and the courtroom.
•   Private toilet facilities.
•   Courtroom to have appropriate signage.
•   Provide weather protection for rain and sun for outdoor courts waiting.
•   Using an “air lock” as a covered/protected waiting area in addition to the
    seating capacity of the courtroom.
•   Courtroom to be fitted out with a Magistrate’s bench on a dais, two
    risers high. Two chairs. A fixed long table for Counsel to sit up to four
    chairs, a dock for the accused and the witness, possibly made out of
    simple MDF balustrade, one riser high. A JSO workstation one riser
    high. Provide seating in the gallery for 24 people approximately. State
    Crest. Bar top lecterns x 2. Network connections for remote dial up for
    the JSO and the Magistrate. Sufficient sound-proofing from outside
    noise. A desk and chair for the orderly. The JSO position raised one
    step for better view as should each the witness stand and the dock. The
    JSO position to be of sufficient size to cater for computer equipment
    (including printer). The witness stand to have a bench type top given
    the increasing incidents of witnesses referring to statements and
    exhibits.
•   Provide duress alarm under magistrate’s bench and JSO’s desk.
•   Electrical Engineer to speak to Manager Audio Visual Systems, Courts
    Technology Group (DotAG) regarding court recording, audio visual
    requirements. Including the provision of TV and Video/DVD recorder to
    play records of interview. (All new courts should at least have the basic
    polycom system installed from day 1).
•   Air lock to front entry of courtroom approx. 4 metres X 6 metres. This
    may serve as a covered waiting area with say seating for 25 – 40
    persons.
•   2 x interview rooms adjacent to courtroom 3 metres x 3 metres with
    access from the waiting area.
•   Public access toilet accessible from the waiting area.


                                                                           128
                                                               SECTION C


Police Operations Rooms:

In regional localities with a low court workload, court proceedings shall be
held in the operations room of the local police station. In some locations
the police station has a full courtroom. As these facilities are redeveloped,
and in consultation with the DotAG, these facilities are being replaced with
either a Type C courtroom or a police operations room. The WAPOL is
responsible for the construction, maintenance and operating costs. The
local Officer in Charge is responsible for managing the use of the facility.

The police operations’ room shall have enough floor area to comfortably
conduct a court sitting and will include the following standard government
issue loose furniture that can be configured as follows:
• Judicial desk and chairs (allow for 2 visitors chairs)
• Witness table and chair
• Dock table and chair
• Bar table (for at least 4 people)
• Public seating (allow 10 seats)
• Judicial Support desk and chair
• Table and chairs for Prosecutor and Counsel
• Table and chair for Orderly.

The room shall also include:
• Sufficient sound proofing from outside noise
• Conduits for future cabling of video conferencing facilities
• Network connection for remote dial up for Magistrate and Judicial
   Support Officer.

The DotAG may at its discretion provide the following items:
• State crest
• Collapsible witness stand in lieu of table
• Collapsible dock in lieu of table
• Bar top lecterns (2).

The WAPOL will ensure that the courtrooms are maintained to a standard
consistent with the overall complex.

The WAPOL shall provide visiting DotAG staff with access to the police
station’s amenities room, staff toilets and vehicle parking compound. The
Magistrate shall be given access to a room with a desk and telephone.

Visiting Counsel shall have access to interview rooms provided adjacent to
the courtroom (in a Type C circumstance) or interview rooms within the
police station.




                                                                          129
                                                                                    SECTION D

D.   Building Engineering Services Specification
1.   Introduction

     1.1.    General

             A.    General
                  An intelligent BMS that reduces running costs and optimises efficient use of
                  energy shall be provided. Systems shall be designed to minimise whole of
                  life cost.

             B.    Service Authorities
                   i.   The Consultant shall be responsible for complying with the
                        requirements of all statutory authorities and/or private companies
                        which supply services to the Facilities including water, sewerage,
                        drainage, gas, electricity and telecommunications.
                   ii.  Access shall conform with the requirements of AS 1428.1.
                        Additionally, all external and internal facilities shall have regard to the
                        provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.
                   iii. The building engineering design principles relating to the Facilities
                        relate to creating a building that:
                        a.    is of a high quality;
                        b.    full of light;
                        c.    satisfies the spatial requirements for court rooms and Court
                              Users; and
                        d.    is able to meet the current and future needs of the State.
             B.    Service Authorities
             C.    Materials
                  The types of materials to be used for the construction are to be high quality,
                  robust and low maintenance and shall contribute to the overall physical
                  impression and attractiveness of the Facilities.

             D.   Finishes
                  Surface treatments and applied finishes shall be durable, long wearing, low
                  maintenance and shall also be visually appealing.

             E.    Flexibility
                  The services within the Facilities shall be flexible, adaptable and easily able
                  to be altered to increase and/or decrease the sizes and layouts of
                  courtrooms, office areas and the like.

             F.   Acoustics
                  i.   Acoustic conditions should be appropriate to the range of activities
                       that may be conducted in the various spaces and should take into
                       account their relation to adjacent spaces and external conditions.
                       Noise producing areas and mechanisms (such as lifts, lift control
                       rooms, escalators etc.) and noise sensitive areas (such as
                       courtrooms, administration areas etc.) should be positioned to
                       minimise interference. Courtrooms should not be positioned next to
                       lift wells if it can be avoided.
                  ii.  The Noise Rating (NR) numbers for ambient noise levels within
                       spaces specified in this Section are the background noise intensity
                       criteria for unoccupied rooms and should not be exceeded. Privacy
                       ratings are to be used as a basis for the selection of construction
                       materials for walls, floors, ceilings and doors and equipment.
                  iii. For further detail on acoustic conditions and requirements refer to
                       Part F of this Design Brief (Acoustic and Sound Reinforcement
                       Specification).
                                                                                                130
                                                                           SECTION D


       G.    Custodial Areas
            The engineering services design in these areas shall comply with the
            Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0 - Planning Guidelines as
            relevant to Custodial Areas.

       H.    Intent
            Where a product, item, finish or the like is identified by name, catalogue
            number, serial number or the like, that product, item, finish or the like may
            be replaced by an alternative. Where an alternative is proposed it shall, so
            far as reasonably practical be of equivalent or better quality and design
            characteristics to the item being replaced shall otherwise satisfy the
            requirements of the Design Brief, and shall in any event be endorsed by the
            State.

1.2.   Communications Services

       A.   General
            i.  Performance Requirements
                a.   The following performance description relates to the provisions
                     required for the communications systems and the proposed
                     objectives.
                b.   The communications systems included are:
                        • Building Engineering System Backbone;
                        • Building Telephone Cabling System;
                        • Communications Cabling Systems;
                        • MATV System;
                        • Public Address System;
                        • Custodial Area Communications Systems;
                        • Listing display systems cabling; and
                        • Public information kiosk cabling.

            ii.    Standards
                      In addition to the compliance requirements detailed in the general
                      section of this Design Brief, the works shall comply with the
                      following:

                       Australian Standards
                   •   AS/NZS 3000
                   •   AS/NZS 3080 and normative references
                   •   AS 3084
                   •   AS 1367
                   •   AS 1417
                   •   AS 3007
                   •   AS/ACIF S008
                   •   AS/ACIF S009
                   •   ACA TCPR
                   •   ACA CRCPR

            iii.   Design Life and Durability
                     The communications cabling systems shall be designed to
                     minimise requirements for rewiring to suit emerging technologies.
                     Minimum design life of 15 years shall be provided for backbone
                     and horizontal cabling systems.

                                                                                      131
                                                                     SECTION D

     iv.   Maintainability
           a.   The communications system shall be designed to allow
                maintenance activity to all equipment.
           b.   Special attention shall be given to ensure the serviceability of all
                equipment, particularly access to equipment cupboards and
                risers.
           c.   The incoming services and system backbone shall be designed
                such that in the event of refurbishment / maintenance works an
                alternative backbone is available maintaining the system at user
                level fully operational.

     v.    Flexibility
           a.   The communications system shall be constructed to allow
                flexibility for future expansion, refurbishment and emerging
                cabling technologies.
           b.   The communications system shall be designed to allow future
                increase in population / equipment density at 50% to each area
                provided with communications systems equipment.
           c.   All access provisions shall be based on the most advanced
                industry standard at the time of installation.

     vi.   Sustainability
             The cabling systems shall be designed to minimise the number of
             cables required eg Category 6 (Cat 6) with individual cable per
             service vs Cat 7 with multiple services through a single cable and
             minimise frequency of rewiring (eg dark fibre within Cat 7 cable).

              The suitability of Category 6 vs Category 7 communications
              cabling shall be determined for each project.

B.   Incoming Communications Cabling
     i.   Two suitable building entry points for lead in cables shall be provided.
     ii.  Cable support systems including conduits and draw wires shall be
          provided for lead in cabling.
     iii. Lead in cable access shall be provided for the following
          Telecommunications Service Providers:
          • 1 primary service provider;
          • 2 alternative service providers;
          • minimum of 4 other future service providers.
     iv.  All lead in cables shall be run through cable access system and the
          conduits / trays shall not be run exposed through public areas such
          as car parks. Where cable supports run through a car park or public
          areas, they shall be enclosed in secure ducting. Where access is
          restricted by cast in conduits, or the security measures, prevent ready
          access, cable supports shall utilise conduits with a minimum of 50%
          additional spare conduits, complete with draw wires, for future
          access.
     v.   The conduits shall be provided as a minimum for the primary entry
          point:
          • 2 x 100 dia conduits for the primary service provider run through to
             the main communications room.
          • 2 x 100 dia conduits for alternative Telecommunications Services
             Provider(s) run through to the main communications room.
          • 4 x 32 dia conduits capped at each end through the boundary wall
             into the building main communications room for future
             Telecommunications Service Providers.
                                                                                 132
                                                                     SECTION D

     vi.     The following conduit shall be provided as a minimum for the
             secondary entry point:
             • 2 x 100 dia conduits for the primary service provider run through to
                the main communications room.
             • 2 x 100 dia conduit for alternative Telecommunications Services
                Provider(s) run through to the main communications room.
             • 4 x 32 dia conduits, capped at each end, through the boundary
                wall into the building main communications room for future
                Telecommunications Service Providers.
     vii.    Similar cable access provision shall be provided from the main
             communications room to the AV central equipment room.
     viii.   The lead in cabling shall be terminated on a BD frame.
     ix.     The BD frame shall be a Krone type frame and have separate
             securable (lockable) sections, with each section provided with a
             minimum of 50% spare spaces, for the following:
             • incoming cabling;
             • AV communications system cabling to the AV system central
                equipment room;
             • building telephone cabling backbone terminations;
             • Telecommunications Services Providers.
     x.      The BD shall be housed in a 2 hour fire rated main communications
             room.

C.   Building Engineering Communications System Backbone
     i.   The building engineering communications system backbone cabling
          system shall include:
          • BMS backbone (refer to Section “Mechanical Services” for further
             detail of the system);
          • lighting control system backbone;
     ii.  While the systems listed above use separate head ends, the use of
          shared backbone and facility cabling is encouraged.
     iii. The building engineering communications systems shall be separate
          from the AV communications backbone cabling systems.

D.   Building Telephone Cabling System
     i.   The building telephone backbone cabling shall be separate from the
          AV communications system and will service third party items such as
          vending machine monitoring systems, public telephones, lift
          emergency telephones, electricity network operator’s scada system,
          fire alarms and any other vendor specific monitoring systems. The
          cabling is envisaged to utilise Category 3 cables and provide a
          minimum of 30% or 20 spare pairs per level, which ever is greater,
          over and above identified equipment requirements.
     ii.  100% space riser space and termination frame space shall be
          provided for future.

E.   Voice and Data Communications Cabling System
     i.   General
              The LAN shall be separate from the AV LAN and include the
              following:
          • fibre backbone;
          • redundant fibre backbone;
          • structured horizontal cabling system for voice and data systems;
          • Telephone tie-lines from each floor to the main communications
             room.

                                                                                133
                                                              SECTION D

ii.    Communications Rooms/Cupboards
          Main Communications Room
       a.  The room(s) shall be 2 hour fire separated from the remainder
           of the floor and shall house the main computer equipment, BD,
           PABX and associated equipment.
       b.  The main communications room shall meet the following
           requirements:
              • be designed to AS 3080 and AS 3084;
              • be locked, monitored by the security system and provided
                 with access control;
              • be provided with 24 hour air conditioning and positive
                 pressurisation;
              • be provided with antistatic flooring.
       c.  The room air conditioning system shall be a dedicated system
           with 1+n redundancy maintaining the following conditions 24
           hours a day, 7 days a week:
              • dry bulb temperature 21oC;P




              • relative humidity 50%.
       d.  The fire detection system shall include VESDA. Output signals
           from the VESDA shall be made available to facilitate server
           shutdown in the event of operation of a VESDA alarm level.
       e.  The fire protection system shall not include wet sprinkler system
           within the room.
       f.  The power supply to the main communications room distribution
           board shall utilise dedicated 2 hour fire rated feeders from a
           main switchboard.
       g.  A direct, dedicated and secure cable access shall be provided:
              • from the AV communications room to the main
                 communications room;
              • to the main communications risers.
       h.  The main communications room security shall include:
              • Card key access and monitoring to all doors.
              • Monitoring of the various computer room alarms.
       i.  The main communication room shall be equipped with 1 off, 45
           RU, 900 x 600 server cabinets complete with all terminations
           and power supplies in addition to the horizontal cabling cabinet.

          Floor Communications Rooms/Cupboards
       a.   Floor communications rooms/cupboards shall house the floor
            distributor (FD) racks (24 RU 600x600), be designed to
            AS 3084, and shall be located centrally to limit the physical
            length of communications cabling to 90 m and the total channel
            length to 100 m. The racks shall be 24 RU 600 x 600 and be
            complete with all cabling terminations and power supplies.
       b.   Easy access shall be provided from the communications
            room/cupboards to the area serviced.
       c.   The rooms/cupboards shall be lockable with security
            monitoring. Automatic remote alarm outputs of all associated
            equipment shall be provided to maintenance personnel.

iii.   Cabling
          LAN Backbone Cabling
       a.   Provide all initial and future cabling for the LAN backbone
            cabling system.

                                                                         134
                                                               SECTION D

b.     The LAN backbone cabling system shall originate from the main
       communications room/cupboard and terminate at the floor
       distributor racks at the floor communications rooms/cupboards
       within the Building
c.     The Building backbone cabling shall use multi mode fibre
       cabling. The cabling shall be OM2 or greater. A minimum of 24
       cores per floor shall be provided.
d.     The telephone tie lines from each floor to the main
       Communications Room shall use Cat 3 cabling with a minimum
       of 100 pair per floor.

     LAN Horizontal Cabling for LAN
a.     The horizontal cabling to accommodate the LAN shall be
       designed as a structured cabling system to AS 3080 and
       associated communications standards. The cabling system
       shall be current industry standard at the time of installation
       however for court security fibre to desktop cabling may need to
       be considered in selected areas. Provide all initial and future
       cabling for the LAN horizontal cabling system.
b.     Rewirable access of the LAN horizontal cabling to the court
       benches without need to penetrate to floor below shall be
       provided. Cable access system shall provide easy rewiring
       provision and a minimum of 30% spare space. Clearances
       between the communications and power cabling shall be
       maintained within the access provision to meet the
       requirements of the cabling system a minimum of 150 mm
       separation shall be maintained for long parallel runs where UTP
       communications cabling is used.
c.     There are three different courtroom types ranging from standard
       to video conferencing and full electronic court as detailed in the
       Section I Audio Visual and Transcription System.
d.     The horizontal cabling system shall be fully cabled in all courts
       to ultimately allow conversion to a fully electronic court type
       without disrupting room surfaces or necessitating construction
       of new access routes or equipment spaces. Rewirable access
       spaces shall also be provided in all courts to allow for future
       cable upgrades.
e.     All cable access provisions for horizontal cabling systems
       including skirting ducts, ducts incorporated in furnishings or
       floors shall be sized to suit installation requirements such as
       bending radius of future proposed communications cabling
       systems.
f.     Communications outlets shall be provided to meet the
       functional requirements of all areas and as required for
       equipment provided by the Consultant.
g.     Communication outlets shall be provided in the Courts as
       detailed in the Section Audio Visual and Transcription Services.
       Communication outlets shall be provided at each individual
       workstation including counter positions, offices and the like and
       in all meeting type rooms. The basic workstation allocation
       shall be three (3) communication outlets. Communication
       outlets in meeting rooms and larger offices shall be provided
       with three (3) communication outlets per 10 m2 of internal area.
                                                       P   P




       Communication outlets shall also be provided for faxes, printers
       and the like on the basis of one (1) outlet per 30 m2 in office,
                                                                 P   P




       storage and Registry areas. Communications outlets shall also
       be provided in resource rooms, reproduction/utility rooms,
                                                                         135
                                                              SECTION D

             media facilities, staff rooms and the like to suit functional
             requirement.
      h.     Provide communications outlets (and associated power outlets)
             for the connection of wireless data transmitters at high level.

iv.   Work Station Layout
        Each individual workstation shall have:
             • An enhanced triple category SIX data outlet.
             • 4 GPO power outlets. Two of the four power outlets
                require a dedicated, surge protected computer use circuit
                and should be marked as such.

v.    Port Density and Environment Configuration
         The following configuration should be used at all sites regardless
         of size. The following items are REQUIRED as standard.
         (Field Outlet Terminations)
               • Series 2000 faceplates or any approved equivalent
                  faceplates.
               • Category 6 Inline RJ45 Outlets in: Black only
          (Data Cabling Terminations Within Comms Cabinets)
               • 32 Port 1RU ONLY Patch Panel with BLACK ports
               • Horizontal 1RU Cable Management Panel
         ** Note - One Cable Management Panel Is Required Per Patch
         Panel Used.

           (Telephone/Voice Backbone Terminations Within Comms
           Cabinets)
                • 32 Port 1RU ONLY Patch Panel with WHITE ports
                • Horizontal 1RU Cable Management Panel
           ** Note - One Cable Management Panel Is Required Per Patch
           Panel Used.

vi.   Cabinet Specifications
        The common configurations are shown below. These comprise of
        the standard 45RU equipment cabinet, the 45RU server cabinet,
        and the 12RU & 24RU equipment cabinets. Smaller cabinets can
        be utilised on a case-by-case basis only with prior consultation
        from the Telecommunications Section.
              • Cabinets shall be secured to the floor or wall.
              • All Cabinets shall be earthed using 2.5mm green/yellow
                 earthing cable.
              • The cabinets below are EXAMPLES ONLY and
                 equivalent spec cabinets can be used.

      a.    45RU Data Cabinet Spec (+10 users with no servers)
      External Dimensions: 2115mm(H)x625mm(W)x605mmD
      DESCRIPTION                                   QTY
      45RU 19” 2100x600mm Deep Data Cabinet         1
      Acrylic, Perspex Door 45Rux19”                1
      45RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                    1
      10 Way Vertical Power Rail                    1
      2-Fan 19”x600 Top Panel                       1
      19”x450mm Deep Fixed Shelf                    4
      Cabinet Cable Trays                           1
      1RU Cable Management Rings                    8
                                                                         136
                                                                 SECTION D


        b.   45ru Server Cabinet Specs (+10 users and servers/possibility
             of)
        External Dimensions: 2115mm(H)x625mm(W)x905mmD
        DESCRIPTION                                  QTY
        45RUx19” 2100x900mm Deep Server Cabinet      1
        45RUx19” Vented Steel Door                   1
        45RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                   1
        10 Way Vertical Power Rail                   1
        2-Fan 19”x900 Top Panel                      1
        19”x700mm Deep Fixed Shelf                   3
        19”x600mm Deep Sliding Shelf                 1

        c.   24RU Data Cabinet Specifications (Specific Application Only)
        External Dimensions: 1215mm(H)x625mm(W)x605mm(D)
        DESCRIPTION                                        QTY
        24RUx19” 1215x600mm Deep Cabinet                   1
        24RUx19” Acrylic, Perspex Door                     1
        24RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                         1
        5 Way Horizontal Power Rail                        1
        19”x450mm Deep Fixed Shelf                         2

        d.   12RU Data Cabinet Specifications (1 – 5 users with no servers)
             (SECONDARY CABINET ONLY UNLESS OTHERWISE
             STATED)
        External Dimensions: 600mm(H)x535mm(W)x470mm(D)
        DESCRIPTION                                        QTY
        12RUx19” 600x450mm Deep Cabinet Inc. Door          1
        5 Way Horizontal Power Rail                        1

vii.    Cabinet Clearances
          The telecommunications room that houses the data/server
          cabinets shall be sized to suit the quantity of racks to be installed
          and requires the following minimum clearances to the rear, front
          and to the sides of the data/server cabinets.
                • Cabinet Rear 600mm between cabinet rear and adjacent
                  wall.
                • Cabinet Side 400mm between cabinet side and adjacent
                  wall.
                • Cabinet Front 1000mm between cabinet front and
                  adjacent wall.
          Please see room layout at end of this Section.

viii.   Cable Specifications
           The minimum standard of cable brand and type should follow as
           per the list below. Please note the vendors listed below are NOT
           in any particular order.
        a.    Data Installation
                • Beldon Category 6 cable.
                • Prestolite/Krone Category 6 cable or TrueNet Cable.
                • Alcatel Category 6 cable.
                • Molex Category 6 cable.
                • AMP Category 6 cable.
                • Clipsal Category 6 cable.
                                                                            137
                                                              SECTION D

              • Or any other vendors cable that meets or exceeds the
                 Category 6 standard.
      b.   Fibre installation
              • Fibre optic cabling is to be installed with SC terminations
                 and a 1RU FOBOT.
              • Blown Fibre can be utilised in certain cases with prior
                 consultation only.
              • All in-building fibre cabling shall be Multi-Mode.
              • All external fibre cabling shall be Multi-Mode unless
                 otherwise advised.
              • Each cable shall be 8 cores or more per run.
      c.   c. Voice installation
              • Voice cabling shall be single pair termination unless
                 otherwise approved.
              • All voice ties will be direct termination from the IDF/MDF
                 to the patch panel.
              • No sub-IDF frame shall be installed into a
                 communications cabinet.
              • Minimum voice tie cable size shall be 20 pairs or above.
              • Each voice tie cable capacity shall be specified by
                 telecommunications staff as required.

ix.   Labelling Standards
      a.   General
              • All telecommunication outlets, cables, patch panel ports
                 and IDC blocks are to be clearly and systematically
                 labelled.
              • Trafolyte labelling 7mm high, with 4mm high black
                 lettering is to be used for the labelling of all
                 telecommunication outlets, fibre optic ports and cabinet
                 identifiers. Refer to AS 3080-1992.
              • Workstation partitioning is to be labelled (non permanent)
                 wherever it conceals the location of a telecommunications
                 outlet.
              • All IDC type blocks are to be identified using the
                 appropriate label holders and marked with permanent
                 pen.
              • Each field cable shall be permanently labelled 150mm
                 from each end.
              • There shall be no duplication of numbers on the patch
                 panels in each communications cabinet.
              • Any cables that have been removed as part of an
                 installation shall have the label removed at both the patch
                 panel end and the telecommunications outlet end.
      b.   Voice
              • Voice patch panels should be marked with the incoming
                 telephone ext, the labels should be left blank and should
                 be updated in pencil only. If the number is not known,
                 voice patch panels should be left blank.
              • All Disconnect Modules are to be labelled in accordance
                 with standard telephone termination conventions.
              • Confirm termination practices / labelling practices with the
                 Department of the Attorney General Telecommunications
                 Section on 9264-6190 or 9263-1319
                                                                         138
                                                                   SECTION D

                    • Voice tie line cables shall be permanently identified by
                     cable tying labels identifying the cable as a voice tie line
                     and the origin and destination of the tie line. This should
                     be placed every two metres for the entirety of the cable
                     run.
            c.   c. Fibre Optics
                   • Fibre optic cable shall be permanently identified by “fibre
                     optic warning” labels every five metres for the entirety of
                     the fibre optic run.
                   • Fibre optic break out terminals shall be identified in
                     trafolyte with a description of the destination of the fibre
                     optic run.
                      E.g. “8 core fibre optic to Level 4 Comms Room”
                   • The fibre optic cores shall be labelled in trafolyte label.

     x.     Colour Coding
               Patch leads should be colour coded at the patch panel end only.
               In the field the colour of the patch leads should be blue without
               exception. For the patch panel end, the following chart lists the
               different colours and their uses.

      Patch Lead       Service Type                 Example
      Colour
      Blue             LAN Services
      White            Voice Services               Telephones, Modem Lines
      Red              Ethernet Cross Over Cable    Between Hubs
      Black            WAN comms                    Servers, Routers

     xi.    Site Warranty Information
               Any major cabling works should be installed with a 15-year
               extended site warranty and depending on the size and scope of
               the installation a 20-year extended warranty should be
               considered.

     xii.   Site Documentation
               After a site is re-cabled or any major data cabling works are
               carried out, site documentation should be returned to the
               Technical Infrastructure section of the Department of the Attorney
               General (9264-6190 or 9264-1319). This documentation should
               consist of the following.
                     • Category 6 enhanced test results for each data port
                       installed, supplied on a CD, no hard copy to be provided.
                     • Fibre optics OTDR test results for each fibre core
                       installed, supplied in a hard copy and in a bound file.
                     • A detailed floor plan should be returned showing the
                       location of all data outlets in the field as well as comms
                       cabinet locations, cable tray locations etc.
                     • Site warranty and any other relevant documentation.

F.   Communications Riser Space Requirements
     i. General
           The following requirements are common to all risers:
        • All communications risers shall have locked and monitored doors
          at each level.

                                                                              139
                                                                        SECTION D

            • Bunding on each level to prevent the ingress of water into the riser
              system; bunding is considered necessary regardless of the vicinity
              of water sources such as cleaners cupboards or tea preparation
              areas, as water from events such as activation of sprinkler
              systems needs to be prevented from entering the riser system.
            • All system communications risers shall be fitted with cable trays
              unless noted otherwise.
            • All tray / ladder fixings shall be offset from the mounting surface
              (i.e. fixings by bolting tray directly to the wall through the tray shall
              not be used).
            • All trays / ladders to be sized with 30% minimum spare capacity
              unless noted otherwise.
            • All communications risers shall be 2 hour fire rated and also be
              provided with floor to floor fire rating.
            • All dimensions given are indicative only and are assumed to be
              clear internal dimensions.

     ii.    Communications System Riser
            a. The communications riser will be utilised to install the LAN data
               backbone cable throughout all levels of the building. The
               communications riser shall be physically segregated from any
               other riser and be located a minimum of 1000 mm from any
               electrical power riser and lift cores and shall be 2 hour fire
               rated. The riser shall be located within, or immediately adjacent
               to, the floor communications rooms on each level and provide
               direct and unobstructed access from the main communications
               room to each level. The riser shall be located on one vertical
               plane throughout the building.
            b. The communications riser penetration shall be 1200 x 300 mm
               minimum with two (2) 600 mm wide trays. Where the riser is
               enclosed in the floor distributor cupboard, no additional
               enclosure is necessary. However where the two are separated,
               lockable and monitored doors shall be provided.

     iii.   AV Riser
            a.   The AV riser shall be used to house the AV LAN and MATV
                 system backbone cabling, public address system cabling and
                 any other courts AV system backbone cabling.
            b.   The riser shall be at a common vertical alignment throughout
                 the building with lockable doors.
            c.   Physical separation of the AV riser from any other services riser
                 is to be considered where necessary for security and to ensure
                 system integrity.
            d.   A redundant AV backbone riser may be necessary subject to
                 reliability considerations.

G.   Audio Visual System
     ii.  General
             Audiovisual systems shall be provided where detailed in Section
             G. Audio Visual and Transcription System.

     iii.   Courtrooms
            a.   There are three different courtroom types ranging from Type C
                 to Type B and Type A electronic courtrooms. The system and
                 equipment requirements at each court type are detailed in the
                 Section G Audiovisual and Transcription System.
                                                                                    140
                                                                   SECTION D

           b.   The court’s AV system and shall be fully cabled to allow all
                courts to be converted to Type B or Type A courtrooms. The
                AV system will include an AV network and all associated
                equipment as detailed in the Section G. Audiovisual and
                Transcription System.
           c.   The AV system shall incorporate all associated UPS as
                necessary to maintain the service requirements detailed in
                Volume 3C Part A and B Audio Visual, Court Recording and
                Transcription Services.

     iv.   AV Communications Rooms and Spaces
           a.  The AV communications rooms and spaces for the courts AV
               system shall include but are not limited to:
                  • AV equipment rack space in each courtroom or in
                     adjacent room (space provision is required for all three
                     types of courts);
                  • AV system central equipment room;
                  • AV system backbone riser and floor distributor cupboard;
                  • operations room if necessary;
                  • disaster recovery room if necessary;
                  • rewirable cable access to courtroom benches for all
                     necessary AV cabling without need to penetrate to floor
                     below;
                  • AV equipment rack spaces in conference spaces.
           b.  The generic requirements detailed for the communications
               cabling system spaces apply to the AV system spaces.
           c.  A Court's IT room shall be provided to service the Court's
               business applications.

     v.    Courtroom AV System Interfaces
             The description below is limited to description of the basic
             physical connectivity requirements of the main components. For
             further information associated with each system, including sound
             reinforcement, displays, hearing augmentation etc, refer to
             Section G. Audio Visual and Transcription System.
             Court Rooms/AV Network
                   • AV system cabling within the room;
                   • CCTV from remote witness rooms via the AV network;
                   • Teleconferencing via the AV network;
                   • Video conferencing via the AV network.
             Equipment Room
                   • Remote witness room CCTV cameras connected to
                      courtrooms via the AV network;
                   • External service connections via telecommunications
                      entry room.

H.   MATV
     i.  A MATV system shall be provided to distribute VHF and UHF
         television signals received by a common head end and distributed
         throughout the building.
     ii. Coverage shall include current free-to-air broadcast television and
         provision for the inclusion of digital television and satellite signals,
         which may be available in the future. Facility for video playback shall
         also be provided.

                                                                              141
                                                                     SECTION D

     iii.    The system backbone cabling shall use star topology with individual
             cable from the head end to each level as minimum.
     iv.     The system shall have nominal impedance of 75 Ohm and use quad
             shield RG11 cable as a minimum for the backbone cabling.
     v.      MATV outlets shall utilise F type connectors. MATV outlets shall be
             provided in Courts waiting areas, jury assembly area, staff rooms,
             Custodial Area cells and holding rooms, Jury Room and pre-trial
             Conference Room.
     vi.     Video inputs shall be provided for the jury assembly area to allow
             video presentations to potential jurors.
     vii.    The MATV system shall be interlinked with the Audiovisual System to
             allow MATV signals to be selectively distributed throughout the AV
             system.
     viii.   A Foxtel compliant system is not envisaged to be necessary.

I.   Public Address System
     i.   General
              The public address system shall be capable of generating
              announcements within the following zones:
          • Public areas adjacent to each courtroom - generated from the
             relevant courtroom;
          • Custodial Area, including the sally port, lifts and associated lobby
             areas generated from the Custodial Area control room;
          • Jury assembly area - generated within the assembly area.

     ii.     System Performance
             a.   The system installed shall be capable of generating a sound
                  level (SPL) of 90 dB at 1 watt input measured on axis at 1
                  metre.
             b.   The nominal maximum sound pressure level variation across
                  the areas covered by the system shall be 6 dB. It shall be
                  possible to independently control the output level to the
                  nominated zones by individual zone amplifier and volume
                  controls. Automatic volume controls shall be provided for public
                  areas.
             c.   As clear natural speech reinforcement is a prime function,
                  articulation loss shall be kept to a minimum and shall be of less
                  than a rating of 0.75 on the rasti scale of 0.0 to 1.0.
             d.   When the system is driven to produce a SPL of 90 dB, with pink
                  noise, the frequency response shall be 80 Hz to 10 kHz with a
                  maximum variation of plus or minus (±) 3 dB.
             e.   Feedback elimination shall be provided with microphone inputs.
             f.   No PA systems speakers shall be installed within the
                  courtrooms and any announcements shall not be heard in the
                  courtrooms.

J.    Public Telephone
     Public telephone facilities shall be provided on each level and in the main
     foyer on both sides of the security screened area.

K.   Listing Display System
     Details of the listing display system are provided in Section E. Information
     Services and Directional Signage.




                                                                                142
                                                                                  SECTION D

            L.   Jury Attending Office Call System
                 Provide a push button / buzzer system from the jury deliberation room to the
                 adjacent waiting area to allow the jury to call the attending Jury Officer. The
                 buzzer shall not disturb other adjacent areas.

            M.    Custodial Areas
                 There are a range of communications systems which may be installed in
                 custodial facilities to assist operational staff in determining the wellbeing of
                 the detainees held in custody. The systems installed shall meet the
                 requirements of Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0 - Planning
                 Guidelines.

1.3 Electrical Services
            A.   General
                 i.  Performance Requirements
                     a.   The following performance description relates to the provisions
                          required for the electrical systems and the proposed objectives.
                     b.   The electrical systems included in the electrical works are:
                             • Western power substation;
                             • Consumer mains and main switchboard;
                             • Electrical reticulation;
                             • Lighting and Power;
                             • Lighting control system;
                             • Emergency evacuation and exit lighting system;
                             • Lightning protection;
                             • Changes to the electrical systems associated with the
                                CLC Custodial Area.

                 ii.    Standards
                           In addition to the compliance requirements detailed in the general
                           section of this Design Brief, the works shall comply with the
                           following:
                                 • AS/NZS 3000:2000
                                 • AS 1680 series of Standards
                                 • The rules and regulations of the supply authority
                                 • State electrical requirements
                                 • ACA
                                 • All relevant Australian Standards.

                 iii.   Design Life and Durability
                          The electrical systems shall have adequate durability to achieve a
                          normal industry standard design life as outlined below, without
                          requiring undue maintenance.




                                                                                              143
                                                                 SECTION D



          Item                                            Minimum Design
                                                          Life – Years
          Transformers                                    30
          HV switchgear                                   30
          Main switchboard                                30
          Distribution boards                             30
          Sub-main cables                                 30
          Sub-circuit cabling                             25
          Luminaires                                      25
          Emergency lighting systems                      20
          Emergency lighting batteries / single point     5
          luminaires

iv.    Maintainability
       a.   The electrical system shall be designed to allow maintenance
            activity to all equipment.
       b.   Special attention shall be given to ensuring the serviceability of
            all equipment including concealed equipment.
       c.   The electrical system shall have isolation on a floor by floor
            basis to allow disabling of minimum electrical services during
            maintenance and refurbishment.

v.     Flexibility
       a.   The electrical system shall be constructed to allow flexibility for
            future expansion and refurbishment.
       b.   The electrical system shall be designed to allow for future
            refurbishment of the building and serve additional electrical
            loads. The Consultant shall make provision for increase of
            maximum demand by 30% in terms of spatial allocation and
            extendibility of equipment such as main switchboard.
       c.   Further spare space and load allocations have been detailed for
            individual components of the system as part of the description
            of each system in the body of the text.

vi.    Sustainability
         The electrical systems shall be designed to minimise energy
         usage during normal operation.

vii.   Maximum Demand
       a.  The electrical connected load for the base building
           incorporating the requirements of the future fit-out shall be
           determined from the following information:
       b.  Lighting maximum demand:
              • Judicial chambers and offices          15 VA/m2       P   P




              • Courts                                 20 VA/m2       P   P




              • General public areas                   20 VA/m2       P   P




              • Loading dock, car park and
                 services areas                        15 VA/m2       P   P




                                                                              144
                                                                    SECTION D


          c.    Building general purpose power maximum demand:
                        •         Judicial   chambers        and 20 VA/m²
                                  offices
                        •         Courts                          20 VA/m²
                        •         General public areas            15 VA/m²
                        •         Loading dock, car park and 10 VA/m²
                                  services area
                        •         Building special purpose Based            on
                                  power & fixed equipment         equipment
                                                                  rating and in
                                                                  accordance
                                                                  with AS/NZS
                                                                  3000:2000.
                        •         Air    conditioning/lifts/other Based     on
                                  plant                           equipment
                                                                  rating and in
                                                                  accordance
                                                                  with AS/NZS
                                                                  3000:2000.
                                                                  Typical
                                                                  allowance
                                                                  80     VA/m²
                                                                  but advise
                                                                  shall     be
                                                                  sought from
                                                                  Mechanical
                                                                  Services
                                                                  Consultant.
                        •         Courts        LAN         main Based      on
                                  communications equipment equipment
                                  room floor distributor rooms rate and in
                                                                  accordance
                                                                  with AS/NZS
                                                                  3000:2000 +
                                                                  30% spare.
                        •         AV       system         central To        be
                                  equipment room                  advised by
                                                                  AV system
                                                                  designer ±
                                                                  3% spare.

B.   Electrical Supply
     i.   General
          a.     Electrical supply to the Building shall be as negotiated with the
                 supply authority. Supply may be high or low voltage metered.
          b.     HV switchroom, transformer room, associated spaces and cable
                 access as required by the supply authority equipment and
                 cabling shall be constructed to supply authority requirements as
                 part of these works.
          c.     Electromagnetic interference from the electrical distribution
                 system shall be eliminated by careful consideration of location
                 of main electrical plant and major cable routes, and installation
                 detail of cable routes.



                                                                                  145
                                                                    SECTION D

     ii.    Power Quality
            a.  Power supply shall be at 415 V ±6% at 50 Hz, however all
                components of the electrical system shall be sized to
                accommodate the potential future reduction of supply voltage to
                400 V ±6% at 50 Hz.
            b.  Harmonic distortion shall be contained to within recommended
                value as set out in AS 2279 and Western Power requirements
                as detailed in "Quality of Electrical Supply Part 2".
            c.  Voltage drop shall comply with AS / NZS 3000:2000.

     iii.   Electrical Energy Tariffs
               The lowest bulk metering rate offered by the energy supplier shall
               be utilised in accordance with maximum demand profile for the
               development or by contract arrangement with the energy supplier.

     iv.    Energy Monitoring
            a.   Separate monitoring metering shall be provided to assess
                 power consumption for large items of plant such as mechanical
                 plant, lifts and light and power to each individual floor via the
                 BMS system. (where one is installed).
            b.   The monitoring system shall include automatic reporting
                 functions for each meter.

C.   Reticulation
     i.   Main Switchboard
          a.    Main switchboard shall be housed in a 2 hour (minimum) fire
                rated room contiguous with the substation.
          b.    The main switch room shall have the following features:
                    • Not accessed from public areas;
                    • Be provided with monitoring by the security system;
                    • Ventilation / air conditioning to maintain operating
                       conditions;
                    • Minimum of 2 egress doors.
          c.    Electrical lighting and power loads shall be segregated from the
                mechanical and lift loads throughout the installation.
          d.    The main switchboard shall be form 3b construction as a
                minimum.
          e.    Provision for power factor correction to be installed at a later
                stage shall be provided for the case where the power factor
                exceeds 0.8.
          f.    In addition to Energy Supplier Metering, the following
                instrumentation shall be provided for each main feeder for the
                metering of the following:
                    • Voltage;
                    • Current;
                    • Maximum demand;
                    • Power factor;
                    • Energy (kWh).
          g.    The above outputs shall be monitored by the BMS. (where one
                is installed).

     ii.    Mains
            a.   Mains cabling between the substations and the main low
                 voltage switchboards shall be adequately sized to
                 accommodate the full rating of the facility.
                                                                               146
                                                                  SECTION D

       b.    Mains cabling shall be 2 hour fire rated in accordance with the
             AS/NZS 3000:2000 and BCA and shall have a wiring system
             rating of WS53W in accordance with AS 3018 unless the
             substation and main switch rooms are contiguous.

iii.   Sub-mains and Distribution Switchboards
       a.  Separate submains originating from the main switchboards
           shall be distributed to independent areas (i.e. fused T off’s shall
           not be used as part of the electrical distribution system) via
           vertical riser shafts. The submains shall generally be run on
           cable trays / ladders with fire protected cable, equal to MIMS,
           used for required essential services and where referenced by
           statute. Protection shall be use of MIMS cable, or approved
           equal method, where physical damage is likely.
       b.  All submain and sub-circuit cabling shall be low flame toxicity to
           minimise the fire and toxic fumes risk within the complex.
       c.  Separate distribution boards shall be provided for each 1000m2       P   P




           of floor area and each physically segregated area. It is
           expected that distribution boards will centrally be located in
           each area and zoned essential and non essential as applicable.
       d.  Cabling distribution provisions shall be via accessible means to
           provide for future flexibility and adaptability.
       e.  Where a light well or public atrium style area separates two
           areas the two areas shall be considered physically separated to
           avoid sub-circuit cabling running through public areas or areas
           of limited access for future cabling.
       f.  All submains and distribution boards shall be sized to carry full
           load and 20% spare capacity with a maximum of 2.5% voltage
           drop at the termination point of the submain.
       g.  Full size neutrals shall be provided for all submains including
           those serving mechanical plant and lifts.

iv.     Risers
       a.   Where the facility is a multi-level facility the risers shall be on a
            common vertical plane.
       b.   Where distribution boards are located within the riser cupboards
            the cupboard shall have direct access to any underfloor and
            overhead cable routes. Separate distribution board shall be
            provided for each 1000 m2 of floor area however the submains
                                         P   P




            shall be run in the common riser and single point of isolation
            provided for each floor at that floor.
       c.   Electrical rising submains shall not be located within duct space
            shared by other services such as fire mains, gas mains,
            hydraulic or communications services.
       d.   The following requirements are common to all electrical risers:
               • Bunding shall be provided on each level to prevent
                  ingress of water into the riser system; bunding is
                  considered necessary regardless of vicinity of water
                  sources such as cleaner’s cupboards or tea preparation
                  areas as water from events such as activation of sprinkler
                  systems need to be prevented from entering the riser.
               • All power risers shall be fitted with cable ladders / tray
                  mounted on unistrut fixings to space the tray off the wall.
               • All trays / ladders to be sized with 30% spare capacity.


                                                                              147
                                                                   SECTION D

D.   Sub-circuit Cabling
     i.   Cabling shall be confined to the floor from where the cabling
          originates and slabs are preferably not to be penetrated to facilitate
          sub-circuit cabling.
     ii.  It is envisaged that a combination of the following methods will be
          used:
          • Large open plan office areas – power poles (or raised floor).
          • Small office areas – skirting duct (note due to depth requirements
              of data jacks 32 mm deep skirting duct is not acceptable).
          • Courtrooms – in floor accessible ducting system with separation
              for power and communications cabling (150 mm), minimum of 30%
              spare spacing, easy access for rewiring.
     iii. Where skirting ducts or ducts within soft partitioning is used, the
          associated ducting shall be manufactured to meet Australian
          Standards and facilitate all necessary earthing, cable bending radius,
          including Category 7 communications cables and cable system
          separation requirements.
     iv.  Number of outlets connected to a final sub-circuit shall be limited to
          60% of capacity of the protective device with load calculated based
          on AS / NZS 3000:2000 maximum demand calculation or actual
          equipment load, which ever is greater.
     v.   Circuiting of outlets shall separate equipment types.
     vi.  Cable support system shall be catenary easily accessible through the
          ceiling cavity and below other building services.

E.   General Power
     i.   General power outlets shall be provided to meet the functional
          requirements of each area and to power all equipment provided. Two
          double GPO’s shall be provided to each workstation. Power outlets
          shall be provided in resource rooms, reproduction rooms, utility
          rooms, media facilities, staff, communications and IT rooms and the
          like to meet the functional requirement. Power outlets shall be
          provided in Courts to provide for all equipment specified and to meet
          the functional requirement of the occupants.
     ii.  RCD protection systems shall be provided to all general purpose
          power outlets throughout, in custody areas, public spaces and to
          meet workplace OH&S regulations in the courts, back of house and
          amenities areas.
     iii. RCD protected cleaners / maintenance power outlets shall be
          provided throughout the Facilities to Occupational Safety and Health
          Regulations. A minimum of one RCD protected outlet shall be
          provided within each plant room, electrical and communications room
          / cupboard. Provide additional outlets in each area to satisfy cleaning
          requirements e.g. physical length of equipment power lead as
          obstructed by furniture etc.
     iv.  The cleaner’s outlets shall be connected to dedicated ‘cleaners’
          circuits shall be clearly identified by colour coding and labelling.
     v.   Outlets in offices and work areas / workshops shall be located in
          accordance with Workplace OH&S regulations, ergonomic
          considerations and in a flexible arrangement convenient to desk and
          bench layouts and heights. It is expected that outlets shall be located
          above desks and benches or within table boxes accessed from top of
          table.
     vi.  The Consultant shall liaise with the Superintendent (Architect) to
          determine the final allocation and location of outlets.


                                                                              148
                                                                                     SECTION D

                    vii.    Some power outlets (and associated communications outlets) for the
                            connection of wireless data transmitters, may require the mounting of
                            a number of power (and communications) outlets at high level.

              F.   Lighting
                   i.   The lighting system shall complement the architecture providing an
                        aesthetically pleasing safe and pleasant environment.
                   ii.  Lighting design for the courtrooms shall provide vertical illuminance
                        and modelling to ensure that the faces of all participants are
                        adequately illuminated to recognise facial features without
                        shadowing. For example strong vertical point sources such as
                        dichroic or metal halide downlights are not recommended for use in
                        these areas.
                   iii. The exterior lighting shall be provided to all external areas taking into
                        consideration security, safety, functional, energy efficiency and
                        aesthetic requirements of each area including requirements of the
                        CCTV system. It is envisaged that external lighting design shall be
                        based on the use of long life metal halide and fluorescent lamp
                        technology.
                   iv.  The lighting systems shall be designed in accordance with AS 1680,
                        AS 1428 and AS 1158 series of Australian Standards.
                   v.   The following table provides guidance regarding minimum
                        maintenance illuminance and functional notes for lighting in various
                        areas.
Table 8 – Lighting Maintenance and Function
T      T




        Area                       Minimum Maintenance Illuminance
        Judicial Chambers          320 lux
        General Office             320 lux
        Above Compactus Units      320 lux continuous lighting system with vertical
                                   component ensuring lighting of the bottom shelf at
                                   each section (it is envisaged that separate surface
                                   mounted fittings are used for this task)
        General Public Areas       Variable to meet the requirements of AS 1680, AS
                                   1428, to suit CCTV and to enhance Architectural
                                   design and other code requirements
        Loading Bay and Car To AS 1680, AS 1428 and to suit the CCTV system
        Parks                      with increased lighting at entry and minimum
                                   lighting of 20 lux throughout the car park
        Courts                     Adjustable (dimmable) up to 400 lux, note
                                   requirement for vertical illuminance and modelling
        Stairways                  80 lux
        Toilets                    To AS 1428 with 150 lux and good vertical lighting
                                   at the mirrors
        Custodial Areas            To AS 1680 and noting requirement for vandal
                                   resistance and harm minimisation

                    vi.     The lighting system shall utilise energy efficient light sources and be
                            based on technically advanced but proven technical solutions.
                    vii.    Lamps used in public areas, courts and office areas shall have colour
                            temperature of 4000 K minimum and colour rendering index of 85 or
                            greater.
                    viii.   Office area and judicial chamber lighting design shall be based on
                            recessed fluorescent luminaires with low brightness semi specular
                            open cell paraboire louvre with minimum downward light output ratio
                            (DLOR) of 0.65, designed to AS 1680.

                                                                                                149
                                                                     SECTION D

     ix.   Where discharge luminaires are used for general lighting e.g.
           selected plant rooms, consideration should be given to the provision
           of standby lighting shall be provided by adjacent luminaires using
           lamps with immediate start i.e. tungsten standby lamps in discharge
           luminaires shall not be used due to reliability and long term
           maintenance considerations.

G.   Lighting Control System
     i.    The lighting control system shall either be integrated within the BMS
           system where applicable or be an independent system in areas such
           as courtrooms, etc.
     ii.   Dimming elements are to be considered for selected public areas
           such as lobbies and areas where automatic daylighting controls
           should be considered to harness energy saving.
     iii.  Courtroom lighting shall be fully dimmable with separate scenes
           provided for the following functions, the functions shall however be
           fully programmable and adjustable to suit changing requirements.
           The following scenes shall be provided as a minimum:
           • Minimum of four (4) different scenes of general proceedings;
           • Minimum of three (3) different scenes of presentations eg video
               conferencing, data projection and video projection;
           • Cleaning;
           • Orientation (minimal base lighting during court hours only when the
               courtroom is not in use);
           • Security.
     iv.   All external lighting shall be controlled by PE cells and time clock
           control.
     v.    Movement sensors with programmable time function to be
           incorporated for selected areas such as stair lighting, store rooms,
           small meeting rooms and amenities areas, in addition to manual local
           controls.
     vi.   Lighting control requirements eg button size shall be provided to AS
           1428 for accessible toilets.
     vii. Lighting in security control room, and lighting within switchboard
           cupboards and switch rooms shall not be connected to the lighting
           control system.
     viii. System interface requirements include the following:
           • Interface with access control system:
                     • control car park and corridor lighting after hours i.e. turn
                       areas on to suit the person accessing the building;
           • Interface with the integrated court management system:
                     • turn lighting on and off in courtrooms based on scheduled
                       events;
                     • set the correct scene in a courtroom based on type of
                       proceedings scheduled.
           • Interface with the AV system control panel at each courtroom and
               any conference rooms;
           • Interface with control system for motorised blinds e.g. any daylight
               sensing is overridden by closed blinds or lighting is automatically
               adjusted to a set scene if blinds are drawn;

H.   Emergency Evacuation and Exit Lighting
     i.  An emergency evacuation and exit lighting system to AS 2293 and
         the BCA shall be provided.
     ii. The luminaires shall be of the single point (self-contained) type and
         be fully tested to AS 2293.
                                                                                150
                                                                                      SECTION D

                   iii.     Emergency luminaires shall generally be of the non-maintained type
                            in which the lamp operates on emergency (battery) supply only, upon
                            failure of the normal supply.
                   iv.      Emergency luminaires shall not be incorporated in recessed
                            fluorescent luminaires, downlights, cove lighting or feature luminaires.
                   v.       Combined emergency and normal fittings of sustained type can be
                            utilised in surface mounted fluorescent fittings in holding cells, fire
                            stairs, car parks, plant rooms and other back of house areas.
                   vi.      Exit luminaires shall be of the sustained type containing separate
                            lamps for normal (240 volt AC) and emergency (battery) operation.
                   vii.     The design shall ensure emergency evacuation lighting is provided in
                            front of each switchboard, above any security monitoring areas and
                            areas where cash is handled.
                   viii.    Emergency lighting shall be installed in all Custodial Area handling
                            areas.

              I.    Interface Requirement
                   The interface requirements listed below are not exhaustive and additional
                   information for each item is provided under the relevant sections:
                          • Interface with BMS:
                                   • main switchboard – instrumentation monitoring at each
                                     load data centre;
                                   • distribution board – metering;
                                   • lighting control system – Management;
                                   • metering.
                          • Interface with security system:
                                   • lighting control system.

              J.   Custodial Areas
                   i.   General
                           The Custodial Areas shall be converted to allow independent
                           operation from the remainder of the building.

                   ii.      Electrical Supply
                            a.   The sally port, lift lobby areas and the Custodial Area are to be
                                 supplied from a local area distribution board(s). The lift(s) shall
                                 be fed from the essential services chassis of the switchboard
                                 and is effectively a separate supply.
                            b.   The Custodial Area shall be provided with its own metered
                                 switchboard independent of other areas. The sub-main for the
                                 Custodial Area DB shall originate from the building risers.


1.4   Electronic Security

              A.   General
                   i.  The following performance description relates to the provisions
                       required for the electronic security systems.
                   ii. The electronic security system components include:
                       • system control system;
                       • access control system;
                       • lift car security / access control;
                       • intruder detection system;
                       • alarm monitoring system;
                       • duress alarm;
                       • security communications systems;
                                                                                                 151
                                                                     SECTION D

           • CCTV system;
           • Custodial Area system;
           • all associated power supplies including minimum of 2h battery or
             UPS backup for all system components;
           • operational integration of the CLC building security system.


B.   Standards
     In addition to the compliance requirements detailed in the general section of
     this Design Brief, the works shall comply with the following:
             • AS 2201;
             • ACA;
             • The Western Australia Police Department; and
             • Commercial agents, licensing requirements for designers and
                installers.

C.   Durability and Design Life
     A.        The electronic systems shall have adequate durability to achieve
               a normal industry standard design life, without requiring undue
               maintenance.
     B.        All associated cabling and power systems, including UPS, shall
               be designed for minimum design life of 20 years.
     C.        Minimum design life for any batteries associated with the system
               shall be 5 years.

D.   Maintainability
     D.       The electronic system shall be designed to allow maintenance
              activity to all equipment.
     E.       Special attention shall be given to ensuring the serviceability of
              all concealed space equipment.
     F.       The system shall have distributed logic and equipment
              termination facilities installed on a floor by floor basis to allow
              disabling of minimum services and without accessing any other
              part of the building during maintenance and refurbishment.
     G.       The system shall be designed such that in the event of
              refurbishment / maintenance works, the main system and all
              unaffected areas shall remain fully operational. Individual system
              backbone cabling shall be provided to each floor or ‘duty’ and
              ‘redundant’ backbones shall be provided throughout the
              Facilities.

E.   Flexibility
     H.         The electronic system shall be constructed to allow flexibility for
                future expansion and refurbishment. Data gathering panels shall
                be provided at each level functional area to avoid disruption to
                unaffected areas during any maintenance or refurbishment
                works.
     I.         The system shall be designed to allow for future refurbishment of
                the building and serve additional equipment such as door access
                control. The system shall allow for a minimum of 6 future
                additional door controllers on the court levels and four (4)
                additional door controllers at all other levels to be installed on
                each floor.      These provisions shall include the following
                provisions:
                •       I/O’s for each future door at the data gathering panels
                           ready for the capacity at head end.
                                                                                152
                                                                    SECTION D

               •      All conduiting provisions necessary to get cabling to the
                         security riser without disrupting core area or other fixed
                         ceilings.

F.   Sustainability
     The system shall be designed to minimise the number of cables used,
     length of final cable runs and the need to upgrade cabling to facilitate
     emergency technologies during the design life period.

G.   Security Management
     i.   The electronic systems shall provide immediate intelligence on
          conditions about the site. Information from activities about the
          Facilities shall be gathered via electronic devices and transmitted via
          a dedicated security system data communications network to control
          centres in the building and Custodial Areas as applicable.
     ii.  The system is to be configured to allow security activity associated
          with alarm and access control function to be enunciated only in the
          security area responsible for providing the response.
     iii. The system shall be capable of transmitting selected alarms offsite to
          a commercial security monitoring bureau after hours.

H.   Security Control System
     i.    The system shall consist of a central processor(s) and distributed
           processing field terminals. Should the central processor unit(s) fail,
           the system shall be capable of storing limited system data and control
           information of the standalone operation of access control readers,
           alarm monitoring terminals and output functions.
     ii.   Colour graphic display terminals and operator keyboards shall be
           provided to enable clear and simple display of all security activity
           including alarm test, display maps and response text.
     iii.  In operation, the keyboards will only be required for the
           reconfiguration of system parameters or the generation of system
           reports. Control buttons are to be provided to enable alarm
           acknowledgment and reset functions.
     iv.   Display terminals and keyboards are to be provided in the following
           locations:
           • Security command centre; and
           • Custodial Area central control desk.
     v.    Disk storage facilities shall be provided to record historical data of
           alarms, events, card transactions and system faults. Search and sort
           facilities by date, time and transaction shall also be provided.
     vi.   Indexed retrieval facilities shall be provided for accessing file
           information such as:
           • Records of staff details and security authorisations;
           • Complex location diagrams showing all security and emergency
              equipment including fire hose reels and extinguishers;
           • Alarm text and services information text;
           • Required action text; and
           • Card holder data and card reader data.
     vii. Location diagrams and required action text shall be automatically
           displayed on occurrence of the relevant alarm event.
     viii. No record of a security alarm shall be lost from the system until
           properly actioned.
     ix.   A summary of all outstanding alarms and requests shall be provided
           and all alarms reset by the security operators shall be logged along

                                                                                153
                                                                     SECTION D

             with ID. A reminder of the total number of outstanding alarms shall
             be displayed at al times.
     x.      All commands executed via the keyboards shall be logged to disk.
     xi.     The system shall be capable of expansion and of supporting
             additional operations or administrative terminals if required.
     xii.    Hard copy printer facilities shall be provided at each operator’s
             terminal.
     xiii.   The facility to prioritise and categorise alarms shall be provided.
     xiv.    Isolation of continuously troublesome points shall be possible via the
             keyboard, but a reminder that points isolated shall remain on the VDU
             at all times.
     xv.     All operator / machine communications shall be in plain English. No
             special user skills or operator interpretations shall be required.

I.   Access Control System
     i.   An electronic access control system shall be provided to enable
          control and monitoring of public and staff throughout the Facilities.
     ii.  The systems shall consist of access readers, electric door strikes,
          door monitors and exit buttons located on doors to manage
          movement within and between the separate circulation systems
          according to user profile.
     iii. Electric locking shall be provided, fire stair doors complete with fire
          stair intercom system to facilitate BCA re-entry requirement. Break
          glass facilities shall also be provided if required by the design.
     iv.  Conduiting provision shall be provided for all fire stair doors on all
          levels to facilitate installation of future additional access control.

J.   Alarm Monitoring System
     i.   An alarm monitoring system shall be provided to indicate
          unauthorised access to nominated areas. Forced door alarms, ‘door
          ajar’ and tampering conditions shall be reported to the control system
          through the use of magnetic reed door contacts and supervised alarm
          circuits.
     ii.  Doors required to be monitored are as follows:
          • All perimeter doors, openable windows and access hatches
             (including rooftops);
          • Fire escape doors at each level;
          • Plant room doors including any communications rooms;
          • Service cupboard doors in public accessible areas;
          • Electronically controlled doors; and
          • Perimeter doors to Custodial Area.

K.   Duress Monitoring System
     i.   A duress monitoring system shall be provided to enable the
          monitoring and annunciation of personal duress alarms.
     ii.  The monitoring system shall indicate normal, duress and tamper
          conditions and shall be provided but not limited to the following
          locations:
          • Security command centre;
          • Custodial Area Control Centre;
          • Courtroom (judicial bench and Associates’ Bench);
          • Public reception and information desks;
          • All registry counters;
          • All reception desks;
          • Remote witness areas;
          • Any cash handling areas;
                                                                                154
                                                                          SECTION D

                • Custodial Area Reception;
                • Custodial Interview Rooms;
                • Each judicial chamber and judicial ante rooms.
         iii.   A separate duress communication panel is to be located in each of
                the courtrooms and Custodial Areas communicating with the security
                command centre and Custodial Area Central Control Desk
                respectively.
         iv.    Duress systems in courtrooms may be used to activate other systems
                or measures such as but not limited to electronic locks and video
                surveillance, in order to prevent an escape by a PIC or to assist in
                controlling such a situation.

    L.   Intruder Detection System
         i.    An intruder detection system consisting of volumetric movement
               detectors shall be provided to enable protection of specific high risk
               areas of the Facilities.
         ii.   The system shall form a part of the alarm monitoring system.
         iii.  Areas of the Facilities to be provided (but not limited to) with intruder
               detection are:
               • Any cash handling and storage areas;
               • Property store / archives;
               • Exhibit Stores;
               • Any storeroom where weapons are kept;
               • Judicial master stations.

    M.    Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
          i.   A colour CCTV system shall be provided to enable monitoring of
               activity within specific areas of the Facilities.
          ii.  The CCTV system shall be designed to allow operation by non-
               technical security personnel and shall consist of a number of fixed
               and manoeuvrable (tilt, pan, zoom etc) colour cameras connected to
               display monitors in security command centre and the central control
               desk in custodial areas. Each area’s system is to be operated
               separately but integrated.
          iii. Cameras shall have ‘real time’ digital recording capabilities and be
               provided (but not be limited) to effectively view the following areas:
               • Building entries;
               • Public foyers and reception;
               • Secure car parks;
               • Cells;
               • Custodial Area lift;
               • Custodial Area entry;
               • Custodial Area.
                   CCTV INTEGRATION
•   Integrate CCTV monitoring equipment in existing surveillance systems and link
    them to artificial intelligence software for enhancement and analysis which
    provides features contained in the Functional Specifications.

•   Systems that will also allow the video feed from existing cameras, including pan,
    tilt, zoom systems, to be used to unify closed circuit feeds to generate single
    screen images from multiple cameras and should be able to move through the
    images or views.

•   Analyse zones, object characteristics and object time in zone.


                                                                                     155
                                                                             SECTION D

ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS:

The intelligent video image analysis system shall be capable of performing the following
essential functions:

Perimeter Breach and Detection - The system shall be capable of:

   •    detecting an intrusion or movement within a specified area or across a specific
        perimeter;
   •    detecting human sized intruders while ignoring small animals and birds;
   •    detecting human sized intruders while ignoring vehicles, or vice versa;
   •    using direction(s) of approach as an alarm criteria;
   •    counting the number of objects that have passed through an area at any given
        time;
   •    support multiple areas of interest and multiple directions on any camera.
   •    differentiating between humans, vehicles, and small animals, etc.
   •    producing graphs to represent the frequency of traffic in any direction or export
        the information to a spreadsheet application.
   •    operate with an accuracy exceeding 98%, unaffected by various lighting and
        environmental conditions including those caused by shadows; weather, global
        and local light changes, headlights, reflections and movement caused by wind;
   •    detecting a person slipping or falling to the ground. Similarly the system shall be
        capable of detecting a “man down” situation.
   •    detecting loitering within a camera’s field of view.
   •    configurable time delays that a person or object spends within the scene before
        they are classed as suspicious.

Left / Removed Objects – The system shall be capable of:

   •    detecting left objects. The user shall have the ability to configure the detection
        time to suit the environment, from seconds to minutes or hours.
   •    detecting multiple objects that are left stationary in a scene.
   •    performing the detection in busy or crowded environments despite constant
        movement or the object being regularly obscured.
   •    the system shall be able to detect stationary objects that are less than 3% of the
        size of the image.
   •    the system shall be capable of detecting the removal of objects.
   •    the system shall be capable of performing the detection in busy or crowded
        environments despite constant movement or the object being regularly obscured.
   •    the user shall have the ability to configure the detection time to suit the
        environment, from seconds to minutes or hours.
   •    the system shall be able to detect the removal of objects that are less than 3% of
        the size of the image.

Vehicle Movements - The system shall be capable of:

   •    detecting parking violations in busy or crowded environments despite constant
        traffic movement or the vehicle being regularly obscured.
   •    the user shall have the ability to configure the detection time to suit the
        environment, from seconds to minutes or hours.
   •    the system shall be able to detect parking violations where the vehicle is less
        than 3% of the size of the image.
   •    the system shall be capable of detecting graffiti or vandalism.



                                                                                        156
                                                                               SECTION D

   •     the system shall be capable of performing the detection in busy or crowded
         environments despite constant traffic movement or the vehicle being regularly
         obscured.
   •     the system shall be able to detect incidents of graffiti or vandalism that are less
         than 3% of the size of the image.

General Characteristics – The system shall be capable of:

   •     understanding the perspective in the scene;
   •     detecting the loss of video on one or more cameras;
   •     detecting camera incompetence, i.e. if environmental conditions reduce contrast
         or visibility in the scene, and will alert the operator. The system shall continue to
         operate under incompetent conditions.

Alarms and reporting

   •     the ICE system must be capable of sending alarms and reporting information
         generated from the analysis software to a range of dedicated and multi purpose
         systems and devices including control stations, email, mobile telephone and
         pager services.

Scheduling of Filters

   •     filters shall be configured to allow activation at a preset time based on a
         schedule. The schedule shall allow for daily, weekly, or monthly configuration.


Archiving - All events/alarms shall be digitally archived for future review. The Consultant
        shall detail the time period that archived recordings are maintained.

   •     the system shall allow the user to configure the pre- and post- record times for an
         event.
   •     when reviewing archived images the system shall support standard video
         recorder functions including fast forward and rewind.
   •     images shall be capable of being exported to email, disk, or even printers. Video
         streams shall be capable of being exported to external storage devices.
   •     all archived images shall include both date and time stamps.
   •     the system shall support auto-archive operation where each alarm is
         automatically archived and cleared. Once the alarm is cleared the object is
         accepted into the background and the system continues operation.

Replay Options - The system shall be capable of:

   •     instantly replay an event that has been detected.
   •     allowing the operator to view the conditions prior to the alarm or event.
   •     When multiple alarms occur within a scene an operator shall be able to select the
         desired alarm and jump to the time prior to this specific event or alarm.
   •     The system shall allow the user an option of archiving the event for later review
         or to discard the alarm information.

User/Operator Authority Hierarchy

   •     the system shall support multiple level of authority, such as administrator, user,
         operator, and technicians.


                                                                                           157
                                                                               SECTION D

   Video Image Analysis Software

      •    the system shall have a scalable architecture capable of being either centralised
           or fully distributed.
      •    authorised users shall be able to monitor the system from different locations
           remotely.
      •    all images in a distributed environment are to be transmitted securely.
      •    the system will be open architecture such that it is able to operate with inputs
           from any camera, run on any PC computer and interface with any digital recorder
           (DVRs or NVRs) or encoders/ decoders. The system will not require proprietary
           hardware and shall easily integrate with existing CCTV infrastructure.
      •    the ICE system shall be capable of internet, mobile and wireless operation.
      •    the system shall support analogue, digital, IP or USB cameras simultaneously
           using Bitmap, JPEG, MJPG or MPEG4 formats.
      •    the camera may use either PAL or NTSC protocols. Similarly the system shall
           support encoders using Bitmap, JPEG, MJPG or MPEG4 formats.

ADD VALUE FUNCTIONS

   The following functions would add value to the solution and would be considered during
   the evaluation process:

   Moving Object/Running Persons - The system shall be capable of:

      •    detecting running within a camera’s field of view.
      •    capable of being customised to detect patterns of movement that are deemed
           suspicious or abnormal. The relative speed that classifies a person as running
           shall be configurable (relative to normal walking speed).

   Overcrowding - The system shall be capable of:

      •    capable of detecting overcrowding or congestion.
      •    Able to count the number of people within a user-defined area of interest in real-
           time.
      •    The user shall be able to set the threshold for the number of people that can
           occupy the area before it is deemed as overcrowded.
      •    provide an alarm if the number of people within the region exceeds the threshold
           established by the user.
      •    Reports of average counts for given times shall be exportable to a spreadsheet
           application.

   Frame Rates

           the system shall not require frame rates higher than 6 frames per second for
           analysis.




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                                                                      SECTION D

A.       Weapons and Unauthorised Articles Detection Systems alternatives
         may be proposed but reference should be made to Section C. ‘Court
         Accommodation Specifications’.
     i.     Walk Through Metal Detection System
               Metal detection systems shall be walk through, multi zone, pulse
               induction type coupling with NIJ Standard - 0601.02. Equipment
               shall be of a standard and capacity of the PMD2 Elliptic Multi
               Zone Metal Detector or equivalent.
     ii.    X-Ray Scanners
               X-Ray Scanners shall be tunnel type suitable for checking hand
               carried articles and packages. They shall be high penetration
               type suitable for detecting organic, un-organic and metal
               materials. System shall be at least 140KV peak with automatic
               scanning and image enhancement. Equipment shall be of a
               standard and capacity of the L3 Security and Detection Systems
               PX-M or equivalent.
     iii.   Hand Held Metal Detectors
               Hand held metal detectors shall be suitable for more detailed
               scanning of a person or item after walk through metal detection
               system has raised alarm. They shall also be suitable for individual
               scanning of people and articles at secondary security check
               points.
     iv.    Hand Held Contraband Detectors
               Portable hand-held contraband detectors shall be suitable for
               detection of explosives and narcotics by vapour sampling and/or
               particle sampling on an individual or specific article. Equipment
               shall be of a standard and capacity of the GE VaporTracer or
               equivalent.

B.      Associated Building Works
     Allowances shall be made for the provision of works by other services that
     will be required to support or interface to security and communications
     systems as follows:
     •         Purpose built consoles for each control room;
     •         Provision of cable access and penetrations;
     •         Provision or door frame cut-outs for the installation of electric
               latches;
     •         Provision of master key locking system; and
     •         Provision of suitable door closers and latches to suit access
               control doors.

C.      Interface Requirements
     The access control system shall provide inputs to the lighting control system
     to allow the following as a minimum interface. Refer to individual system
     sections, such as lighting control, BMS etc for further detail:
     •         On demand, after hours lighting in the car park areas i.e. when
               card is presented at gate / door selected full lighting to dedicated
               (pre-programmed) keys is turned on as well as the preferred
               lighting allocated to the card holder.
     •         Lighting control system for setting of scenes to suit particular staff
               requirements based on preferences set for the card holder.
     •         Clock for building engineering services.
     •         Building telephone backbone system for external alarms.
     •         Communications room(s) and UPS room(s) alarms.
     •         Court management system.
     •         Court personnel database.
                                                                                  159
                                                                      SECTION D

           • Transfer of any Custodial Area alarms after hours to the main
              security control centre.
           • Existing building security and CCTV systems.
           • Lift controls.corridors on ground floor and basement areas;
           • Jury spaces;
           • Offices with external windows on ground floor; and
           • Public areas (including registry).
     i.    Volumetric detectors shall be configured to effectively cover the entire
           area specified.

D.       Security Communications
     i.     An intercommunications system shall be provided to enable direct
            secure communications between security staff and visitors requiring
            access into restricted areas.
     ii.    Locations to be served (but not limited to) by intercoms are as
            follows:
            • Entries from public to secure areas;
            • Building entries;
            • Security air locks;
            • Custodial Area lifts;
            • Custodial Area sally port;
            • Secure car park entry; and
            • Within Custodial Areas.
     iii.   The intercommunications system shall provide the following features:
            • A call from a field station shall be initiated by the operation of a
                single push button, once connected operation shall be hands free.
            • Master stations shall be multi-call with a handset for privacy and
                indicator lights to indicate incoming calls.

E.       Security Risers and Space Requirements Within the HIC Building
     i.     General
                The following requirements are common to all risers:
            • security risers and associated equipment rooms shall be locked
               and monitored.
            • bunding on each level to prevent ingress of water into the riser
               system; bunding is considered necessary, regardless of vicinity of
               water sources, such as cleaners cupboards or tea preparation
               areas, as water from events such as activation of sprinkler system
               needs to be prevented from entering the riser system.
            • system riser shall be fitted with cable trays.
            • all tray / ladder fixing shall be external to the tray / ladder i.e.
               bolting tray to wall through the tray is not acceptable.
            • all trays / ladders to be sized with 30% spare capacity.
            • all security risers shall be provided with floor to floor fire rating.
            • all dimensions given re clear internal dimensions.
     ii.    Security Control Room
            a.    The security control room shall be separately secured from
                  adjoining circulation spaces and sized to house the main
                  security monitoring equipment, CCTV monitors, fire indicator
                  and EWIS MIMIC panels and personnel.
            b.    The security control room shall include tea making and ablution
                  facilities.
     iii.   Security Main Equipment Room
            a.    Secured area immediately adjacent to the security control room.


                                                                                 160
                                                                              SECTION D

                       b.  The security and main equipment room shall house the security
                           system server, recording equipment, security system UPS.
                       c.  The equipment room shall include space for further expansion
                           by minimum of two additional 19” racks.
                 iv.   Security Riser
                       a.  The security riser is used to house the security and CCTV
                           system cabling and equipment.
                       b.  The riser should be at a common vertical alignment throughout
                           the building, have lockable doors and have direct and secure
                           access to the building security equipment room.             It is
                           anticipated that the riser would be sized at approximately 1000
                           x 600 and be furnished with a cable tray and fire rating at each
                           level. Secondary data gathering panel cupboard may be
                           necessary where voids or similar elements divide areas to
                           minimise equipment cabling in ceiling spaces of public lobby
                           areas.

            F.       Power Supply Requirements
                 i.    The security system and all associated field devices shall be
                       connected to a dedicated power system not interconnected to any
                       other electrical system outside the main switchboard. The security
                       system power supply shall be connected to the essential power
                       supply.
                 ii.   The entire system shall also be provided with secondary backup for
                       minimum of 2 hours by a dedicated UPS or integral, monitored,
                       batteries.
                 iii.  The UPS shall be sized to provide full load all equipment in the
                       system, including CCTV cameras, for minimum of 2 hours.
                 iv.   The main processor shall be provided with secondary backup to AS
                       2201 or to Best Industry Practice whichever is greater.

            G.       Custodial Area Requirements
                 i.     General
                           The Custodial Area, including any existing areas utilised at the
                           CLC Buildings shall comply with the requirements detailed in the
                           Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0 for Custodial Areas.
                 ii.    Required Systems
                           The following systems need to be provided:
                        • Cell alarms;
                        • Cell intercom;
                        • CCTV system and associated monitoring and recording facilities;
                        • Duress alarm system.


1.6   Fire Services

          A.     General
                 i.  Performance Requirements
                     a.   The following performance description relates to the provision
                          required for the fire system and proposed objectives.
                     b.   The following systems (and not limited to) are required under
                          the BCA ‘deemed to satisfy’ provisions. The installed systems
                          may be modified or omitted if the performance requirements of
                          the BCA are met as well as approval from the Approval
                          Authority and FESA.
                             • Water supply;
                                                                                         161
                                                                  SECTION D

                •   Fire sprinkler system;
                •   Fire hydrant system;
                •   Fire hose reel system;
                •   Fire detection system;
                •   Emergency warning and intercommunication system;
                •   Portable fire extinguishers;
                •   Fire control centre.
ii.    Standards
          The fire system for the building shall be installed in accordance
          with the requirements of the statutory authorities, Approval
          Authority, FESA, the following Australian Standards and the
          standards outlined in following sections. The standards outlined
          are as a guide and the fire systems shall be designed to all
          relevant standards:
       • Building Code of Australia
       • AS 2118 Part 1
       • AS 2419 Parts 1 and 3
       • AS 1221
       • AS 2441
       • AS 1668 Parts 1 and 2
       • AS 2220 Parts 1 and 2
       • AS 1670 Part 1
       • AS 2444
       • Custodial Guidelines Section – Western Australian Police Building
          Code 3.0 Planning Guidelines.
iii.   Design Life and Durability
       a.    The fire systems shall have adequate durability to achieve a
             normal industry standard design life as outlined below, without
             requiring undue maintenance.
       b.    The fire pipe work infrastructure shall be selected of materials
             to obtain the 40-60 year design life. Electronic fire equipment
             and fire equipment under mechanical loads such as pumps and
             motors shall be selected to obtain a serviceable life of at least
             25 years.
iv.    Maintainability
       a.    The fire system shall be designed to allow maintenance activity
             to all equipment.
       b.    Special attention shall be given to ensuring the serviceability of
             all concealed spare equipment, particularly detectors.
       c.    The sprinkler system shall have isolation / drainage valves
             installed on a floor by floor basis to allow disabling of minimum
             fire protection services during maintenance and refurbishment.
       d.    The hydrant system shall be designed such that in the event of
             refurbishment / maintenance works that at least 50% of the
             hydrant services remain operational. The hydrant service shall
             be designed to incorporate ring mains where practicable.
v.     Flexibility
       a.    The fire system shall be constructed to allow flexibility for future
             expansion and refurbishment.
       b.    The sprinkler system shall be designed to allow for future
             refurbishment of the building and serve additional sprinkler
             heads. The Consultant shall allow for the additional sprinkler
             head density of 25% to any / every sprinklered area within the
             building.

                                                                              162
                                                                      SECTION D

             c.    The FIP shall have capacity for an additional 25% expansion to
                   the detection system.
     vi.     Sustainability
             a.    The fire systems shall be designed to minimise water usage
                   during testing procedures.
             b.    The test water from the fire pumps and sprinkler valve set shall
                   discharge back into the fire tanks to minimise water loss.
             c.    Similarly any other test discharge shall be re-routed back to the
                   fire tank where practicable.
     vii.    Custodial Areas
                No exposed or unprotected fire services are to be installed in
                Custodial Area cells, such that PIC can damage the equipment or
                use the equipment to harm themselves or others. The design
                shall comply with the Custodial Guidelines Section of the Western
                Australian Police Building Code 3.0 - Planning Guidelines.
     viii.   Existing Areas and Pedestrian Link
             a.    The following areas form part of this Design Brief:
                       • Pedestrian Link; and
                       • the Custodial Area in the existing CLC Building including
                          the lifts and lift lobby.
             b.    The Pedestrian Link shall have its services fed from either the
                   new Building or if capacity exists the existing CLC Building.
             c.    The existing services installed in Custodial Areas located in the
                   CLC Building need not be brought up to current Australian
                   Standards and BCA requirements but shall comply with the
                   Custodial Guidelines of the ‘Western Australian Police Building
                   Code 3.0 - Planning Guidelines’.

B.   Fire Engineered Solutions
     i.    Any fire engineer solutions shall be subjected to an independent fire
           engineer peer review as well as review / approval by the Approval
           Authority.
     ii.   Any fire engineered solution shall not unduly affect the future
           operation of the building, including its effects for future fit-outs,
           renovations and extensions.

C.   Water Supply
     i.   The water supply to the building shall be shall be in accordance with
          the BCA, AS2118 part 1, AS2419 part 1 and 3 and Water Corporation
          and the Approval Authorities requirements.
     ii.  Fire services shall be connected to Water Corporation supplies.
     iii. Water Corporation water supply consists of a 200 mm service located
          on the north, east and south side of the site.
     iv.  A water storage tank facility and pumps shall be installed as part of
          the hydrant / sprinkler systems or combined system.
     v.   Enclosures for the sprinkler control valves and pumps shall be
          provided in accordance with the BCA.

D.   Fire Sprinkler System
     i.    A fire sprinkler system shall extend throughout all levels of the
           building.
     ii.   The fire sprinkler system shall be designed in accordance with the
           BCA, AS 2118, statutory and Approval Authority requirements and
           FESA.



                                                                                 163
                                                                      SECTION D

     iii.   Special consideration to be given to sprinkler design in and around
            holding cell areas. Approved institutional type fire sprinklers shall be
            used.
     iv.    External sprinkler heads shall be provided in accordance with the
            BCA to protect all openings that are within the limits of an adjoining
            fire source feature.
     v.     The sprinkler system shall be designed with flow switches and
            monitored isolation valves for each level. The flow switches shall be
            equipped with remote test valves and relevant drain connections such
            that the flow switches can be tested from the fire indicator panel. An
            additional isolation valve and flow switch shall be provided to serve
            the occupied spaces of any basements.
     vi.    A fire brigade booster and suction assembly to be located at the main
            entry to site in a location acceptable to FESA.

E.   Fire Hydrant System
     i.    A fire hydrant system shall be installed throughout the building.
     ii.   The hydrant system shall comply with the BCA, AS 2419.1, the
           Approval Authority and FESA.
     iii.  A fire brigade booster and suction assembly to be located at the main
           entry to site in a location acceptable to FESA.
     iv.   Consideration should be given to the installation of a combined
           hydrant / sprinkler system.

F.   Fire Hose Reel System
     i.    A fire hose reel system shall be installed throughout the building.
     ii.   The hose reel system shall comply with the BCA, AS1221, AS2441
           and the Approval Authority.
     iii.  The fire hose reel system shall be combined with the fire hydrant.

G.   Fire Detection System
     i.    An addressable fire detection system shall be designed in
           accordance with BCA, AS 1670 and AS 1668 and the Approval
           Authority.
     ii.   The fire alarm system shall consist of the following equipment:
           • An addressable FIP located in a fire control centre. The panel
             shall also be equipped with a red and black strip printer. For
             operational reasons there may be a requirement to interface the
             detection system of the new building with the existing CLC Building
             hence the detection system of the new building shall be compatible
             with the protocol of the CLC Building detection system.
           • Analogue addressable smoke detectors installed throughout the
             building and within specific air handling plant as required by AS
             1668; Detectors within the air-handling equipment shall be
             addressable smoke probe type. The detection system is required
             to activate the smoke control system and accordingly shall be
             installed in accordance with BCA Specification E2.2a Clause 5.
           • Monitoring of sprinkler system flow switches and isolation valves
             throughout the building.
           • Monitoring of all fire pumps and water tank level status conditions.
           • Afire fan control panel incorporating all AS 1668 fan controls
             integrated within the fire panel.
           • A SFIP located in the security control room. The SFIP to have all
             the facilities nominated about above for the FIP.
           • Smoke detectors for holding areas shall be either an approved
             smoke detector and protection cage or VESDA system. The use
                                                                                 164
                                                                  SECTION D

               of the VESDA system shall be carefully considered as it gives
               superior performance and removes all equipment outside the
               holding cell.
     iii.   The fire alarm system is to have an interface with the following
            systems:
            • Building management system;
            • Security system;
            • Existing CLC building detection system.
     iv.    The fire alarm system shall also be interfaced with the fire brigade
            communication equipment via an alarm transponder unit adopting a
            dedicated fire rated land line.

H.   Fire Detection System (VESDA)
     i.    A VESDA system shall be installed into the new major computer
           room/s. The suppression system may be required so that the
           computer room can meet the reliability requirements outlined in
           Information Technology Brief.
     ii.   May be installed in holding cells.

I.    Emergency Warning and Intercommunication System (EWIS)
     The emergency warning and intercommunication system in accordance with
     AS 2220 shall be installed throughout the building and consist of the
     following equipment:
     •         Master ECP located in the fire control centre;
     •         ECP located in the main security room. The ECP shall have the
               same specification to the MECP such that evacuation can be
               conducted from either panel. However the MECP shall override
               the evacuation facility at the ECP. LED indication shall be
               provided at each panel to indicate the active panel;
     •         100 mm round flush speakers for all ceiling areas and horn
               speakers in car parks and plant rooms;
     •         Visual amber and red strobe warning lights to provide alert and
               evacuation signals in areas of high back ground noise ie: plant
               rooms etc.;
     •         Warden phones located at MECP, ECP and adjacent to all
               required exits;
     •         Manual call points adjacent the warden phones.

J.    Gaseous Suppression System
     A gaseous suppression system shall be installed into the new major
     computer room/s. The suppression system may be required so that the
     computer room can meet the reliability requirements outlined in Information
     Technology Brief.

K.   Portable Fire Extinguishers
     Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with BCA, AS
     2444 and the Approval Authority.

L.   Fire Control Centre
     i.    A fire control centre shall be provided in the building for emergency
           use by FESA.
     ii.   The centre shall include all fire panels, emergency warning and
           communication panels, tactical fire plans and emergency procedure.
     iii.  The fire control centre shall be in accordance with BCA specification
           E1.8.

                                                                             165
                                                                            SECTION D

1.7.   Hydraulic Services

       A.   General
            i.   Performance Requirements
                 a.    The following performance description relates to the provision
                       required for the hydraulic system and proposed objectives.
                 b.    The hydraulic services works shall comprise the following
                       systems:
                          • Cold water systems;
                          • Hot water systems;
                          • Soil waste and vents;
                          • Gas services;
                          • Stormwater system.
            ii.  Standards
                    The hydraulic systems for the building shall be installed in
                    accordance with the requirements of the Authorities having
                    jurisdiction, the following Australian Standards and the standards
                    outlined in the following sections. The standards outlined are as a
                    guide and the hydraulic system shall be designed to all relevant
                    standards:
                 • Building Code of Australia
                 • AS/NZS 3500, Parts 1 to 5
                 • AS 1432
                 • AS 5601
                 • Custodial Guidelines Section – Western Australian Police Building
                    Code 3.0 Planning Guidelines.
            iii. Design Life and Durability
                 a.    The hydraulic systems shall have adequate durability to achieve
                       a normal industry standard design life as outlined below without
                       requiring undue maintenance.
                 b.    The plumbing pipe work infrastructure shall be selected of
                       materials to obtain the 40-60 year design life. Hydraulic
                       equipment under mechanical loads such as pumps, motors
                       shall be selected to obtain a maintainable service life of at least
                       25 years. Boilers shall be selected to have a service life of 10-
                       15 years.
                 c.    Consideration to the life cycle cost of fixtures and piping shall
                       be given due consideration. Consideration shall be given to
                       and not limited to the following options:
                          • Copper vs uvpac pipe
                          • Brass vs die cast tap ware
                          • China vs acrylic sanitary
            iv.  Maintainability
                    The hydraulic system shall be designed to allow maintenance
                    activity to all equipment. Special consideration shall be given to
                    maintenance required by all hydraulic equipment under
                    mechanical loads such as pumps and water heaters. All discreet
                    areas serviced by domestic hot and cold services shall have
                    accessible isolation valves to allow for maintenance activities.
                    Discreet areas refers to toilets, tea rooms, change rooms and
                    holding cells. Separate isolation shall also be provided to entire
                    floors on a floor by floor basis to allow for future refurbishments.
            v.   Flexibility
                 a.    The hydraulic system shall be designed and installed to allow
                       flexibility for future expansion and refurbishment.
                                                                                       166
                                                                              SECTION D

                    b.    The domestic cold water system and hot water system shall be
                          designed to allow an additional 25% flow capacity. The 20%
                          additional capacity is to be allowed for incoming supplies, tanks,
                          pumps, plant room and main building risers.
                    c.    The soil and waste system shall be designed to allow an
                          additional 20% flow capacity. This additional capacity shall
                          extend downstream of the main soil risers.
            vi.     Sustainability
                       The design of the hydraulic system shall incorporate sustainable
                       design practises. This is to be addressed in two main areas,
                       energy consumption for hot water generation and distribution of
                       water. Requirements are further outlined under system headings.
            vii.    Acoustics
                    a.    The entire hydraulic design shall meet the acoustic
                          requirements set out in Section ‘Acoustics’ and all relevant
                          standards. Pipe runs shall be minimised over acoustically
                          sensitive areas.
                    b.    The hydraulic system shall be free of water hammer under all
                          circumstances.
            viii.   Custodial Areas
                       Special consideration shall be given to hydraulic design in holding
                       cell areas. The design of the hydraulic systems shall be designed
                       to minimise the risk of damage to the equipment and the risk of
                       harm that PIC can inflict on themselves and others. The design
                       shall comply with the Custodial Guidelines Section of the Western
                       Australian Police Building Code 3.0 - Planning Guidelines.
            ix.     Materials
                    a.    Pipes and fittings shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 3500 and
                          the respective statutory authority’s jurisdiction.
                    b.    Pipe work material selected shall attain required fire rating and
                          acoustic properties.
                    c.    Plastic pipe work shall only be used in concealed UV protected
                          areas.
            x.      Existing Areas and Pedestrian Link
                    a.    The following areas form part of this Design Brief:
                             • Pedestrian Link;
                             • The Custodial Area in the existing CLC Building including
                                the lifts and lift lobby.
                    b.    The Pedestrian Link shall have its services fed from either the
                          new Building or if capacity exists the existing CLC building.
                    c.    The existing services installed in Custodial Areas located in the
                          CLC Building shall be modified as necessary to comply with the
                          Custodial Guidelines of the ‘Western Australian Police Building
                          Code 3.0 - Planning Guidelines’.

1.7 Cold Water Systems
    (a) The domestic cold water service for the Building commences from the connection
        to the authority water main located in the adjacent street complete with metered
        extensions facility.
    (b) Domestic water break tanks to statutory approval shall be installed.
    (c) Capped off backflow prevention devices shall be provided on the ground floor
        level for future connection by landscape.
    (d) The systems shall incorporate all valves, tees, bends and automatic controls
        necessary in accordance with AS/NZS 3500 and Local Authority requirements.
    (e) Pipe work shall be copper tube (Type B) to AS 1432.


                                                                                         167
                                                                               SECTION D

   (f) Maximum and minimum operational pressures within the cold water system shall
       be 500 kPa and 250 kPa respectively.
   (g) Faucets and fixtures shall be of a suitable type and proven design. Operating
       pressure and flow shall be controlled to minimise operating noise, water
       consumption and risk of splashback.
   (h) Allowance shall be made for the use of water hammer arrestors where
       necessary.
   (i) Provisions for the prevention of backflow to water mains shall be incorporated.
   (j) Dead legs shall be kept to a minimum. Accessible isolation to be provided to all
       holding cell facilities.
   (k) Accessible isolation valves shall be provided to all holding cell facilities.
   (l) Vandal proof fixtures shall be used throughout all public areas.
   (m) Toilet cisterns shall be 6/3 flush capacity installed in hidden locations in all public
       areas.
   (n) Vandal proof and harm minimisation fixtures to be used in all Custodial Areas.
   (o) Low flow basin fixtures shall be incorporated.
   (p) Low flow shower heads and waterless urinals shall be considered on a case by
       case basis.
   (q) Urinal cisterns shall incorporate sensor controls for automatic flushing while
       maintaining minimum water wastage.

2.7 Hot Water Systems
    (a) Each hot water service shall include all necessary hot water pipes from the cold
        water feed to all fixtures and fittings and faucets requiring hot water.
    (b) The heat source and system arrangement shall be selected, to minimise lifecycle
        costs. The system shall be tailored to the layout and requirements of the
        building.
    (c) The decision on the hot water generation system shall be based on lifecycle
        running costs (15 years) taking into account capital costs, energy costs and
        maintenance costs. The energy costs shall include hot water generation energy
        costs, water reticulation energy costs, thermal loss energy cost and standing loss
        energy cost.
    (d) If two options provide similar costs, the system with the lowest projected CO2
        emissions shall be selected.
    (e) If a centralised hot water system is installed the hot water reticulation for each
        system shall be circulated via strategically located risers through a fully insulated
        flow and return system. The system shall be fully balanced at the top of each
        riser. Circulation shall be achieved via pumps. Branch pipe work from the main
        circulation system shall be kept to a length to prevent cold water dead legs and
        unacceptable waiting time.
    (f) All hot water pipe work shall be insulated.
    (g) Expansion provision shall be allowed for.
    (h) Air relief valves shall be positioned on risers to prevent potential system air
        locking.
    (i) Insulation used shall have a zero flame and smoke index.
    (j) Pipe work shall be copper tube (Type B) to AS 1432.
    (k) Maximum and minimum operational pressures within the hot water system shall
        be 500 kPa and 250 kPa respectively.
    (l) Allowance shall be made for the use of water hammer arrestors where
        necessary. Dead legs on pipe work shall be kept to a minimum.

3.7 Soil Waste and Vent Systems
    (a) The sanitary drainage system shall comprise the connection to the authority
        sewer system located at the point of connection yet to be determined with
        extension to new fixtures and fittings as required.


                                                                                           168
                                                                             SECTION D

       (b) The new sewer drainage system shall serve all new fixtures and fittings
           throughout the building. Areas unable to gravitate to the authority system shall
           be pumped to the authority drainage system.

 4.7 Authority Supplies
     (a) Where the ground is deemed unstable or water charged, all pipe work shall be
         supported on a continuous reinforced concrete raft support in accordance with
         AS/NZS 3500.
     (b) The sanitary plumbing system shall comprise of the connection to all fixtures and
         fittings requiring sanitary and waste plumbing and extension to the sanitary
         drainage service through a network of stacks and vents situated at strategic
         locations throughout the building.
     (c) The system shall include all required inspection openings, traps, fittings and
         ancillary items in accordance with AS/NZS 3500.

 5.7 Gas System
     (a) The system branches shall then reticulate to gas fired plant and equipment as
         required. Each branch shall include a stop valve for isolation purposes.
     (b) The system shall incorporate all valves, tees, bends, regulators, tail pipes and
         sundry items in accordance with AS 5601 and Local Authority requirements.
     (c) OPSO vented regulators shall be used at points where high gas pressures are
         reduced to serve appliances of low pressures.

 6.7 Stormwater System
     (a) Stormwater drainage from the site shall be designed in accordance with the
         requirements of AS/NZS 3500 and City of Perth.
     (b) The system shall include all stormwater pipelines, pits and fittings necessary to
         drain the water from the site.
     (c) The stormwater drainage system comprises the collection of surface and runoff
         from roof areas catchment areas of the site.
     (d) Discharge to the stormwater system the stormwater shall be via retention tanks
         and pumps as required to meet City of Perth requirements.
     (e) The rainwater plumbing system shall comprise a series of downpipes serving
         roof areas, gutters and balconies as required. The system shall be designed to
         accommodate 1 in 100 year storm recurrences. Special consideration shall be
         given to overflows.
     (f) Subsoil drains shall be installed to relieve ground water pressure from new
         perimeter footings, retaining walls and slabs as required.
     (g) The car park drainage system shall comprise all stormwater pipelines, pits and
         fittings necessary to drain water from the basement.
     (h) Pits shall be located so as to provide full access for rodding and maintenance.
     (i) The subsoil and car park drainage system shall be pumped to stormwater
         drainage system if unable to gravitate to stormwater drainage system.

 7.7 Interface requirements
     (a) All pumps, meters and level switches shall be interfaced and monitored by the
         BMS.
     (b) Hydraulic services shall be interfaced with mechanical and fire services to
         provide all required drainage.

1.8.      Mechanical Services

          A.    General
                i.  Performance Requirements
                    a.   The following performance description relates to the provision
                         of the mechanical systems and proposed objectives.

                                                                                        169
                                                                 SECTION D

       b.    The mechanical services works shall comprise the following
             systems:
                 • Air conditioning (central and or packaged plant);
                 • Chilled water thermal plant and distribution (when
                    required);
                 • Heating water thermal plant and distribution (when
                    required);
                 • Heat rejection plant and distribution (when required);
                 • Toilet exhaust;
                 • General exhaust eg tea preparation areas and print
                    rooms;
                 • Kitchen and café ventilation (when required);
                 • Custodial Area ventilation – sally port;
                 • Water treatment systems – condenser, chilled and
                    heating water (when required);
                 • Car park ventilation (when required);
                 • Smoke hazard management and stairwell pressurisation
                    systems (when required);
                 • BMS.
       c.    The above mentioned systems shall include all associated
             ductwork, pipework, controls, electrical works and noise and
             vibration isolation systems.
ii.    Standards
          The mechanical systems for the building shall be designed
          installed and commissioned in accordance with the requirements
          of all authorities having jurisdiction over the works and the
          relevant Australian Standards and Codes.              The principal
          Standards and Codes are identified as follows:
       • Building Code of Australia and all referred standards
       • AS 1228
       • AS1324.1
       • AS 1324.2
       • AS / NZS 1668.1
       • AS / NZS 1668.2
       • AS 1668.3
       • AS / NZS 1677.1
       • AS / NZS 3666.3
       • AS 4254
       • AS 4508
       • Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0 Custodial Design
          Guidelines
iii.   Design Philosophy Requirements
       a.    All mechanical systems shall be designed to meet the following
             objectives:
                 • To provide an environment that will contribute towards the
                    effective delivery of Justice to the State.
                 • Provide safe, secure and efficient operation.
                 • Maximisation of staff productivity.
                 • Achieve lowest whole of life costs.
                 • Provide environmental responsibility and energy
                    efficiency.
       b.    In order to achieve these objectives, the following items shall be
             considered in the design and installations:

                                                                            170
                                                                                               SECTION D

                                    •  Comfort;
                                    •  Acoustic control;
                                    •  Air quality;
                                    •  Aesthetics;
                                    •  Design life and durability;
                                    •  Quality;
                                    •  Maintainability;
                                    •  Plant replacement/accessibility;
                                    •  Adaptability;
                                    •  Energy efficiency;
                                    •  Personnel safety;
                                    •  Environmental integrity;
                                    •  Reliability.
                     iv.   Design Criteria
Table 9 - Ambient Thermal Conditions
T        T




  Extreme ambient conditions within which           Maximum and minimum recorded
  plant shall be required to continue to            temperatures for the site/location.
  operate:

    Outside ambient conditions in which air        AIRAH comfort design conditions for
    conditioning shall be required to achieve      Summer and Winter for the site/location.
    continuous maximum ratings of
    performance
    Internal conditions required to be achieved
    at the above mentioned ambient conditions:
                                                   Summer                   Winter
    Office Type Areas:                             23.5oC           P   P   21.5oC
                                                                               P   P




    Courts:                                        As with office areas but with user
                                                   adjustability of ±2.5oC DB          P   P




    Public Areas:                                  23.5oC           P   P   21.5oC
                                                                               P   P




    Jury Areas:                                    23.5oC           P   P   21.5oC
                                                                               P   P




    Corridors and Amenities:                       23.5oC           P   P   21.5oC
                                                                               P   P




    Control Limits:                                ±1oC     P   P




    Relative Humidity:                             40% to 60% by virtue of cooling coil
                                                   performance for sensible cooling. No
                                                   automatic control of humidity, coils shall be
                                                   selected for 50% RH under design
                                                   conditions
    Air Velocity:
                                                   0.1 – 0.25 m/s measured
                                                   1.0 – 1.5 m above floor level
    Air Quality
                                                   The air quality shall meet occupant health
                                                   and safety requirements. This is expected
                                                   to require evaluation of external pollutant
                                                   characteristics, indoor sources of pollutants
                                                   and determination of internal objectives.
                                                   The building will be designated non-
    Maximum temperature gradient between           smoking
    ankles and head
                                                   2oC
                                                    P   P




                                                                                                      171
                                                                                 SECTION D

Table 10 – Internal Loads
  Lighting loads                             W/m2   P   P




  Refer to Electrical Section/Consultant for Allow minimum of 15 w/m²
  actual requirements.
  Equipment                                  W/m2   P   P




  Refer to Electrical Section/Consultant for
  actual requirements.
  Courts                                     Allow minimum of 20 PCs in courts
  People load/Numbers                        78 W per person sensible (Refer
                                             Architectural Seating Layout)
                                             52 W per person latent (Refer Architectural
                                             Seating Layout)

Table 11 - Miscellaneous Items
  Outside air                                  To comply with AS 1668 Part 2 (1991)
                                               A performance approach shall be adopted
                                               in determining ventilation rates appropriate,
                                               varied as required to meet occupancy
                                               needs using indicators such as carbon
                                               dioxide monitoring. Consideration shall be
                                               given to locate outside air and intakes to
                                               maximise air cleanliness and quality
  After hours operation                        On a floor by floor, functional area and zone
                                               basis
  Control system                               Building Management System with Direct
                                               Digital Control
  Filtration                                   In accordance with ASHRAE Standard 52–
                                               76, minimum efficiency 80%, arrestance
                                               98% and AS1668 Pt 2
  Acoustic performance                         The entire mechanical system shall meet
                                               the acoustic requirements set out in section
                                               F ‘Acoustic & Sound Reinforcement
                                               Specification’
  Sensors                                      Sensors shall be concealed
  Custodial Area                               Special consideration shall be given to
                                               mechanical systems within the Custodial
                                               Area and in particular in the cells, to
                                               minimise damage to the equipment and any
                                               harm that people in custody can inflict on
                                               themselves and others. Special security
                                               grilles shall be provided in the Custodial
                                               Area to comply with Western Australian
                                               Police Building Code 3.0 Custodial Design
                                               Guidelines

                   v.     Aesthetics
                            Mechanical systems shall be integrated within the concealed
                            ceiling spaces available to minimise impact on the aesthetics of
                            the interior spaces and the external envelope. Air diffusion and
                            other visible equipment shall be selected to provide the required
                            performance and to meet acceptable appearance criteria.
                   vi.    Design Life and Durability
                            The mechanical systems shall have adequate durability to achieve
                            a normal industry standard design life as outlined below without
                            requiring undue maintenance (i.e. economic life).

                                                                                               172
                                                                 SECTION D

           -     Mechanical infrastructure systems e.g. ductwork, piping,
                 electrics etc 25-30 years.
           -     Mechanical central plant 20-25 years.
           -     Mechanical packaged plant 15-20 years.
vii.    Quality
           Construction quality shall meet high quality commercial standards
           for the duty concerned. Equipment and components selected
           shall be of a type with proven performance.
viii.   Maintainability
        a.    The mechanical systems shall be designed to allow
              maintenance activity to all equipment.
        b.    There shall be a minimum of maintenance of equipment and
              systems within the areas occupied by the Judiciary such as
              courts (e.g. no fans, filters, dampers and terminal devices shall
              be allowed in the areas). Items within the occupied space shall
              be selected for ease of component maintenance and
              replacement of consumables.
        c.    Plant and building systems routine preventive maintenance
              shall be achievable without the need to access judicial or
              custodial circulation routes.
        d.    Access for annual performance verification of ‘statutory’
              systems and for breakdown repairs or major alteration may be
              achieved via access through judicial and custodial circulation
              routes. System layouts shall be arranged to avoid the need to
              access the judicial or custodial circulation routes more than
              once annually in normal circumstances.
        e.    Equipment shall be selected where possible of standard
              manufacture and configuration to increase the familiarity to
              service personnel and achieve long term availability of spare
              parts and specialist backup. Selections shall demonstrate
              avoidance of technical obsolescence whilst utilising ‘mature’
              technologies.
        f.    Centralised and packaged plant and equipment shall be
              configured for ease of service access and to permit the removal
              and replacement of major items or components with minimum
              disruption and in the least time.
        g.    Operation and alarm monitoring of all equipment status,
              temperature and humidity points shall be possible via the BMS.
              Adjustment of air conditioning temperature and airflow shall be
              facilitated by simple controls. The BMS Head End Display shall
              provide read-out of the set and actual sensed conditions at the
              sensor location.
ix.     Plant Replacement
           Consideration during design shall be given as to the ease of future
           plant and equipment replacement.
x.      Adaptability
        a.    Systems shall be designed to facilitate the requirements of:
                 • changes to occupancy and internal loads by ±10% of the
                      initial capacity; and
        b.    Systems shall be capable of maintaining operational
              requirements for a range of varying conditions such as
              occupancy and thermal loads and to operate with stability and
              reasonable efficiency for the full range of operating conditions
              from no load to full design load.



                                                                            173
                                                                 SECTION D

        c.   Provision for expansion of 20% of the initial capacity shall also
             be provided within riser shafts to enable additional services to
             be included in the future.
        d.   Provision for change in plant infrastructure shall allow an
             additional 15% of the plant space to that required by the initial
             installation.
xi.     Energy Efficiency
        a.   Consideration shall be given to minimise the energy
             consumption of systems whilst not compromising their reliability
             nor the amenity they provide.
        b.   ‘Free cooling’ potential and recovery of waste heat shall be
             considered.
        c.   Each energy consuming system shall be demonstrated to have
             low total ongoing running and operating costs including energy
             consumption costs. Life cycle costings for each form of energy
             shall be provided.
xii.    Personnel Safety
        a.   The completed installation shall comply with the relevant
             Australian Standards called upon by Statute and Codes for
             Building and occupational health and safety as interpreted and
             applied by the Approval Authority.
        b.   Handover training shall ensure the proper integration of the
             installation with operator skill levels.
xiii.   Environmental
        a.   Refrigerant gases shall be selected with regard to their ozone
             depletion potential and global warming potential to ensure the
             minimum environmental impact.
        b.   The refrigerant selected shall have the following qualities:
                 • ozone depletion potential (ODP) < 0.055
                 • global warming potential (GWP) < 2000 (100 years)
xiv.    Reliability
        a.   Mechanical plant shall be selected such that failure of any
             single component shall not reduce the available capacity in
             accordance with the following table:
                      Central cooling plant:                    by 65%
                      (chillers, cooling towers, pumps)
                      Central heating plant:                    by 50%
                      (boilers, pumps)
                      Independent air conditioning:
                      Critical spaces (such as computer rooms) N+1
        b.   In addition, no central air handling unit or packaged unit shall
             serve more than 25% of the courts.
xv.     Custodial Areas
           Special consideration shall be given to the mechanical design in
           holding cell and Custodial Areas. The design of the mechanical
           systems shall be:
        a.   Designed to minimise damage to equipment by PIC; and
        b.   Designed to minimise damage PIC can inflict on themselves.
        c.   Conform to the requirements of the Custodial Design
             Guidelines.
xvi.    System Types
           The type of air conditioning system proposed for the project will be
           based on Life Cycle Costing Analysis (LCC). The term of the Life
           Cycle Costing Analysis shall be either 15 years or 25 years as
           advised by the client. It is envisaged that small facilities
           comprising five of less court rooms will be assessed on a 15 year
                                                                            174
                                                                     SECTION D

             LCC and could be served by packaged plant systems subject to
             confirmation by LCC analysis.
B.   Thermal Plant (chillers, boilers and cooling towers - where required)
     i.   Chilled Water Thermal Plant and Distribution System
          a.    Water cooled chillers shall be utilised and these shall be located
                within the plant room(s). The chillers shall cater for maximum
                and minimum loads and the range between with stable
                operation. They shall also operate economically under the full
                range of load conditions. Chiller size and type (such as
                centrifugal and screw) shall be ascertained to economically
                cater for varying ranges of loads from out of hours or 24 hour
                operation through to the peak loads within the restraints of
                economic capital expenditure whilst maintaining stable
                operation of the plant. The chillers shall be arranged for parallel
                operation complete with individual bypass.
          b.    The capacity of the chilled water thermal plant shall be
                designed to cater for the peak building load with 20% spare
                capacity.
          c.    Chilled water shall be reticulated to the air handling units via
                insulated pipe work.
     ii.  Heating Water Thermal Plant and Distribution System
             Gas fired boilers shall be provided to satisfy the building heating
             load during early morning warm up. Hot water shall be reticulated
             to the heating coils in the air handling units via insulated pipe
             work.
     iii. Heat Rejection Plant
             Heat rejection from the chillers shall be via a condenser water
             system. This condenser water system shall comprise of cooling
             towers and condenser water pumps to match the chiller
             requirements including chiller spare capacity. The plant shall be
             located so as not to cause a nuisance. The cooling towers shall
             be designed, installed and maintained to AS/NZS 3666.

C.   Air Conditioning Systems
     i.   General
          a.    The building shall be air conditioned throughout with the
                exception of any car parks, plant rooms and the Custodial Area
                sally port. It is envisaged this will be achieved by using a
                combination of:
                    • central systems; and or package plant systems
                    • independent systems.
          b.    The central systems shall serve all spaces with exception of:
                    • kitchen / restaurant type areas; and
                    • spaces requiring close temperature and humidity control.
          c.    These areas shall be served by independent systems.
          d.    The Consultant shall ascertain whether spaces requiring 24
                hour operation shall be served by either central system or
                independent systems on the basis of operational efficiency.
     ii.  Central Systems
          a.    Air conditioning to the building shall be provided by a variable
                air volume central plant system but suitable alternatives may be
                considered. The central plant comprising of AHUs and thermal
                plant (including chillers, boilers, cooling towers and associated
                equipment) shall be located within the plant rooms. Sub-
                section ‘Thermal Plant’ provides details of the thermal plant
                requirements.
                                                                                175
                                                         SECTION D

b.   The air conditioning to the building shall be zoned to take
     account of:
        • thermal loads; and
        • functionality of spaces.
c.   These zones recognise different space utilisation, load
     distribution and occupant comfort objectives. The objective
     shall be to provide an appropriate level of zone control to
     ensure design conditions are achieved in an energy efficient
     manner.
             Thermal Zones
             The thermal zones shall be divided between perimeter
             (north, south, east and west) and interior zones.
             Thermal zones may be arranged vertically between
             floors. Thermal zones are required to be designed in
             such a way that comfort conditions are achieved
             economically irrespective of the variance of the cooling
             and heating loads throughout the Facilities.
             Functionality Zones
     1. The functionality zones shall be determined by space usage
        and occupancy levels. Typical functionality zones being:
                               • courts;
                               • public areas;
                               • jury areas;
                               • library;
                               • Custodial Area;
                               • Judges chambers;
                               • registry;
                               • office areas;
                               • lift motor rooms.
     2. Functionality zones are not required to be served by
        separate AHUs but can be grouped together on the basis of
        like thermal and hours of operation requirements.
        Functionality zones are required to be designed in such a
        way that comfort conditions are achieved irrespective of the
        variance of the cooling and heating loads throughout the
        Facilities.
     3. After hours control of each zone shall be provided by
        selection of relevant AHU and control of respective
        motorised dampers on the branch connections.
     4. The BMS shall have the facility to monitor and override the
        functions described above.
     5. Each vertical bank of zones shall be served by dedicated air
        handling units.
     6. Conditioned air shall be distributed to the space via vertical
        risers with branch connections to respective zones served by
        variable air volume terminal boxes and diffusers.
     7. Terminal boxes shall not be located within courts.
     8. Return air shall be drawn from the space via the ceiling
        plenum connected to return air riser shafts. Combined return
        air shafts can be utilised however the shafts shall be located
        to ensure return air paths do not cross court zones. The air
        shall be either returned to the air handling unit or relieved to
        outside through a relief air system. Return air to the AHUs
        shall only be drawn from thermal and functional zones which
        are in operation.
                                                                     176
                                                                  SECTION D

            9. Acoustic transfer ducts shall be provided where required in
               order to meet the acoustic requirements.
            10. For economic operation, each unit, subject to life cycle
               costing justification, shall have full economy cycle with
               enthalpy control. In addition, air quality sensors shall be
               installed in the return air systems to monitor CO2 and enable
                                                                  B   B




               the reduction in outside air when levels are below acceptable
               limits.
            11. Utilisation of economy cycle systems shall be based on life
               cycle running costs (25 years) taking into account capital
               costs, energy costs and maintenance costs.
            12. An early morning warm up cycle shall be provided by a hot
               water heating coil in each air handling unit. Perimeter zone
               VAV terminal boxes shall incorporate electric heaters if
               required to maintain space conditions throughout the zone.
            13. Interior zone VAV boxes shall maintain space conditions
               by reducing primary supply air from the air handling units
               subject to satisfying the return air CO2 levels minimum
                                                          B   B




               outdoor air requirements and minimum flow rate of 5L/s/m².
            14. One thermal control zone shall be provided per maximum
               of 3 perimeter offices with the same façade orientation and
               similar equipment and occupancy loads. One thermal
               control zone shall be provided per 120 m2 for the interior
               areas.
iii.   Packaged Plant Systems
          Air conditioning to the building will be provided by constant
          volume package plant systems.

            Package plant systems shall be:

       a.    Zoned similar to central plant systems.
       b.    Provided with after hours control to each unit and zone.
       c.    Controlled and monitored via a BMS System.
       d.    Provided with Acoustic transfer Ducts where required.
       e.    Utilises economy cycles in accordance with the BCA and/or
             based on Life Cycle Costing.
       f.    Utilise reverse cycle heating.
iv.    Independent Systems
       a.    Independent air conditioning systems shall serve kitchen /
             restaurant spaces or similar to minimise odour and
             contamination to other parts of the building; and computer/IT
             spaces requiring close temperature and humidity control.
       b.    Spaces requiring 24 hour operation e.g. security control desks
             etc may be served by independent systems on the basis of
             operational efficiency.
v.     Air Distribution System
       a.    The air distribution shall promote a uniform climate via rapid
             mixing of the incoming conditioned supply air with the room air.
       b.    Alternatively, displacement ventilation principles may be
             employed where the conditioned air meets comfort
             requirements and enters at very low velocity at or near the floor
             with warm polluted air being exhausted at ceiling level.
vi.    Custodial Areas
           Air conditioning shall be provided to the Custodial Area utilising
           the central air conditioning system or package plant systems.


                                                                           177
                                                                     SECTION D

D.   Smoke Hazard Management and Stairwell Pressurisation Systems
     i.  Smoke hazard management and stairwell pressurisation shall be
         provided in accordance with AS 1668 Part 1 and the requirements of
         the Building Code of Australia.
     ii. For the Custodial Areas, the smoke hazard management system shall
         also comply with Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0
         Custodial Design Guidelines.

E.   Toilet Exhaust Systems
     i.    A toilet exhaust ventilation system be provided in accordance with AS
           1668 Part 2. Duty/standby fans shall be utilised on all central toilet
           exhaust systems.
     ii.   For the Custodial Area, the toilet exhaust system shall also comply
           with Western Australian Police Building Code 3.0 Custodial Design
           Guidelines.

F.    General Exhaust Systems
     The general exhaust ventilation systems shall be provided in accordance
     with AS 1668 Part 2. This shall provide ventilation to tea preparation areas,
     print rooms, lift motor rooms and custodial areas. For the Custodial Areas,
     the general exhaust shall also comply with Western Australian Police
     Building Code 3.0 Custodial Design Guidelines.

G.    Car Park Ventilation Systems
     If required car park ventilation systems shall control the concentration of
     atmospheric contaminants to deemed safe levels in accordance with the
     minimum requirements of AS 1668 Part 2 and Building Code of Australia. A
     system of carbon monoxide detectors / analysers shall be used to enable
     the ventilation system to run at reduced volume and hence reduce energy
     consumption levels in non-peak times.

H.    Custodial Area – Vehicular Access
     Ventilation to this area shall consist of full mechanical exhaust using either
     mechanical or naturally ventilated supply air make up as appropriate. The
     ventilation shall be operated and designed in accordance with AS 1668,
     Part 2 and Building Code of Australia. A system of carbon monoxide and
     NO2 sensors/analyses shall be used to enable the ventilation system to run
        B   B




     at reduced volume and hence reduce energy consumption levels in non-
     peak times.

I.    Kitchen / Restaurant Exhaust Systems
     Kitchen / restaurant areas shall be ventilated separately in order to minimise
     perceptible odour and contamination to adjacent areas. The ventilation
     systems shall comply with AS 1668, Part 2.

J.   Other Related Services
     i.   Other mechanical provisions may include:
          • Service area ventilation e.g. switchrooms, transformer rooms etc;
          • garbage area ventilation.

K.   Building Management System (BMS) and Controls
     i.   A BMS shall be provided for control / monitoring of building functions.
          All plant shall have DDC control. The system shall have a central
          BMS control with intelligent outstations. Each outstation shall have
          10% spare capacity.


                                                                                178
                                                                SECTION D

ii.     The BMS shall consist of stand alone microprocessor based
        controllers located throughout the building and connected via a
        network to allow data to be transferred around the system. Current
        generation personal computers shall be utilised to provide the
        operator interface and user friendly software provided to facilitate
        operation and monitoring of the building.
iii.    The system shall incorporate functions to enable data to be collected
        and displayed in a number of formats to facilitate system
        troubleshooting and fault diagnosis. Operation of the system shall be
        performed primarily by a GUI and interactive grap screens.
iv.     The system shall be installed to control and monitor the following:
v.      All mechanical services including:
        • all air handling systems including supply and return air
            temperatures;
        • fan static pressures to enable fan status/failures to be determined
            and alarmed;
        • all space temperatures, variable volume boxes;
        • space relative humidity and outside air temperatures in a sample
            of areas;
        • air quality / CO2 levels in major air handling systems;
                         P   P




        • the chiller system, incorporating load limiting and chilled water
            reset control by a high level interface;
        • all entering / leaving temperatures on the chiller and cooling tower
            systems;
        • the cooling towers;
        • the boilers and associated heat exchangers;
        • all entering / leaving temperatures on the boiler;
        • various ventilation systems; and
        • all two speed or variable speed drives.
vi.     Various electrical services including:
        • all time and / or day light controlled lighting systems;
        • all other time controlled functions (eg. pumps);
        • alarm outputs from the emergency lighting installation and UPS
            system;
        • main incoming energy meters to record and monitor building loads
            and maximum demands; and
        • all electrical sub-meters, together with the main gas and water
            meters.
vii.    Various hydraulic services including:
        • appropriate hydraulic alarms inputs including high / low level tank
            alarms, pump run / fail status; and
        • load shedding outlets to allow shedding of electric water heating
            systems for essential load as well as energy management
            purposes.
viii.   Miscellaneous services including:
        • miscellaneous other items considered appropriate; and
        • alarm monitoring from lift and fire systems.
ix.     The system shall incorporate one head end workstations equipped as
        follows:
        • Current generation PC
        • 17 inch monitors
        • Colour printer (1 only)
        • Alarm printers (2 off)
        • Windows based software
        • BAS software (latest revision at time of practical completion)
                                                                           179
                                                                            SECTION D

                    •   MS Office
                    •   Modem for remote dial in
                    •   Modem for auto dial to pager
                    •   Provide software for remote PC terminal.

       L.   Interface Requirements
            i.    All plant and systems (mechanical, electrical, fire, hydraulic, security
                  etc) shall utilise the same protocol as the BMS or include for suitable
                  protocol interfaces.
            ii.   The interface requirements listed below are not exhaustive:
                  • Chillers (high level interface);
                  • Main computer rooms (high level interface);
                  • Integrated court management system (high level interface);
                  • Metering, including reporting facility, for all electricity energy
                     meters within the Facilities;
                  • Lighting control system monitoring:
                  • Fault monitoring;
                  • Emergency lighting central monitoring system;
                  • Security system, monitoring and alarm;
                  • Lift system monitoring.


1.9.   Structural

       Design Codes and Standards
           The building shall be designed in accordance with current Australian Codes
           and Standards including, but not limited to:
           • AS 3600
           • AS 4100
           • AS 3700
           • AS 1720
           • AS/NZS 1170.0
           • AS/NZS 1170.1
           • AS/NZS 1170.2
           • AS/NZS 1170.4
           • Austroads Bridge Design Code
           • Main Roads Interim Bridge Design Loads
           • Building Code of Australia.
           If Australian Standards do not cover particular circumstances, reference
           shall be made to relevant ACI or British standards.

       Durability
       The building shall have adequate durability to achieve a nominal design life of
       40-60 years without requiring undue maintenance. Durability shall be built into
       the concrete structure through careful concrete mix design, attention to design
       details and correct construction practice.

       The Code criteria relating to durability shall be regarded as minimum
       requirements, and the designer shall exercise appropriate judgement and
       experience in order to achieve the desired outcomes.

       Minimum exposure classifications for reinforced or prestressed concrete
       elements as defined in Table 4.3 of As 3600 shall be as follows:

       Surfaces of members in contact with the ground:                    A2

                                                                                       180
                                                                  SECTION D

Surfaces of members in interior environments:                    A1
Surfaces of members in above-ground exterior environments:       B1

Reference Documents
Technical Note – Geotechnical Recommendation, Tunnel Connection, New CBD
Court Project; URS; Doc No 08021-063-562/585-6028.0; 20 October 2003.
Geotechnical Investigation, Perth CBD Court Complex, URS, Doc. Ref. 08021-
062-562/585-F6073.0; 4 November 2003.

Minimum Design Loads
Dead Loads
Permanent Dead Loads

Structure dead loads to be calculated using:
      •    concrete weight 24 kN/m3;
      •    other material weights in accordance with AS 1170.1, Appendix A.

Superimposed Dead Loads
Ceiling and services:
      •     courtrooms           0.5 kPa
      •     other areas          0.3 kPa
Floor finishes:
      •     toilets and wet areas 1.2 kPa (allows for 50 mm finished)
      •     plant rooms 1.2 kPa (allows for 100 mm plinths on 50% of floor area)
      •     terraces 3.0 kPa (allows for average 125 mm graded finishes)
Internal partitions:
      •     lightweight partitions       1.0 kPa
      •     permanent partitions to be determined based on actual material
            weights and architectural plans and details
External façade:
      •     curtain walling 1.0 kPa
      •     other wall types to be determined based on actual material weights
            and architectural plans and details
Live Loads
            • Courtrooms, jury rooms, registry, sheriff, interview, offices,
                 conference rooms - 4.0 kPa or 2.7 kN.
            • Stairs and landings, corridors, hallways, research library, lift
                 lobbies - 4.0 kPa or 4.5 kN.
            • File rooms - 5.0 kPa or 4.5 kN.
            • Cafeteria - 2.0 kPa or 2.7 kN.
            • Terraces - 5.0 kPa or 4.5 kN (terraces generally).
            • Terraces - 5.0 kPa or 31 kN (ground level terraces accessible to
                 wheeled vehicles).
            • Balconies - 4.0 kPa or 1.8 kN, or same as load on areas providing
                 access to balcony, if these are greater.
            • Slabs on grade - 10.0 kPa or 31 kN.
            • Plant or fan rooms - 5.0 kPa or 4.5 kN (unless plant loads are
                 more severe).
            • Lift motor rooms - 7.5 kPa or 4.5 kN (unless machinery loads are
                 more severe).
            • Car parks and vehicle ramps - 5.0 kPa or 31 kN (on elevated
                 decks and ramps).
            • Compactus zones - 10.0 kPa on slab areas, 7.5 kPa on tributary
                 areas to bands, beams, columns and cores.
            • Roofs (metal deck) - 0.25 kPa.
                                                                              181
                                                                    SECTION D

             • Roofs (concrete) - 3.0 kPa or 4.5 kN.
             • Other areas - in accordance with AS / NZS 1170.1.
               Note that in line with common practice in major buildings, the
               specified office floor loading is greater than the minimum required
               by the Code. When combined with the allowance of 1.0 kPa for
               lightweight partitions, it provides considerable flexibility for
               accommodating moderately heavy items of equipment such as
               small safes, clusters of filing cabinets, etc.
               The structure shall be able to support all items of plant and
               equipment required to fulfil the various services design briefs,
               including tanks, BMU, masts, etc.
               Live load reductions shall be determined in accordance with AS /
               NZS 1170.1, Clause 3.4.2.

Wind Loads
                Wind loads shall be determined in accordance with AS / NZS
                1170.2 as follows:
                Region - A1
                Regional wind speeds –Ultimate V1000 = 46 m/sec
                Serviceability                       V20 = 37 m/sec
                Terrain category                         = 3 (all directions)
                Wind direction multiplier (Md)           = determine in
                                                           accordance with
                                                           Table 3.2
                Shielding multiplier (Ms)                = 1.0
                Topograp multiplier (Mt)                 = 1.0
                Terrain / height multiplier (Mz,cat)     = determine in
                                                           accordance with




                                                                               182
                                                                                      SECTION D

                                                                            Table 4.1(A)
Earthquake Loads
Earthquake loads shall be determined in accordance with AS / NZS 1170.4 as follows:
                                   • General structure type          = II
                                   • Importance factor (I)           = 1.00
                                   • Acceleration coefficient (a)    = 0.09
                                   • Site factor (s)                 = 1.25
                                   • Earthquake design category      = C (Table 2.6 of AS /
                                                                             NZS 1170.4)
Static analysis in accordance with Section 6 or dynamic analysis in accordance with Section 7
of AS/NZS 1170.4 is required.
The requirements for securing non-structural components as outlined in Section 5 of AS/NZS
1170.4 shall be adhered to.

Vertical Transportation Services

General
Scope of Systems
Standards
                              Vertical transport services are to be designed to the following
                              standards. The standards outlined vertical transport services
                              guide only and are to be designed to all relevant standards.
                                    • The Building Code of Australia
                                    • AS 1735, Parts 1-12

Design Life and Durability
Vertical Transport services are to be available for 24 hours per day, 7 days per week.
Escalators
                                    • The escalators are to be designed to operate without
                                       undue maintenance for at least 20 years based on a 16
                                       hrs/day 5 days/week usage pattern.
Lifts
                                    • The lifts are to be designed to operate without undue
                                       maintenance to the following minimums based on a 16
                                       hrs/day 5 days/week usage pattern.
                                    • Cars and landing doors systems, buttons, indicators and
                                       controls and finishes in lift cars - 15 years 16 hrs/day 5
                                       days/week usage pattern.
                                    • Basic mechanical components, motors - 25 years.

Maintainability
                              Lifts are to be configured and installed in such a fashion that
                              allows routine maintenance of all lift components.

Sustainability
                              Energy saving management of lifts shall be controlled via the
                              master controller and the BMS. This includes the shutdown of
                              lights, motors etc while lifts are idle. Also energy saving brownout
                              and black out power modes shall be used.

Aesthetics
Lifts are to be furnished with high quality vandal proof finishes and easily cleaned wall, floor and
door finishes.
Passenger lifts shall be provided with protective blankets to prevent damage when lifts are used
to transport goods.
                                                                                                 183
                                                                                      SECTION D


General Performance Requirements – Lifts and Escalators
Lifts
Lift modelling and design shall be designed on a detailed functional analysis of the Courthouse.
Allowances shall be made for court visitors and peak traffic experienced in this type of facility.
The lifts shall achieve the following general performance ratings:
Maximum horizontal acceleration inside lift car of 15 milli-g, peak to peak, in the 1-10Hz
frequency range. The horizontal acceleration is to be measure on the lift car floor from side to
side and front to back.
Sound level within lifts, lift landings and adjacent to lift motor rooms are to be in accordance with
Section F ‘Acoustic & Sound Reinforcement Specification’.
Specific performance requirements are outlined under specific lift headings.

Public Escalators
                           • Escalators may be installed as an alternative to lifts in all high
                             traffic public areas to facilitate high volume people movement. It is
                             envisaged that escalators will be installed to link foyer areas to
                             large courtroom areas.
                           • Escalators shall be at least 1000 mm wide.
                           • It shall be assumed that 95% of all inter-floor visitor traffic will use
                             the escalators during peak periods. There shall be no escalator
                             queuing time during these peak periods.

Control Systems
Lifts
The lift management control system shall be the latest product of microprocessor based lift
traffic control. The system shall have a level of intelligence to place lifts to ensure lift waiting
times are kept to a minimum.
There shall be a fully automated lift management system installed.
A car position panel shall be installed above all landing doors.
A programmable information display shall be installed in all lifts except the Custodial Area lifts.

Security
All lifts shall be provided by interface to the electronic card access control system enabling car
and specified landing calls at basement, transfer and chamber floors to be individually secured
as required by the building security system.
Custodial Area lift shall be capable of exclusive service operation and able to be individually
recalled to the main floor from a security control point.

Building Lift Areas
Lift Areas
General
The lift areas are to be designed to transport while maintaining physical separation of the 5
main types of building users as outlined below:
                      •     Public
                      •     Judges
                      •     Jurors
                      •     Custodial Area
                      •     A&CWS.
Separate lifts are to be installed to service these differing users as outlined below.

Public Lifts
The separate public lifts shall perform the following transport function:
                    •      Main entrance to courtrooms.
                    •      Link courtroom floors.
                    •      Access to controlled entry points in the judicial zone.
                                                                                                  184
                                                                                           SECTION D

The public lifts shall meet the following specific performance criteria:
                       •    Average up / down peak waiting interval – 31 seconds.
                       •    5 minute up peak handling capacity – 13.3%.
                       •    Estimated car loading peak capacity – 80%.

Judicial Lift System
The judicial lift system shall perform the following transport functions:
                       •        Join chambers floors;
                       •        Chambers to car park;
                       •        Public to chambers (secure);
                       •        Registry to chambers;
                       •        Registry and judges to courtrooms.
The lifts in the judicial lift system shall meet the following specific criteria:
                       •        Average up / down peak waiting interval – 90 seconds.
                       •        5 minute up peak handling capacity – 159%.
                       •        Estimated car load at peak capacity – 60%.
                       •        Judiciary shall have the ability to use jury lifts, accessed directly off
                                the judicial circulation system, when not in use by jurors. The design
                                criteria for shared use by the judiciary shall be an average up / down
                                peak waiting interval of 43 seconds and a 5 minute peak handling
                                capacity of 159%.

Jurors Lifts
The separate jury lifts shall perform the following transport functions:
                      •     Jury waiting area to courtrooms.
                      •     Link jury areas of courtrooms.
                            Note: Persons who are yet to be ‘entabled’ as jurors may be
                            transported in public lifts.
The jury lifts have to have the following specific performance requirements:
                      •     Peak transport people quantity – full court jury contingent to all courts
                            (approx. 20 people).
                      •     Peak transport interval – 20 minutes for all jury to be transported to
                            courts.
                      •     Estimated car loading – 80%.
Custodial Area Lifts
The separate Custodial Area lifts shall perform the following transport functions:
                      •     PIC delivery area to Custodial Area.
                      •     Custodial Area to courts.
                      •     Custodial Area to Pedestrian Link.
The internal design of the Custodial Area lifts is to be considered as to whether they are to be
separated or open cars. The final design shall be determined by Custodial Area transport
operational procedures.
The Custodial Area lifts shall meet the following specific performance criteria:
                      •     Average up / down peak waiting interval – not applicable.

Adult and Child Witness Service (A&CWS)
The separate A&CWS lifts shall perform the following transport functions:
                   •     A&CWS area to courts.
A&CWS lifts shall meet the following specific performance criteria:
                   •     Average up / down peak waiting interval – 30 seconds.

CLC Custodial Area Lifts
General
The upgrade, management and maintenance of the 2 Custodial Area lifts located in the existing
CLC Building forms part of this contract.
                                                                                                       185
                                                                                 SECTION D

The lift upgrades is to address 3 areas: the Project Companies duty of care; to allow usage of
the lifts by disabled persons and to improve the efficiency and quality of ride.

Description of Existing Systems
The existing lift services in the building comprise 2 lifts as detailed below.
                       •     Two (2) Custodial Area lifts.
The passenger lifts were installed by Elevators Pty Ltd (now KONE) around 1982/83.
                       •     Number of lifts         Two (Numbers 7
                                                     and 8)
                       •     Type of lifts           Geared overhead
                                                     traction
                       •     Control system          EICON
                       •     Drive System            Variable voltage.
                                                     Thyristor drive
                       •     Manufacturer            Elevators Pty Ltd
                       •     Year of installation    1982/83
                       •     Maintenance provider KONE Elevators
                       •     Load                    1,696 kg
                       •     Speed                   1.5 metres per second
                       •     Levels served           Two

Scope of Works
                             The following works shall be undertaken by the Contractor.

Duty of Care Upgrades
                            The following works shall be undertaken so as to fulfil the owner’s
                            ‘Duty of Care’ obligations:
                                 • Provide earth leakage protection on general purpose
                                     outlets on and within the lift cars.
                                 • Provide engraved registration numbers adjacent to each
                                     lift main switch.
                                 • Provide evidence of plant registration adjacent to the
                                     equipment.
                                 • Provide machine room emergency lighting.
                                 • Upgrade the lift car internal emergency lighting.
                                 • Provide hands free phone communication within the lift
                                     cars.
                                 • Provide governor idler switches.
                                 • Provide hydraulic oil buffer actuation switches.
                                 • Provide car rooftop handrails.
                                 • Provide LMR hatchway handrails and guards.

Disabled Access Upgrades as per As 1735.12 and BCA
                              • Provide new lift car handrail.
                              • Install new infrared 3D door protection.

Performance Upgrades
                            The following works shall be undertaken to improve the
                            performance, efficiency and safety of the lifts:
                                 • Upgrade lift control and drive systems.
                                 • Provide new car door operators.
                                 • Provide new landing door locks and hangers.
                                 • Upgrade lift car interiors.

                                                                                            186
                                                                                   SECTION D

Interface Requirements
The lift control system shall be interfaced to the BMS. The BMS interface shall report all alarms
/ faults and log the aforementioned. Alarms shall be forwarded by the BMS to the security
system for notification of security personnel.

A phone system shall be provided to the Building Security Control Centre.




                                                                                              187
                                                                                     SECTION E


E.    Information Services and Directional Signage
1.   Overview

             A.    The DotAG has a distinguishable corporate identity with a standardised
                   signage system. The corporate standard is not to be altered. A sign
                   manual has been prepared by the DotAG and is available from public
                   affairs.
             B.    Signage shall be integrated both externally and internally.
             C.    Signage shall be easily discernable, clear, complete and consistent.
             D.    Internally signage shall allow easy modification over time.
             E.    Signage shall be secure and vandal proof.
             F.    Signage shall comply with standards pertaining to safety for the occupied
                   environment and access and mobility requirements.
             G.    Generally signage shall comprise: Entries, pedestrian directional signage
                   externally, internal way finding signs, statutory signs, room and door signs
                   and tactile signs.
             H.    Information services and directional signage comprises both static
                   signage/identification as well as electronic displays, the latter being covered
                   in the remainder of this section.

2.   Special Considerations

     As an outcome of the architectural psychology and aboriginal cultural studies particular
     attention in respect to signage requirements is to be paid to the needs of non-English
     speaking users, indigenous people and the visually impaired, including those who are
     short sighted and long sighted. There is a strong preference for symbols rather than
     words, and maps to support good floor planning and effective way-finding cues.

3.   Building Listing Display (This section is optional depending on the size and type of
     proposed courthouse)

     The Building Listing Display shall accurately and reliably represent all court proceedings
     held within the Facilities. It shall be a principal tool to assist way-finding within the
     Facilities.

     3.1.    Placement and User Ergonomic

             A.    The Building Listing Display shall be a large screen, prominently displayed
                   near the entrance on the ground floor of the building. It shall be
                   strategically placed in a position that is clearly visible to Court Users without
                   any structural obstruction, glare or reflection and shall not strain the eyes.
             B.    The Consultant shall ensure that the Building Listing Display shall be
                   aesthetically designed and presented.
             C.    The Building Listing Display shall be legible for viewing at a reasonable
                   distance in an open area where a reasonable number of concurrent users
                   are expected.

     3.2.    Logos and Emblems

             A.    The display shall be partitioned by the jurisdictions (e.g. Supreme Court,
                   District Court and occasionally, any other jurisdictions that proceed within
                   the Building) and the case matters (e.g. criminal and civil).
             B.    Each jurisdiction shall be prominently represented by the use of their
                   current version of the emblem.


                                                                                                 188
                                                                             SECTION E

3.3.   Timing of Display Information

       A.   The content of the display shall represent the cause list for the day. It shall
            be ready with the correct listing information before the Building is open to
            Court Users.
       B.   Any changes to the cause list shall be accurately updated in the display on
            a real time basis.

3.4.   Arrangement of Listing Information

       A.   The listing information shall be arranged and displayed in a simple and
            easy to understand manner.
       B.   It shall be structured in alphabetical order of the key parties of the matter so
            as to assist in navigation and look-up of the listing display. The following
            information shall be clearly displayed.
                   • Names (Plaintiff first, followed by accused/s);
                   • Time;
                   • Building and Floor;
                   • Courtroom Number;
                   • Matter Number;
                   • Presiding judge.
       C.   The Consultant shall liaise with the State for its endorsement on the format
            and arrangement of the cause list content to be displayed.

3.5.   Search Engine and Sub-Display

       A.   In addition to the large screen display, the Consultant shall provide a
            computer screen based display to allow Court Users to interactively search
            for their case matters of interest as well as the courtroom numbers.
       B.   The keywords that shall be useable in the search include any one of or a
            combination of the following.
                   • Names (Plaintiff and accused);
                   • Time;
                   • Building and Floor;
                   • Courtroom Number;
                   • Matter Number;
                   • Presiding judge.
       C.   This search engine shall be designed to be user friendly and shall be
            placed near the large screen display without obstructing the latter from
            being viewed by other Court Users. The Consultant shall provide access to
            the same search engine facility at the information desk in the Building.
       D.   The Consultant shall liaise with the State to determine if there is a need to
            provide various levels of security access to the searchable listing system.

3.6.   Technology

       A.   The Building Listing Display technology selected shall be state-of-the-art,
            reliable and proven products that have been used in a similar court
            environment. It is expected to be computer driven electronic devices.
       B.   Systems that maximise the provision of services to Court Users via
            technology are encouraged. Where such systems are not currently
            available, the systems provided shall include provisions to simplify the
            inclusion of these technological innovations at a later date.




                                                                                         189
                                                                                   SECTION E

     3.7.     System Availability and Resiliency

             A.    The Building Listing Display shall be designed with high resiliency in order
                   to achieve the necessary system availability.
             B.    The Consultant shall ensure that all single points of failure in the system
                   are identified and that the Building Listing Display shall be able to recover
                   from those single failure events.
             C.    The Consultant shall ensure that back-up strategy shall be designed and
                   developed as part of the Booking Services Operation Manual.

4.   Electronic Signage - Courtrooms and Mediation Rooms (This section is optional
     depending on the size and type of proposed courthouse)

     Electronic Signage for all courtrooms and the large mediation room shall provide a
     second-tier display of cause list outside the courtroom with more relevant details than
     those shown in the Building Listing Display. It shall accurately and reliably represent all
     court proceedings held within that particular courtroom for the day.

     4.1.     Placement and Position

             A.    The courtroom electronic signage shall be a moderately large (at least
                   50cm) screen, prominently displayed near the entrance of the courtroom or
                   large mediation room. It shall be strategically placed in a position that is
                   clearly visible to Court Users without any structural obstruction, glare or
                   reflection and shall not strain the eyes.
             B.    The Consultant shall ensure that the courtroom electronic signage shall be
                   aesthetically designed and presented.
             C.    The electronic signage shall be legible for viewing at a reasonable distance
                   in an open area where a reasonable number of concurrent users are
                   expected.

     4.2.     Logos and Emblems

             A.    The logo and/or emblem shall be prominently displayed for the jurisdiction
                   that presides over the proceeding held within the courtroom.
             B.    The Consultant shall ensure that the identity of the presiding jurisdiction is
                   clearly distinguished from other jurisdictions.
             C.    It is possible on occasions, to have more than one jurisdiction presiding in
                   the same courtroom, on the same day. In this case, the identity of each
                   jurisdiction shall be clearly displayed immediately prior to and during each
                   proceeding.

     4.3.     Timing of Display Information

             A.    The content of the electronic signage shall represent the cause list for the
                   day for that courtroom. It shall be ready with the correct courtroom listing
                   information before the building is open to Court Users.
             B.    Any changes to the cause list shall be accurately updated in the electronic
                   signage on a real time basis.

     4.4.     Arrangement of Listing Information

             A.    The cause list information outside the courtroom shall be arranged and
                   displayed in a simple and easy to understand manner.
             B.    It is expected that the following information shall be clearly displayed:
                          • Time;
                          • Matter Number;
                                                                                              190
                                                                          SECTION E

                 • Presiding judge;
                 • Status of the proceeding;
                 • Names (Plaintiff first and accused);
                 • Courtroom Number;
                 • Floor and Building.
       C.   The Consultant shall liaise with the State for its endorsement on the format
            and arrangement of the cause list content to be displayed.
       D.   This information shall be included as part of the Booking Services
            Operation Manual.

4.5.   Status of Proceeding

       A.   The status of the court proceeding for each particular courtroom shall be
            clearly shown for each case matter held for the day. The status information
            shall be one of the following states:
                  • In Progress;
                  • Adjourned;
                  • Completed;
                  • Current case if multi list.
       B.   The status information shall be triggered and easily operated in a
            standalone fashion, that is, limited to that particular courtroom.

4.6.   Technology

       The electronic signage or display technology selected shall be computer driven
       electronic devices that are state-of-the-art, reliable and proven products that
       have been used in a similar court environment.

4.7.   Availability of Display System

       A.   The electronic signage shall be designed with high resiliency in order to
            achieve the necessary system availability.
       B.   The Consultant shall ensure that all single point of failures in the system
            are identified and that the electronic signage shall be recoverable from
            those single failure events.




                                                                                     191
                                                                                   SECTION F

F.     Acoustic & Sound Reinforcement Specification
1.   Introduction

     The following performance descriptions relate to the acoustic requirements for this project.
     The acoustic design is generally concerned with the following:
        •     Environmental noise;
        •     Background noise levels;
        •     Acoustic isolation;
        •     Speech Privacy;
        •     Reverberation;
        •     Room Acoustics;
        •     Hearing conservation; and
        •     Noise control in Services.

     1.1.     Environmental Noise

             The environmental noise must be considered in terms of the noise emission from
             the building and also the intrusion of external environmental noise.

             A.    Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations
                   All noise emission from the building is to be in full compliance with the
                   requirements of the Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997 as
                   amended.

             B.    Rain Noise
                   The noise of rain on metal roofing and stormwater disposal including box
                   gutters and down pipes shall be considered in this project. In critical
                   spaces the rain noise shall be controlled to meet the background noise
                   levels as set out in this Design Brief. In non-critical areas they shall not
                   exceed the recommended level by more than 5 dB.

     1.2.     Background Noise

             A.     The background noise level shall meet the requirements of the Australian
                    Standard AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics - Recommended Design Sound Levels
                    and Reverberation Times for Building Interiors.
             B.     The background noise sources to be considered in terms of the specified
                    design sound levels shall include but not be limited to:
                   • ventilation and air conditioning systems;
                   • hydraulic systems;
                   • lighting;
                   • computer equipment (including keyboards and printers);
                   • intrusive noise from adjoining spaces;
                   • external noise sources such as mechanical plant and environmental noise
                      sources; and
                   • impact noise sources within the building.
             C.     The design sound levels for the major spaces are detailed in the following
                    table.




                                                                                              192
                                                                                  SECTION F

       Table 8 – Design and Sound Levels
        Space / Area                                    dB(A)
        Courtrooms                                      25 to 35
        Jury Rooms                                      35 to 40
        CCTV Rooms                                      30 to 35
        Conference and Discrete Interview Rooms         35 to 45
        Judicial Chambers                               35 to 40
        Executive Office                                35 to 40
        General / Administrative Offices                40 to 45
        Toilets Showers Washrooms                       45 to 50
        Custodial areas                                 45 to 50
        Pedestrian Link                                 40 to 50

1.3.       Acoustic Isolation

           A.   The minimum standard of sound reduction to the following critical areas is
                detailed on the following table.

       Table 9 – Minimum Sound Reduction
                 Space / Area                                         D’ntw
                 Courtrooms                                           55
                 Jury Rooms                                           50
                 Mediation rooms                                      50
                 CCTV Rooms                                           50
                 Recording Booth Room                                 50
                 Custody areas to adjoining         noise             55
                 sensitive spaces
                 Custody Control Room                                 40
                 Floors generally                                     50

           B.    In general, the acoustic isolation to rooms shall be designed to ensure that
                 activity noise in a room does not exceed the design sound level as set out
                 in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2107:2000 in all adjoining spaces.
           C.    In critical spaces such as Courts, CCTV rooms, and any space where voice
                 recordings are carried out, the noise intrusion from adjoining areas shall not
                 affect the voice recording requirements for those spaces.
           D.    The noise sources to be considered in terms of noise isolation include:
                • internal noise sources from plant and equipment;
                • activity noise within a space, including custody areas such as cells,
                   corridors, outdoor areas;
                • structure borne noise, particularly from Accused-in-Custody Areas and
                   holding rooms close to Courts; and
                • external noise sources including traffic, emergency vehicles, and
                   externally located plant etc.
           E.    Careful detailing of walls, windows, doors floors and ceilings shall ensure
                 that the performance of the construction is not downgraded due to flanking
                 transmission.
           F.    Planning - Careful planning is critical in achieving the acoustic objectives in
                 terms of acoustic isolation between spaces. Noise sensitive spaces should
                 not be located adjoining high noise areas. Where high noise areas are
                 located directly adjacent to noise sensitive spaces higher levels of acoustic
                 isolation than suggested in the table above may be required.


                                                                                             193
                                                                                 SECTION F

          G.    Any holding cells located adjacent to courts should preferably not be
                located directly adjacent to courtroom walls. The acoustic isolation via the
                doors must be carefully considered.
          H.    Doors - Generally, doors shall not noticeably downgrade the acoustic
                isolation or speech privacy requirements between spaces. Use acoustic
                lobby where high acoustic isolation requirements are required.
          I.    Flanking Sound Transmission Paths - The wall construction systems shall
                be designed to adequately control all acoustic leakage and flanking sound
                transmission paths. Issues to be addressed include:
               • floor ceiling junctions;
               • flanking sound transmission over ceiling;
               • corner detailing of walls and glazing systems; and
               • flanking transmission though window frame on external wall.

1.4.       Speech Privacy

          A.    Spaces requiring speech privacy shall be designed in accordance with the
                method described in the Australian Standard AS2822 - "Acoustics - Method
                of Assessing and Predicting Speech Privacy and Speech Intelligibility".
          B.    The design for speech privacy takes into account the following factors:
               • Vocal Effort: i.e. normal, raised, stage or shouting voice level;
               • Privacy requirement: i.e. normal or confidential privacy;
               • Background noise level in the receiving space;
               • Size of intervening partition;
               • Size and acoustic absorption in the source room; and
               • Size and acoustic absorption in the receiving room.
          C.    In the assessment of acoustic isolation requirements, a realistic
                assessment of occupancy noise and the expected background noise due to
                the mechanical system must be taken. Low ambient sound levels often
                occur at the ends of duct runs. Often the lower level of the specified design
                sound levels is the appropriate level to use for the speech privacy analysis.
          D.    Definitions for vocal effort are:

       Table 10 – Vocal Effort
        Vocal Effort     Sound level at 1 Description
                         metre
        Normal           60 dB(A)         Speaking in normal office
        Raised           66 dB(A)         Speaking in Conference Room.
                                          Interjecting in small office
                                          Loud voiced person
        Loud             72 dB(A)         Addressing a medium sized
                                          group
                                          Disagreement between persons
        Shouting         78 dB(A)         Distraught person

          E.    Definitions for Speech Privacy Levels are:
               • Normal Speech Privacy - Is taken to mean that speech, although partly
                          intelligible. is not intrusive. It assumes a noise-to-speech ratio of
                          9 dB and corresponds to an Articulation Index of approximately
                          0.10.
               • Confidential Speech Privacy - Is taken to mean that speech will not be
                          intelligible, except when a person concentrates on hearing. It
                          assumes a noise-to-speech ratio of 15 dB and corresponds to an
                          Articulation Index of approximately 0.05.


                                                                                            194
                                                                                 SECTION F

       Table 11 – Speech Privacy Requirements
                                     Vocal Effort             Speech       Privacy
                                                              Level
        Courtrooms                       Loud                 Confidential
        Jury Deliberation Areas          Loud                 Confidential
        General Administrative offices   Normal               Normal
        Executive offices                Normal               Confidential
        Interview Rooms                  Normal               Confidential
        Witness interview rooms          Normal               Confidential
        Remote Witness Rooms             Normal               Confidential
        Custodial Interview rooms        Raised               Confidential
        Judges Chambers                  Raised               Confidential
        Mediation rooms                  Loud                 Confidential
        Associate's Offices              Normal               Confidential

           F.    Doors - Generally, doors shall not noticeably downgrade the speech
                 privacy requirements between rooms.

           G.   The speech privacy requirement set out in Table 11 - Speech Privacy
                Requirements shall be achieved in the completed building. The speech
                privacy is ultimately measured by the Articulation Index that is achieved
                between any two spaces (e.g. adjoining judicial chambers). The Articulation
                Index as set out in the brief is:
                Normal Privacy           AI<0.1
                Confidential Privacy     AI<0.05

1.5.       Reverberation

           The control of reverberation in spaces is normally carried out either for noise
           reduction within a room or to create a specific acoustic environment. RT shall
           meet the RT’s recommended in the Australian Standard AS2107 - “Acoustics -
           Recommended Design Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for Building
           Interiors”.

1.6.       Room Acoustics

           A.    Detailed room acoustic design is to be carried out for all areas requiring
                 critical listening conditions. This includes all courts, conference facilities
                 and chambers where groups of persons are required to communicate.
           B.    The room acoustic design shall consider:
                • volume of room;
                • pattern of acoustic reflections;
                • location of acoustic absorption;
                • location of various sources, e.g. courts;
                • ambient sound level; and
                • reverberation.
           C.    Rooms requiring high levels of speech intelligibility such as large courts,
                 conference areas are to achieve a minimum Rapid Speech Transmission
                 Index (RASTI) of 0.7.
           D.    Courts - The Courtroom acoustics shall be designed to maximise the
                 speech intelligibility for natural voice. The plane of the surfaces and the
                 surface finishes in the courtroom are to be designed to assist the acoustic
                 reflection for natural speech. Acoustic reflections from concave surfaces
                 must be controlled. Due recognition must be provided to the requirements
                 of microphones used in the Court Recording and Public address systems.

                                                                                            195
                                                                              SECTION F

       E.   In courtrooms, the design of the sound reinforcement system is critical in
            achieving both a quality recording and to amplify quietly spoken persons
            such that all parties in the core of the court as well as the public gallery can
            hear them. The public address system is to be designed to assist the
            natural acoustics of the room. The location of speakers in relation to
            microphone positions and the selection of microphone characteristics shall
            be such so as to avoid feedback.
       F.   The acoustics in the public gallery are to be designed to minimise noise
            emission from this area projecting into the main body of the court.
       G.   Conference Rooms:          All conference rooms to be designed to provide a
            high level of speech intelligibility for normal speech levels.

1.7.   Hearing Conservation

       The requirements of the “Occupational Safety and Health Regulations, 1996”
       shall be met in full. Regulations 3.45 to 3.47 inclusive addresses hearing
       conservation aspects of the work environment. Other aspects of employee
       health and safety must not be compromised.

1.8.   Mechanical Services - Acoustics

       A.    Environmental Protection (Noise) Regulations
             All noise emission from mechanical equipment in the building is to be in full
             compliance with the requirements of the Environmental Protection (Noise)
             Regulations 1997 as amended.
       B.    Background Noise
             i.    Noise control of mechanical plant is to ensure that the background
                   noise level in occupied spaces shall meet the requirements of the
                   Australian Standard AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics - Recommended Design
                   Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for Building Interiors. The
                   noise of equipment is to be free of tonality and intermittency as
                   outlined in the Australian Standard.
             ii.   The recommended design sound levels for the major spaces are
                   detailed in the table within Section F1.2. ‘Background Noise’.
             iii.  Duct attenuation systems to be designed to ensure noise breakout
                   from ducts together with duct borne noise and regenerated noise at
                   air grills meets the recommended design sound levels when
                   measured in accordance with AS/NZS 2107.
       C.    Acoustic Isolation
             i.    This project has a significant number of spaces with high acoustic
                   isolation requirements. Where mechanical systems penetrate walls
                   or ceiling systems, the design sound reduction performance of the
                   wall or ceiling system shall not be compromised. The use of door
                   grills for relief air must be carefully considered for each and every
                   situation.
             ii.   Plenum ceilings shall not reduce the design sound reduction
                   performance of the ceiling systems. Where ceilings are used to
                   achieve noise isolation, mechanical penetrations shall not downgrade
                   the performance of the ceiling.
             iii.  Open waiting or seating areas adjacent to courtrooms and
                   mediation/pre-trial rooms, where connected vertically via open stairs
                   or balconies etc shall be isolated to D'ntw 25.
       D.    Vibration
            All mechanical equipment and associated pipe work and ducts are to be
            vibration isolated from the structure to ensure vibration is imperceptible in
            accordance with Australian Standard AS2670-2, and structure borne noise
            is controlled within the background noise levels as specified.
                                                                                         196
                                                                               SECTION F


1.9.    Hydraulic Services- Acoustics

        A.   Background Noise
             All hydraulic systems shall be designed to be free of water hammer and for
             minimisation of hydraulic system noise. Generally, the hydraulic systems in
             use shall comply with the satisfactory (lower) level of the design sound level
             as set out in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics -
             Recommended Design Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for Building
             Interiors. The recommended design sound levels for the major spaces are
             detailed in the table within Section F1.2. ‘Background Noise’.
        B.   The criteria is relevant to water supply fixtures and pipe systems as well as
             waste water systems and stormwater. In noise sensitive areas such as
             courtrooms, mediation suites all judicial chambers, CCTV rooms and rooms
             where recording is used, noise from hydraulic services shall not be audible.
        C.   Operating pressures and flow at fixtures shall be controlled to minimise
             operating noise.
        D.   Planning - Careful planning is critical in achieving the acoustic objectives in
             terms of acoustic isolation between spaces. Areas with hydraulic supply or
             waste should not be located adjacent to or above noise sensitive spaces.

1.10.   Electrical Services- Acoustics

        A.   Background Noise
             i.    All electrical equipment and systems to be installed to ensure
                   compliance with the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics -
                   Recommended Design Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for
                   Building Interiors. The noise of equipment is to be free of tonality and
                   intermittency as outlined in the Australian Standard.                  The
                   recommended design sound levels for the major spaces are detailed
                   in the table within Section F1.2. ‘Background Noise’.
             ii.   Electrical Ballasts - Electrical ballast shall not be installed within the
                   ceiling space of noise sensitive spaces. For all courts and video
                   interview rooms where recordings are used, ballasts shall be located
                   outside the acoustic rated walls around the perimeter of the room.
             iii.  Penetrations in Ceilings - Where ceilings are used to provide part of
                   the noise enclosure to a space, the electrical penetrations such as
                   light fittings shall not downgrade the acoustic performance of the
                   ceiling material.
        B.   Lifts
             i.    Acoustic Criteria - The noise levels specified below form the basis of
                   the acoustics for lifts where included. The noise levels should be
                   determined by measuring the 10 second fast response Leq levels
                   except where noted as being the maximum levels.
                       •        Inside lift foyer (measured 1 m from doors)
                                   •    Lift pass by - Leq 50 dB(A)
                                   •    Opening and closing of doors - Lmax 60 dB(A)
                       •        Inside lift car with fan turned Off
                                   •    Car levelling onto floor and door opening - 60 dB(A)
                                   •    Car accelerating or decelerating - 60 dB(A)
                                   •    Car running at speed - 50 dB(A)
                                   •    Inside adjoining spaces - ‘Satisfactory’ (lower) level
                                        of AS/NZS 2107
                       •        Inside lift car with fan switched on and car stationary - 45
                                dB(A)
                       •        Inside lift motor room - 85 dB(A)
                                                                                           197
                                                                  SECTION F

         •          Inside lift Shaft - 75 dB(A)
         •          In noise sensitive areas noise of lifts shall not be audible
         •          Noise sensitive areas include courtrooms, mediation
                    suites, all judicial chambers, CCTV rooms and rooms
                    where recording is used
          •         in non sensitive areas the LAmax of a lift pass-by shall not
                    exceed the satisfactory (lower) level of the design sound
                    level as set out in AS 2107 Acoustics - Recommended
                    Design Sound Levels and Reverberation Times for
                    Building Interiors.
i.    Lift Vibration Control - Vibration control measures shall include, but
      not be limited to, the use where appropriate of :
          •         Lift rail isolators
          •         Larger than standard lift guide rollers
          •         Shearflex multi-layer pad isolators for lift machines
          •         Inertia base for lift machines.
ii.   Acoustic Control - Consideration should be given to minimising or
      deleting audible alarms from the indicating panels. Noise associated
      with lifts shall not intrude into noise sensitive spaces. Voice systems
      in the lifts shall not operate whilst doors are open.




                                                                             198
                                                                                  SECTION G
G.    Audiovisual and Transcription System

1.   Introduction

     This section details the standard set of requirements applicable for Audiovisual and
     Transcription System for Courts in Western Australia. The design of the Audiovisual and
     Transcription System shall not only be limited to the design for the construction of the
     electronic courtroom but shall be extended to include the design for maintainability,
     serviceability, operability, and manageability.


     1.1.    Scope Overview

             The scope of work includes but is not limited to the following:
                    •   Familiarisation of and system compliance to the judicial protocols,
                        processes, procedures and instructions applicable for the jurisdictions
                        of the State that operate in the Building;
                    •   Evaluation of the fit-for-purpose and cost-effective technologies
                        meeting the requirements of the State;
                    •   System and equipment compliance to Australian and International
                        standards;
                    •   Compliance to applicable Acts, Regulations and Statutory
                        Requirements;
                    •   Built-in system resiliency and back-up facilities;
                    •   Construction including the installation, functional & performance
                        testing and commissioning of electronic courtroom facilities meeting
                        the design specifications;
                    •   Provisioning and management of any necessary carrier or third party
                        services.


2.   State’s Policy and Requirements

     The development of the Audiovisual and Transcription System shall comply with the
     following policies and requirements of the State. The State reserves the right to change
     any of these policies.
     2.1.    IT Policy and Standards
             The Audiovisual and Transcription System shall not be an operational island for
             the Building that will be disconnected from the rest of the State’s audiovisual
             network.
             Where there are any interfaces to the State’s IT system, the system shall comply
             with, at all times, the State’s IT policies, procedures and standards including any
             future revisions made by the State.
             •   Justice Architecture Model (JAM);
             •   Third Party Access Policy;
             •   Third Party Access Procedure;
             •   Computer and Telecommunications Facilities Policy;
             •   Telecommunications Infrastructure Standards.




                                                                                             199
                                                                                       SECTION G
              The system shall comply with the following policies:
              •       Maintain consistency and standardisation of user access and interface;
              •       No impediments or interference to the courtroom’s case and knowledge
                      management business applications and its future developments;
              •       No impediments or interference to the State’s IT network infrastructure and
                      its future developments.


3.   Audiovisual Standard Operating Environment

     The system shall abide to the Department of the Attorney Generals (DotAG) AV SOE for
     all audiovisual components and facilities in the Building.
     The system shall provide an identical user interface irrespective of the types of electronic
     courtrooms and audiovisual facilities. This is outlined in the living AV SOE document
     called “Department Of The Attorney General Courts Audio-Visual Control System User
     Manual.”
     The System shall ensure that this SOE can be ported for use in other audiovisual sites if
     the State elects to adopt the same SOE in these sites.
     The audiovisual solutions used within the Building must be compatible and interoperable
     with the videoconferencing and other audiovisual systems used by the State.


4.   Audiovisual Operations

     Judicial support staff shall be responsible for operating the audiovisual system via the AV
     controller interface within the courtroom or other audiovisual facilities in the Building.


5.   Electronic Courtrooms and Audiovisual Facilities

     5.1.     Electronic Courtroom Types
              The System shall provide three standard types of electronic courtroom for the
              Building.
              The three types of electronic courtroom are specified as follows:
              Electronic Courtroom Types
                  No     Type       Electronic    Function
                                    Courtroom
                  1      Type A     Full          Type B
                                                  Plus e-court applications
                  2      Type B     Enhanced      Type C
                                                  Plus integrated video conferencing
                  3      Type C     Basic         Video playback + digital audio recording
                                                  Plus all cables necessary for Type A


              The System shall ensure that the formats and standards of video playback of
              evidence are supported in all types of electronic courtrooms and audiovisual
              facilities in the Building.




                                                                                               200
                                                                        SECTION G

A.   Type C Courtroom Functions
     The Type C courtrooms shall have the following functionalities:
         •    Fully cabled as part of the audiovisual network within the Building;
         •    Full audio playback (including analogue VCR, digital CD/DVD and PC
              based);
         •    Full video playback (including but not limited to VCR and DVD)
              complying with the requirements of the State’s prosecuting
              authorities;
         •    Comprehensive digital audio recording;
         •    AV controller interface;
         •    Document camera;
         •    One fixed camera providing a wide-angle view of the courtroom for
              monitoring and security purposes;
         •    Low-end displays that are able to display information from various
              video and audio formats / sources;
         •    IT communication outlets for computing needs of Judicial Officer,
              judicial support staff, counsel, witness and other court participants in
              accessing the State’s IT system and/or part of the State’s e-Court
              applications.
         “Low end display” is defined as a display device that shall be sized to
         ensure high quality viewing (with acceptable resolution) of the
         proceedings to all the participants, and the gallery in the courtroom whilst
         being of lower cost.
         These courtrooms shall be equipped with quality microphones and any
         necessary audio processing system, hearing-aid loop and sound
         reinforcement.


B.   Type B Courtroom Functions
     The Type B courtrooms shall have the following functionalities:
     •       All functionalities of Type C courtrooms;
     •       Fully equipped with cameras capable of capturing all views of the
             courtroom;
     •       Integrated video conferencing incorporated into the audiovisual system;
     •       Integrated audio conferencing incorporated into the audiovisual system;
     •       CCTV to AV equipped remote witness and child witness rooms;
     •       Digital video recording (including but not limited to DVD and PC based
             applications);
     •       Automatic video scaling capability;
     •       High-end displays that are able to display information from various
             video and audio formats / sources including those from the personal
             computers.
     “High-end display” is defined as a display that shall ensure very high quality
     and resolution viewing of the proceedings to participants in the courtroom
     and the gallery.
                                                                                     201
                                                                           SECTION G

       C.    Type A Courtroom Functions
             The Type A courtrooms shall have the following functionalities:
             •   All functionalities of Type B courtrooms;
             •   LCD screens dedicated for counsel that can be selected to view the
                 courtroom displayed items, the intranet items of the State or the
                 counsel’s VPN;
             •   Capable of conducting a full electronic trial and running a full set of
                 concurrent “e-Court” applications of the State;
             •   Provision for a secured facility for the State’s IT system that shall be
                 located in close proximity of the courtrooms dependent on the optimal
                 design solution from the System.
             A full electronic courtroom is defined as a courtroom with the capability to
             deliver all the ‘e-Court’ applications used to support evidence, case and
             knowledge management.           This facilitates electronic presentation of
             evidence and remote examination of witnesses.
             The courtroom shall support multiple media in a networked environment. It
             shall also deliver electronic examination and documentation of proceeding.
             The term LCD is used to simply highlight the fact that very high-resolution
             computer display screens shall be adopted. These shall be mounted on
             the counsel benches.


       D.    Future Proofing of Courtroom Types
             As part of the future-proofing requirements, all courtrooms shall be fully
             cabled to allow them to incrementally become Type A – full electronic
             courtroom as need arises without any performance degradation or
             disruption to the courtroom operations.
             The upgrade shall include the following:
             •   Type C to Type B;
             •   Type B to Type A.


5.2.   Courtroom Assignment Matrix
       All courtrooms shall be provided with at least the basic electronic courtroom
       functionalities as stated in Type C. The quantities of the microphones, cameras,
       displays and LCD screens are dependent on the size of the courtroom and the
       type of electronic courtroom.
       The System shall ensure that the type of electronic courtrooms is usually
       associated with the size and purpose of these courtrooms in order to simplify the
       courtroom allocation and listing process for the State.


5.3.   Other Audiovisual Facilities
       The System shall provide other audiovisual facilities for the following rooms if
       contained within the Building:
       •    Jury rooms;
       •    Remote witness rooms;
                                                                                      202
                                                                   SECTION G
•    Child witness rooms;
•    Judicial Officer’s conference room;
•    Judicial chambers;
•    Mediation rooms;
•    Jury assembly area.
Where portable equipment is specified, this will be shared among the same type
of audiovisual facilities in the Building.


A.    Jury rooms
      The jury rooms shall be equipped with ‘standalone’ video playback units,
      and be capable of replaying any form (audio and video) and format (VHS
      tape and PC based) of evidence played inside the courtroom. These units
      shall be fixed mounted to the appropriate wall cabinet of the jury rooms.
      The term “standalone” is used to highlight the fact that the AV systems in
      the jury rooms are neither part of nor connected to the audiovisual network
      of the Building.


B.    Remote Witness Rooms
      The Remote witness rooms shall be equipped with all necessary
      audiovisual system to enable an adult witness to give evidence to both the
      courtrooms within the Building and external to it.
      These rooms shall be equipped with CCTV capability and be linked to the
      audiovisual network. They shall also be networked to allow courtrooms
      outside of the Building to connect to these rooms and vice-versa.
      The System shall ensure that these rooms are capable of conducting video
      or audio conferencing sessions via a portable AV controller interface.
      The System shall provide the necessary interface (for example, docking
      station-like connection) for the plug-and-play connection of the AV
      controller interface.


C.    Child witness rooms
      The child witness rooms shall be equipped with all necessary audiovisual
      system to enable a child witness to give evidence remotely from both the
      courtrooms of and those outside the Building.
      The choice of audiovisual equipment and their placement shall be carefully
      designed to meet the psychological needs of the children and shall be
      unobtrusive in any way, shape or form.
      All other audiovisual system requirements for the child witness rooms shall
      be the same as those for the remote witness rooms.


D.    AV Equipped Holding Cell
      The System shall link the AV equipped holding cell to the audiovisual
      network via a CCTV circuit. The audio and video signals of the courtroom
      shall be fed into this cell. The audiovisual system shall be designed such
      that the audio and video signals from this cell can be fed back to the
      courtroom.

                                                                              203
                                                                       SECTION G
     The AV controller interface shall be configurable to allow or disallow the
     audio from this holding cell to be broadcasted in the courtroom and be
     captured on the digital recording system.


E.   Judicial Officers conference room
     The System shall equip the Judicial Officers conference room with all the
     audiovisual functionalities of a Type A courtroom but without the digital
     audio recording functionalities.
     The system shall be able to facilitate the following functions to the State:
     •   Conduct audiovisual presentation         and   facilitate   judicial   and/or
         professional communications;
     •   Conduct of audio and video conferencing;
     •   Demonstration and training of pre-launch testing of new e-Court
         applications;
     •   Showcase audiovisual functionalities of the Building.
     The System shall ensure that the facilities connected to the conference
     room are electronically segregated and secured from the courtroom
     audiovisual network.
     The conference room shall be equipped with a broadcast television service.
     A large high-end display screen shall be the centrepiece of the boardroom
     and the microphone solution shall effectively capture the words spoken
     from all participants during a videoconference or audio conference.


F.   Judicial Chambers
     Where video playback is required, the System shall provide the State with
     the use of the portable video playback units that have the same
     functionality as those for the jury rooms.


G.   Mediation rooms
     The System shall link the mediation rooms to the audiovisual network. The
     System shall facilitate the use of a ‘plug-and-play’ portable video/audio
     conference unit in these rooms and provide all necessary connections and
     attachments to this portable unit.
     Where video playback is required, the System shall provide the State with
     the use of portable video playback units that have the same functionality as
     those for the jury rooms.
     The mediation rooms shall be upgradeable to provide digital audio
     recording functionalities in the future.
     The System shall install and maintain all cabling necessary for this room to
     become a Type B courtroom.


H.   Jury assembly area
     The jury assembly area shall be equipped with video playback equipment,
     and be capable of replaying any form (audio and video) and format (DVD,
     VHS tape and PC based) used for the courtrooms and other AV facilities in
     the Building. This equipment shall be fixed mounted to the appropriate
     cabinet of the jury assembly area.
                                                                                    204
                                                                                   SECTION G
                   This area shall be equipped with large “low-end display(s)” suitable for a
                   large assembly area.


             I.    Monitoring Room
                   The System shall ensure that suitable central monitoring and recording
                   facilities are available to satisfy the monitoring and recording service
                   requirements of the State.


             J.    Central Equipment Room
                   The System shall ensure that this room shall be strategically located within
                   the Building in order to minimise the cable distances to all other audiovisual
                   equipped rooms on the audiovisual network.


     5.4.     Portable AV Equipment
             A.    Portable Video and Audio Conferencing
                   The self-contained portable video and audio-conferencing units shall be
                   equipped with monitor display and AV controller interface functionalities
                   that are necessary to initiate and hold audio or video conference sessions.


             B.    Portable Screens for Type A Courtrooms
                   The System shall ensure that the computer screens (typically LCD screens)
                   for Type A courtrooms are portable and can be connected to these
                   courtrooms via a simple plug-and-play method without the need for
                   software reconfiguration of the audiovisual system. The size of the screens
                   shall be such that it does not impede the view of the courtroom users, and
                   is large enough not to cause any OH&S concerns to the users.
                   The System shall provide sufficient screens to allow the State to conduct
                   two concurrent electronic trials in the nominated Type A courtrooms.
                   Type A courtrooms may be used for non-electronic trials. In such cases,
                   the System shall ensure that the screens are easily removable from these
                   courtrooms to provide additional workspace for the counsel.


             C.    Plug and Play of Portable Units
                   Where portable facilities are introduced, the cable, connectors, plugs and
                   positions located within the portable unit shall interface seamlessly to the
                   fixed mounted facilities without additional components or adjustments. It
                   shall not disrupt or impact the quality and reliability of the signals and
                   system.
                   The portable units shall be partitioned and modularised to reflect the
                   required functionalities of various types of electronic courtrooms as
                   described previously using a simple plug-and-play method.


6.   Structured Cabling System

     A suitable structured cable management system shall be provided for all cabling,
     termination and labelling requirements of the electronic courtrooms and other audiovisual
     facilities within the Building.

                                                                                              205
                                                                                SECTION G
The design shall also cater for the flexibility required so as to allow for the easy upgrade(s)
or replacement(s) of various cable systems. The design parameters include but are not
limited to the choices of cable materials, topology, and methods of reticulation.


6.1.     Audiovisual and IT Cables
         The System shall provide and maintain all network cable for the audiovisual
         system within the Courthouse including the IT cabling system serving the needs
         of the audiovisual facilities and electronic courtrooms.
         The System shall provide and maintain all the necessary network links and
         cables external to the Building. The external cables and/or links may be
         provisioned via third party carrier(s) or service provider(s).
         The System shall ensure that the cable distances shall be minimised, including
         the cables for KVM. Optical cables shall be used to reduce costs and/or to
         overcome distance limitations.
         The System shall ensure that the IT cabling can facilitate all aspects of the IT and
         communications requirements of the state including PC/LAN, broadband Internet,
         IP and traditional telephony.
         The System shall provide all audiovisual cables and connection points required
         to facilitate the functionality of video and audio playback from various PCs
         positioned inside the courtroom.


6.2.     IT Communication Outlets in Courtrooms and AV Facilities
         The System shall provide the following nominated types and minimum quantities
         of IT communication outlets.
         Nominated Types and Quantities of IT Communication Outlets

          No Types of Participants or Audiovisual Facilities             Minimum Number
                                                                         of Connection
                                                                         Outlets

                                                                         Telephone IT

          1     Per Seated Judicial Officer Position (courtroom)         0             6

          2     Associate Position (courtroom)                           1             3

          3     Usher/Orderly Position (courtroom)                       1             3

          4     Witness Position (courtroom)                             0             3

          5     Accused Position (courtroom)                             0             0

          6     Jury Officer Position (courtroom)                        1             3

          7     Per Seated Counsel Position (courtroom – bench 1)        0             3

          8     Per Seated Counsel Position (courtroom – bench 2)        0             3

          9     Per Seated Counsel Position (courtroom – bench 3)        0             3

          10    Jury Room                                                1             3

          11    AV Equipped Holding Cell                                 0             0

          12    Remote Witness Room                                      1             3
                                                                                            206
                                                                                    SECTION G
                 No Types of Participants or Audiovisual Facilities          Minimum Number
                                                                             of Connection
                                                                             Outlets

                                                                             Telephone IT

                 13     Child Witness Room                                   1             3

                 14     Judicial Officer Conference Room (general)           2             3

                 15     Judicial Officer Conference Room (per seated 0                     3
                        position)

                 15     Mediation Room                                       2             3

                 16     Judge Chamber                                        2             3

                 17     Jury Assembly Area                                   10            30


7.   Cabling and Associated Infrastructure

     7.1.    Cabling standards
             The following cable brands and types are intended to indicate the minimum
             specification required. Other brands meeting and exceeding these requirements
             are acceptable. All cables shall be installed with permanent labelling at each end
             of the cable to facilitate easy identification by staff or external parties. A label
             legend shall be supplied as a reference.


     7.2.    Audio
             •        Audio Reticulation Cable - single twisted pair, stranded, 22 AWG, with 100%
                      foil shield and drain wire (Belden 8761);
             •        Audio Microphone leads - flexible star-quad cable. 4 conductor, 24 AWG
                      stranded, with 100% braid shield, and PVC jacket (Belden 1192A).
             •        Nominal o.d. mm – 4.45
             •        Nominal capacitance pF/m – 79
             •        Connectors – soldered bucket 3-pin XLR style connectors (eg, Neutrik NC3)
                      with full strain-relief on all line plugs and sockets.       Non-contiguous
                      conductors and insulation piercing connectors are not acceptable.


     7.3.    Composite video
             The maximum attenuation for all video cables shall be less than 3 dB/100m at 5
             MHz. All video cables shall be 100% screened.
             •        Cable - 75 ohm, coaxial 22 awg, stranded copper conductor, braided shield
                      (Belden 9259);
             •        Connectors - 75 ohm BNC.


     7.4.    RGBHV & XGA
             •        Cable - 75 ohm                           (Extron mini high resolution (100’)
                                                               22-103-02);
                                                                                                207
                                                                              SECTION G
       •   Connectors - BNC mini-hr                    (Extron 100);
       •   Cable - 75 ohm >5 MHz (>15m lengths)        (Extron super high       resolution
                                                       (500’) 22-100-02);
       •   Connectors - BNC male super-hr              (Extron 100-075)-51.
       •   Connectors – HD15.


7.5.   Network
       •   Cable - Cat 6, paired unshielded twisted pair (utp), 4 pair;
       •   Connectors - RJ45.


7.6.   Control
       •   Inter-room (i.e. room to room) Cat 6 (as above);
       •   Cable - intra-room (i.e. within room), paired, 2 pairs, stranded, 24 AWG, foil
           shield;
       •   Connectors - soldered bucket 4-pin XLR style connectors (eg, Neutrik NC4)
           with full strain-relief on all line plugs and sockets.           Non-contiguous
           conductors and insulation piercing connectors are not acceptable. 3-pin XLR
           style connectors are not to be used.


7.7.   Rack specification
       Equipment rack(s) shall comply with the following requirements:
       •   Courtroom racks and equipment room racks shall accommodate 44 RU of
           electronic equipment in a standard 19-inch configuration with 600 mm depth
           and 600 mm height.
       •   The height of any in-court rack(s) shall be selected to fit within
           accommodation under the JSO’s bench.
       •   The rack shall be free standing on a rigid base.
       •   The lowest item of equipment shall not be less than 100 mm above floor
           level.
       •   The 44 RU racks shall support up to 100 kg of equipment without twisting or
           leaning in any direction.
       •   The rack shall be fitted with front and rear support rails to accommodate
           equipment mounted on sliding rails.
       •   The rack shall be fitted with an earth stud that is welded to the frame and
           shall not be les than 4 mm in diameter.
       •   At the sides and back, there shall be a minimum of 100mm clearance
           between the equipment and doors or covers to allow for ventilation.
       •   Cooling fans shall be supplied to ensure the installed equipment meets the
           manufacturers operating temperature limits.


7.8.   Patch Panel specification
       Patch panels shall comply with the following requirements:
       •   Panels shall be 24-port 1RU complete with RJ45 sockets for incoming
           telephone cables and outgoing data/voice outlets.
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                                                                                    SECTION G
              •   Patch panels for the incoming telephone cable shall be or equivalent to Krone
                  “Keystone” series panels complete with WHITE coloured ports.
              •   Termination of the incoming telephone cable must be dual pair per white port.
                  The size of the incoming telephone cable is to be NOT LESS than a 50 pair
                  (category 3) copper cable complete with internal colour bands.
              •   Patch panels for the outgoing data cabling (to the wired field outlets) shall be
                  or equivalent to Krone TM8 Category 6 series panels complete with BLACK
                  coloured ports.
              •   Fit each patch panel with rear cable support brackets running the full length
                  of the panel and spaced approximately 100mm from the panel.
              •   Supply and install vertical ring loops with a minimum diameter 40mm x
                  125mm.
              •   Install horizontal cable brackets between every 1RU of patch panels (unless
                  noted otherwise).
              •   The exact location of patch panels within the cabinet will be verified on site by
                  DotAG staff at the time of installation.


              The System shall ensure that all other audiovisual connection points for video
              and audio signals shall be appropriately designed and placed within the
              courtrooms and other AV facilities in the Building.
              The System shall ensure that the nominated IT communication outlets are
              replicated and strategically placed on every wall of the room to cater for the
              possible re-arrangement of office desk and/or workstation position in the room in
              the future.


     7.9.     Future Proofing, Conduit and Cable Access
              The System shall ensure that the cable conduits are installed with spare capacity
              to cater for future cabling requirements and/or technological changes.
              The System shall ensure that the conduits are aesthetically designed and placed
              relative to furniture fixtures of a room.
              The State shall have the full access rights to the IT cable terminations as
              specified in Section D: Building Engineering Services Specification.




8.   In-Court Equipment and Housing

     The System shall ensure that the layout, equipment housing, cabinets, and racks shall be
     standardised across all types of electronic courtrooms and audiovisual facilities.
     •   The housing shall be secured, covered, and positioned with easy access for
         maintenance, fault diagnostic, cable access, rewiring, operational adjustments, and
         connections to portable AV units where applicable.
     •   The equipment and housing shall be designed and positioned in such a way that the
         technical personnel shall be able make adjustments to the equipment and at the same
         time, be able to observe the results of the adjustments directly without having to move
         to another position.
     •   Where the equipment cabinet is movable within the housing, the System shall ensure
         that the movements shall have no impacts to the quality and reliability of the signals
         and systems.
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                                                                                      SECTION G
     •   The System shall minimise the number of different types of in-court audiovisual
         equipment.
     •   The System shall minimise the number of audiovisual equipment required on the
         workbench of the judicial support staff.
     •   The System shall install all audiovisual technologies and systems in an unobtrusive
         fashion including but not limited to the disruption to “line-of-sight” within the courtroom.
     •   All equipment placed inside the courtrooms and other AV facilities in the Building shall
         be aesthetically designed and presented as well as complying with the acoustic
         requirements of the courtroom.
     •   All IT communication outlets shall be installed ergonomically to facilitate the ease of
         plug-and-play for the users in the courtrooms and other audiovisual facilities within the
         Building.
     •   The System shall liaise with the State to finalise the State’s IT requirements inside and
         outside the courtrooms. The State’s PC requirements may be housed at both ends of
         the counsel benches.
     •   The System shall comply with all requirements of the e-court infrastructure of the
         State, including the provision of IT accommodation and cabling for e-Court PCs to the
         satisfaction of the State. The System shall integrate all IT facilities of the State
         (including broadband access for Counsel within the courtrooms) as part of the Design
         Work.


9.   Master Clock Synchronisation

     The Audiovisual and Transcription System shall be synchronised to a primary reference
     clock source of the State.
     The synchronisation protocols to be supported shall include the following:
     •   IP based NTP;
     •   Analogue pulses (per minute and hour);
     •   Digital pulses (per second, minute and hour).




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                                                                                    SECTION G
      The system components that shall be synchronised to the State’s primary reference
      source shall include but are not limited to the following:
      •   All video images including video conferencing and PC images;
      •   All monitor’s display;
      •   Courtroom clock;
      •   Recording and monitoring system;
      •   Network computing system;
      •   Way finding system (including the Building Listing Display).


10.   System Characteristics and Design Criteria

      The audiovisual system shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure the delivery
      of highest quality audio and video signals being captured, played back and presented
      inside the courtroom. The audio quality shall be in natural human speech form and free
      from humming, digitalisation or any other interference noise other than those embedded in
      the original audio source.
      Where external network technologies are used, the audio quality shall meet the relevant
      ITU-T standards (P.800 MOS and P.862 PESQ) with acceptable toll quality of at least 4.2
      in the Mean Opinion Score (MOS). It shall also be free from excessive jitter noise in the
      voice quality.
      The Audiovisual (AV) System shall be designed with the following system design
      characteristics:
               A.    Scalability and modularity;
               B.    Connectivity;
               C.    Transparency;
               D.    Capacity;
               E.    Availability;
               F.    Security Access;
               G.    User Ergonomic and Interface;
               H.    Maintainability and manageability.
      10.1.    Scalability and modularity
               The AV System shall be scalable to allow for the future addition of functionalities
               and/or performance enhancements into the original system. That is, the initial
               system configuration shall be scalable to upgrade to a higher level of electronic
               courtroom in simple and uniform series of steps.
      10.2.    Connectivity
               The design of the AV System shall provide a fully non-blocking connectivity for all
               audiovisual equipped facilities and rooms within the building and cater for all
               required permutations of video and audio connection paths. The System shall
               ensure that the external networks connected to the Building shall be able to
               concurrently handle the maximum peak operational demands of all audiovisual
               facilities in the building. These networks include but are not limited to audio and
               video conferencing connections.




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                                                                            SECTION G

10.3.   Transparency of Signals
        The Audiovisual and Transcription System shall be designed with a high degree
        of system transparency from one end to the other end of the audiovisual network.
        The System shall ensure that a high degree of transparency is achieved and
        unnecessary signal or path conversions minimised. Digital technologies shall be
        adopted for both audio and video signals as much as practically possible.


10.4.   Capacity of Systems
        The design for the system capacity shall meet the specified performance
        requirements of the State in terms of speeds, response times, quality of the audio
        and video content.
        The capacity of the Audiovisual and Transcription System shall be designed to
        cater for initial configuration requirements as well as those requirements defined
        in each upgrade of electronic courtrooms.
10.5.   Availability of Systems
        The AV System shall be designed to achieve high availability of the courtroom
        operations based on the following parameters.
        A.   Built-in resiliency in system architecture and design;
        B.   Selection of high reliability products and / or solutions;
        C.   Engineered QoS (Quality of Service) design in the system;
        D.   Appropriate levels of spare holdings for critical components on-site;
        E.   Emergency back-up equipment/facilities (i.e. backup digital recorder.)
        The design should exclude any single point of failures in the system and the
        operation of the AV system shall be able to recover from multiple failure events.
10.6.   Security and Access
        The AV System shall be secured and segregated from other systems within the
        courtroom, maintaining and meeting the necessary interfacing and connectivity
        requirements. It should also be free from virus and shall be engineered to
        minimise any security threats and/or risks. For all local and remote accesses,
        the design shall ensure that the proper authentication, access security levels for
        different user classes are adopted and enforced at all times.
10.7.   User Ergonomic and Interface
        The AV System shall be designed to ensure that the layout, “look and feel,” and
        set-up of all AV Controller Interfaces (e.g. touch screens) shall be standardised
        and defaulted to the optimal settings with all necessary pre-configurations.
        The AV Services section shall approve the final:
        A.   Layout design;
        B.   Look and feel;
        C.   Pre-settings;
        D.   Configuration options;
        E.   System security access control.




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                                                                                   SECTION G

      10.8.    Maintainability and Manageability
               The AV System shall be designed to provide all necessary network access
               methods for maintainability and manageability. The manageability features shall
               include the following capabilities:
               A.   Local and remote fault diagnostic;
               B.   Local and remote configuration;
               C.   Local and remote performance;
               D.   Local and remote security;
               E.   Local and remote accounting and reporting.


11.   Audio System – System Design

      The audio system component of the AV System shall be designed, installed to ensure the
      delivery of highest quality audio signals being captured, played back, and presented inside
      the courtroom. The audio quality shall be in natural human speech form and free from
      humming, digitalisation or any other interference noise other than those embedded in the
      original audio source.
      Where external network technologies are used, the audio quality shall meet the relevant
      ITU-T standards (P.800 MOS and P.862 PESQ) with acceptable toll quality of at least 4.2
      in the Mean Opinion Score (MOS). It shall also be free from excessive jitter noise in the
      voice quality.


      11.1.    Audio System Characteristics
               A.   Audio System Reference Level
                    The system reference of 0 dBr shall be equivalent to +4 dBm
               B.   Frequency Response
                    The frequency response shall be better than + 2 dB from 200 Hz to 6,000
                    Hz.
                    The attenuation at 100 Hz shall be better than 25 dB.
               C.   Audio Output Levels
                    The nominal output signal level shall be 0 dBr. The output signal shall be
                    adjustable from –10 dBm to +4 dBm for all balanced 600-ohm outputs.
               D.   Signal to Noise Ratio
                    The unweighted signal-to-noise ratio for a fully equipped system (with all
                    inputs terminated) shall be more than 30 dB.
               E.   Total Harmonic Distortion
                    The total harmonic distortion between any input and any output at + 10 dBr
                    shall be better than 0.8%.
               F.   Cross Talk
                    The cross talk at any frequency between any two isolated channels in the
                    system shall be no more than -60 dB at 8 kHz. This requirement applies to
                    all cabling, connections, and switching.
               G.   Noise Level
                    The noise level on any microphone circuit terminated at 600 ohm shall not
                    exceed -70 dBm.

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                                                                                SECTION G
11.2.   Microphones
        Microphones shall have a sensitivity of more than 25 mV/Pa and shall have a
        uni-directional pattern. A typical microphone that has been used in previous
        installations Courts installations is the AV Leader Type PA322 with AKG GN30E
        or suitable equivalent gooseneck microphone.
        The microphone shall comply with the following characteristics:
        •    A unidirectional polar response with a front to back ratio of typically 20 dB;
        •    The equivalent noise level less than 20 dB(A);
        •    High sensitivity - at least 25 mV/Pa (-30 dBv);
        •    Have a minimum frequency response of 100 Hz to 12 kHz, when tested in
             accordance with IEC standard 268-4;
        •    With a wide dynamic range - typically in excess of 120 dB;
        •    Have a low impedance balanced output;
        •    Total harmonic distortion less than 0.15%;
        •    Powered via 12/24/48volts phantom power (battery powered microphones
             are not acceptable for use);
        •    Must be mountable on a bench top or wall such that the microphone, its
             stand, or base cannot be detached easily;
        A.     Microphone stands
              The general-purpose microphone stands shall be black heavy-duty tabletop
              stands with built in shock absorption. Base attachments shall be suitable
              for the specific location.
              The attenuation of mechanical vibrations shall be at least 15 dB for
              frequencies above 200 Hz.
              The accused and witness microphone stands shall be suitable for attaching
              to a rail or desk top with built in shock absorption complete with plugs and
              sockets protected from tampering.
              The wheelchair witness microphone stands shall be black, heavy-duty base
              floor stand with built in shock absorption and boom with adjustable length
              and height.
11.3.   Processing equipment
        Separate equipment shall perform the processing and switching of the audio
        inputs. Multi-purpose devices capable of performing both these functions are
        unacceptable.
        These devices shall operate independently of each other and the failure in one
        device shall have a minimal impact on the operation of other devices.
        The audio processors shall have the capability of performing the following
        functions automatically:
        •    Gating of inactive microphones.
        •    Adjustment of audio levels of softly and loudly spoken parties to ensure
             consistent signal levels for recording and/or transmission.
        •    Echo cancellation.
        This equipment shall be located in the designated equipment rack.



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                                                                              SECTION G
        A.    Volume control
              It shall be possible to adjust the level of the audio signal from the remote
              locations or AV sources within the Courtroom on the touch screen
              controller.
              The gain adjustment shall be limited to –15 dB to +5 dB.
        B.    Audio performance
              Audio performance must be better than ITU-T series g.711, with a
              preference for ‘CD quality’ audio.
        C.    Echo cancellation
              Echo cancellation shall be on a per channel basis with a minimum of two
              other associated inputs. It is acceptable to combine two microphone inputs
              provided the microphones are in the same zones and are not spaced more
              than 1.5m apart.
        D.    Background noise
              It shall be possible to isolate the input signal (background noise gate) from
              the output, if the signal is below a pre-set level.
              The range of thresholds for the pre-set level shall be service adjustable
              from –40 dBr to –75 dBr.
        E.    Mixer requirements
              It shall be possible to automatically mix any combination of available inputs
              to any one of eight outputs. Manual mixers are not acceptable.
        F.    Output configuration
              It shall be possible to select either a balanced or an unbalanced output, by
              the use of a jumper switch.
11.4.   Sound reinforcement system

        The integrated sound reinforcement system shall deliver sound to the courtroom
        via speakers and a hearing aid loop(s) for the hearing impaired. The sound
        reinforcement system shall be able to:
        •    Amplify specific microphones into the courtroom.
        •    Amplify audio from the remote witness room into the courtroom.
        •    Amplify audio from the videoconferencing system into the courtroom.
        •    Amplify the audio from the VCR player, CD player, or any other audio source
             into the courtroom.
        Provide a power amplifier to the courtroom system.
        The volume of each zone shall be independently adjustable.
        A.    Speaker positions
              A minimum of two speakers shall be positioned over each of the following
              positions:
              •   Judge’s bench and witness position.
              •   Counsel bench(es).
              •   Jury box.
              •   Gallery and accused dock
              Speakers shall be located in such a way that each of the bullet points
              mentioned above will constitute a separate zone. Speakers shall be
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                                                                                    SECTION G
                    located in such a position and direction that there shall be no feedback into
                    any of the relevant microphones zones.
              B.    Minimum power output
                    The power amplifier shall be capable of producing a power level of 95
                    dB(A) (pink noise) in the position of the judge or magistrate, jury and at the
                    centre of the public gallery.
      11.5.   Audio switching unit
              The audio switching unit will be located in the equipment room and used to
              interconnect the courtrooms, the remote witness room, the teleconferencing unit
              and the video conferencing equipment in any arbitrary manner.
              The audio switching unit shall be capable of being controlled by the touch screen
              controller(s).


              A.    Audio and video switching
                    It shall be possible to select and switch audio channels independently of
                    the video switching system. Where required the audio signal shall be
                    switched to follow the video signal. It is permissible to use a combined
                    audio and video switcher providing that the first statement can also be
                    satisfied.
              B.    Transmission loss
                    The variation in level between any input device and any fully loaded output
                    channel shall be less than 1 dB.


      11.6.   Audio teleconferencing unit
              The audio teleconferencing unit will be located in the equipment room and used
              to connect the audio systems in the courtrooms or the remote witness room to
              the PSTN. The unit shall be capable of being controlled by the touch screen
              controller(s) and shall be compliant with the relevant Australian communication
              authority standards.
              A.    Signal quality
                    The quality of the voice transmission shall be better than 1 qdu.
                    (quantization distortion unit as defined by ITU-T.)
              B.    Dial tone detection
                    The unit shall be capable of detecting dial tone. If no dial tone is detected
                    then a message shall be generated to inform the user of the fault.
              C.    Number of dialled digits
                    The unit shall be capable of dialling up to 24 digits in one number.
              D.    Incoming calls
                    The unit shall be capable of detecting an incoming call and signalling the
                    relevant touch screen that an incoming call is present. The unit shall be
                    capable of looping and holding an incoming call.


12.   Video System – General

      The video system component of the AV System shall be designed, installed to ensure the
      delivery of highest quality video signals being played back and presented inside the
      courtroom and other AV facilities in the building.
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                                                                             SECTION G
The video quality shall be clear with stable image and be maintained at the designed level
of resolution. It shall not have any fluctuations or ghost effects caused by EMI noise or
inflict any occupational, health and safety concerns for the viewers.
The video signals shall be of a quality standard that is suitable for legible and viewable
recording. Video capture and recording of the court proceedings may be required.


12.1.    Video System Standards
        A.    Composite Video Signal
              The standard composite video signal shall be a 4 MHz PAL TV signal
              complying with the CCIR 600 series standard composite format at 1 V p-p.
        B.    Cabling bandwidth
              All cabling, patch panels and connectors shall have a bandwidth suitable
              for the intended signal (analogue or digital).
        C.    Synchronising compatibility
              All cameras and monitors shall be capable of synchronising to the standard
              external television synchronising signals and the 50 Hz mains supply.
        D.    Recording of Video Conference Feed
              The audiovisual system shall be capable of recording of video evidence
              from an outside source via the videoconference or CCTV, including but not
              limited to the following functions:
              •   Provide an indicator as to the video recording status on the AV
                  controller interface;
              •   Display the video recording time and date stamp on screen;
              •   Display of recording image on screen;
              •   Display of video playback and recording control buttons on the AV
                  controller interface;
              •   Provide volume up / down override control for the audio mixer;
              •   Ability to control the courtroom document camera and to switch the
                  document image to any one, many, or all of the courtroom video
                  displays while the recording of the video feed is in progress.


12.2.    Camera equipment
        A.    Specifications
              The cameras shall comply with the following characteristics as a minimum.
                    • Better than 480 TV lines horizontal resolution;
                    • At least one 1/3” or ¼” interline transfer type colour charge coupled
                      device (CCD) chip;
                    • Fitted with a manual zoom lens with a ratio greater or equal to 4:1;
                    • The minimum sensitivity shall be better than 20 lux (including
                      losses in the protective cover);
                    • Signal to noise ratio better than 48 db;
                    • Incorporate digital signal processing techniques, or alternative
                      proven image enhancement circuitry, to generate a video image
                      with a wide dynamic range, so as to accurately reproduce detail in
                      both bright and dark portions of high contrast scenes;


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                                                                            SECTION G
                   • Have a metal case to minimise magnetic and electrostatic
                     interference;
                   • Have a tinted one-way hemispherical cover
                   • Have a built in character generator to provide camera id label of
                     not less than 15 characters.
                   • Each camera shall be powered from a 12, 24, or 48 vdc supply.
                   • The camera shall perform an auto white balance and an auto black
                     balance.
               In addition to the specifications described above, pan tilt zoom (PTZ) type
               cameras shall meet or exceed the following specifications:
                   • 360-degree continuous pan movement.
                   • 180 degrees (0-90-180 degree) vertical tilt movement. Complete
                     with auto-flip of scenes as the camera moves through 90-degree
                     position.
                   • The manual control range of pan and tilt speed shall be variable
                     between 0.5 deg/sec and 40 deg/sec (minimum range). Control
                     should be such that pan/tilt speed is sensitive to lens zoom
                     position i.e. slower when the camera lens is zoomed in and faster
                     when the camera lens is zoomed out.
                   • When responding to a preset command, the maximum time from
                     receipt of the preset view shall not exceed 1.5 seconds.
                   • Gear backlash not to exceed 0.1 degree.
                   • A lens enabling a head and shoulders picture to be taken of
                     counsel in the eight possible counsel positions or of the judge and
                     witness. (Note: prior to ordering the lens the contractor shall
                     inform himself of the actual distance and picture size for each
                     position.)
                   • The design and positioning of the camera(s) in the courtroom
                     prevents any images to be captured/sent of the dock position or of
                     the accused to a far-end site eg remote witness room.
                   • The design and positioning of the camera(s) in the courtroom
                     prevents any images to be captured/sent of the public gallery to a
                     far-end site.
                   • The PTZ shall support a minimum of nine (9) pre-set positions.
                   • The PTZ and pre-set positions shall be capable of being controlled
                     from the touch screen controller(s).

12.3.   Video switcher equipment
        A video switcher shall be located in the equipment room to enable
        interconnection between the courtrooms, the remote witness room and the video
        conferencing unit. The touch screen(s) shall control the video switcher. There
        needs to be provision for the video switching of composite video signal as well as
        RGBHV (or Computer based) video signals.
        A.   Minimum port switching capability
             The minimum size of the video switcher at each site shall support the
             following:
                   • Reticulation of two simultaneous video channels;
                   • Document camera;
                   • All the cameras in the courts, witness rooms and conference
                     rooms;
                   • All the display devices (plasma, LCD, and the like) in the Courts,
                     witness rooms and conference rooms;

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                                                                              SECTION G
                    • All the video playback devices in the courts (VHS/DVD and the
                      like);
                    • Test pattern generator;
                    • Site identification CCTV image; and
                    • Two spare ports.


        B.    Maximum difference in gain
              The difference in gain between any two channels shall be less than 0.5%.
        C.    Minimum cross talk
              The cross talk between any two channels shall be less than -54 dB at 5
              MHz.
        D.    Non-linearity requirements
              The non-linearity on any path through the video switcher shall be better
              than 1.0%.
        E.    Black level clamping
              There shall be black level clamping on each input.
        F.    Switcher bandwidth
              The 3 dB bandwidth of the video switcher shall be more than 5 MHz.
        G.    Switching requirements
              Each cross point shall be able to switch PAL-b TV signal.


12.4.   Video Playback and Recording
        The video playback and recording facility shall be capable of replaying a
        comprehensive variety of formats (i.e. S-VHS, DVD etc) from sources internal or
        external to the courtroom. This shall include but not be limited to video signals
        from the following sources:
        •    Court Cameras;
        •    Document Cameras;
        •    VCR/VCD/DVD playback system;
        •    CCTV system;
        •    Video conferencing system;
        •    PC Video Playback;
        •    Images from the e-Court applications (high resolution computer images.)
        All video playback and recording equipment shall be capable of being controlled
        from the AV Controller Interface using at least IEC basic set of commands (Play,
        Fast Forward, Rewind, Pause, and Stop.) The video playback and recording
        equipment shall be suitably mounted and accessible by the judicial support staff.
        The AV system shall enable at least analogue video recording of courtroom
        proceedings via the courtroom VCR.
        The format of all recorded content shall be open and playable using the
        audiovisual equipment existed within the building.
        The video recorder shall support all of the following requirements:
              •     The output of each video recorder shall be synchronised to the
                    system clock signals by a time base synchroniser.
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                                                                                  SECTION G
               •     The record/play signal resolution shall be better than 400-lines.
               •     The system shall be capable of recording the date and time on the
                     recorded picture.


12.5.   Displays
        The displays shall support the following requirements:
        •    The displays shall not be less than 68 cm diagonally except in the remote
             witness room, which shall not be less than 48 cm diagonally.
        •    The displays shall have a minimum resolution of 400-lines.
        •    It shall be possible for service staff to adjust display controls.


        A.     High resolution courtroom displays
               Courtroom displays (e.g. Plasma or LCD.) The high-resolution courtroom
               displays shall comply with the following requirements:
               •   Fixed on wall or ceiling mounted on brackets at the locations offering
                   the most appropriate sightlines for the courtroom participants.
               •   Not be less than 125 centimetres diagonally with an aspect ratio of
                   16:9.
               •   Support component (RGBHV etc) and composite signals.
               •   Support the following input signals at a minimum but not limited to; RGB
                   / NTSC /PAL / SECAM /HD /DVD /DTV
               •   Provide a minimum colour reproduction rate of RGB 256 levels.
               •   Be capable of synchronising on horizontal refresh rates from 30 kHz to
                   85 kHz.
               •   It shall be possible for service staff to adjust standard monitor controls.
               •   Be capable of accepting signals with a pixel resolution of 1280(h) x
                   1024(v).
               Courtroom displays shall be utilised for, but not limited to, the following
               functions within the courtroom:
               •   Video evidence replay
               •   Videoconference calls
               •   Electronic evidence display (e.g. legal documents)
               •   PC based presentations (e.g. PowerPoint presentations)
               •   Document camera


        B.     Participant displays (eg LCD)
               High-resolution displays for courtroom participants. The high-resolution
               participant displays shall comply with the following requirements:
               •   Display size diagonally shall be in the range of 38 to 47 centimetres;
               •   Support a minimum screen resolution shall be 1280(h) x 1024(v) pixels;
               •   Accept RGBHV signals;
               •   The base and screen shall not be more than 150 mm deep;
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                                                                            SECTION G
         •    It is preferable for the angle of the screen to be adjustable and that it
              can swivel up or down, when not in use, to ensure that viewing beyond
              the screen is not obstructed.
         The participant displays shall provide the following minimum set of local
         controls for screen and viewing adjustments:
         •    Brightness and contrast.
         •    Hue or colour saturation.
         •    Vertical and horizontal alignment.
         •    Pincushion adjustment.


C.       Composite Video Distribution Amplifiers
         The composite video distribution amplifiers shall support the following
         requirements:
         •    Distribution amplifiers shall have a bandwidth of dc to 5 MHz.
         •    The distribution amplifiers shall have an adjustable gain of not less than
              6 db, provide phase compensation and phase pre-emphasis for long
              cable lengths.
         •    The distribution amplifiers shall operate from 12, 24, or 48 vdc.


D.       RGBHV Video Distribution Amplifiers
         The RGBHV video distribution amplifiers shall support the following
         requirements:
     •       Frequency Compatibility - Horizontal: 20 to 200 kHz, Vertical: 50 to 150
             Hz, a minimum Video Bandwidth : 300 MHz@ -3dB, with a typical Video
             Bandwidth: 450 MHz @ -3dB.
     •       The distribution amplifiers shall have a diff gain of less than 0.06%.
     •       Operate with a Cross-talk: -40dB @ 10 MHz.
     •       DC coupling.


E.       High-resolution image distribution
         Where high-resolution image display is required in a jury courtroom, such
         as in an electronic trial, the jury court will require dedicated displays to the
         following court participants:
     •       Judge x 3 (PC display, Courtroom evidence display, remote participant
             display)
     •       Counsel x 4 (two points on the front bench and two points on the second
             bench)
     •       Witness (in court witness position)
     •       Associate
     •       Jury (1 screen per 3 jurors.)
     •       Courtroom display.




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                                                                                   SECTION G
        F.       XGA/SVGA to RGBHV converter
                 The converter shall comply with the following requirements:
             •       Accept signals in SXGA, SVGA, XGA or WXGA format.
             •       Transmit 1V p-p pal signals into a 75-ohm load.
             •       It is desirable to be able to adjust the compensation for cable attenuation.
             •       The frequency response of the converter shall be better than +/- 3 dB
                     between dc and 150 MHz.


12.6.   Videoconference CODEC(s)
        The videoconferencing codec(s) shall be located in the common equipment rack
        in close proximity to the Courtroom. This shall enable the transmission of audio,
        video and data signals between courtrooms or a remote witness room within the
        Courthouse and another site. The latter includes but is not limited to the
        following:
        •    The DotAG and DCS (Department of Corrective Services) sites in the
             metropolitan area.
        •    The DotAG and DCS sites in the WA regional centres.
        •    Other sites in Australia (cross-vesting act 1999).
        •    Other remote or overseas sites.
        •    The video codec(s) shall be capable of interfacing to the WA state ATM and
             satellite network using ATM UNI protocols or via a V.35 interface at 384kbps.
        •    It shall be possible for the codec(s) and ISDN interface to be controlled by the
             touch screen controller.
        Videoconference codec(s) must meet the following requirements as a minimum:
        •    Allow point to multipoint video conferencing;
        •    Support multiple network interfaces including IP (including QoS), ISDN, DSL
             and other external network;
        •    User definable bandwidths;
        •    Standards-based embedded encryption such as AES;
        •    Support multiple formats of video input and output, (i.e. Composite video,
             XGA etc);
        •    Support ITU-T H.320 and H.323 standards;
        •    H.239 Dual Video


        A.       Videoconference Specifications
                 The videoconference codec(s) shall meet the following specifications as a
                 minimum:
                 •    Accept and produce PAL video signals at 75 ohm.
                 •    Accept and produce balanced 0 dbr audio signals at 75 ohm.
                 •    The codec(s) shall accept RS232 or RS485 signals for data
                      transmission via the T.120 protocol.
                 •    The codec(s) shall support the simultaneous connection to three (2b +
                      d) ETSI ISDN lines at data speeds up to 384kbps with a minimum
                      512kbps for IP.
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                                                                   SECTION G
     •   The ISDN interface shall be capable of dialling numbers up to 22 digits
         long.
     •   The video compression standard shall be H.261 at 30 frames per
         second.


B.   Compatibility
     For compatibility with existing codec(s), the video codec(s) supplied shall
     be capable of detecting, decoding and encoding images using the following
     standards:
     •   H.261
     •   H.263
     •   H .263+
     •   H.263++
     •   H .264


C.   Picture resolution
     The video codec(s) shall support the following picture resolutions as a
     minimum:
     •   4CIF (704 x 576 pixels)
     •   CIF (352 x 288 pixels)
     •   Interlaced SIF (352 x 480 pixels)
     •   SIF (352 x 240 pixels)


D.   Audio compression
     The video codec shall support the following audio standards as a minimum:
     •   G.711
     •   G.722
     •   G.722.1
     •   G.728


E.   Echo suppression
     Local echo suppression is to be performed by the audio signal conditioning
     equipment and it shall be possible to disable any echo cancellation features
     of the codec(s).
     Note: depending on the overall system performance, it may be desirable to
     use the echo cancellation features in the codec.


F.   File transfer requirement
     The codec(s) shall support the following transfer capabilities as a minimum:
     •   ITU-T T.120/r127
     •   CIF
     •   SIF
                                                                              223
                                                                                   SECTION G
                   •   4CIF
                   •   4SIF
                   •   VGA
                   •   H.243 multi-site


              G.   Self-diagnostic check
                   The codec(s) shall include a self-diagnostic system check and if a fault is
                   detected then an alarm shall be sent to the controller or alarm-monitoring
                   device, it also should have remote IP management for software upgrade,
                   alarms, and reporting.


13.   System Support

      The system design shall allow any support personnel to quickly diagnose any point in
      failure.


      13.1.   Defects liability period service levels
              To be nominated within the contractual terms between main contractor and
              audiovisual sub-contractor as determined by the Principal.

      13.2.   Remote access
              The system shall provide a remote on-line networked system capable of on-line
              support for the remote diagnostics of the videoconferencing equipment.


      13.3.   Software
              Where a contractor is engaged to provide software, the software patches will be
              supplied at no cost to clear faults or problems that occur during the defects
              liability period.


      13.4.   Intellectual property
              The title, copyright and all other rights to the intellectual property in and to all
              software code, video tapes, audio tapes, objects, displays and other materials of
              whatsoever kind produced, created, designed, devised or made by, or on behalf
              of the contractor whether part or whole shall forthwith vest in the State of WA
              upon payment to the contractor of the price payable in accordance with the
              contract.


      13.5.   Reporting
              The contractor shall maintain a site and equipment log for recording all faults,
              actions taken and time taken to repair. This log will provide the operational
              history of the equipment.


      13.6.   Maintenance
              The contractor shall identify and provide a schedule of maintenance of the
              system as specified and recommended by the manufacturers.

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                                                                                   SECTION G

14.   AV Touch screen control system

      14.1.   General requirements
              The final command structure and touch screen layout shall be developed in
              accordance with the current DotAG standard and shall be reviewed and
              approved by AV Services at the Courts Technology Group. The layout and
              functionality of the touch screen shall operate on the same principles as the
              touch screens in the other Court audiovisual facilities.


              A.   The contractor shall supply sufficient touch screens.
                   Connection points for the touch screens shall be installed in the following
                   locations:
                   •   At the Associates position in a Jury court;
                   •   At the JSO’s position in a Magistrates court;
                   •   At the witness position in the remote/child witness room.


              B.   Touch Screen hardware configuration
                   Touch screens shall:
                   •   Be able to be positioned to ensure that viewing beyond the screen is
                       not obstructed;
                   •   Be able to represent information in colour;
                   •   Not interfere with any touch screen controller in another location in the
                       Courthouse.


              C.   Touch screen programming specification
                   The contractor shall comply with the following requirements:
                   •   The command structure shall not require or support two or more
                       repetitive operations of a button (e.g. No double clicking allowed);
                   •   It shall be possible to cancel a partial or complete command and/or
                       modify the last character;
                   •   The screens shall be arranged under the current DotAG standard. The
                       layout of these screens is in the accompanying annexure;
                   •   A button shall indicate to the user when a command is detected;
                   •   Simple text identifying the function shall be included in the buttons; the
                       phrase ‘enter’ is NOT acceptable as button labels.
                   •   Except for PTZ camera control, volume control the time that a button is
                       depressed shall not alter the interpretation of the command;
                   •   An alarm status shall be located at the top of the screen in the event
                       that an alarm has been raised;
              D.   Special features
                   In preview mode, only the judge and associate shall see pictures from the
                   remote witness room and only the picture of the judge will be sent to the
                   remote witness room.


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                                                                                  SECTION G
                  •   The default condition for the screen shall be preview mode, if the
                      display mode is not selected;
                  •   When the court display mode is selected;
                         o   The head and shoulder image (primary image) of the witness in
                             the remote witness room shall be shown on the court display
                             system and the associate’s display;
                         o   The wide-angle view (secondary image) of the remote witness
                             room shall be shown on a dedicated judges monitor;
                  •   Any video evidence that may be presented by the court server will be
                      sent to the remote witness room and displayed;
                  •   The primary remote witness screen image shall display the image as
                      selected by the associate via the touch screen controller;
                  •   The secondary remote witness display shall present an image of the
                      judge at all times.


            E.    Video conferencing system fault reporting
                  The videoconferencing equipment shall support on-screen status
                  messages and error reporting. The videoconferencing equipment shall
                  include a self-diagnostic system check. If a fault is detected an alarm shall
                  be sent to a central alarm-monitoring device.


15. Voice Over IP
    Whilst the DotAG does not currently have a policy for the use of Video Over IP solutions,
    this draft information is provided as a “reference only”. All future proposals need to
    comply with current (up-to-date) industry standards for IP video conferencing and DotAG
    staff must be involved in the planning & design stage.


    15.1.   Audio Standards
            Any Video Over IP equipment purchased for the DotAG must meet the following
            audio specifications:
            •    G.711: 64 Kbps, 8K samples/sec, 8-bit companded PCM (A-law or µ-law),
                 high quality, low complexity.
            •    G.722: ADPCM audio encode/decode (64 kbit/s, 7 kHz).
            •    G.722.1: ADPCM audio encode/decode (24 or 32 kbit/s, 7 kHz)
            •    GSM: Group Special Mobile -- European telephony standard, not ITU.
            •    AAC: Advanced Audio Coding, variations include AAC-LD (low delay
            The following audio standards are preferred, but are not mandatory:
            •    G.723: Speech coder at 6.3 and 5.3 Kbps data rate. Medium complexity.
            •    G.728: 16 Kbps, LD-CELP, high quality speech coder, very high complexity.
            •    G.729: 8Kbps, LD-CELP, high quality speech coder, medium complexity.




                                                                                            226
                                                                            SECTION G
15.2.   Video standards
        Any Video Over IP equipment purchased for the DotAG must meet the following
        video specifications:
        •   H.261: Supporting 352x288 (CIF or FCIF) and 176x144 (QCIF). DCT-based
            algorithm tuned for 2B to 6B ISDN communication.
        •   H.263: Much-improved derivative of H.261, tuned for POTS data rates.
            Mostly aimed at QCIF and Sub-QCIF (128x96 -- SQCIF), while providing
            better video than H.261 on QCIF and CIF.
        •   H.264: Joint collaboration between the ITU and ISO.


15.3.   Communications Standards
        Any Video Over IP equipment purchased for the DotAG must meet the following
        communications specifications:
        •   H.221: Frame Structure 64-1920 Kbps.
        •   H.223: Multiplexing protocol for low-bit rate multimedia communication.
        •   H.225: Media Stream Packetisation and synchronisation on non-guaranteed
            quality-of service LANs.
        •   H.230: Frame synchronous control and indication signals for audio visual
            systems.
        •   H.241: Extended video procedures and control signals for H.300-series
            terminals, signalling for H.264
        •   H.242: System for establishing audio visual terminals using digital channels
            up to 2Mbps.
        •   H.243: Procedures for establishing communication between three or more
            audio visual terminals using digital channels up to 2 Mbps.
        •   H.245: Control of communications between visual telephone systems and
            terminal equipment on non-guaranteed bandwidth LANs.


15.4.   Encryption & Collaboration Standards
        The following Encryption Standards are required:
        •   H.233: Confidentiality system for audiovisual services
        •   H.234: Encryption key management and authentication              system   for
            audiovisual services (Diffe-Hellman key exchange)
        •   H.235: Security and Encryption for H.323 multimedia terminals
        •   The following Collaboration Standards are required:
        •   H.239: Role Management and Additional Media Channels for H.300-series
            Terminals
        •   T.120: Data protocols for multimedia conferencing


15.5.   Jitter & Latency
        The network Jitter must not exceed 10ms within a Local Area Network, with a
        preferred maximum jitter of 5ms.


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                                                                                   SECTION G
               The Local Area Network must support a round trip latency of less then 10ms
               between endpoints, with a maximum one way delay of 5ms.


16. Applicable and Relevant State-of-Art Technologies
      16.1.    General
               The System shall ensure that all equipment proposed shall be proven in similar
               works undertaken by similar courtroom environment to ensure the highest quality
               sound and video signals with emphasis on reliability and durability.
               The System shall maximise the deployment of the state-of-the-art audiovisual
               technologies in order to improve the operational efficiency as well as the future
               proofing and longevity of audiovisual equipment.
               The System shall ensure that the lifetime of the AV equipment at least covers for
               the expected life of seven years. During this time, the performance of the
               equipment shall not degrade and all aspects of the equipment, cabling and
               associated accessories shall offer durability and high reliability.


      16.2.    Relevant Technologies
               The System shall evaluate the following technologies that can be relevant to this
               Design Brief, including but not limited to the following:
               •   IP addressable (LAN based) audiovisual system;
               •   IP telephony;
               •   Video over IP;
               •   Smart board;
               •   Tablet PC, control and annotation;
               •   Mobility technologies (wireless microphones, Bluetooth and Personalised
                   Area Network – PAN);
               •   Intelligent patch panels.
               •   Standards Compliance
               All aspects of the system and equipment shall comply with the latest relevant
               Codes of Practice, Australian and International standards, including the
               requirements of the ACA and the CCM.
               All equipment shall comply with the relevant Australian standards for EMI/EMC
               and shall not expose users to dangerous EMR levels.
               The System shall provide immediate notification to the State if at any time during
               the Project Term it is discovered that the installation will not comply with any
               requirements of this Design Brief.


17.   PC Playback Positions

      The System shall ensure that the audiovisual system can accept audio output produced
      from personal computers at various positions internal to the courtroom and other locations
      external to it. These shall include:
      •   Witness position;
      •   Counsel positions (for Type A courtrooms only);
      •   Associates position (AV controller interface and the Associate’s State supplied PC);
                                                                                                 228
                                                                                      SECTION G
      •   Ushers/Orderlies position;
      •   Judicial Officers position,
      •   Remote witness rooms; and
      •   Child witness rooms.
      All the personal computers are to be separately procured by the State.


18.   Digital Recording, Monitoring and Transcription Systems

      The digital recording, monitoring and transcription systems shall be able to be integrated,
      compatible and interoperable to each other and with the audiovisual system. These are
      separately specified in the following sections for clarity purposes only.
      The digital recording system shall effectively capture quality audio evidence and all other
      spoken words within the courtroom and all other relevant audiovisual facilities in the
      Building.
      All audio feeds from the audio, video and conferencing system shall be recordable. All
      spoken words shall be clearly recorded onto the audio recording system so that an
      accurate transcript can be produced.


      18.1.    Digital Recording
               The digital recording system shall be designed and equipped to handle
               simultaneous recording of all courtrooms and other audiovisual facilities in the
               Building without any limitations or performance degradation.
               The system shall capture the audio and digitise the signal for recording in digital
               format and shall be equipped with all necessary digital storage.
               The digital format shall not be proprietary, but comply with latest open and
               international standards.
               The System shall provide the following digital recording functions to the State:
               •    Provision for the activation, deactivation, control and monitoring of the digital
                    recording functions operated by the System personnel in the monitoring room
                    or by the State’s judicial support staff in the courtroom;
               •    Capable of transmitting the digital audio files to any transcription service
                    provider.


               A.    Digital Recording System
                     The System shall provide the features for the digital recording system
                     including but not limited to the following:
                     •   Compresses audio to reduce file size using industry standard proven
                         file formats and CODECS (including dct, wav, mp3, adpcm, celp,
                         gsm6.10, or others);
                     •   A visual display allowing the operator to check that all sources are
                         being captured properly;
                     •   The ability to alert the operator of any ‘breakdown’ in the recording
                         system;
                     •   The ability to record on multi-channel audio signals received from
                         different original sources, the software shall be able to record all audio
                         channels required concurrently.
                                                                                                  229
                                                                                     SECTION G
                   •   The ability to continue to record the session while playing back a portion
                       of the record that was previously recorded;
                   •   Sends the recordings as it continues to record with overlapped file
                       breaks at preset intervals;
                   •   Robust design and simple interface for fail-safe but user-friendly day-to-
                       day operation.


              B.   Monitoring System and Software
                   The System shall ensure that staff are able to operate all court recording
                   and monitoring functions.
                   It shall be simple to operate with an “on/off” process with automatic alert to
                   the judicial support staff via a GUI when any of the participants’ voice levels
                   captured by the microphones are below the acceptable audio limits as set
                   out in the Commissioning Standards.
                   This system shall clearly indicate to the operator that:
                   •   Recording is in progress;
                   •   All channels are operational;
                   •   Participants voice levels captured by the microphones fall below the
                       acceptable limits in accordance with the Commissioning Standards.
                   The System shall provide the features for the digital recording system
                   including but not limited to the following:
                   •   Enable one person to monitor and record proceedings in multiple
                       courtrooms simultaneously;
                   •   Check audio quality and insert annotations into electronic running
                       sheets for each proceeding;
                   •   The ability to automatically assign digital audio ‘grabs’ (sections) of
                       proceeding to transcribers;
                   •   The log notes (running sheets) shall be linked to the digital audio;
                   •   The ability to store the text notes with an integration utility that provides
                       a method for directly accessing the desired audio segment;
                   •   The ability to make changes and to search through the annotations
                       associated with proceedings;
                   •   The ability to extract information from the State’s case management
                       system for the details of the proceedings.

              C.   Emergency Recording
                   The System shall provide emergency recording as a backup system in the
                   event of integrated digital recording system fails.


19.   AV Controller Interface and System

      19.1.   AV Controller Interface
              The System shall provide the AV controller interface that is computer based
              equipped with a simple GUI. Access to the Interface shall be restricted to those
              nominated by the State.

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                                                                       SECTION G
A.    User Control
      The System shall ensure that a nominated user either in the Court or at a
      remote location is able to control all aspects of the use of audiovisual
      systems. This includes but is not limited to:
      •   Making a Video Conference call from a directory listing;
      •   Making a Video Conference call by manually dialling the number;
      •   Making an Audio Conference call;
      •   Being able to select any one of the following sources of image:
             o   PTZ cameras;
             o   Courtroom participants’ personal computers;
             o   Video-Conference;
             o   Computer Generated Image;
             o   CCTV;
             o   Document camera;
             o   Video Cassette Recorder (VCR);
             o   DVD (Digital Versatile Disc).
      •   Selecting any one or combination of the following displays:
             o   Judicial Officer video display;
             o   Judicial support staff video display(s);
             o   Counsel video display;
             o   Witness video display;
             o   Videoconference participant video display;
             o   Jury video display;
             o   General courtroom displays.
      •   Connecting and disconnecting one or more remote witness room and/or
          remote child witness room;
      •   Selecting the image of the remote witness to view in Court;
      •   Adjusting the volume from the remote witness room;
      •   Recording video and audio from video conference;
      •   Recording video from document camera;
      •   Controlling PTZ cameras.
      The judicial support staff shall have the facilities to “preview” (or check) the
      matrix output to enable the inspection of audio and video contents before
      switching to the general or individual courtroom displays and/or speakers.


B.    Layout and Ease of Use
The System shall ensure the AV controller interface and layout shall be intuitive
requiring minimal user interaction.
The system shall allow the user to activate and deactivate different components
of the system with ‘one button’ functionality. “Short cuts” shall be provided for the
most commonly used functions.

                                                                                   231
                                                                                       SECTION G

20.   Switching and Routing Functions

      The switching functionality shall be modular and scalable allowing the easy upgrade to
      service the maximum number of input and output sources for the courtrooms and all other
      audiovisual facilities in the Building.
      The System shall facilitate external routing and interconnection between the audiovisual
      network and the public (or State’s IT) network as required.
      Where interfaces between the networks are required, the System shall ensure that these
      are open and standards based.


      20.1.   Audio Switching
              The System shall ensure that the AV controller interface is capable of controlling
              the audio switching and interconnection of courtrooms and all other audiovisual
              facilities in the Building, including the audio and videoconferencing connections,
              in any arbitrary manner.
              The System shall ensure that it is possible to select and switch audio channels
              independently of the video switching system, as well as being able to switch the
              audio signal to follow the video signal.


      20.2.   Video Switching
              The video switching functionality shall allow the interconnection of video feeds
              between the courtrooms and all other audiovisual facilities in the Building,
              including the videoconferencing connections.
              The video switching functionality shall be fully non-blocking for all video signals
              inside the Building. It shall support any permutations of these links without
              limiting to the type (including CCTV and video conferencing) of links,
              concurrently.
              The video switching functionality shall include but not be limited to the following:
              •   Link to a video conferencing CODEC;
              •   Receive input from the document cameras;
              •   Receive input from all the cameras and provide outputs to video displays in
                  the courtrooms and all other audiovisual facilities in the Building;
              •   Provide inputs and outputs for all the video playback and recording
                  equipment in the courtrooms, mediation rooms and conferencing room;
              •   Provide the connections to enable the video recording of court proceedings
                  from the security control room of the Building;
              •   Provide site identification, date and time of the video image and;
              •   Provide upgradeability for future expansion.

      20.3.   Self Test
              The AV controller shall be equipped with built-in diagnostic and self-test
                capabilities.
              This self-test shall be configurable to activate on a per courtroom basis. The
              record of the self-test shall be displayed via the AV controller interface. The
              diagnostic functions shall be designed to ensure that all audiovisual equipment


                                                                                                232
                                                                                             SECTION G
                   within the courtroom and other audiovisual facilities in the Building are properly
                   functioning and are operational ready for use.
                   The System shall ensure that the judicial support staff in the courtroom shall be
                   able to initiate the self-test process.


21.       System Performance

          The System shall ensure that the audiovisual system meets the following system
          performance levels as tabulated below:
Audiovisual System Performance
    No       Audiovisual System                                                    Performance
                                                                                   Levels
      1           System Response Time                                             2.0 sec
                  (Confirmation of an user command being processed)
      2           System Command Completion Time                                   5.0 sec
                  (Completion of an operation requested by the user.)
      3           Video Conferencing Initiation Time                               60 sec
                  (From initiation, connection, self-test to in-session.)
      4           Audio Conferencing Initiation Time                               60 sec
                  (From initiation, connection, self-test to in-session.)


22.       System Change-out Facilities

          The System shall provide a change-out facility. The change-out facility shall offer a “plug
          and play” interface requiring minimal set-up to allow other service provider(s) to connect to
          the AV system and to access the digitally recorded content.


23.       Statistical Reports

          The System shall ensure the AV system shall be capable of producing statistical data in
          relation to its performance and the overall health of the audiovisual system and network.
          This data shall be presented in the form of electronic reports and transferable to the
          State’s IT system. The reports shall contain statistics, including but not limited to the
          following:
          •   System downtime and availability;
          •   Most frequently used functions;
          •   Faults statistics;
          •   Maintenance records;
          •   Equipment upgrade records;
          •   Numbers and durations of dialled audio conferencing;
          •   Numbers and durations of dialled video conferencing;
          •   Digital recording statistics (eg durations, file size, date and time of recording);
          It is the responsibility of the System to include any other statistics that may be required.


24.       User Manuals and Documentation

          The System shall develop in liaison with the State the following:
                                                                                                         233
                                                                                    SECTION G
      “Quick Reference Guide” and “Audiovisual Operation Manual.”
      24.1.    Quick Reference Guide
               All documentation in the guides shall be free from technical jargon and the
               wording in plain English.
               The quick reference guide shall be able to enable a user to use the AV system,
               from start-up to the full operation of all of the most commonly used functions.
               The System shall provide a copy of the quick reference guide on a standard A3
               sheet for each room that is equipped with the AV controller interface.
               The System shall also provide a more comprehensive user guide on the uses of
               the audiovisual system. This shall detail simple step-by-step descriptions on the
               operation of the system
               Each system function shall be displayed in detail allowing the user to “drill down”
               on the information.


      24.2.    Audiovisual Operation Manual
               The contractor shall develop a Operation Manual for the Audiovisual and
               Transcription system covering all aspects of the operation and procedure of the
               use of the audiovisual system within the Building.


25.   Documentation

      The System shall supply to the State in both electronic and hardcopy versions the
      documents specified under the following functions:
      •   Design Documentation;
      •   System Feature and Functional Specifications;
      •   System Design, Drawings and Technical Documents;
      •   Programs and software source code;
      •   AV controller interface and layout documents;
      •   Commission and Acceptance Test Plan;
      •   Commissioning Standards and Acceptance Test Records.


26.   Telecommunications

      26.1.    Summary

               This document outlines the Telecommunications Infrastructure Standards for the
               Department of the Attorney General & the Department of Corrective Services.
               Outlined below are the relevant standards for installation of telecommunication
               cabling, termination equipment and telecommunication cabinets.

               This document, in conjunction with communication from our internal
               Telecommunications Section, should be used when Department sites are
               upgraded, modified or constructed. All approvals and amendments MUST be
               authorised by the TELECOMMUNICATIONS TEAM.

              A.    Work Station Layout

                    Each individual workstation shall have:

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                                                                   SECTION G
     •     An enhanced triple category SIX data outlet.
     •     4 GPO power outlets. Two of the four power outlets require a dedicated
           computer use circuit and should be marked as such.

     Communications rooms, control rooms etc. have special requirements and
     need to be catered for on a case-by-case basis.                 Under NO
     CIRCUMSTANCES should a Communications Cabinet share infrastructure
     space with a building’s Security or Video Conferencing infrastructure. The
     Department of the Attorney General Telecommunications Section can be
     contacted on (08) 9264-6190 or (08) 9264-1319 for confirmation or
     clarification of any requirements.

B.   Port Density and Environment Configuration

     The following configuration should be used at all sites regardless of size.
     The following items are REQUIRED as standard.

          (Field Outlet Terminations)
          • Series 2000 faceplates or any approved equivalent faceplates.
          • Category 6 Inline RJ45 Outlets in: Black only

           (Data Cabling Terminations Within Comms Cabinets)
          • 32 Port 1RU ONLY Patch Panel with BLACK ports
          • Horizontal 1RU Cable Management Panel
              ** Note - One Cable Management Panel Is Required Per Patch Panel
              Used.

           (Telephone/Voice Backbone Terminations Within Comms Cabinets)
          • 32 Port 1RU ONLY Patch Panel with WHITE ports
          • Horizontal 1RU Cable Management Panel
              ** Note - One Cable Management Panel Is Required Per Patch Panel
              Used.

C.   Cabinet Specifications
     The common configurations are shown below. These comprise of the
     standard 45RU equipment cabinet, the 45RU server cabinet, and the 12RU
     & 24RU equipment cabinets. Smaller cabinets can be utilised on a case-
     by-case basis only with prior consultation from the Telecommunications
     Section.
     •     Cabinets shall be secured to the floor or wall.
     •     All Cabinets shall be earthed using 2.5mm green/yellow earthing cable.
     •     The cabinets below are EXAMPLES ONLY and equivalent spec
           cabinets can be used.

     i.      45RU Data Cabinet Spec (+10 users with no servers)
             External Dimensions: 2115mm(H)x625mm(W)x605mmD
             DESCRIPTION                                QTY
             45RU 19” 2100x600mm Deep Data Cabinet      1
             Acrylic, Perspex Door 45Rux19”             1
             45RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                 1
             10 Way Vertical Power Rail                 1
             2-Fan 19”x600 Top Panel                    1
             19”x450mm Deep Fixed Shelf                 4
             Cabinet Cable Trays                        1
             1RU Cable Management Rings                 8

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                                                                     SECTION G

     ii.     45ru Server Cabinet Specs (+10 users and servers/possibility of)
             External Dimensions: 2115mm(H)x625mm(W)x905mmD
             DESCRIPTION                                  QTY
             45RUx19” 2100x900mm Deep Server Cabinet      1
             45RUx19” Vented Steel Door                   1
             45RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                   1
             10 Way Vertical Power Rail                   1
             2-Fan 19”x900 Top Panel                      1
             19”x700mm Deep Fixed Shelf                   3
             19”x600mm Deep Sliding Shelf                 1

     iii.    24RU Data Cabinet Specifications (Specific Application Only)
             External Dimensions: 1215mm(H)x625mm(W)x605mm(D)
             DESCRIPTION                                       QTY
             24RUx19” 1215x600mm Deep Cabinet                  1
             24RUx19” Acrylic, Perspex Door                    1
             24RU Shelf Rail Set (Pair)                        1
             5 Way Horizontal Power Rail                       1
             19”x450mm Deep Fixed Shelf                        2


     iv.     12RU Data Cabinet Specifications (1 – 5 users with no servers)
             (SECONDARY CABINET ONLY UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED)
             External Dimensions: 600mm(H)x535mm(W)x470mm(D)
             DESCRIPTION                                       QTY
             12RUx19” 600x450mm Deep Cabinet Inc. Door         1
             5 Way Horizontal Power Rail                       1

D.   Cabinet Clearances
     The telecommunications room that houses the data/server cabinets
     requires the following minimum clearances to the rear, front and to the
     sides of the data/server cabinets.
     • Cabinet Rear 600mm between cabinet rear and adjacent wall.
     • Cabinet Side 400mm between cabinet side and adjacent wall.
     • Cabinet Front 1000mm between cabinet front and adjacent wall.

     Please see for floor layout at the end of this chapter.

E.   Cable Specifications
     The minimum standard of cable brand and type should follow as per the list
     below. Please note the vendors listed below are NOT in any particular
     order.
     Data Installation
     •      Beldon Category 6 cable.
     •      Prestolite/Krone Category 6 cable or TrueNet Cable.
     •      Alcatel Category 6 cable.
     •      Molex Category 6 cable.
     •      AMP Category 6 cable.
     •      Clipsal Category 6 cable.
     •      Or any other vendors cable that meets or exceeds the Category 6
            standard.



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                                                                            SECTION G
         Fibre installation
         •      Fibre optic cabling is to be installed with SC terminations and a 1RU
                FOBOT.
         •      Blown Fibre can be utilised in certain cases with prior consultation only.
         •      All in-building fibre cabling shall be Multi-Mode.
         •      All external fibre cabling shall be Multi-Mode unless otherwise advised.
         •      Each cable shall be 8 cores or more per run.

         Voice installation
     •         Voice cabling shall be single pair termination unless otherwise approved.
     •         All voice ties will be direct termination from the IDF/MDF to the patch
               panel.
     •         No sub-IDF frame shall be installed into a communications cabinet.
     •         Minimum voice tie cable size shall be 20 pairs or above.
     •         Each voice tie cable capacity shall be specified by telecommunications
               staff as required.


F.       Labelling Standards
         i.   General
             • All telecommunication outlets, cables, patch panel ports and IDC
                 blocks are to be clearly and systematically labelled.
             • Trafolyte labelling 7mm high, with 4mm high black lettering is to
                 be used for the labelling of all telecommunication outlets, fibre
                 optic ports and cabinet identifiers. Refer to AS 3080-1992.
             • Workstation partitioning is to be labelled (non permanent)
                 wherever it conceals the location of a telecommunications outlet.
             • All IDC type blocks are to be identified using the appropriate label
                 holders and marked with permanent pen.
             • Each field cable shall be permanently labelled 150mm from each
                 end.
             • There shall be no duplication of numbers on the patch panels in
                 each communications cabinet.
             • Any cables that have been removed as part of an installation shall
                 have the label removed at both the patch panel end and the
                 telecommunications outlet end.

         ii.      Voice
                  • Voice patch panels should be marked with the incoming telephone
                     ext, the labels should be left blank and should be updated in
                     pencil only. If the number is not known, voice patch panels should
                     be left blank.
                  • All Disconnect Modules are to be labelled in accordance with
                     standard telephone termination conventions.
                  • Confirm termination practices / labelling practices with the
                     Department of the Attorney General Telecommunications Section
                     on (08) 9264-6190 or (08) 9263-1319
                  • Voice tie line cables shall be permanently identified by cable tying
                     labels identifying the cable as a voice tie line and the origin and
                     destination of the tie line. This should be placed every two metres
                     for the entirety of the cable run.




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                                                                        SECTION G
     iii.    Fibre Optics
             • Fibre optic cable shall be permanently identified by “fibre optic
                warning” labels every five metres for the entirety of the fibre optic
                run.
             • Fibre optic break out terminals shall be identified in trafolyte with a
                description of the destination of the fibre optic run.
                        E.g. “8 core fibre optic to Level 4 Comms Room”
             • The fibre optic cores shall be labelled in trafolyte label.


G.   Colour Coding
     Patch leads should be colour coded at the patch panel end only. In the
     field the colour of the patch leads should be blue without exception. For the
     patch panel end, the following chart lists the different colours and their
     uses.

         Patch Lead       Service Type                   Example
         Colour
         Blue             LAN Services
         White            Voice Services                 Telephones, Modem Lines
         Red              Ethernet Cross Over Cable      Between Hubs
         Black            WAN comms                      Servers, Routers


H.   Site Warranty Information
     Any major cabling works should be installed with a 15-year extended site
     warranty and depending on the size and scope of the installation a 20-year
     extended warranty should be considered.

I.   Site Documentation
     After a site is re-cabled or any major data cabling works are carried out, site
     documentation should be returned to the Technical Infrastructure section of
     the Department of the Attorney General (9264-6190 or 9264-1319). This
     documentation should consist of the following.

     •      Category 6 enhanced test results for each data port installed, supplied
            on a CD, no hard copy to be provided.
     •      Fibre optics OTDR test results for each fibre core installed, supplied in a
            hard copy and in a bound file.
     •      A detailed floor plan should be returned showing the location of all data
            outlets in the field as well as comms cabinet locations, cable tray
            locations etc.
     •      Site warranty and any other relevant documentation.




                                                                                    238
                                                         SECTION G

Typical Telecommunications Room Layout




The above is a typical Telecommunications Room layout.




                                                                239
                                                            SECTION G

Typical Telecommunications Layout

RU #                                  DESCRIPTION
1      BLANK PANEL
2      FIBRE OPTIC BREAKOUT BOX IF REQUIRED (FOBOT)
3      HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
4      BLANK PANEL
5      TELEPHONE TIE LINE PATCH PANEL
6      HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
7      TELEPHONE TIE LINE PATCH PANEL
8      HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
9      TELEPHONE TIE LINE PATCH PANEL
10     HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
11     BLANK PANEL
12     FIELD CABLING PATCH PANEL
13     HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
14     FIELD CABLING PATCH PANEL
15     HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
16     FIELD CABLING PATCH PANEL
17     HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
18     FIELD CABLING PATCH PANEL
19     HORIZONTAL CABLE MANAGEMENT UNIT
20
21
22
23
24
25     SHELF
26
27
28
29
30
31     SHELF
32
33
34
35
36
37     SHELF
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
The above is a typical Telecommunications Cabinet layout.




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                                                            APPENDICES


APPENDICES
1.   BCA Alternative Solution for Custodial Accommodation

2.   Courtroom Analysis Report




                                                                    241
                                         APPENDICES




                                        APPENDIX 1
BCA Alternative Solution for Custodial Accommodation




                                                  242
                APPENDICES




               APPENDIX 2
COURTROOM ANAYLSIS REPORT




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