# The Leading Edge HSC Physics - CONTENTS by hjkuiw354

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CONTENTS
MODULES
SPACE
Multiple choice questions                         8

MOTORS and GENERATORS
Multiple choice questions                         19

FROM IDEAS TO IMPLEMENTATION
Multiple choice questions                         32

1 GEOPHYSICS                                          44

2 MEDICAL PHYSICS                                     45

3 ASTROPHYSICS                                        46

4 FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS                               48

5 THE AGE OF SILICON                                  49

Space                                                 52
Motors and generators                                 55
From ideas to implementation                          60
Geophysics                                            63
Medical physics                                       65
Astrophysics                                          67
From quanta to quarks                                 69
The Age of silicon                                    72

Sample Examination Paper 1                            74
Data Sheets                                  100, 142–3
Formulae                                   101, 102, 145
Periodic Table                                  103, 144

Sample Examination Paper 2                           129

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

SPACE

Consider the data in Table A. This table is to be used as a reference when attempting
Questions 1 to 4, inclusive.
Table A
Square
root of Maximum Average mass
Average     Mass of [planet’s surface      of typical
Escape    radius of      the    mass /   temp. of  atmospheric
velocity the planet   planet X planet’s the planet   molecule
Planet         (km/s) X Earth’s     Earth’s  radius]   (Kelvin)     (a.m.u.)
Mercury           ?          0.38       ?          0.45    700            nil
Venus          11.2         0.49     0.82         1.3     700            36
Earth         12.2          1         1          1.41    350            30
Mars            6          0.27     0.11         0.64    320            30
Jupiter         61          5.49     318.3        7.62    153           16.5
Saturn          37          4.52     95.3         4.59    138           16.5
Uranus          22           2       14.7         2.71   110(?)         16.5
Neptune          24          1.95     17.3         2.98     90(?)        16.5

Mass of Earth = 5.97 × 1024 kg. Acceleration due to gravity at sea level on Earth = 9.8 ms–2.
Average radius of Earth = 6.378 × 106 m
(a.m.u.) means atomic mass units
Zero degrees centigrade temperature = 273 kelvin, approximately

Question 1
(a) Use Data Table A to plot a graph of the value of the (escape velocity, on the vertical axis)
of each planet versus the (square root of the mass of that planet divided by the planet’s

(b) Deduce the line of best fit for the graph.

Question 2
Identify the algebraic expression (specific to the topic Space) that the slope of your line of
best fit represents.

Question 3
Predict and justify the value of the escape velocity of Mercury.

Question 4
Propose why Mercury no longer has an atmosphere.

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

HSC PHYSICS
MOTOR GENERATORS
Multiple choice questions
Select the best answer. All questions are worth one mark.

1. When using the right hand grip rule, the direction of the fingers will show the:
(A) magnetic field
(B) flow of current
(C) force on the conductor
(D) movement of electrons

2. The following diagram shows the direction that electrons take when travelling across
the page from left to right. What is the direction of the magnetic field in which they
are travelling?

(A) across the page
(B) out of the page
(C) into the page
(D) up the page

3. The force experienced by a conductor carrying a current at 90° to a magnetic field is
governed by the strength of the field and what other two things?
(A) current, thickness of wire
(B) resistance, length of wire
(C) current, composition of wire
(D) current, length of wire

4. A straight wire 50 cm long carries a current of 200 A. The wire is at right angles to a
magnetic field of flux density 0.8 T. Calculate the magnitude of the force on the wire.
(A) 8.0J
(B) 80J
(C) 8.0N
(D) 80N

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

HSC PHYSICS
FROM IDEAS TO IMPLEMENTATION
Multiple Choice Questions

1. Originally a group of mainly German physicists believed that cathode rays must be a type
of electromagnetic radiation because the rays were:
(A) deflected by magnetic fields
(B) deflected by electric fields
(C) not deflected by magnetic or electric fields
(D) able to pass through thin metal films and no particle had at that stage ever been known
to do this

2. In 1875 the physicist W. Crookes reported in detail the behaviour of cathode rays. Which
one of the following statements agrees with his report?
(A) “The cathode rays were not deflected by charged objects”
(B) “Cathode rays were not deflected by magnetic fields”
(C) “Cathode rays have properties that are independent of the material from which the
(D) “Cathode rays cannot expose photographic film”

3. Cathode rays are:
(A) electric currents in a vacuum tube
(B) light emitting electromagnetic waves
(C) glowing positive charges in a vacuum tube
(D) charged particles attracted to the cathode of a vacuum tube

4. Consider the vacuum tube shown below.
If an object such as a Maltese cross is placed in the path of the cathode rays a shadow of the
cross is cast on the glowing tube wall at the end. This observation would lead one to correctly
conclude that:

(A) cathode rays are electromagnetic waves,
since they are stopped by the cross
(B) cathode rays travel in straight lines
(C) high energy protons make glass glow
(D) high energy electrons make glass glow

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

OPTION 3 ASTROPHYSICS

1. Some of the moon’s features first identified by the telescope included:
• the presence of craters and mountains
• the presence of “Earth-light”, reflected from the moon’s surface

2. In the context of telescopes, resolution refers to the ability to determine the smallest angle of
parallax between two celestial objects and thus produce two separate objects, despite that
small angle.
Sensitivity refers to a telescope’s ability to detect the faintest or weakest light signals. The
more sensitive a telescope is, the more dim stars it can detect.
A telescope may detect two neighbouring dim stars but still be unable to resolve them into
separate components.

3. The smallest angle of trigonometric parallax that can be detected by current technology is
about 0.005 seconds of a degree. This limits the use of trigonometric parallax for objects no
greater than about 100 light years from the observer.

4. Five properties that can be deduced from the spectra of a star include:
• surface temperature
• star pressure
• chemical composition
• relative abundance (ie: proportion) of constituent elements
• velocity of the star’s rotation about its axis and the star’s radial velocity – by use of the
Doppler effect in conjunction with the spectra.

5. Apparent magnitude is a measure of the brightness a stellar object appears to have to the
observer, regardless of the distance between the observer and the object.
Absolute magnitude is a standardised measurement of a stellar object’s brightness, because
that brightness is defined as the brightness if the star were placed at a distance of 10 parsec
away from the observer. Thus, absolute magnitude is a far more meaningful and fair method
by which to compare the brightness of stars against one another.

6.
SPECTRAL         ABSOLUTE                    H-R
STAR        CLASS          MAGNITUDE             CLASSIFICATION
Pio         A2               11.6                 White Dwarf
Rogu          B5               0                    Blue Dwarf
Septo        M1               –5.0                  Red Giant

7. Object A: Cepheid variable star
Object B: binary star system

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

General Test Instructions
PAPER 1                         •   Reading time – 5 minutes
•   Working time – 3 hours
•   Write using black or blue pen
HIGHER                          •   Draw diagrams using pencil
SCHOOL                          •   Board-approved calculators may be used
•   A data sheet, formula sheets and Periodic Table
CERTIFICATE                         are provided at the back of this paper

SAMPLE                          Section I – 75 Marks
EXAM PAPER                      This section has two parts, Part A and Part B

Part A – 15 marks
PHYSICS                         • Attempt Questions 1–15
• Allow about 30 minutes for this part

Part B – 60 marks
100 marks                       • Attempt Questions 16–27
• Allow about 1 hour and 45 minutes for this part

Section II – 25 Marks
•   Attempt ONE question from Questions 28–30
•   Allow about 45 minutes for this section

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

Question 24 (e)

Criteria                                          Marks

•   Correct calculation of part (c ) energy value (in eV) AND                   1
correct identification that photocurrent will result

Question 25 (a)

Criteria                                          Marks

•   Accurate drawing of R-T graph AND correct identification                    1
of the critical temperature

Question 25 (b)

Criteria                                          Marks

•   Correct identification of ceramics materials being used as                  2
superconductors
•   Valid reason for ceramics being preferred to metals as
superconductors

•   EITHER of the above criteria                                                1

Question 25 (c)

Criteria                                          Marks

•   Correct identification that superconductors have zero                       3
resistance at very low temperatures
•   Correct identification that vibrations within the lattice allow
unimpeded movement of electrons
•   Correct identification that as the temperature increases the
superconductivity decreases

•   Any TWO of the above criteria                                               2

•   Any ONE of the above criteria                                               1

Question 26 (a)

Criteria                                          Marks

•   Valid observation consistent with a wave nature of cathode                  1
rays

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The Leading Edge – HSC Physics

Sample Exam Paper 2
Section II
25 marks
Attempt ONE question from Question 32–36
Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Marks
Geophysics

32a    Outline what type of information seismic tomography will yield about the
Earth.                                                                           2

32b    Describe how a gravity meter works, corrections that need to be made to it
and what sort of information it might yield to an archaeologist.                 7

32c    Identify the evidence for a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.            4

32d    Identify the evidence that supports the idea that the Earth’s magnetic field
varies over time and explain how the magnetic time scale can be used to
determine the age of the oceanic floor.                                          6

32e    Define what role geophysicists have played in the monitoring of nuclear
test ban treaties.                                                               2

32f    Summarise the geophysical evidence that supports the theory of plate
tectonics.                                                                       4

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