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					IOM Literature analysis                                                                                              Dentaid 2009                                                                                                     Latest first

                                                                                               TITLE /                    COUNTRY of
                                    RELEVANCE                       AUTHORS                                                                               AIM                                SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
                                                                                         JOURNAL or PUBLISHER               study

                                                                                      Removal of Dental Facilities in
                                                                                      African folk medicine (translated
                      Somalian migrant to Norway - case                                                                                   Overview and case study of dental        Somalis are the fifth largest immigrant group in
                                                                Espelid E, Agnalt R    from Norwegian)            Nor       Norway
                                   report                                                                                                            mutilation                                         Norway
                                                                                      Tannlegeforen Tid 2009: 119:294-
                     Sudanese migrant to Australia - case       Amailuk P, Grubor D   Erupted compound odontoma:            Australia   Description of missing UR1 & UL1         A rare case. Australia has a large population of
                                  report                                               case report of a 15-year-old                     with associated odontoma on UL2.         recent immigrants from areas in Africa where IOM
                                                                                      Sudanese boy with a history of                    History of IOM in Sudan as a toddler.    is practised and more patients with abnormalities
                                                                                              dental mutilation                                                                  are likely.
                                                                                       British Dental Journal 2008 Vol
                                                                                                204(1): 11-14

                     VERY IMPORTANT Use as a basis for              Gollings J         'Meno ya plastiki': A literature    Tanzania     Literature review; 2 research studies:   Culturally sensitive education programmes
                      updated paper and seek publication?                             review and prevalence study on                                                             required. Also health centres in the UK should be
                                                                                        a group of Tanzanian school                                                              aware of the practice and educate accordingly.
                                                                                           Unpublished report. 2008

                           Emphasises the importance of             Veloso Y C        Knowledge and practice: using        Honduras     To find people's knowledge, attitude     Essential to have ongoing education to achieve
                          sustained and informed support                                     water in the home                          and practice regarding the use of        change.
                          (respecting cultural traditions) if                         Footsteps; Tearfund 2008 71-80:                   water in the household.
                          changes in practice are needed.                                            74

                     VERY IMPORTANT: The overview is Edwards P C, Levering          Extirpation of the Primary                 USA:     Overview of IOM with case report         Importance of dentists and allied personnel in
                     excellent Definition of IOM: performed N, Wetzel E. Saini T Canine Tooth Follicles: A Form                                                                  developed countries being aware, when treating
                         for perceived medical reasons;                              of Infant Oral Mutilation                                                                   refugees from undeveloped areas, of the social
                        performed on infants who cannot                           Journal of the American Dental                                                                 factors being IOM and the dental and physiological
                      consent; can have disastrous health                        Association 2008 Vol 139: 442-450                                                               sequelae

                                   IMPORTANT:                   Hassanali, Jameela;     Enucleation of Deciduous                        Overview of IOM                         "IOM could be addressed through WHO/AFRO
                                     FDI paper.                   Wanzala, Peter      Canine Tooth Buds in Infants in                                                           Regional Strategy for oral health in Africa with
                                                                                      Sub-Saharan Africa Developing                                                             sharing of experiences of intervention strategies
                                                                                         Dentistry Vol 9. No 1.2008                                                             being implemented by key researchers in the
                                                                                                                                                                                SubSaharan region in workshops and field
                      VERY IMPORTANT Describes IOM                 Jamieson L M       Using qualitative methodology        Uganda:      To define traditional concepts of ebino Increased awareness. Ebino education
                     education strategy used in Uganda in                                to elucidate themes for a                      through focus groups; to develop a      incorporated into other areas of hospital services.
                     2003 (?) and subsequent effect after                                traditional tooth gauging                      community-based education tool.         Topic of discussion in church services.
                      1.5 years Analysis of beliefs VERY                                education tool for use in a
                                IMPORTANT.                                             remote Ugandan community
                                                                                      Health Education Research 2006
                                                                                             Vol 21(4) 477-487

                      VERY IMPORTANT: 2007. Strategy              Kahabuka F K            The "Nylon teeth myth"           Tanzania                                              DDS students (2006-7) recommended a strategy
                        against IOM recommended for                                   Tanzania Dental Journal 2007 Vol                                                           for the dental school at Muhimbili to adopt.
                          Muhimbili Dental School.                                               14(1): 5-6

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                              Dentaid 2009                                                                                                         Latest first

                     Interesting reversal of ideas: Some of    Nuwaha F, Okware        False Teeth "ebiino" and millet      Uganda        To estimate how common the 2             1 in 2 families reported a child with false teeth or
                        the respondents believe that the        J,Hannigtone T,        disease " oburo" in Bushenyo                       perceived diseases are and describe      millet disease in the past five years.
                          diarrhoea causes false teeth .       Charles Mwebaze        district of Uganda African Health                   health seeking behaviour.
                                                                                       Sciences. 2007. Vol 7 (1); 25-32

                             VERY IMPORTANT:                  Africare- Community Operations Research into Oburo          Ntungama,       To gather factual information on why     Both beliefs still widespread with more people
                                                               Based Integrated   and Ebiino Folk Diseases Report          Uganda         diarrhea is linked to ebiino , and       believing in ebiino than oburo . Recommended that
                                                                Management of            prepared July 2006                               malaria/pneumonia to oburo .             Africare and its health partners carry out increased
                                                               Childhood Illness                                                                                                   sensitization and health education about the
                                                                 (CIMCI) project                                                                                                   dangers of extraction.

                                                               Ellis J, Arubaku W     Complications from traditional        Uganda        Report on traditional tooth extraction   Systemic complications of IOM are mostly infective
                                                                                        tooth extraction in South-                        and complications                        due to late presentation of the original illness or
                                                                                      western Uganda         Tropical                                                              complications of the procedure. Poor growth in
                                                                                      Doctor 2005 Vol 35(4) 245-246                                                                infants has been noted. Local complications are
                                                                                                                                                                                   haemorrhage and chronic damage to erupting teeth
                                                                                                                                                                                   and/or bone.

                        IMPORTANT: Comprehensive              Johnston N L, Riordan    Tooth follicle extirpation and     Africa/Arabia   Overview of current literature
                     overview of IOM especially its history            PJ                        uvulectomy
                                                                                       Australian Dental Journal 2005
                                                                                             Vol 50:4 267-272
                                                                 Bataringaya A,       The impact of ebinyo, a form of       Uganda        To assess effects of ebinyo in 14 year The practice of ebinyo can impact on the occlusal
                                                              Ferguson M, Lalloo R       dental mutilation, on the                        old children                           status in the permanent dentition years later.
                                                                                      malocclusion status in Uganda
                                                                                       Community Dental Health 2005
                                                                                            Vol 22(3): 146-150

                     IOM not mentioned, but an interesting    Sarrell EM, Horev Z,         Parents' and medical                Israel:    Investigate parental and medical         Almost all parents , the majority of nurses, and
                      study into the beliefs of parents and      Cohen Z et al         personnel's belief about infant                    personnel's belief about teething.       many physicians believe teething is associated with
                         health workers about teething.                               teething             Patient Educ                                                            minor symptoms. A substantial minority ascribe
                                                                                       Couns 2005 Vo 57(1) 122-125                                                                 potentially serious symptoms to teething.

                      IMPORTANT paper on beliefs about            Kasangaki A         The mothers' experience of their Uganda and South                                            Further studies exploring both the child health care
                               teething                                                    infants teething at three         Africa                                                professionals’ and the mothers’ understanding of
                                                                                      different settings in Uganda and                                                             teething.
                                                                                      South Africa                 Submitted                                                            Further studies aimed at an in-depth
                                                                                             in part fulfillment of the                                                            exploration which could probably provide a deeper
                                                                                        requirements for the degree of                                                             insight into the mothers’understanding of teething.
                                                                                       Master of Science in dentistry in                                                                Prospective observational studies will be

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                                   Dentaid 2009                                                                                                      Latest first

                     2004 World Medical association called           Odigwe C               World Medical Association              Africa
                       for an end to IOM, at the first ever     (Report on speech by      'appalled' at oral mutilation in
                      planning conference for oral health in      James Appleyard          parts of Africa         'British
                                      Africa.                         (below)              Medical Journal 2004 Vol 328
                                                                                                    (7446): 976
                     IMPORTANT as it is the President of             Appleyard J              Speech to Oral Health                Africa
                       the World Medical Association's                                     Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
                     speech to the Oral Health Conference                                            April 2004
                               in Kenya in 2004                                        2004

                       IMPORTANT: very comprehensive            Accorsi S, Fabiani M,     The burden of traditional             Uganda      1. Morbidity and mortality from ebino    Hospital based studies are prone to selection bias.
                      review of current literature. Excellent     Ferrarese N et al   practices, ebino and tea-tea , on                     and tea-tea; prevalence of these         The authors plan to supplement this with population-
                      introduction. Gives many more local                             child health in northern Uganda.                      among 0-4 yr olds attending the child    based studies in order to better understand the
                                 terms for ebino .                                    Social Science and Medicine 2003                      welfare dept.                            sociological and cultural factors, prevalence and
                                                                                             Vol 57:11 2183-2191                                                                     impact of these interventions.

                     The first article introducing Dentaid as         Wordley J          Infant Oral Mutilation - a tragic     Overview
                        a force in the fight against IOM                                 misconception         Developing
                                                                                            Dentistry 2003 Vo 3: 19-20

                        Opinions of parents and health          Barlow B S. Kanellis M     Tooth eruption symptoms: a              USA      To evaluate differences in the beliefs   Differences exist regarding teething symptoms
                        professionals on tooth eruption             J; Slayton R L.        survey of parents and health                     of paediatricians, paediatric dentists   between parents, paediatricians and paediatric
                     symptoms. Only 9% of paediatricians                                           professionals                            and parents re symptoms of teething      dentists.
                      believe that diarrhoea is associated                                  ASDC journal of dentistry for                   in infants.
                      with teething compared with 56.7%                                   children 2002 Vol 69 (2) 148-50
                     parents and 52% paediatric dentists.
                      An example of IOM at the Eastman          Dewhurst S N, Mason Traditional tooth bud gouging in                UK      Three case reports:                      The mother of these children intimated that tooth
                       Dental Hospital, UK. The first such               C              a Ugandan family: a report                                                                   bud gouging might be practised in Britain but not
                        report of a family emigrated from                                 involving three sisters                                                                    directly admitted due to fear or embarrassment.
                         Africa.(2001). Author suggests                             'International Journal of Paediatric                                                             Improvements in sanitation, nutrition and
                      prevention of febrile illness the most                         Dentistry 2001 Vol 11: 292-297                                                                  vaccination are probably the best ways to reduce
                       important way of preventing IOM.                                                                                                                              the prevalence of IOM by preventing severe febrile

                     VERY IMPORTANT Comprehensive                  Mogensen H O          'False teeth' and real suffering:      Uganda      To define the beliefs and practices of   'False teeth' as a disease, appeared in the late
                     account of beliefs (often verbatim); in                                   the social course of                         the Jop'Adhola of eastern Uganda         1970's or 80's.
                       depth analysis of the whole topic.                                   'Germectomy' in Eastern                         about false teeth.
                                                                                         Uganda                   Culture,
                                                                                         Medicine and Psychiatry 2000 Vol
                                                                                                    24: 331-351

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                              Dentaid 2009                                                                                                       Latest first

                     IMPORTANT: Criteria for suspected Rodd H D, Davidson L Ilko dacowo:' canine enucleation                  UK    To assess prevalence of IOM in              Culturally sensitive education is indicated to
                    canine enucleation very useful for future   E             and dental sequelae in Somali                         Somali children resident in Sheffield.      discourage this ritual practice. Dental professionals
                          studies. Need for UK dental                        children              International                    To determine whether it is still being      should be aware of such cultural practices.
                      professionals to be aware of these                       Journal of Paediatric Dentistry                      performed in the UK.
                               cultural practices.                                 2000 Vol 10: 290-297

                                                                  Macknin ML,          Symptoms associated with               USA   To determine which symptoms may be Increased biting, drooling, gum-rubbing, sucking,
                                                              Piedmonte M, Jacobs    teething: a prospective study.                 attributed to teething                  irritability, wakefulness, ear-rubbing, facial rash,
                                                                 J, Skibinski C.       Pediatrics 2000; 105: 747-52                                                         decreased appetite for solid foods, and mild
                                                                                                                                                                            temperature elevation were all statistically
                                                                                                                                                                            associated with teething. Congestion, sleep
                                                                                                                                                                            disturbance, stool looseness, increased stool
                                                                                                                                                                            number, decreased appetite for liquids, cough,
                                                                                                                                                                            rashes other than facial rashes, fever over 102
                     VERY IMPORTANT: Health education          Iriso R Accorsi S,     Killer' canines: the morbidity       Uganda   To evaluate the morbidity and mortality Use of same unsterilised tool on several infants
                     has been implemented in the hospital         Akena S et al         and mortality of ebino in                   of complications related to ebino.      has serious implications in Gulu District because of
                        including videos and education                                       northern Uganda                                                                the high HIV rate. Health education has been
                           sessions targeting ebino.                                Tropical Medicine and International                                                     implemented in the hospital including videos and
                                                                                     Health 2000 Vol 5:10 706-710                                                           education sessions targeting ebino.

                          VERY IMPORTANT: Excellent           Graham E A, Domoto   Dental Injuries due to African             USA   Presentation of three cases of dental       Consequences of IOM: mandible has been
                          overview; the best summary of         P K, Egbert M A. traditional therapies for diarrhea                 malformation from IOM                       documented to be smaller in IOM cases;
                                consequences yet.                                Western Journal of Medicine 2000                                                               hypoplasia of abutting primary and permanent
                                                                                          Vol 173 135-137                                                                       teeth; retention of lower B's with distal eruption of
                                                                                                                                                                                lower 2's along with displacement and impaction of
                                                                                                                                                                                lower 3's ; Odontoma; infection, fatal sepsis;
                                                                                                                                                                                decreased growth for up to 4 months after IOM.

                     IOM not mentioned but a useful study     Wake M, Hesketh K,    Teething and Tooth Eruption in                                                              Did not confirm the expected strong relationships
                     concluding that there is good evidence       Lucas J.              Infants: a Cohort Study                                                                 between tooth eruption and a range of teething
                       that tooth eruption is not strongly                            Pediatrics 2000 Vol 106: No                                                               symptoms in children 6 to 30 months old.
                     associated with significant symptoms.                                    6.1374-1379

                       The first report of a case of dental     Eriandsson AL,        A case of dental mutilation          Sweden   Describes a case of a 14 yr old girl        Indicates that the practice was still in use in
                      mutilation from Ethiopia (in Sweden)       Backman B           Journal of Dentistry for Children              referred for ortho to Umea Uni. In          Ethiopia in the 1980's.
                                                                                        1999 July/Aug 278-279                       Sweden. Had IOM in Ethiopia at aged
                                                                   Kirunda W        "Ebino" (false teeth): how the         Uganda   Describes course on extraction              Education of students and TDP's can reduce
                                                                                    problem was tackled in Tororo                   techniques, sterilisation and Ebino for     practice of IOM
                                                                                     Tropical Doctor 1999 July: 190                 traditional dental practitioners (TDP) in
                                                                                                                                    1998 by Tororo Hospital, Uganda.

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                                 Dentaid 2009                                                                                                      Latest first

                       Careful methodology indicates that       Asefa M, Hewison J,      Traditional nutritional and          Ethiopia     To assess the effect on growth of       A reduction in unnecessary uvulectomy and milk
                     extraction of milk teeth in the infant can      Drewett R          surgical practices and their                       nutritional and surgical practices      teeth extraction would be desirable.
                                cause weight loss.                                    effects on the growth of infants
                                                                                           in south-west Ethiopia
                                                                                            Paediatric & Perinatal
                                                                                       Epidemiology 1998 Vol 12: 182-
                        IMPORTANT: Since 1983 several         Kikwilu E N, Hiza J F R      Tooth bud extraction and          Tanzania      To determine the prevalence of these    Most of the parents went to a hospital more than
                     interventions condemning the practice                              rubbing of herbs by traditional                    practices in Tanzania. To explore the   three times before they went to a healer, reflecting
                      have been begun in Tanzania; public                              healers in Tanzania: prevalence,                    reasons for parents sending their       inadequate management in the hospitals. It is
                     addresses by politicians; use of mass                                    and sociological and                         children to traditional healers for     recommended that intensive health education on
                        media for health education; police                                   environmental factors                         treatment.                              the causes, treatment and prevention of fevers and
                       arrests of traditional healers. Useful                              influencing the practices                                                               diarrhoea, in conjunction with effective
                         questionnaires for future studies                             International Journal of Paediatric                                                         management of these diseases by health facilities,
                                                              National Committee on Children's Teeth and their Care.          Ethiopia:    To address the effect of IOM on child   IOM reported to be to combat in beliefs that lead
                                                                                                                                                                                   should be instituted decreasingthe55% of regions
                                                              Traditional Practices of       Booklet published 1997                        health and basic teeth care. For        but no change in 30% and an increase in a few.
                                                                      Ethiopia                                                             teachers, extension agents, health
                                                                                                                                           workers, birth attendants etc.

                      Importance of understanding the               Hodes R            Cross-cultural medicine and               Israel:   Overview of beliefs re health and       Health education must address Ethiopian concerns
                      Ethiopian beliefs about health and                                   diverse health beliefs.                         medicine                                and customs
                     medicine when preparing educational                                    Ethiopians abroad.
                                   material                                           Western Journal of Medicine 1997
                                                                                               Vol 166: 29-36
                           Suggests including social          Hassanali J, Amwayi      Removal of deciduous canine               Kenya     To describe the occurrence, rationale There is a strong belief among the Maasai that
                      anthropologists to combat the belief.      P, Muriithi A          tooth buds in Kenyan rural                         and method of this practice among     fever etc is caused by 'nylon' teeth. A multi-
                                                                                        Maasai                  East                       rural Kenyan Maasai.                  disciplinary approach involving social
                                                                                      African Medical Journal 1995 Vol                                                           anthropologists in addition to dental and medical
                                                                                               72:4 207-209                                                                      personnel is recommended in order to discourage
                                                                                                                                                                                 this harmful operation that appears to be on the
                                                                                                                                                                                 increase. (1995)
                                                              Nyandindi U, Milen A,    Training teachers to implement        Tanzania      Training model in OHE for primary     Investment in workshops is necessary to assure
                                                              Palin-Palokas T et al    a school oral health education                      teachers                              correct teaching of OHE.
                                                                                           programme in Tanzania
                                                                                        Health Promotion International
                                                                                            1995 Vol 10:2 93-100

                          EDUCATION TECHNIQUE              Ahmed I S, Eltom A R,    Knowledge, attitudes and                     Sudan     What do village mothers in Sudan        Importance of education as to the causes of
                     Important to teach mothers the causes    Karrar Z A et al   practices of mothers regarding                            believe about diarrhoea?                diarrhoea and its prevention.
                                   of diarrhoea                                   diarrhoea among children in a
                                                                                   Sudanese rural community
                                                                                 East African Medical Journal 1994
                                                                                           Vol 71: 716-719

                    IMPORTANT: Evidence that IOM is still      Holan G, Mamber E        Extraction of primary canine             Israel    To assess the prevalence of IOM in a Practice still continuing (1994)
                       practised among the Ethiopian                                     tooth buds: prevalence and                        group of Ethiopian Jewish children in
                         community in Israel (1994)                                   associated dental abnormalities                      Israel and report on associated
                                                                                       in a group of Ethiopian Jewish                      abnormalities.
                                                                                      children      'International Journal
                                                                                      of Paediatric Dentistry 1994 Vol 4:

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                     IMPORTANT: describes importance of Ngilisho L A F, Mosha The role of traditional healers in                Tanzania      To describe traditional healers; oral       Many patients went to healer first and only went to
                       traditional healers to villagers. Not H J, Poulsen S.   the treatment of toothache on                                  health care they provide; acceptability     health centre if still in pain. Many healers claimed to
                                    about IOM                                     Tanga Region, Tanzania                                      to people; success of treatment;            refer patients to clinic if their treatment did not
                                                                               'Community Dental Health 1994                                  influence of formal dental services         work.
                                                                                       Vol 11: 240-242

                      Women may have better access to           Welbury R R, Nunn J      Killer" canine removal and its          Ethiopia     To study the prevalence of killer           More children of married mothers had undergone
                      modern health care than the men.          H, Gordon P H et al        sequelae in Addis Ababa                            canine extraction practices among           killer canine removal. In spite of comprehensive
                                                                                         Quintessence International 1993                      infants and adolescents in the care of      health care available at Gemini Trust, some
                                                                                                Vol 24:5 323-327                              the Ethiopian Gemini Trust.                 parents still rely heavily on traditional health
                       Reports that the government has          Hiza J F, Kikwilu E N      Missing primary teeth due to         Tanzania      To determine the prevalence of         The practice of tooth bud extraction still exists in
                     condemned the practice, (doesn't say                               tooth bud extraction in a remote                      missing primary teeth due to tooth bud some parts of Tanzania.
                     when) but in 1990 it was still prevalent                                    village in Tanzania                          extraction among children aged 5
                     and practised secretly because of the                               'International Journal of Paediatric                 years and below, living in Manghweta
                                 government.                                                 Dentistry 1992 Vol 2: 31-34                      Village, Tanzania

                     "Haifat" - the lancing of the gum- is the Rasmussen P, Elkhidir     Enamel defects in primary                  Sudan     To determine the prevalence of              The most serious problem may be that the belief in
                      practice described here. Says that the Elhassan F, Raadal M      canines related to traditional                         teething problems, of 'haifat' and          teething as the cause of severe health problems
                     'lugbara' practice of removing the tooth                           teething problems in Sudan                            associated enamel defects in                will distract parents; attention from the real cause
                      buds is new in southern Sudan (1992)                           'International Journal of Paediatric                     Sudanese children.                          of disease and thus from necessary medical help.
                           brought in by refugees from                                  Dentistry 1992 Vol 2: 151-155
                             neighbouring countries.

                      Quotes a 1905 American health care Gibbons HL, Hebdon       Teething as a cause of death                       USA
                                       book:                        CK              West J Med 1991 Dec 155
                     "A very common cause of diseases of                                     658-659
                      the stomach and bowels, and also of
                    convulsions in children, is to be found in
                    the hardening or induration of the gums
                    at the time of teething, and this blunder
                         of nature's ought everywhere in
                        IOM not practisedto be promptly        Matee M I N,      Extraction of 'nylon teeth' and                Tanzania      To determine the prevalence of              Practice still prevalent in Singida, Dodoma, Tanga
                    Tanzania. Important for health workers Palenstein Helderman    associated abnormalities in                                extraction of 'nylon' teeth and long        and Morogoro regions and in the Acholi tribe. Other
                    to determine the practices of their local    W H van                Tanzanian children                                    term adverse effects on the                 tribes - Basigus, Bakigas and Batoros - did not
                     area and educate accordingly. (1991)                       African Dental Journal 1991 Vol 5:                            permanent dentition of Tanzanians.          show this type of mutilation. In Tanzania, pregnant
                                                                                               21-25                                                                                      women and under-5's attend Maternal & Child
                                                                                                                                                                                          Health clinics for monthly prenatal and medical
                                                                                                                                                                                          checkups preceded by a health talk. Once a year,
                                                                                                                                                                                          this contains an OHE talk. Dental workers should
                                                                                                                                                                                          determine the existence of the 'nylon' teeth problem
                                                                                                                                                                                          in this area to give appropriate OHE. (1991)
                        IOM not mentioned here - but an             Adetunji J A           Response of parents to five              Nigeria   Examines adults' health beliefs and    Teething was the major cause of diarrhoea
                      interesting insight into the perceived                             killer diseases among children                       attitudes to 5 killer diseases:        reported (about 44%).
                        relationship between teething and                               in a Yoruba community, Nigeria                        diarrhoea, measles, tetanus, pertussis
                                    diarrhoea.                                           Soc.Sci. Med. Vol 32: 12 1379-                       and fever
                                                                                                    1387. 1991
                                                                Dagnew MB, Damena
                                                                                Traditional health practices in                  Ethiopia     To find out the type and extent of          After milk teeth extraction, complications such as
                                                                        M         communities in north-west                                   health damaging traditional child           ostitis and osteomyelitis were observed.
                                                                                            Ethiopia                                          practices
                                                                                Tropical Doctor 1990        Vol
                                                                                           20: 40-41
                      PROVISION OF TOOTHBRUSH:            Normark S, Mosha H J Relationship between habits and                  Tanzania      To study the relationship between           INTERESTING: no difference in caries levels
                     Recommends the local chewing stick                            dental health among rural                                  habits and dental health to identify oral   between brushing with nylon toothbrush or using
                      rather than an old toothbrush. Not                              Tanzanian children                                      health-promoting messages that are          local chewing stick (miswaki). Chewing sticks
                     relevant to IOM group, but to School                             Community Dent Oral                                     culturally relevant.                        probably preferable to worn-out toothbrush.
                          Sponsorship programmes!                              Epidemiology 1989 Vol 17: 317-                                                                             Therefore the miswaki is recommended.

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                      INTERESTING USE OF PLACEBO.                Bwengye E         Uganda: newborns, false teeth         Uganda        Report on project
                                                                                  and diarrhoea       Dialogue on
                                                                                    diarrhoea 1989 Issue 39 6

                                                              Baba S P, Kay E J     The mythology of the killer             Sudan      To investigate the prevalence of            A major educational campaign should be launched.
                                                                                     deciduous canine tooth in                         Lugbara extraction among infants            (1989)
                                                                                          southern Sudan                               presenting to Juba hospital with
                                                                                   Journal of Pedodontics 1989 Vol                     unspecified illness. It examined the
                                                                                               14: 48-49                               socio-economic status and feeding
                                                                                                                                       practices of the mothers and the
                                                                                                                                       health status of the babies.

                      Importance of educating traditional     Walker ARP et al    Appendicitis in Soweto, South             Africa     Comparison of appendicitis patients
                                   healers                                         Africa: Traditional healers and                     going to traditional healers or hospital.
                                                                                   The Journal of the Royal Society
                                                                                  for the Promotion of Health 1989
                                                                                          Vol 109.6: 190-192
                    VERY IMPORTANT: 'Excellent                   Stefanini A      Influence of education on local     Uganda (Acholi   Retrospective study of hospital             A "curative" approach implies acceptance of the
                    description of technique, sequelae, and                       beliefs                  Tropical       tribe)       admissions of children with                 practice. Younger mothers were more reluctant to
                    spread of practice                                               Doctor 1987 July 132-134                          complications. 1982 education               allow IOM, some escaping from their families.
                                                                                                                                       programme reviewed.

                     IMPORTANT: Recommendations on             Wahab M M A         Traditional practice as a cause          Sudan      To show the prevalence of extraction        Recommendations: 1) A health education
                     teaching how to treat diarrhoea etc in                       of infant morbidity and mortality                    of lugbara teeth and the effect on          programme which teaches the mothers: (a) that
                        the first place should be noted                                  in Juba area (Sudan)                          infant morbidity and mortality in the       both milk teeth and permanent teeth are true teeth;
                                                                                     Annals of Tropical Paediatrics                    Juba area.                                  (b) The cause of diarrhoea and vomiting and how
                                                                                           1987 Vol 7: 18-21                                                                       to treat it at home or in hospital using Oral
                                                                                                                                                                                   Rehydration Salt ; (c) The possible complications
                                                                                                                                                                                   that can result from extraction of milk teeth. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                   Medical personnel, especially those who practise
                                                                                                                                                                                   extraction, should be informed that it is an illegal
                                                                                                                                                                                   procedure and asked to stop doing the operation.

                                                                 Mosha H J        Dental mutilation and associated      Tanzania       To determine the prevalence in Arusha       This practice is encouraged to make money for
                                                                                     abnormalities in Tanzania                         region of two mutilations: removal of       local practitioners. It was surprising to find that well
                                                                                   Odontostomatol.Trop 1983 VI:4                       'nylon' teeth, and permanent lower          educated and high officials in the community fall
                                                                                              215-217                                  incisors                                    victim to this bad practice, which was even
                                                                                                                                                                                   performed by some private medical doctors.

IOM Literature analysis                                                                                                Dentaid 2009                                                                                                       Latest first

                      IMPORTANT: States: Duku (1976)              Abusinna I M          Lugbara teeth germectomy of             Sudan   To direct a scientific epidemiological Parasitic infestations are common and can occur in
                      reported that this phenomenon had                               canines for the newborn babies                    investigation to clarify the exact nature the oral cavity. None seen in this study. Not easy to
                     started among Sudanese refugees in                                a magico-religious phenomena                     of this phenomenon                        solve medically because of magico-religious
                     Zaire in 1967, initiated by a dismissed                               in some African tribes                                                                 dimension.
                        Zairian medical assistant. IOM                                Egyptian Dental Journal 1979 25:3
                        procedure witnessed and tissue                                            209-213
                            excised was investigated.
                      The myths and the true facts about       Editorial. No author            Teething Myths
                    teething. Shows that serious symptoms              listed           British Medical Journal 1975
                        have been wrongly attributed to                                          Dec 13. 604
                         teething from very early times.

                         The association of teeth with           Halestrap D J         Indigenous Dental practice in         Uganda     A record of tribal extractions and       Throughout Uganda the teeth have a special
                      superstitions. Only description of a                                          Uganda                              superstitious practices.                 significance and folklore indicates they have a
                        "fundi" - village tooth extractor                              British Dental Journal 1971 Nov                                                           strong association with witchcraft and superstition.
                                                                                                16. Pg 463-464


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