260208_BSc_Oral_Health_Complete_Document by xiuliliaofz

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									                                               Paper 0708/CUGSC/09




        Edinburgh Postgraduate Dental Institute

              BSc (Hons) in Oral Health Sciences

                         Draft Documentation



CONTENTS

1. Proposal

2. Draft Specification

3. Vertical Themes

4. Learning Outcomes

5. Teaching & Assessment Methods

6. First Year Timetable

7. Resource Information

8. QAA Subject Benchmark Statements: Healthcare Programmes




                                                                 1
PROPOSAL FOR BSc IN ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES


College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine
University of Edinburgh


Programme Final Award: BSc (Hons)
Credit Definition: 480 Credits
Typical offer points: 240 points including Biology at SQA Higher, GCE AS
Level or A Level


1. Introduction
Dually qualified dental hygienist-therapists are non-specialist primary care dental
practitioners who possess comprehensive skills in preventive, periodontal and
restorative therapy and are able to undertake treatment for both the adult and child
population. Once qualified, they have the skills to undertake 70% of routine dentistry
in the UK thus allowing dental practitioners to focus on the more advanced specialist
levels of dentistry which are required by many of the population.


Edinburgh Dental Institute (EDI) currently provides education leading to a joint
qualification in Dental Hygiene and Dental Therapy. This is a 27 month (102 weeks)
full-time programme in preparation for a diploma examination offered by the Royal
College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (RCSEd).


It is acknowledged by those involved in the educational delivery of the joint dental
hygiene-therapy programme that much of the existing curriculum is taught at the level
of an ordinary degree, and mirrors the curriculum for undergraduate dental students
recommended by the General Dental Council. In UK dental schools where
undergraduate dentistry is taught alongside dental hygiene-therapy, it is accepted as
standard practice to have shared teaching of common subject areas.     Given the on-
going changes in the delivery of dentistry in the UK, and the increasing demand for
personnel holding qualifications in dental hygiene and therapy, it is timely to
recognise the high academic standard of the education of this group of dental care
professionals by progressing their academic award from diploma to degree status. A
degree course would allow graduates more time to develop a broader scientific base


                                                                                    2
from which further skills development could be undertaken in the future to meet the
demands of independent dental practice.


2. National Need
The Scottish Government document „Modernising NHS Dental Services in Scotland‟
(2003) confirmed support for the implementation of planned and centrally funded
education and training of dually qualified dental hygienist-therapists.            The
introduction of a degree in Oral Health Sciences would place the University at the
leading edge of current concepts in the way primary care dentistry should be
delivered. It would have the opportunity of developing an increasingly sought after,
and much needed programme of education to become one of only five centres in the
UK offering this degree at the present time.


In response to workforce demand, the School of Dental Hygiene in Edinburgh Dental
Institute ceased to offer the programme of education leading to the Diploma in Dental
Hygiene in December 2006, and the more comprehensive programme leading to dual
qualifications in dental hygiene and therapy was implemented. Historically, demand
has always outweighed availability for training in dental hygiene in Scotland and,
following changes in legislation governing the scope of work of dental hygienist-
therapists, there has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking this
education. Also, the pool of potential students is likely to increase as the degree
course is publicised through UCAS. A degree programme in dental hygiene-therapy
would enhance the current status of Edinburgh Dental Institute as the „Centre of
Excellence‟ for Dental Care Professional (DCP) Education in Scotland, and allow
undergraduates the opportunity to be educated alongside postgraduate students,
undergraduate dental students in outreach and other DCPs undergoing education in a
dynamic and multi-cultural environment. By introducing this new programme, the
University of Edinburgh would maintain its leading position for educational initiatives
which are recognised globally.


3. Workforce Planning
The „Action Plan for improving oral health and modernising NHS dental services in
Scotland‟ (2005) produced by the Health Department of the Scottish Government



                                                                                     3
states that the fundamental objectives of a modernised NHS dental service are to
improve oral health and provide accessible services focused on prevention and high
quality, effective treatment. Although the number of dentists has increased by 70%
since 1975 and indeed, continues to rise, there are still insufficient numbers to address
the unmet treatment need of the Scottish population. The „Action Plan‟ states that a
comprehensive approach is required, where the contribution and skill of all members
of the dental team are maximised, thus increasing public access to dental services in
the future. Scottish Government workforce planning has stipulated that the number of
individuals undertaking Dental Hygiene-Therapy training in Scotland should increase
to 45 per year by 2010. As a result of legislative changes in 2002, these personnel are
able to work in all branches of dentistry, including general dental practice.


4. BSc (Hons) Oral Health Sciences
a) Programme Philosophy
University Dental Schools in Dundee, Manchester and more recently Portsmouth,
Birmingham and the University of the Highlands & Islands have successfully
developed this combined education in Dental Hygiene and Therapy, to offer a three
year, full-time undergraduate degree programme leading to the award of BSc in Oral
Health Sciences.     EPDI recognises the value of offering an Honours degree
programme, and proposes that this should be available from October 2009 to students
seeking dual qualifications in Dental Hygiene and Therapy. Availability of this
programme would broaden equity of access, contribute to the development of a skills
escalator for dental professionals and assist in improving the dental diversity in the
health care workforce. In addition, it would generate graduates well-placed to access
the BDS graduate entry programme which will be implemented by the Institute in the
future.


The BSc in Oral Health Sciences would be a four year full-time undergraduate
programme based on the curricula set out by the General Dental Council (GDC)
entitled, „Developing the Dental Team: Curricula Frameworks for Registrable
Qualifications for Professionals Complementary to Dentistry (2004), learning
outcomes for which are detailed in Section 4. The GDC are the regulatory body for
all Dentists and DCPs throughout the UK.



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Dental hygiene-therapy education has a major clinical component, and the course
content is equally divided between clinical practice and theoretical teaching, with an
early exposure to direct patient contact and treatment. The clinical component of the
programme will be based in the Department of Oral Health Sciences within
Edinburgh Dental Institute which, on completion, will be a fully equipped state-of-
the-art twenty chair facility, offering multi-faceted education to postgraduate dental
students and DCPs. Clinical „Outreach‟ in Years 3 & 4 is proposed in a number of
primary care, hospital and community units throughout the Lothian area.             This
„Outreach‟ component will allow students to explore the variety of areas in which
they may choose to focus their compulsory research project during their Senior
Honours year.    These „Outreach‟ centres have been identified as:


       Salaried Primary Care Dental Services, NHS Lothian (General Dental
        Service, Special Care Dentistry, Access Centres)
       Hospital Dental Service, NHS Lothian (Surgical Dentistry, Maxillo-facial
        Unit, Oncology, Special Care Dentistry, Oral Medicine & Pathology, Cleft
        Lip & Palate Unit)
       Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (Paediatric Dentistry, Special
        Care Dentistry)


The Director of EPDI and the Clinical Director of NHS Lothian have agreed to
facilitate these placements, and Consultants and senior dental staff employed within
these areas have agreed to supervise and mentor students attending these centres
during 3rd and 4th years of their study. Clinical logbooks which will describe work
undertaken at these sites will be kept by students and progress will be monitored
throughout. They will contribute to reflective portfolios which will be continually
assessed by supervising staff.


The Senior Honours year will have a core component which will develop material
related to Dental Hygiene & Therapy, including further evidence-based dentistry
pertaining to areas of specialty visited in the Junior Honours year. Clinical teaching
will be focussed on each area of dental specialty and the research project will relate to
activity generated during the Elective Project undertaken in 3rd year.       Sessions of



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routine dentistry will also be scheduled when students will be able to practise the
clinical skills already acquired in the previous three years.


It is proposed that a parallel area of study should be explored during 3 rd and 4th years
of the programme which would allow students to develop additional complementary
knowledge and skills. Options for study will be discussed with external departments
in due course.


Academic teaching will be provided in any of the several lecture and seminar rooms
available throughout the Institute, and will be shared with students from dental and
other related disciplines wherever appropriate.


b) Educational Aims of Programme
This programme will aim to:
      Fulfil the requirements and curriculum as laid down by the General Dental
       Council in „Developing the Dental Team Curricula Frameworks for Dental
       Care Professionals‟ (Graduates are required by law to register with the GDC in
       order to practice)
      Provide a supportive and stimulating learning environment that fosters the
       enthusiasm of students
      Provide students with an appreciation of the main disciplines relevant to
       understanding of the role of dental hygienists and dental therapists within the
       healthcare field
      Promote personal, interpersonal, presentation and team-working skills with an
       appreciation of working in a multicultural environment
      Develop students‟ analytical, critical, reflective and communication abilities in
       dealing with clinical situations and management of patient care
      Produce graduates with a professional attitude who can contribute
       immediately to the dental workforce
      Produce graduates who realise their requirement to continue to develop their
       professional education
      To place learning in the context of patient care
      To use e-learning to enhance the quality and efficiency of learning



                                                                                       6
c) Programme Outcomes
Knowledge and Understanding
The oral health science graduate will understand the following:
       the scientific basis of dentistry, including the appropriate medical sciences;
       mechanisms of knowledge acquisition;
       behavioural science and communication;
       the clinical experience necessary for the practice of dental hygiene and dental
        therapy;
       the processes of disease and how these affect the appearance and function of
        oral tissues;
       principles of health promotion and disease prevention;
       organisation and provision of health care in different settings;
       ethics, medico-legal considerations, dealing with medical emergencies, health
        and safety legislation and the maintenance of a safe working environment


Intellectual and Practical Skills
The oral health science graduate will be able to demonstrate the ability to undertake
the following activities:
       a range of clinical procedures within their knowledge and competence, as
        defined by current legislation relating to dental hygiene and therapy
       effective communication with patients, their families and associates, members
        of the dental team and other health professionals involved in patient care;
       the accurate recording of a relevant history, performing an appropriate clinical
        and physical examination, interpreting a care plan and making appropriate
        arrangements for the further management of patients whose treatment is
        beyond their level of competence;
       the acquisition of a wide range of skills including research, investigative,
        analytical, problem-solving, planning, communication, presentation and team
        skills;
       use contemporary methods of electronic communication and information
        management




                                                                                         7
Attitudinal and Transferable Skills
The oral health science graduate will have:
      approaches to teaching and learning that are based on curiosity and
       exploration of knowledge rather than its passive acquisition;
      a desire to seek and act on evidence, a capacity for self-audit and an
       appreciation of the need to participate in peer review;
      an awareness of personal limitations, a willingness to seek help as necessary,
       and an ability to work effectively as a member of the dental team;
      respect for patients and colleagues that encompasses, without prejudice,
       diversity of background and opportunity, language and culture;
      an understanding of patients‟ rights, particularly with regard to confidentiality
       and informed consent;
      an awareness of moral and ethical responsibilities involved in the provision of
       care to individual patients and to populations;
      integrity, honesty and trustworthiness;
      an understanding of audit and clinical governance;
      an understanding that dental hygienist-therapists should strive to provide or
       support the highest quality of patient care at all times;
      an awareness of the importance of his or her own health and its impact on the
       ability to practise as a dental hygienist-therapist;
      an awareness of the need for continuing professional development, including
       reflective practice, allied to the process of their continuing professional
       development, in order to ensure that high levels of competence and knowledge
       are maintained


5. Funding
The existing Dental Hygiene-Therapy diploma programme is financed by NHS
Education for Scotland, and it has been agreed that this will be available for Years 1 -
3 of the BSc Programme (Section 7). Funding for the Senior Honours year is being
explored with the University of Edinburgh.




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6. Staffing within existing programme
      Tutor Hygienist-Therapist                                   2.0 WTE
      Tutor Hygienist                                             1.0 WTE
      Dental Nurses                                               5.0 WTE
      Staff Grade Dentist                                         1.0 WTE
      Science Lecturer                                            0.6 WTE


The following staff is available within the existing establishment of the Institute and
NHS Lothian:


Restorative Dentistry

Professor RJ Ibbetson                Professor of Primary Dental Care/Honorary

                                     Consultant in Restorative Dentistry

Dr M Elkhazindar                     Consultant in Restorative Dentistry/Honorary

                                     Clinical Senior Lecturer

Dr G Lillywhite                      Consultant in Restorative Dentistry/Honorary

                                     Clinical Senior Lecturer

Dr R Smidowicz                       Specialist Prosthodontist/Honorary Research

                                     Fellow

Dr C Maran                           Specialist Periodontist

Dr C Sale                             Clinical Tutor

AN Others                            Specialist Registrars (4)



Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology

Professor W Binnie                    Visiting Professor & Locum Consultant in

                                     Oral Medicine

Dr H Moody                           Consultant in Oral Pathology/Honorary

                                     Clinical Senior Lecturer


                                                                                     9
Oral Surgery

Dr V Lopes             Consultant in Surgical Dentistry/Honorary

                       Clinical Senior Lecturer

Dr N Malden            Associate Specialist in Surgical

                       Dentistry/Honorary Research Fellow



Paediatric Dentistry

Miss K Harley          Consultant in Paediatric Dentistry/Honorary

                       Clinical Senior Lecturer

Dr J Foley             Consultant in Paediatric Dentistry/Honorary

                       Clinical Senior Lecturer

Dr L Roebuck           Consultant in Paediatric Dentistry/Honorary

                       Clinical Senior Lecturer

AN Others              Specialist Registrars (5)



Orthodontics

Dr J Hammond           Consultant Orthodontist/Honorary Clinical

                       Senior Lecturer

Dr L Chung             Consultant Orthodontist/Honorary Clinical

                       Senior Lecturer

Dr L Currie            Consultant Orthodontist/Honorary Clinical

                       Senior Lecturer

Dr N McGuiness         Consultant Orthodontist/Honorary Clinical

                       Senior Lecturer



                                                                     10
AN Others                              Specialist Registrars (2)



Radiology

Ms M Wylupek                           Superintendent Radiographer

Mr G Williams                          Medical Physicist



Special Care Dentistry

Dr C Cunningham                         Special Care Dentistry

Dr A Macpherson                        Special Care & Sedation

Dr K Gordon                             Special Care Dentistry



Dental Care Professionals

Mrs Margaret Ross                       Senior Lecturer



Research Methods

Mr Stephen Turner                         Senior Researcher



All lectures and clinical teaching will be delivered by staff within Edinburgh

Dental Institute. Additional lectures are provided by other Institute and NHS

Lothian staff in relation to:

       Infection Control

       Health & Safety

       Information Technology

       Law, Ethics and Professionalism




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7. Accommodation and Equipment
Building of the Department of Oral Health Sciences is currently underway and has a
scheduled completion date of October, 2008. It is situated on the second floor of
Edinburgh Dental Institute and will be dedicated to the education and training of
DCPs, postgraduate dental students and undergraduate dental students in clinical
„Outreach‟. A total of 20 dental chairs, demonstration surgeries, seminar rooms and
an operative techniques laboratory are all available within the department.
Designated meeting and office facilities are also available, as is a library for student
use. IT facilities are available at each clinical unit and a computer cluster is also
available for student use.


8. Programme Pathway
There are four vertical themes which underpin this programme, these being:


      Health & Disease
      Clinical Skills
      Personal & Professional Development
      Preparation for Practice


Modules contained within each theme are described in Section 3.


a) Teaching Methods
A selection of different teaching methods will be employed including lectures,
tutorials, case-based and reflective learning, and clinical demonstrations. There is
significant potential for team teaching and integration of Oral Health Science
students, and it is envisaged that a number of teaching modules will be shared with
postgraduate dental students, BDS undergraduate students undertaking clinical
Outreach Training, and other DCP groups in education. It is the intention of the
Institute to develop a virtual learning environment to support this programme.




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b) Assessment Methods
Student assessment procedures will conform to Regulations governing Undergraduate
Assessment procedures of the University of Edinburgh (Appendix 3). Both formative
and summative assessments will be employed including:
       Short answer tests (SAT)
       Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs)
       Structured Clinical Operative Tests (SCOTs)
       Reflective Portfolios
       Case studies
       Work-based assessments
       360o feedback
       Research Project & Dissertation
       Final examination


Log Books and Reflective Portfolios, which will be continually assessed, will be kept
by each student and be available for external inspection at the end of year and final
examinations.


9. Student Evaluation and Progress
a) Theoretical progress
There will be a system of continual assessment in conjunction with written
assignments at appropriate points throughout the programme.           The theoretical
components of each theme must be passed satisfactorily, and there will be no
compensation between modules.       Examinations will be held at the end of each
semester which must be completed successfully prior to entering the next year of
study. Students who are unsuccessful in any examination will normally be permitted
one resit, however failure following resit will normally result in discontinuation of
studies. Provision will be made for unsuccessful candidates to resit immediately prior
to the commencement of the following semester. Appeal processes in accordance
with the regulations of the University of Edinburgh may be followed by unsuccessful
candidates. The Senior Honours Year will comprise an advanced taught element and
a substantive research component in a chosen specialist area which may be non-dental
although dentally related, both of which will be assessed by methods described above.



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University of Edinburgh common marking schemes for undergraduate assessment
will be employed for all examinations.


b) Clinical competence
Clinical ability will be closely monitored throughout the programme via practical
assessments in operative techniques, and execution and presentation of completed
clinical cases. Competence in clinical skills procedures must be demonstrated prior to
students being permitted to undertake clinical treatment. Grades will be awarded for
each clinical procedure undertaken throughout the undergraduate period, and a
portfolio of all completed clinical work, incorporating digital imaging, will be kept by
each student for presentation at end of year and final examinations.


c) Personal Development
Students will compile a portfolio of personal academic development which will be
reviewed at regular intervals by course teachers throughout the programme. Personal
interviews will be scheduled at the end of each semester, when there will be an
opportunity for 360o feedback between staff and students. Should a student appear to
be making unsatisfactory progress in any area of study, steps will be taken to resolve
the situation, and advice will be offered in response to individual needs. Students will
be subject to the guidance procedures for students operated by the University of
Edinburgh including those pertaining to Fitness to Practise, with a designated Advisor
of Studies and Tutors responsible for each year of undergraduate education.


d) Exit Points
Exit is on completion of 4th year only.


10. Quality Assurance
The programme will be subject to the Quality Assurance mechanisms employed by
the University of Edinburgh. It will also be quality assured by regulations exercised
by the GDC which includes formal inspection by nominated visitors appointed by this
body. Internal Quality Assurance will be via the Education Committee of EPDI,
Examiners‟ Reports and student feedback, and QAA Benchmark Statements for
Dental Hygiene and Therapy (Section 8).



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11) Professional/Statutory Body Recognition
Application will be made to the Education Committee of the GDC for approval of this
programme at the next scheduled meeting in April 2008.          If successful, the
programme and examinations will be visited on a regular basis by Inspectors
appointed by the GDC.




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     SECTION 2
                                             THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

                                            PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION FOR
                                                 BSc (Hons) Oral Health Science
                                                              DRAFT




1) Awarding Institution: University of Edinburgh

2) Teaching Institution: University of Edinburgh, School of Community Health and Clinical Sciences,
   Edinburgh Postgraduate Dental Institute

3) Programme accredited by: General Dental Council

4) Final Award: BSc (Hons)

5) Programme Title: Oral Health Sciences

6) UCAS Code:
   Relevant QAA Subject Benchmarking Group(s): Health Studies

7) Postholder with overall responsibility for QA: Professor RJ Ibbetson

8) Date of production/revision: February 2008

9) Educational aims of programme:

     The degree programme in Oral Health Sciences will educate and train dental hygienist-
     therapists. These are professionals who have skills in preventive, periodontal and
     restorative therapy such that they can provide 70% of routine dentistry for the UK adult
     and child population. The programme offers a broad scientific and clinical base preparing
     graduates to practise as dental hygienist-therapists. The requirement for such practitioners
     is endorsed by the Scottish Executive publication “Modernising NHS Dental Services in
     Scotland” (2003) and the General Dental Council (GDC) publication “Developing the
     Dental Team”.

     The programme will be based in the Department of Oral Health Science within the
     Edinburgh Postgraduate Dental Institute (EPDI). The EPDI provides multifaceted
     education to oral health science students and other dental care professionals, as well as
     postgraduate dental students and general dental practitioners. It is fully equipped with a
     twenty chair state of the art clinical facility as well as lecture theatres and tutorial rooms.
     Clinical placements will additionally take place in a wide variety of settings around the
     Lothians. Academic staff within EPDI bring a breadth and depth of research-based
     knowledge and expertise as well as extensive clinical experience to their teaching. In
     addition, the University of Edinburgh College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine is
     renowned for its excellence in teaching and research.

     The programme aims to:



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       Enable graduates to meet GDC requirements to register and practise as Dental-
        Hygienist Therapists
       Provide a stimulating and supportive learning environment that fosters the
        enthusiasm of students
       Provide students with a knowledge and understanding of the disciplines
        underpinning Dental Hygiene and Therapy and facilitating evidence based practice
       Ensure students develop analytical, critical, reflective and communication skills
        enabling them to provide excellent patient care and to manage clinical situations
        appropriately
       Develop personal, interpersonal, presentation and team working skills with an
        understanding of the multi-cultural, multi-professional environment in which these
        skills will be used
       To integrate learning into the context of patient care
       To use e-learning to enhance the quality and efficiency of learning
       To produce graduates who will understand and practise life long learning including
        continuing professional development
       To produce graduates fit to practice in the Dental workforce



10) Programme Outcomes:


 (a) Knowledge and understanding
 The oral health science graduate will understand:
      Mechanisms of knowledge acquisition
      The scientific basis of dentistry including the appropriate medical sciences
      Biology of disease processes
      Behavioural Science and Communication
      Necessary clinical skills and experience
      Processes of disease and how these affect the appearance, function and treatment
         of oral tissues
      Principles of health promotion and disease prevention
      Organisation and provision of healthcare in different settings
      Relevance of research to dental practice: evidence-based dentistry
      Medical emergencies and their management
      Ethics, medico-legal issues, health and safety and the maintenance of a safe clinical
         working environment. Role of the GDC and dental defence organisations

 (b) Intellectual skills
 Students will be encouraged to develop skills to enable them to:
      Source information from a variety of media, critically analyse it and synthesise it
      Develop, plan and execute a research project and to communicate findings
      Understand the scientific method
      Develop numeracy and literacy competence with IT abilities to support these
         competencies

 Intellectual skills are developed through lectures, small group tutorials, practical classes,
 individual and group project work, case-based learning, clinical teaching and e-learning
 programmes being used as a scaffolding for learning


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Assessments will include operative technique tests, competency based procedures for
clinical treatment, clinical presentations, short answer written papers, OSCE, SCOT,
research projects




(c) Professional/subject-specific/practical skills
The oral health science graduate will be able to demonstrate the following:
     A range of clinical procedures within their knowledge and competence as defined
        by current legislation relating to dental hygiene and therapy
     Effective communication skills with patients, their families and associates,
        members of the dental team and other health professionals involved in patient care
     Accurate history taking, appropriate clinical and physical examination, interpreting
        a care plan and making appropriate arrangements for patients whose treatment is
        beyond their level of competence
     Acquisition of research, investigative, analytical, problem solving, planning,
        communication, presentation and team skills
     Fundamental knowledge of the selection, prescribing and administration of
        medicines
     Ability to recognise and manage health and legal risks to dental hygienist-
        therapists
     Use of computer based techniques for information retrieval and analysis as well as
        communication and information management

(d) Transferable skills
Transferable skills are acquired at all stages of the degree programme. Students will
develop skills in the following:
 oral communication                               information retrieval and research
 written communication                            teamwork
 graphical communication                          leadership
 oral and visual presentation                     negotiation
 problem formulation and solving                  interpersonal relationships
 criticism and analysis                           self evaluation
 IT e.g. web, word processing                     independent learning
   spreadsheets, graphics packages,                forward planning and time management
   PowerPoint
The oral health science graduate will also have:-
     An approach to learning based on curiosity and exploration of knowledge
     A recognition of the need for evidence based practice, ability for self audit and an
         understanding of the value of peer review
     Team working skills and the insight to know when to seek help
     Respect for patient and colleagues irrespective of age, race, gender, religion,
         background and opportunity, or language and culture
     Ethical awareness
     The requirement for honesty, integrity and trustworthiness at all times in clinical
         practice
     An understanding of the need for and value of life long learning



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11) Programme Structure and Features:

Honours BSc in Oral Health Sciences
This is a full time four year degree programme leading to the award of an Honours BSc. The
curriculum in the first three years is proscribed and students will take a series of 20 point courses
adding up to 120 points in each year. Entry to the honours stream is dependent on successful
completion of the first three years with marks of at least 50% being achieved. The fourth year will
consist of a research project and further clinical practice, some of which will be elective – ie based in
a specialty of the students choice. Students will be eligible for registration with the GDC as Dental
Hygienist-Therapists following successful completion of the Honours degree.

Entry Requirements
SQA Highers. A minimum of four B grades (including one of Biology).
GCE A-levels. A minimum of three B grades (including one of Biology).

Year 1: Health and Disease 1 (60 points): Clinical Skills 1 (30 points): Personal and Professional
Development 1 (10 points): Preparation for Practice 1 (20 points)
Year 2: Health and Disease 2 (60 points): Clinical Skills 2 (30 points): Personal and Professional
Development 2 (10 points): Preparation for Practice 2 (20 points)
Year 3: Health and Disease 3 (60 points): Clinical Skills 3 (30 points): Personal and Professional
Development 3 (10 points): Preparation for Practice 3 (20 points)
Year 4: Research Project (60 points); Clinical Practice (20 points): Clinical Elective (40 points)




12) Other items:

Student Support
Undergraduate students are each assigned a Director of Studies (DoS). The DoS is available to help
directees deal with academic or personal problems which may affect their studies. In addition they can
direct students to the appropriate university services. It is expected that EPDI academic staff have the
DoS role for the oral health science students.

Consultation Mechanisms
A staff: student committee will be formed. Feedback will be sought from students on a regular basis
and student representatives will be invited to the relevant teaching committees/

Clinical Placements
Students are attached to clinical areas both within the EDI and throughout the Lothians. These
attachments take place from Year 1. The terms and conditions of these attachments are carefully
negotiated and monitored and are kept under constant review. The educational quality is also
monitored as a part of the overall QA procedures.




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SECTION 4

LEARNING OUTCOMES (Developing the Dental Team: Curricula Frameworks
for Registrable Qualifications for Professionals Complementary to Dentistry (2004)

On completion of the programme, the newly qualified graduate in Oral health Science
will have achieved the following learning outcomes:
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND ORAL BIOLOGY
• have knowledge of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry relevant     to dental hygiene
and therapy
• have knowledge and understanding of those aspects of the biomedical sciences and
of oral physiology and craniofacial, oral and dental anatomy that are significant in the
management of their patients
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES, COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND
HEALTH INFORMATICS
• be competent at using information technology
• be competent at communication with patients, their families and carers, other
members of the dental team and other healthcare professionals
• have knowledge of managing patients from different social and ethnic backgrounds;
• have knowledge of working as part of the dental team
• be familiar with the social and psychological issues relevant to the care of patients

HUMAN DISEASE
• have knowledge of   the scientific principles of sterilisation, disinfection and
antisepsis
• have knowledge of the pharmacological properties of those drugs used in general
dental practice, including their unwanted effects
• be familiar with the place of dental hygiene and dental therapy in the provision of
healthcare
• be familiar with manifestations of common human diseases and disorders relevant to
the practice of dental hygiene and therapy, including their investigation and
management
• be familiar with the main medical disorders that may impinge on dental treatment
• be familiar with the work of other healthcare workers
• be familiar with pathological features and dental relevance of common disorders of
major organ systems
• be familiar with the role of therapeutics in the management of patients requiring
dental treatment
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
• be competent at carrying out   resuscitation techniques
• have knowledge of how to identify medical emergencies and provide immediate
management of anaphylactic reaction, hypoglycaemia, upper respiratory obstruction,
cardiac arrest, fits, vasovagal attack, inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies, and
haemorrhage
• be familiar with the principles of first aid

LAW, ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM
• be competent at maintaining full, accurate clinical records
• have knowledge of responsibilities of consent, duty of care and confidentiality


                                                                                      20
• have knowledge of their responsibilities in relation to the referral of patients
• have knowledge of patients‟ rights and how to handle complaints
• have knowledge of the competency range of other members of the dental team
• have knowledge of the regulatory functions of the GDC
• be familiar with the legal and ethical obligations of registered members of the dental
team
• be familiar with the obligation to practise in the best interests of the patient at all
times
• be familiar with the need for lifelong learning and professional development
• be familiar with the law as it applies to records
HEALTH AND SAFETY AND INFECTION CONTROL
• be competent at implementing and performing satisfactory infection    control and
preventing physical, chemical and microbiological contamination in the clinic
• be competent at arranging and using the working clinical environment in the most
safe and efficient manner
• have knowledge of health and safety legislation as it affects dental practice
DENTAL BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE
• be competent at the correct selection   and manipulation of dental biomaterials used
by the dental hygienist or therapist
• have knowledge of the science that underpins the dental biomaterials used by the
dental hygienist or therapist
• have knowledge of the limitations of such dental biomaterials
• be familiar with those aspects of biomaterials safety that relate to the work of the
dental hygienist or therapist

ORAL DISEASE
ORAL SURGERY
• have knowledge of   the oral hygiene and preventive advice appropriate for cases of
trauma and craniofacial abnormalities
• be familiar with common oral surgical procedures
• be familiar with their role in the pre- and post-surgical situation

ORAL MEDICINE
• have knowledge of    the clinical presentation and management of the common
diseases of the oral tissues, including the oral mucosa and salivary glands
• have knowledge of abnormalities in the oral tissues
• have knowledge of the features of malignant and potentially malignant lesions and
conditions in the oral mucosa and of making an appropriate referral
• have knowledge of the effects of smoking on the oral tissues

DISEASES OF THE PERIODONTIUM
• be competent at the use of indices toscreen and monitor disease
• be competent in instructing the patient in methods of plaque control for both natural
teeth and for bridges, dentures and implants
• be competent in liaising with the dentist in the post-periodontal surgical care of the
patient and assisting in the maintenance of periodontal health in the long term
• have knowledge of the aetiology, pathology, progression and presentation of
periodontal diseases




                                                                                         21
DENTAL CARIES
• be competent in  instructing the patient on the various methods of prevention of
caries, including dietary advice, use of fluoride and plaque control
• be competent at recognising the clinical appearance of the carious lesion
• have knowledge of the aetiology, pathology, progression and presentation of dental
caries

ORAL PATHOLOGY AND ORAL MICROBIOLOGY
• have knowledge of the classification, aetiology, pathogenesisand processes of
common oral diseases
• have knowledge of the causes and effects of oral diseases needed for their
prevention and management
INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL DENTAL HYGIENE
• be competent at obtaining a detailed history of the patient's
                                                             dental state
• be competent at checking and evaluating a patient‟s medical history
• be competent at interpreting a treatment plan
• be familiar with the complex interactions between oral health, nutrition, general
health, drugs and diseases that can have an impact on dental care and disease

RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY
• be competent at providing preventive oral   care for the individual patient who
presents with dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth wear
• be competent at completing a periodontal examination and charting
• be competent at supragingival and subgingival scaling and root debridement, using
both powered and manual instrumentation, and in stain removal and prophylaxis
• be competent in the use of appropriate anti-microbial therapy in the management of
plaque-related diseases
• be competent at completing a range of procedures in restorative dentistry including
the placement of temporary dressings, temporary cementation of crowns, appropriate
moisture control techniques and taking impressions
• be familiar with the options for replacing teeth, including both intra- and extra-
coronal, plastic and cast restorations, fixed and removable prostheses and dental
implants
• be familiar with the clinical precautions required to treat patients with
temporomandibular joint disorders

GERODONTOLOGY
• be competent to provide  dental hygiene care for the older adult
• be familiar with the physiology of ageing and the management of problems
associated with care of the older adult
• be familiar with the presentation of oral and dental diseases and disorders in the
older adult
DENTAL IMPLANTS
• be competent in the cleaning, polishing and scaling of dental implant-supported
structures
• be familiar with implant-retained crowns, bridges and removable prostheses
CHILD DENTAL HEALTH
PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY
• be competent at recognising active   caries and providing preventive care in children


                                                                                          22
• be familiar with the management of trauma in the deciduous and permanent
dentitions

ORTHODONTICS
• be competent at providing dental   hygiene care for the orthodontic patient
• be familiar with the normal facial development, occlusion and the adverse effects of
malocclusion on oral health
• be familiar with contemporary orthodontic treatment techniques
• be familiar with the limitations of orthodontic treatment

PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY
• be competent at instructing patients in the various methods of plaque control,
including both chemical and mechanical means and incorporating appropriate
modifications for patients with special needs
• be competent in teaching patients about the dietary control of dental caries
• be competent in the application of fissure sealants, with good knowledge of their
properties and composition
• be competent in the use of fluoride topically
• be competent at providing smoking cessation advice for patients
• have knowledge of the principles of prevention of dental disease with an
appreciation of the dynamics involved, including therapeutic, educational, social and
environmental factors
• have knowledge of other preventive techniques which may be available
• have knowledge of the use of fluoride systemically
• be familiar with an evidence-based approach to treatment
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
• be competent in the principles  of health promotion, including oral health promotion
• have knowledge of the importance of community-based prevention
• be familiar with the social, cultural and environmental factors which contribute to
health or illness
• be familiar with the structures of the public health services
• be familiar with the use of indices in the recording of oral conditions and in
evaluating data
• be familiar with the prevalence of certain dental conditions in the UK

COMPREHENSIVE ORAL CARE
• have knowledge of the dental care of  patients with physical or learning disabilities,
mental health problems, or who are medically compromised or terminally ill
• have knowledge of the principles and problems involved in the provision of
domiciliary dental care and the role of the dental hygienist and dental therapist within
this environment
• have knowledge of their role within general dentistry
• be familiar with the provision of dental care within the different branches of
dentistry
DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY, DENTAL RADIOLOGY AND IMAGING
• be competent at taking and processing the various film views used   in general dental
practice
• be competent at identifying anatomical features and interpreting common pathology
• have knowledge of the hazards of ionising radiation and regulations relating to them,
including radiation protection and dose reduction


                                                                                      23
• be familiar with the principles which underlie dental radiographic techniques
• be familiar with the assessment of image quality
• be familiar with alternative imaging techniques

PAIN AND ANXIETY CONTROL
• be competent at managing fear   and anxiety with behavioural techniques and
empathise with patients in stressful situations
• be competent at infiltration and inferior dental regional block analgesia
• be familiar with the dental application of drugs in the control of pain and anxiety
DENTAL CARIES
• have knowledge of the epidemiology, histopathology, microbiology and
pathogenesis of dental caries
• have knowledge of the classification, aetiology, clinical presentation and
management of dental caries
• be familiar with the diagnostic methods available to detect a carious lesion

INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL DENTAL THERAPY
• be competent at interpreting and managing a treatment      plan and arranging
appropriate referrals when necessary

RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY
• be competent at completing a range ofsimple procedures in restorative dentistry,
including amalgam and tooth-coloured restorations in both permanent and primary
dentitions
• have knowledge of advanced restorative techniques for both dentitions

PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY
• be competent at fissure sealing,   preventive resin restorations, and pit and fissure
restorations
• be competent in undertaking approximal and incisal tip restorations
• have knowledge of preformed stainless steel crown and pulp therapy in primary
molar teeth
• have knowledge of extraction of primary teeth and the removal of roots where
necessary
• have knowledge of the disorders associated with dental exfoliation and eruption, and
of oral and dental diseases in childhood




                                                                                          24
SECTION 5

Teaching & Assessment Methods

Year 1, Semester 1
Module                  Teaching Methods                   Assessment Methods
Health &         Lectures/Seminars/Demonstrations              SAT/OSCE
Disease
Clinical            Lectures/Seminars/Practical/           SAT/Phantom Head
Skills                      e-Learning                   Practical/OSCE/Logbook
                                                                 Appraisal
Personal &     Discussion Groups/Demonstration                    Practical
Professional
Development
Preparation  Lectures/Seminars/Demonstration/Role       SAT/Case Report/Practical
for practice                 Play
Total

Year 1, Semester 2
Module              Teaching Methods                   Assessment Methods
Health &            Lectures/Seminars/                  SAT/Identification
Disease           Demonstrations/Reflective
                         Learning
Clinical            Lectures/Seminars/                    SAT/ /OSCE/
Skills                Demonstrations              SCOT/360o feedback/Logbook
                                                            Appraisal
Personal &       Lectures/Seminars/Practical               SAT/Critical
Professional                                     Analysis/Practical/Assessment of
Development                                           Reflective Portfolios
Preparation      Lectures/Seminars/Practical      SAT/Practical/OSCE /SCOT/
for Practice                                               Case Report


Year 2, Semester 1
Module                 Teaching methods                  Assessment Methods
Health &           Lectures/Seminars/Practical                SAT/Visual
Disease                                              Identification/Practical/Case
                                                                 Report
Clinical     Lectures/Seminars/Demonstrations                 SAT/OSCE/
Skills                                                    SCOT/360ofeedback
Personal &    Tutorials/e-Learning/Discussion          Assessment of Reflective
Professional               Groups                   Portfolios/Case Study Appraisal
Development
Preparation  Lectures/Demonstrations/Practical                   SAT
for Practice




                                                                                 25
Year 2, Semester 2
Module               Teaching Methods                 Assessment Methods
Health &             Lectures/Seminars/              SAT/Visual Identification
Disease               Demonstrations

Clinical               Demonstrations                  SCOT/Assessment of
Skills                                          Portfolios/Logbook Appraisal/360o
                                                             feedback
Personal &            Lectures/Seminars         SAT/Critical Analysis/Assessment
Professional                                     of Reflective Portfolios/Logbook
Development                                                  Appraisal
Preparation          Lectures/Seminars/             SAT/Practical/Case Report
for Practice          Demonstrations


Year 3, Semester 1
Module                 Teaching Methods                 Assessment Methods
Health &        Lectures/Seminars/Demonstrations      SAT/Case Report/Practical
Disease
Clinical Skills Lectures/Seminars/Demonstrations      SAT/SCOT/360o feedback
Personal &                  Seminars                  Assessment of Reflective
Professional                                                Portfolios
Development
Preparation     Lectures/Seminars/Demonstrations             SAT/SCOT
for Practice


Year 3, Semester 2
Module                Teaching Methods                Assessment Methods
Health &              Lectures/Seminars                   Case Report
Disease
Clinical Skills            Seminars                Workplace-based assessment/
                                                         360o feedback
Personal &            Lectures/Seminars            SAT/Assessment of Reflective
Professional                                               Portfolios
Development
Preparation                Seminars             Workplace-based assessment/360o
for Practice                                               feedback


Year 4, Semester 1
Module                Teaching Methods                Assessment Methods
Research               Self-directed study             Oral Examination
Project
Clinical           Lectures/Seminars/Clinical        SAT/SCOT/Case Reports
Elective            Observation & Practise
Clinical              Reflective Learning             Reflective Assessment
Practice




                                                                                  26
Year 4, Semester 2

Module                  Teaching Methods              Assessment Methods
Research                Self-directed study            Oral Examination
Project
Clinical             Lectures/Seminars/Clinical      SAT/SCOT/Case Report
Elective              Observation & Practise
Clinical                Reflective Learning       Reflective Assessment/Logbook
Practice                                                     appraisal




                                                                              27
SECTION 6
FIRST YEAR TIMETABLE

YEAR 1                                                              SEMESTER 1                                                            WEEK 1

            0900 – 1000       1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200         1200 - 1300       LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600        1600 - 1700


Monday        Introduction and Welcome                    Tour of Institute                     Introduction to Programme and
                                                                                                          Curriculum


                                                                                                               Hepatitis B Testing
Tuesday      Introduction to Advisors and Director of Studies
                                                                                                               Disclosure Scotland



Wednesday           General Dental Council Seminar                             Lunch/ GDC        Student Society Introductions




Thursday       Tour of University Library and IT Facilities                                       Dental Protection Seminar          Staff Student
                                                                                                                                       Welcome
                                                                                                                                       Meeting


Friday            BSDHT Seminar                                               Lunch/ BSDHT       Dentistry in this Millennium
                                                                                                   Professor RJ Ibbetson




                                                                                                                                                   28
YEAR 1                                                         SEMESTER 1                                                              WEEK 2

            0900 – 1000        1000 – 1100     1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300        LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday                                                                University Holiday




Tuesday     BSc (Hons)                              Learning Strategies                       Health and Safety Policies
            Regulations



Wednesday      Manual Handling Course                             First Aid                                 Sports Afternoon



                                                  Medical Emergencies &
Thursday    Introduction to Dental Disease 1               CPR                                  Infection Control and Clinical Procedures




Friday      Introduction to Dental Disease 2                   Introduction to                Introduction to Clinics and Clinical Dentistry
                                                                Journal Club




                                                                                                                                               29
YEAR 1                                                                    SEMESTER 1                                                            WEEK 3

            0900 – 1000          1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200          1200 - 1300    LUNCH    1400 – 1500          1500 – 1600          1600 - 1700


Monday       Cells and                             Organic and Inorganic Compounds                 Introduction to Clinical Skills
              Tissues



Tuesday                     Clinical Skills – Practical Instrumentation                               Clinical Skills – Practical Instrumentation




Wednesday        Cell Energy Systems                                      Acids, Bases                             Sports Afternoon
                                                                          and Buffers



Thursday                            Periodontal Clinical Skills                                               Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday      Calcification                                     Epithelium 1                       Introduction to             Clinical Observation
                                                                                                 Communication




                                                                                                                                                      30
YEAR 1                                                          SEMESTER 1                                                                 WEEK 4

            0900 – 1000    1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200            1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600             1600 - 1700


Monday      Epithelium 2                           Language of Anatomy                                    Instrument Maintenance




Tuesday                      Periodontal Clinical Skills                                                 Periodontal Clinical Skills




Wednesday   Connective                                     Skull 1                                           Sports Afternoon
             Tissue 1



Thursday                     Periodontal Clinical Skills                                                 Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday      Connective                                     Skull 2                                          Clinical Observation
             Tissue 2




                                                                                                                                                 31
YEAR 1                                                          SEMESTER 1                                                               WEEK 5

            0900 – 1000    1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200         1200 - 1300   LUNCH    1400 – 1500          1500 – 1600            1600 - 1700

            Connective
Monday       Tissue 3                        Cranial Cavity                              Toothbrushes                                Dentifrices

             Cartilage


Tuesday                      Periodontal Clinical Skills                                               Periodontal Clinical Skills
                                    Assessment                                                                Assessment


            Connective
Wednesday    Tissue 4                                                 Maxilla                              Sports Afternoon

               Bone


Thursday                     Periodontal Clinical Skills                                               Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday      Osteogenesis                                   Mandible                     Interdental Aids                         Denture and
                                                                                                                                Appliance Care




                                                                                                                                                   32
YEAR 1                                                          SEMESTER 1                                                              WEEK 6

              0900 – 1000     1000 – 1100       1100 – 1200      1200 - 1300      LUNCH     1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday       Nerve Tissue                       Nasal Cavity                               Implant Care            Chemical Plaque Control




Tuesday                          Periodontal Clinical Skills                                          Periodontal Clinical Skills




Wednesday   Muscle Tissue &                       Paranasal                                                  Sports Afternoon
             Contraction                           Sinuses



Thursday                         Periodontal Clinical Skills                                                   Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday      Organisation of                                    Discussion Group           Discussion Group           Clinical Observation
             the Nervous                                       - Communication            - Communication
               System




                                                                                                                                              33
YEAR 1                                                            SEMESTER 1                                                              WEEK 7

             0900 – 1000       1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600             1600 - 1700

                                                                                             Periodontal Charting &
Monday          Cardiovascular System 1                                                   Basic Periodontal Examination




Tuesday                          Periodontal Clinical Skills                                            Periodontal Clinical Skills
                                        Assessment                                                             Assessment



Wednesday       Cardiovascular System 2                                                                     Sports Afternoon




Thursday                         Periodontal Clinical Skills                                            Periodontal Clinical Skills



            Cardiovascular
Friday        System 3                                Central Nervous System               Plaque and Gingivitis Indices




                                                                                                                                                34
YEAR 1                                                      SEMESTER 1                                                         WEEK 8

            0900 – 1000   1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300    LUNCH   1400 – 1500      1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday        Blood 1                          Peripheral Nervous System                Ultrasonic Equipment and
                                                                                               Techniques



Tuesday                     Periodontal Clinical Skills                                         Periodontal Clinical Skills



                                                               Autonomic
Wednesday     Blood 2                                        Nervous System                          Sports Afternoon




Thursday                    Periodontal Clinical Skills                                         Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday      Haemostasis                        Nerve                                                Clinical Observation
                                             Physiology




                                                                                                                                     35
YEAR 1                                                           SEMESTER 1                                                             WEEK 9

             0900 – 1000      1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200      1200 - 1300      LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600            1600 - 1700


Monday      Blood Disorders                    Pain Physiology                              Periodontal Pocket Charting
                  1



Tuesday                         Periodontal Clinical Skills                                           Periodontal Clinical Skills
                                       Assessment                                                            Assessment



Wednesday   Blood Disorders                                      Reflex Activity                           Sports Afternoon
                  2



Thursday                        Periodontal Clinical Skills                                           Periodontal Clinical Skills




Friday        Respiratory                        Trigeminal                                  Medical Conditions of Clinical Significance 1
               System 1                           Nerve 1




                                                                                                                                              36
YEAR 1                                                       SEMESTER 1                                                           WEEK 10

            0900 – 1000   1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300    LUNCH   1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday      Respiratory                            Trigeminal Nerve 2                 Medical Conditions of Clinical
             System 2                                                                        Significance 2



Tuesday                     Periodontal Clinical Skills                                             Periodontal Clinical Skills




Wednesday    Endocrine                        Trigeminal       Facial Nerve                             Sports Afternoon
             System 1                          Nerve 3



Thursday                    Periodontal Clinical Skills                                             Periodontal Clinical Skills



                                                                                                                              Discussion
Friday       Endocrine                      Blood Supply to Head and Neck                 Clinical Observation                 Group -
             System 2                                                                                                       Communication




                                                                                                                                            37
YEAR 1                                                                SEMESTER 1                                                              WEEK 11

                  0900 – 1000     1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300      LUNCH     1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600           1600 - 1700

                                                                                                 Introduction to
Monday             Digestive                        Venous and Lymphatic Drainage of            Law and Ethics1       Medical Histories and Patient
                    System                                   Head and Neck                       Medico-Legal               Confidentiality
                                                                                                    aspects of
                                                                                                    Dentistry


Tuesday                              Periodontal Clinical Skills                                             Periodontal Clinical Skills




Wednesday        Renal System                      Salivary Glands        Saliva                                   Sports Afternoon




Thursday                             Periodontal Clinical Skills                                             Periodontal Clinical Skills
                                            Assessment                                                              Assessment


                                                                      Introduction to
Friday             Medical Emergencies & CPR                          Special Needs                     Communication Skills - Presentations
                                                                          Patients



Weeks 12-13 Examinations




                                                                                                                                                      38
YEAR 1                                                           SEMESTER 2                                                         WEEK 1

             0900 – 1000       1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200     1200 - 1300   LUNCH    1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600        1600 - 1700

               Patient          Computerised Patient Records                            Introduction to
Monday      Administration               Training                                        Dental Caries         Principles of Cavity Design
              Systems



Tuesday                         Restorative Clinical Skills 1                                       Restorative Clinical Skills 2
                              Rotary and Hand Instrumentation                                       Caries Removal Techniques


            Mastication and
Wednesday    Deglutition                          Oral Sensory                                            Sports Afternoon
                                                  Mechanisms



Thursday                              Periodontal Clinic                                                  Periodontal Clinic



                                                                                          Sterilisation, Disinfection &
Friday        Introduction to Microbiology                        Oral Cavity                       Antisepsis




                                                                                                                                             39
YEAR 1                                                              SEMESTER 2                                                             WEEK 2

            0900 – 1000       1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200         1200 - 1300        LUNCH   1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600        1600 - 1700

                                                                                                                                      Structure and
Monday       Plaque 1              Tongue                            Muscles of                 Principles of                         properties of
                                                                     Mastication                   Caries                                Dental
                                                                                                 Diagnosis                              Materials


Tuesday                             Restorative Clinical Skills 3                                          Restorative Clinical Skills 4
                                   Moisture Control and Isolation                                                Class I Cavities



Wednesday    Plaque 2                                  Temporomandibular Joint                                  Sports Afternoon




Thursday                                 Periodontal Clinic                                                     Periodontal Clinic



                                                                    Muscles of Facial                            Caries Clinical
Friday                  Calculus                                      Expression                                    Picture




                                                                                                                                                  40
YEAR 1                                                            SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 3

             0900 – 1000      1000 – 1100           1100 – 1200    1200 - 1300      LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600          1600 - 1700


Monday       Intrinsic and                         Early Dental                             Pit & Fissure                           Dental
            Extrinsic Stain                        Development                                 Lesions                             Amalgam 1



Tuesday                         Restorative Clinical Skills 5                                          Restorative Clinical Skills 6
                                      Class I Cavities                                                       Class I Cavities



Wednesday         Dental Morphology 1                                Enamel                                 Sports Afternoon




Thursday                                Periodontal Clinic                                                  Periodontal Clinic



                                                                  Introduction to
Friday            Dental Morphology 2                               Reflective                 Theories of Cariogenesis
                                                                     Portfolios




                                                                                                                                               41
YEAR 1                                                              SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 4

            0900 – 1000     1000 – 1100          1100 – 1200          1200 - 1300      LUNCH   1400 – 1500      1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                                                                                                                                     Dental
Monday          Dental Morphology 3                                    Enamel 2                   Smooth Surface Lesions            Amalgam 2




Tuesday                         Restorative Clinical Skills 7                                            Restorative Clinical Skills 8
                                        Assessment                                                               Assessment



Wednesday    Dentine 1                         Local Analgesia -                                              Sports Afternoon
                                               Pharmacokinetics



Thursday                              Periodontal Clinic                                                      Periodontal Clinic



                                               Local Infiltration    Introduction to                           Caries Histopathology – Enamel
Friday       Dentine 2                            Analgesia           Clinical Case                                        lesion
                                                 Techniques              Studies




                                                                                                                                              42
YEAR 1                                                         SEMESTER 2                                                         WEEK 5

            0900 – 1000      1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200   1200 - 1300    LUNCH   1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday       Dentine                             Dental Pulp                           Approximal                            Composites 1
            Sensitivity                                                                 Lesions



Tuesday                       Restorative Clinical Skills 9                                      Restorative Clinical Skills 10
                                   Class II Cavities                                                   Class II Cavities



Wednesday                           Clinical Observation                                               Sports Afternoon




Thursday                             Periodontal Clinic                                               Periodontal Clinic



                                                                                      Caries Histopathology – Dentinal
Friday             Root Formation                              Journal Club                       Lesions




                                                                                                                                           43
YEAR 1                                                           SEMESTER 2                                                         WEEK 6

            0900 – 1000       1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200      1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                                                                                        Matrices &
Monday      Cementum                              Periodontal                           Stabilisation                         Composites 2
                                                  Ligament 1



Tuesday                        Restorative Clinical Skills 11                                      Restorative Clinical Skills 12
                                     Class II Cavities                                                   Class II Cavities



Wednesday   Periodontal                          Alveolar Bone                                           Sports Afternoon
            Ligament 1



Thursday                            Periodontal Clinic                                                  Periodontal Clinic



                                                                                         Caries Microbiology & Host
Friday                    Clinical Observation                    Reflective                       Factors
                                                                  Portfolios




                                                                                                                                             44
YEAR 1                                                            SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 7

            0900 – 1000     1000 – 1100            1100 – 1200    1200 - 1300     LUNCH    1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                                                                                           Root Surface
Monday                               Clinical Observation                                    Lesions                              Cements and
                                                                                                                                    Bases



Tuesday                          Restorative Clinical Skills 11                                       Restorative Clinical Skills 12
                                          Assessment                                                           Assessment



Wednesday            Gingiva 1                                     Statistics 1                             Sports Afternoon




Thursday                              Periodontal Clinic                                                    Periodontal Clinic




Friday               Gingiva 2                                     Reflective             Caries and Diet                           Handling
                                                                   Portfolios                                                      complaints




                                                                                                                                                45
YEAR 1                                                           SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 8

             0900 – 1000      1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200     1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600          1600 - 1700

                Eruption and Resorption
Monday                                                                                  Deep Carious                                Glass
                                                                                          Lesions                               Polyalkenoates



Tuesday                         Restorative Clinical Skills 15                                       Restorative Clinical Skills 16
                                      Class lll Cavities                                                   Class lll Cavities



Wednesday                           Clinical Observation                                                   Sports Afternoon




Thursday                             Periodontal Clinic                                                   Periodontal Clinic



                                                                                          Caries 1
Friday      Anatomy & Techniques for Block                       Case Studies             Seminar                               Clinical Audit
            Analgesia




                                                                                                                                               46
YEAR 1                                                             SEMESTER 2                                                         WEEK 9

             0900 – 1000        1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200    1200 - 1300     LUNCH    1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700


Monday          Dental Histology Seminar                                                   Management of                        Adhesion and
                                                                                           Deep Carious                         Resin Systems
                                                                                              Lesions


Tuesday                           Restorative Clinical Skills 17                                     Restorative Clinical Skills 18
                                           Assessment                                                         Assessment



Wednesday   Local Analgesia Practise                                Statistics 2                           Sports Afternoon




Thursday                               Periodontal Clinic                                                  Periodontal Clinic




Friday                      Clinical Observation                   Journal Club                     Clinical & Digital Photography




                                                                                                                                                47
YEAR 1                                                             SEMESTER 2                                                         WEEK 10

             0900 – 1000        1000 – 1100          1100 – 1200   1200 - 1300    LUNCH    1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                                                                                          Pulp Reactions
Monday                               Clinical Observation                                 and Exposure                                Alloys




Tuesday                          Restorative Clinical Skills 19                                      Restorative Clinical Skills 20
                                      Class IV Cavities                                                   Class IV Cavities


                     Introduction to
Wednesday          Periodontal Disease                                                                     Sports Afternoon




Thursday                                 Periodontal Clinic                                                Periodontal Clinic



            Organisation of
Friday       the Immune                                             Reflective                                   Pulpal
               System                                               Portfollios                                Protection




                                                                                                                                               48
YEAR 1                                                                  SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 11

                   0900 – 1000        1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200      1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500        1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                     Chronic                               Human
Monday              Gingivitis                            Behaviour                             Complex Cavities and Auxiliary
                                                                                                         Retention



Tuesday                                Restorative Clinical Skills 21                                      Restorative Clinical Skills 22
                                                Assessment                                                          Assessment



Wednesday                                  Clinical Observation                                                  Sports Afternoon




Thursday                                    Periodontal Clinic                                                  Periodontal Clinic



                        Chronic Periodontitis                                                     Attrition,
Friday                                                                  Case Studies             abrasion &                                 Ceramics
                                                                                                   erosion




Weeks 12 – 14 Spring Vacation




                                                                                                                                                       49
YEAR 1                                                          SEMESTER 2                                                          WEEK 15

            0900 – 1000     1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200       1200 - 1300    LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

                                               Clinician-Patient Communication            Finishing
Monday      Lymphocytes                                                                  Restorations                           Elastomers




Tuesday                       Restorative Clinical Skills 21                                       Restorative Clinical Skills 22
                                    Class V Cavities                                                     Class V Cavities



Wednesday                        Hygiene Phase Therapy                                                   Sports Afternoon




Thursday                  Periodontal Clinic                                                            Periodontal Clinic



                                                 Barriers to                              Failure of                            Temporary
Friday       Antibodies                        Communication      Journal Club           restorations                            Materials




                                                                                                                                             50
YEAR 1                                                           SEMESTER 2                                                        WEEK 16

            0900 – 1000      1000 – 1100         1100 – 1200      1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500       1500 – 1600         1600 - 1700

            Cellular &                                                                   Repair of                             Impression
Monday       Humoral                              Behaviour Change & Decision           Restorations                            Materials
            Immunity                                        Making



Tuesday                        Restorative Clinical Skills 23                                     Restorative Clinical Skills 24
                                        Assessment                                                         Assessment


              Innate &                           Definition of
Wednesday    Acquired                            Health Needs                                           Sports Afternoon
             Immunity



Thursday                            Periodontal Clinic                                                 Periodontal Clinic



                                                                   Reflective
Friday                    Clinical Observation                     Portfolios               Impression Procedures




                                                                                                                                            51
YEAR 1                                                            SEMESTER 2                                                           WEEK 17

                   0900 – 1000   1000 – 1100        1100 – 1200   1200 - 1300   LUNCH   1400 – 1500         1500 – 1600             1600 - 1700


Monday                           Biomaterials Science 1 Seminar                                Restorative Procedures 1 Seminar




Tuesday                            Restorative Clinical Skills                                        Restorative Clinical Skills




Wednesday                          Restorative Clinical Skills                                            Sports Afternoon




Thursday                               Periodontal Clinic                                                 Periodontal Clinic




Friday                                Reflective Portfolios



10 – 28th May   Examinations
28th May        End of Semeste




                                                                                                                                                  52
SECTION 7
RESOURCE INFORMATION

BSc in Oral Health Sciences – Edinburgh Postgraduate Dental Institute


Resource Information
In session 2009-10, it is proposed that students registering on this course will pay a
proposed standard undergraduate fee:

BSc level                                                                   £5280.00
BSc level with honours                                                      £5014.00

Fees (£1760 per student per year for 3 years) are benchmarked against the
University of Dundee’s undergraduate fees and therefore reflect market rates. There
is an agreement of the fee with NHS Education for Scotland (NES). Fees for the BSc
and the BSc with honours will be provided by NES. The only cost to students will be
that of materials and registry related costs.

Staffing
Core programme personnel based in the Edinburgh Dental Institute

EDINBURGH DCP SCHOOL
                                                              WTE
Principal Tutor Hygienist-Therapist                           1.0
Tutor Hygienist                                               1.0
Tutor Hygienist-Therapist                                     1.0
Dental Nurses                                                 5.0
Staff Grade Dentist                                           1.0
Science Lecturer                                              0.6
                                                              9.6

Other personnel from the Institute will be involved in marking assessments and
occasional tutoring as part of their standard commitment to teaching.

Students will be based within the Edinburgh Dental Institute in workplace training.
Local academic and clinical personnel, not already done so, will be accorded
honorary status to enable them to provide components of the programme.

Funding for the provision on local clinical personnel is provided outwith the
programme fee structured by NES directly to local NHS Hospitals.

Programme Finances
The following base forecasts for student recruitment to this programme is capable of
supporting the additional personnel required to provide a surplus for the University,
College and School.

                                                                             Inflation
UoE Financial Year             09-10        10-11          11-12          12-13    3%
Fee (Home students only)
Year 1                         1760         1813           1868           1924
Year 2                         1760         1813           1868           1924
Year 3                         1760         1813           1868           1924
BSc (hons)                     5014         5065           5217           5373
Total for BSc                  10,294       10,504         10,821         11,145



                                                                                    53
Proportion to College   35%
Year 1                           616             635           654            673
Year 2                           616             635           654            673
Year 3                           616             635           654            673
Bsc (hons)                      1754            1772          1826           1880

Total for BSc                   3602            3677          3788           3899

Income
Student numbers                                                              10% Drop
out rate
Year 1 students                 10              0             10             0
Year 2 students                  0              10             0             10
Year 3 students                  0               0            10             10
Year 4 students                  0               0             0             10

Total No of Students            10              10            20             30

Income                          17,600          17,600        35,200         52,800

Programme fixed Costs
 EDINBURGH DCP SCHOOL                           Existing               New
                                          WTE          (£)     WTE          (£)
 CLINICAL DIRECTOR                        0.2        19,281    0.3        28,921
 PRINCIPAL TUTOR                          0.8        28,144    0.0           0
 BASIC SCIENCE LECTURER                   0.6        21,108    0.0           0
 NURSING MTO1                             1.6        28,513    4.0        71,296
 TUTOR HYGIENIST MTO3                     1.6        44,322    0.0           0
 DENTIST STAFF GRADE                      0.0           0      1.0        47,030
 RECEPTIONIST AC2/3                       0.5         7,767    0.0           0
 Sub-totals                               5.7       178,984    5.3       147,247
 LABS                                                                     1,000
 RADIOGRAPHY                                                              1,000
 CLINICAL SUPPLIES                                                        15,000
 ADMIN SUPPLIES                                                           2,000
 Sub-total                                                                19,000
 Grand Total                                                             345,231
 Source of Funding
 Current Core Dental NES Funding (approved)                             £233,895
 EDI/NHS Lothian Existing Contribution 'in kind'.                       £162,635
 New funding with NES Business Group approval                           £129,825
 Therefore:
 NES Contribution                                                       £363,720
 EDI/NHS Lothian Contribution                                           £162,635
 Grand Total                                                            £526,355


Total Cost                      17,600          17,600        35,200         52,800
Total Income of College          36,020          36,770       37,880         38,990
Surplus/Deficit                 -18,420         -19170        -2680          13,810




                                                                                        54
SECTION 8


       QAA SUBJECT BENCHMARK STATEMENTS: HEALTHCARE
               PROGRAMMES/DENTAL PROFESSIONS


Dental Therapy (& Dental Hygiene)
The nature and extent of programmes in dental therapy
Dental therapy is a professional clinical discipline concerned with prevention,
management and treatment of oral and dental diseases and maintenance of oral and
dental health, in individuals and in society. It is based on sound scientific and
technical principles with the clinical aspects of dental therapy underpinned by
knowledge and understanding of the relevant biological and clinical medical and
dental sciences.
It is essential that all dental therapists understand the need to act at all times
reasonably, responsibly and within the public interest, putting the interests of their
patients before those of themselves. On qualification dental therapy students are
required to demonstrate a thorough understanding of the importance of ethical
practice and professionalism, high levels of ability in communication skills and
competence in the clinical and technical aspects of dental therapy.
The educational environment should inspire the dental therapy student to maintain
high professional and personal standards and to recognise the importance of lifelong
learning in a caring profession. This requires the newly qualified dental therapist to
appreciate the importance of participation in further formal education and training.
The educational environment should allow the dental therapy student to develop an
analytical approach to both the theory and practice of dental therapy. This will be
derived from their education both in the basic and clinical sciences. Required
components of student-selected study and project work aim to stimulate critical
thought, and allow students to acquire research methods and skills in collection,
evaluation and presentation of evidence. This form of educational provision should
allow students to develop an adaptable approach to the practice of dental therapy so
that they can respond effectively to the individual needs of patients and of the
communities that they will serve.
The relationship between dental therapists and their patients is based on trust.
Students must be made aware of their responsibilities in relation to confidentiality of
information obtained in a professional capacity.
It is essential that on qualification dental therapists understand the limitations of their
current knowledge and clinical abilities. They should be aware of the range of
treatments available, and of the current evidence to support their choices, but not be
expected to be able to provide them all. In such circumstances they must be able to
refer back for an opinion on treatment and management to the dentist responsible for
the overall care of the patient. They must understand how management regimes may
need to take account of patients with special needs.


                                                                                        55
On qualification dental therapists must be aware of the necessity for provision of
information to patients so that informed consent can be obtained.
On qualification dental therapists must appreciate the need to deliver dental therapy
care in a safe environment for both patients and staff in compliance with health and
safety regulations. They must be familiar with the principles and practice of infection
control and radiation protection, risk assessment, the control of substances hazardous
to health and the need to maintain the safety of equipment.
The delivery of oral and dental care is very much based on a team approach. To assist
in the development of a team approach to oral and dental care, it is helpful to provide
joint teaching, where appropriate, to dental therapy students and other members of the
dental team.
On qualification dental therapists will have had experience of a range of clinical tasks
during their student programme. They will not be highly skilled in all clinical
procedures. Flexibility exists within the programme of study to take account of the
varying patterns of dental and oral health throughout the UK.

Subject knowledge and understanding
Students who successfully complete a programme in dental therapy in the UK should
be able to integrate material from all parts of their curriculum to demonstrate
knowledge and understanding of the following areas and topics, insofar as they are
relevant to the practice of dental therapy:
                          biomedical sciences which form the basis for
                           understanding human growth, development and health
                          integration of human body systems, normal homeostasis
                           and mechanisms of responses to insults, including trauma
                           and disease
                          oral biology, to include detailed knowledge of the form
                           and function of teeth and associated structures in health
                           and disease
                          modern developments in biomolecular sciences
                          human diseases and pathogenic processes, including
                           genetic disorders, and the manifestation of those diseases
                          diseases and disorders of the oral cavity and associated
                           structures, their causes and sequelae together with the
                           principles of their prevention and management
                          sources of infection and the means available for infection
                           control
                          medical emergencies that may occur in the dental surgery
                           and their prevention and management, including basic life
                           support and resuscitation




                                                                                     56
                         communication between dentists, dental therapists and
                          patients, their families, other health professionals and the
                          public in general
                         patients' responses to dental care and an understanding of
                          how these may be affected by experience and
                          psychological, social and cultural influences
                         interpersonal skills appropriate for working within a multi-
                          skilled team
                         the medico-legal and ethical principles upon which the
                          practice of dentistry is based, especially those relating to
                          treatment of patients and involvement of patients in
                          research
                         the principles and importance of health promotion, health
                          education and prevention in relation to dental disease, and
                          how these principles are applied
                         the safe and effective management of patients
                         specific dental topics including behavioural sciences,
                          biomaterials science, dental public health, oral and
                          maxillo-facial surgery, oral medicine, oral microbiology,
                          oral pathology, oral radiology, orthodontics, paediatric
                          dentistry, pain and anxiety control, pharmacology and
                          therapeutics, preventive dentistry and restorative dentistry
                         when, how and to whom a patient should be referred for
                          advice or treatment
                         the system for the delivery of health care in the UK with
                          special reference to oral health care
                         the oral health needs of different sections of the
                          community, such as those with special needs
                         the broad principles of scientific research and evaluation of
                          evidence that are necessary for an evidence-based
                          approach to dental therapy
                         the importance of clinical audit, peer review and
                          continuing professional education and development.

Skills and attributes of the dental therapist on qualification
Key skills
In addition to the subject-specific skills itemised in the following sections, the
programme in dental therapy encourages the development of key transferable skills,
which underpin the lifelong educational and training process.

Transferable skills


                                                                                    57
On qualification dental therapists should, therefore, have the ability to:
                           exercise initiative and personal responsibility
                           communicate effectively at all levels in both the scientific
                            and professional contexts using verbal, non-verbal and
                            written means
                           work effectively as members of a team
                           use health informatics and information technology as a
                            means of communication, for data collection and analysis,
                            for improving patient care and for self-directed learning
                           analyse and resolve problems, and deal with uncertainty
                           manage time, set priorities and work to prescribed time
                            limits
                           make decisions based on sound ethical, moral and
                            scientific principles
                           manage their learning in the context of establishing a
                            philosophy of continuing professional development
                           acquire, analyse, process and communicate information in
                            a scientific manner to solve problems and to guide clinical
                            decision-making
                           evaluate the evidence published in refereed scientific
                            journals and other publications for sound experimental
                            design and statistical analysis
                           evaluate the validity of claims related to products or
                            techniques.

Professionalism
Professional behaviour and clinical governance
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                           understand the role and function of the GDC in regulating
                            dental professionals, and be familiar with its issued
                            guidelines
                           understand the role, function and obligations of the
                            National Health Service
                           manage the ethical issues that may arise in dental practice
                           apply jurisprudence to the practice of dentistry
                           understand the implications of and obtain informed consent




                                                                                      58
                         understand the ethical and legal basis of confidentiality,
                          including the need to maintain accurate and complete
                          patient records in a confidential manner and to store them
                          securely
                         provide empathetic care for all patients, including
                          members of diverse and vulnerable populations, and
                          respect the principle of patient autonomy
                         provide and receive constructive criticism
                         recognise and take appropriate action to help incompetent,
                          impaired or unethical colleagues and their patients.

Behavioural science and communication
On qualification dental therapists should base their care of patients on a sound
knowledge and experience of the psychological aspects of human behaviour. They
should be able to:
                         discuss dental treatment plans with patients of all ages and,
                          where necessary, through the intermediate consent of a
                          parent, guardian or carer
                         display appropriate behaviour towards all members of the
                          dental team
                         understand the role of psychological development in the
                          management and treatment of the child patient
                         understand the principles of dental anxiety management
                          (behavioural and pharmacological) as applied to the
                          treatment of the anxious dental patient
                         appreciate the importance of psychological and social
                          factors in the delivery and acceptance of dental care by
                          patients
                         recognise the responsibility and demonstrate the ability to
                          share information and professional knowledge verbally and
                          in writing
                         understand the principles of occupational stress and its
                          management.

Becoming a reflective dental therapist
On qualification dental therapists should be dedicated to the principle of lifelong
learning and continuing professional development. They should be able to:
                         identify and use sources of continuing professional
                          development and apply critical thought to a continually
                          expanding knowledge base, such that professional
                          competence is maintained


                                                                                    59
                           discharge the obligations incumbent upon every
                            professional person including contributions to, and support
                            for, the profession's collective initiatives in self-regulation,
                            maintenance of standards, and the advancement of
                            knowledge and expertise
                           assess personal progress, including the identification of
                            strengths and weaknesses
                           evaluate all treatment outcomes, including the unexpected,
                            and undertake remedial action where appropriate
                           recognise and fulfil their responsibilities both as adult
                            learners and as teachers
                           use the principles of peer review and quality assurance in
                            dental practice.


Dental health and society
Dental public health
On qualification dental therapists should understand the health care system in which
they will work, and should be able to:
                           evaluate social and economic trends and their impact on
                            oral health care
                           recognise their role in and responsibility for improving the
                            general and oral health of the community through
                            treatment strategy, education and service
                           describe and understand the prevalence of oral disease in
                            the UK adult and child populations.

Oral health promotion
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                           recognise predisposing and aetiological factors that require
                            intervention to promote oral health
                           understand the pattern of oral disease in society and be
                            able to contribute to health promotion
                           assess the need for, and provide, preventive procedures,
                            dietary advice and instruction in oral health methods that
                            incorporate sound biological principles in order to preserve
                            oral hard and soft tissues, and to prevent disease
                           use and provide appropriate therapeutic agents and
                            treatment modalities.



                                                                                         60
Assessment of the patient and oral environment
This section and the following sections cover the full range of subject-specific skills
which relate to the clinical practice of the dental therapist.

Biomedical science
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          apply their knowledge and understanding of biomedical
                           sciences, oral biology and biomolecular sciences to the
                           management of their patients
                          recognise the changes that occur with normal growth and
                           ageing and apply their knowledge in the management of
                           the oral environment
                          apply their knowledge of the aetiology and processes of
                           oral diseases in prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

History and examination
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          check and evaluate a relevant medical history and
                           recognise the possible effects of oral disease on medical
                           well-being and the medical conditions that affect oral
                           health or dental treatment
                          recognise the significance and effect of drugs and other
                           medicaments, taken by the patient, on dental management
                          obtain a detailed dental history to include chief complaint
                           and history of present illness
                          make a general evaluation of a patient's appearance,
                           including the identification of abnormalities in their
                           physical, emotional or mental status
                          recognise signs of physical, emotional and substance abuse
                           and seek advice from appropriate authorities
                          perform an examination of the oral hard and soft tissues,
                           recognise vital signs, and recognise disease states and
                           abnormalities including detrimental oral habits
                          establish and maintain accurate patient records.

Oral radiology
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          take and process appropriate intra-oral and dental
                           panoramic radiographs



                                                                                    61
                          interpret findings from       the      history,   clinical   and
                           radiographic examinations.

Patient care
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          identify patient expectations and goals for oral care
                          interpret, present and discuss prioritised individual
                           treatment options for patients of all ages, and recognise the
                           need for referral to the dentist who has overall
                           responsibility for the care of the patient
                          explain and discuss the patient's responsibilities and time
                           requirements
                          use their knowledge of the properties of modern dental
                           materials to select and use appropriate materials for
                           treatment
                          manage circumstances where the patient's wishes are
                           considered by the dental team not to be in his/her best
                           interests.


Establishment and maintenance of a healthy oral environment
Pain and anxiety control
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          recognise the common signs and symptoms of oro-facial
                           pain, anxiety and apprehension
                          assess the level of anxiety in adult and child patients and
                           have experience of using recognised psychological
                           inventories
                          use local analgesia for pain management and recognise and
                           manage potential complications relating to its use
                          manage fear and anxiety with behavioural techniques.

Dental emergencies
On qualification dental therapists should be able to identify and manage dental
emergencies arising during the course of treatment by a dental therapist.

Dental caries and tooth surface loss - the restoration of teeth
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          assess patient risk for dental caries and non-bacterial tooth
                           surface loss and be able to provide dietary counselling and


                                                                                         62
                           nutritional education for the patient relevant to oral health
                           and disease, based upon knowledge of disease patterns and
                           aetiology
                          restore teeth to form, function and appearance with
                           appropriate materials, using techniques that preserve the
                           health of the pulp and avoid the unnecessary loss of tooth
                           tissues.

Paediatric dentistry
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          provide preventive oral health care for children and
                           adolescents in a manner that incorporates consideration for
                           their expected growth and development, involving parents
                           or guardians as required
                          undertake simple restorative treatment, pulp therapy in
                           primary teeth and the extraction of primary teeth.


Periodontics
On qualification dental therapists should be able to undertake non-surgical procedures
involved in the improvement and maintenance of the health and care of the supporting
structures of the teeth.

Special needs
On qualification dental therapists should be able to:
                          recognise their duty of care regarding the oral health of the
                           patient with special needs (including the additional
                           considerations for the dental team) and involve the
                           patient's carer where appropriate
                          take account of the dental health care needs of those who
                           may be considered to be socially excluded.

Working environment
Health and safety/infection control
On qualification dental therapists should:
                          adhere to health and safety legislation as it affects dental
                           practice
                          practise according to the legal basis of radiographic
                           practice




                                                                                     63
                          implement and perform satisfactory infection control and
                           prevent    physical,    chemical      or    microbiological
                           contamination in the course of dental therapy treatment
                          arrange and use the working practice environment in the
                           most safe and efficient manner for all staff and patients,
                           undertaking formal risk assessments where appropriate.

Medical conditions and emergencies
On qualification dental therapists should:
                          recognise whether patients are fit to undergo routine dental
                           care and recognise those patients who are beyond the scope
                           of their management
                          provide basic life support for medical emergencies.

Teaching, learning and assessment
Teaching and learning
Teaching and learning in dental therapy programmes use a variety of different
approaches including:
                          lectures
                          tutorials/seminars/workshops
                          practical and laboratory classes
                          virtual learning environments
                          group work and problem-oriented learning
                          projects
                          directed self-study
                          the use of information and communications technology
                          the acquisition and development of practical clinical skills
                          observation and treatment of patients
                          reflective practice and integration of learning.
The emphasis on different approaches is dependent upon the philosophy of each
individual curriculum, but direct clinical treatment of patients is central to all.
Traditional lectures provide a means for delivering core information and an
introduction to issues, themes or relevant clinical aspects of subjects to be studied.
Lectures are used to develop student skills in listening, note taking, understanding and
reflection. Such 'formal' presentations can be increased in value by the incorporation
of varied presentation techniques, such as encouragement of student participation and
planned activity within lectures.


                                                                                      64
Tutorials, seminars and workshops are often related to clinical issues or problems and
are designed to provide an interactive focus for learning. They are concerned with the
development of skills such as communication, teamwork, reasoning and critical
appraisal.
Practical and laboratory classes are an important means of reinforcing deeper
understanding of topics as well as developing skills in scientific methodology and in
methods of observation relevant to the treatment of patients. Virtual learning
environments represent a modern approach that can enhance learning in these
contexts.
Student engagement in group work or specific educational approaches such as
problem-based learning fosters skills such as the location, sifting and organisation of
information, time management, task allocation, team working and preparation of
reports.
Dental therapy students need to acquire the facility for directing their own learning.
This is an essential attribute of the practising dental therapist. Directed self-study and
the process of undertaking projects independently encourage the development of
study skills, self-reliance, independence of thought and the ability to manage time
effectively.
Dental therapy students should acquire transferable skills, including the use of
information and communications technology for word-processing; sending email and
accessing information by the internet; working with others in teams; making verbal
and written presentations using appropriate audio-visual aids; and communicating
with colleagues and the public. Computer aided learning programs can be part of the
learning process and a means of delivering and reinforcing information technology
skills.
Opportunities must be provided for the identification and acquisition of practical
clinical skills. The most common methods adopted are for students to spend time in a
clinical skills laboratory or an appropriately equipped clinical area where they
rehearse the procedures they will be required to perform on patients. This is another
activity where the employment of virtual learning environments can be beneficial.
Great emphasis is placed on the quality of student management of patients in a variety
of healthcare settings. The clinical environment can provide an ideal focus for active
learning, as each patient presents a unique combination of parameters that affect
proposed management. The development of students' oral communication skills and
listening skills is of utmost importance in this. The transfer and continued
development to clinical reality of practical clinical skills is fundamental to the
successful progression of the dental therapy student, as is the acquisition of
professional, attitudinal and ethical attributes appropriate to practice as a dental
therapist.
An attitude of reflection needs to be fostered so that dental therapy students become
increasingly motivated in their search for accuracy of self-assessment. The creation of
progress files or reflective logbooks, in which students build a personal portfolio of
learning, self-assessment and how they learn, may help. In this respect, integration of
knowledge, understanding and skills, acquired from different sources and at different
times, will be improved, fostering the first stages of lifelong learning.


                                                                                       65
Assessment
Assessment is recognised as an important factor in the way in which students learn
and manage their time. There should be both formative and summative assessments.
Summative assessments can be used formatively. The processes of assessment should
be transparent: explicit criteria facilitate effective learning and allow for the provision
of effective and meaningful feedback. In the development of knowledge, skills and
attitudes appropriate to the clinical practice of dental therapy, the importance of
student progression during the programme must be acknowledged. While, in a global
sense, competence is seen to be achieved at the threshold level of qualification,
students and teachers must see the value of 'staging posts' along the way. The
attainment of learning outcomes should be demonstrated by clear links with methods
of both teaching and learning, with methods of assessment and with the specific tasks
of assessment.
Methods of assessment adopted should:
                           be relevant to the purposes of dental therapy education
                           reflect student progression through the programme
                           enable students to demonstrate their understanding, level
                            of attainment and an appropriate range of clinical and other
                            abilities
                           provide accurate, constructive feedback to students on their
                            performance
                           indicate whether a student has reached an appropriate
                            standard
                           examine students' communication skills
                           allow records of student           academic     and    clinical
                            performance to be collated
                           allow the participation of external examiners
                           engage in mechanisms of quality assurance
                           provide information for course and programme organisers
                            on the quality of provision
                           reflect the intended learning outcomes of a course.

Standards
Upon successful completion of the programme of study dental therapists are eligible
to apply for registration with the GDC and then to practise according to the
contemporary statutory framework. On qualification, dental therapists therefore will
have the professional qualities, attitudes and attributes necessary for this role. As a
minimum they will have demonstrated a systematic understanding of the knowledge
outlined in the previous parts of this statement. They will be able to apply the key and




                                                                                        66
professional skills gained during the programme, being aware of their limited
experience, and able to develop new skills.

Professionalism
On qualification dental therapists must practise and conduct their personal lives with
professional integrity such as to command the respect and trust of both colleagues and
patients, and justify the confidence placed in them through the demonstration of good
clinical practice. They should be able to tackle and solve problems and plan and
implement tasks at a professional level. They should be dedicated to the principle of
lifelong learning and continuing professional development.

Knowledge
On qualification dental therapists will demonstrate:
                          systematic understanding of the subject knowledge
                          comprehensive understanding of the basis of professional
                           practice
                          practical understanding of the evidence base of clinical
                           practice and the ability to evaluate new information.

Skills
On qualification dental therapists will demonstrate:
                          key transferable skills including information appraisal and
                           technology
                          initiative and personal responsibility, making decisions
                           based on sound ethical, moral and scientific principles, and
                           applying an independent learning ability
                          the ability to evaluate critically the health care system in
                           which they will work, and to assume responsibility for oral
                           health promotion of individual patients and social groups
                          competence in, and comprehensive understanding of, the
                           skills outlined in this statement.




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