Evolution of Ethical Dilemma and value conflicts - 1986

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					Evolution of Ethical Dilemma and Value
conflicts in Social Science Research: an
annotated essay
Anil K Gupta and Ram        Kumar, IIMA 1986


                                         Contents

        1. Introduction

        Evolution of Ethical Dilemma and Value Conflicts

        -    Moral boundaries and expedient behaviors
        -    Professional values vis-a-vis
        -    Value and objectivity : Social Science Versus natural sciences
        -    Are conflicts necessary:from "criticism to commitment"

        2.       Situating Research : politics of paradigmatic    persuasions,
                 methodological instruments and assumption

        -    Autonomy of researcher vis-a-vis peer pressures
        -    Dilemma of 'Is' , 'ought' and 'possible'
        -    Cultural roots of perception
        -    Power of researcher over researched; defining respondents and
             limits of their responses
        -    Means - end controversy
        -    Methodological Blinkers:

             -     Consent of researcher
             -     Convert/overt collection of data
             -     Deception/Manipulation in self identification and   purpose
                   of outcome of research.

        3.       Role of Researcher and choice of research problem/paradigm

        -    Sponsored research
        -    research in one's own country vis-a-vis foreign countries
        -    consultancy research
        -    advocacy research
        -    discriminative research vis-a-vis the researched/subjects/
             objects etc.

        4.       Why Research : The purpose, use, risks and Chances

        -    Responsibility of researcher
        -    Dissemination of findings
        -    Risks to the researcher and the researched
        -    Interventionist research vis-a-vis comprehension research;
             is research without intervention possible?
        -    Policy research : Short versus long term, sectoral versus
             intersectoral implications-Choice of interfaces;

5. Ethical Deviance : Individual/group/profession/



                                                                                 1
       Organization

-     homeostatic limits of deviance
-     from deviance to dissidence and from dissidence to
     paradigmatic shifts/revolutions

6.      Towards consensus   on   'Code   of   conduct'   or   conduct   of
        continued debate?




                                                                             2
                             INTRODUCTION
           EVOLUTION OF ETHICAL DILEMMA AND VALUE CONFLICTS

General Issues


-     "General decision making is a tortuous process, since each
event    is   a convoluted and almost endless      labyrinth   of
considerations and commitments. A simple shift in perspective or
an unexpected twist of fate can alter one's entire set of
responsibilities and obligations.    Guilty knowledge and dirty
hands    are at the heart of urban field work         experience.
Recognition of this field work is necessary if a field work is to
function effectively and morally. Awareness of the context of
research can prevent paralysis as well as overzealousness in the
field." (Fetterman 1983 : p 222)


(1) -Causes of sudden rise in concern in ethics:?

- peasantry (respondents),      students, younger anthropolo   gists
etc. (Huizer, 1983 : p 1)

(2) -Definition of multiplex (Sieber, 1982 : p 150)

-       Quotations by (Maiey and Thyrber, 1968 and Kahil Gibran)

-       Definitions of human subjects (Pool, 1980 : p 60)

-    And   no field research whether a sample      survey,   an
observational study or even the secondary analysis of existing
data, is immune to such ethical questions as informed consent,
harm   resulting   from the research    findings,  and   policy
recommendations (Warwick : 316)

-       Why ethics is needed? (Reissman and Siluert, 1967 : p 1)

-     Ethics deals with the questions of moral goodness or evil
and with the proper standards for human action (Warwick, 1983 : p
316).

    Researcher's Value Neutrality to Respondents

-    Field work in contract ethnography must be conducted at an
accelerated   pace in a much shorter period of time         than
traditional field work.   This is both physically and mentally
demanding. Continuous immersion in the personal and professional
problems of informants can be emotionally draining as well.
Fetlerman, 1983: 221.

-    Kobben (1967: 46) reported of his Surinam field work: "Since
an ethnographer studies people and not insects, his field work
also causes emotions in himself.   Personally I lived under great
psychological   stress   and felt little of      the   proverbial
peacefulness of `country life'.      Few books touch      on the
subjects; but I know that the same is quite true of quite a


                                                                       3
number of other field workers. Perhaps it is even a sine quo non
for field work." (in Fetlerman, 1983: 221).

-    Goal and Moral (in warfare), (Freud, 1969: XIII).


-    Value ladden context of sociological research (Denzin, 1970:
p 331-2), (Macluer in Kamaraju 1972: p 2), (Greene, 1970: p 278),
(Krishan Kumar, 1971: p 1); (Durkhein, 1938: p 192), (Parets,
1937: p 545), (Weber in Krishan Kumar: p 3).

-     Value in social sciences and ethics (Greene, 1970: p 280);
(Sieber, 1982: pp 149-152); (Harsanyi, 1985: p 123 in Paul et al,
ed.).

-     Value judgments and its control in social science       research
(Krishan Kumar, 1971: p 1).

-    Biases arising due to valuation in         value-free   discipline
(Krishan Kumar, 1971: p 5).


-    A state of receptive absent-mindedness for value free social
science research (Rowan, 1980: p 81).


-    Planners' commitment   to   agency   and    other   citizens   for
leakage of information.

-    Why research? (Huizer, 1973 : p 2)


-    Politics refers to interactions revolving around power,
influence and authority.    Research is political to the extent
that it affects the ability of individuals or groups to impose
their will, to pursue their interests or to be seen as legitimate
authority.

In the context of policy selmount mites of gatton a fear has been
expressed "by the end the majesty of social science researchers
should be conducted under contract of Govt. & other agencies who
relevant policy making."

(Wenger 1987:? This book provides at a view on agency or policy
making boders on other hand)

Relationship between researchers on one hand and fun along


Social Sciences and Natural Sciences Comparison

-    Motion   of national science (instead of            international
science) is ridiculous. (Varsowsky, 1967 : p 22).

-    Edward Sampson's naturalistic conception of science with
facts appearing in "abstract, several and universal forms",
(Miller, 1980 : p 68).


                                                                          4
-    Use of mathematical models for research in social sciences -
Hazardous, with false sense of objectivity and hiding valuation
of social scientists. (Krishan Kumar, 1971 : p 11)

-    "The cannons of scientific enquiry require that a social
scientist must demonstrate the same type of `detachment' or
`ethical neutrality' which a natural scientist displays towards
his subject matters" (ibid : p 3).

-    Variance in observation of social scientist will ever remain
(Denzin, 1970 : p 341).

-    Science and its commitments for accuracy in research and
rapid and direct use of its findings on promoting certain
practical aims (Bulmer and Warwick, 1983 : p 353).

-    Social science research should keep abreast   with   changing
social conditions (Miller, 1980 : p 68).




                                                                     5
                             CHAPTER 2

          Situating Research : Politics of paradigmatic

     Persuations, methodological instruments and assumptions

-    "Political and military warfare methods aim at weaker point
of enemy and social science methods striking at strongest points
of enemy (i.e. assumptions)" (In Joshi 1986 : p 155 from gramsci
1971 : pp 432-433)

Autonomy of researcher vis-a-vis peer pressures

-    Discourage a scientist because his findings contradicted
ideology and popular sentiment of the decade (Hartman and
Hedblom, 1982 : p 348)

-    Adverse consequences of lack of intellectual independence in
social science research (Joshi, 1986 : p 140)

-    Challenges to social scientists to tackle social             problems
(Joshi, 1986 : p 149)

-    Promote social scientists from lower class in          rural    areas
(Joshi, 1986 : pp 150-51)

-    Politicization    of   social        research   and         government
intervention (ibid pp 152-53)

-    Barriers for Scientists - If research is to contribute in
solving the human problems,(a) Government must accept        the
political   scientists as a partner in decision       making.(b)
Reduction in the barriers to his entry into inner circles of the
decision making process.(Frankel, Mark S)

-    Consequences of Barriers to the freedom of Scientists (a)
Loss in scientist's ability to acquire and disseminate the
information freely.(b) Robs the public and government of reliable
and accurate data needed to assess the effectiveness and fairness
of public programmes.(ibid.)

-    Responsibility   of   Government :    Independent     and    Critical

Research is responsibility of Government that (a) Government           has
to its citizens (b) Government owes to itself.(ibid.)

-    Accountability of Social Researcher : Social scientists at
present are held publicly accommodate by the federal government
for their research with human subjects but exercise very little
freedom, and without the exercise of professional discretion
leads itself to political coercion and harassment.(Gelliher).
And several years ago I (Galliher, 1973) suggested that the
American Sociological Association to alter its Code of Ethics as
to support the right of socioligists to conduct research on the
behavior of those in public positions where they are accountable
to   all citizens.     Such calls for accountability do       not


                                                                              6
necessarily assume that public officials are inherently evil but
merely that there high position gives them power which can be
abused.   Publicly, social scientists have not objected to the
general idea of such research, but simply ignored it.         The
American Sociological Association has disregarded my suggestion
for altering the Code of Ethics.    Although devoted to ethical
problems is social science research, a recent issue of        The
American Sociologist(August, 1978) did not touch on the subject
(researching the publicly accountable) although the sixteen
contributors included some of the most prominent         scholars
associated with the social science study of ethics. Given their
traditional concerns with more individualistic issues (Kelman,
1972), one can understand why psychologists might overlook power
and   public   accountability, even in     discussions   of   the
relationship between power and research ethics, but clearly it is
within the purview of anthropology, social science and sociology.

A hint as to why avoidance takes place is in the controversy
found in the report of the American Sociological Association
Committee of Professional Ethics.   In drafting the Association's
Code of Ethics the committee recognized some areas of "unfinished
business" which were "impossible to resolve":

     To what extent can public figures claim the same rights of
     privacy as ordinary citizens?     To what extent does the
     injection about the confidentiality of research?... Clearly,
     much more thought and analysis must be devoted to such
     questions,   and others as well (American       Sociologist,
     1968:316).

Dilemma of 'Is' 'ought' and 'possible'

-     Weber - "An empirical science can't tell anyone what he
should do - but rather what he can do and in other circumstances
what he wished to do" (in Kamaraju, 1972 : p2)

-    Distinction between `is' and `ought' (Nelson,   1978 :   p 7),
(Cassell, 1981 : p 167)

-    "Socially desirable and morally right" varies from region to
region (Agrawal, forthcoming; p 11)

The very cultural ethos is at variance from one linguistic region
to another linguistic region.    What is socially acceptable and
morally right in one region becomes socially undewirable and
ethically sinful in another region. This is well reflected in the
attitudes of the Regional Censor Board of Film Certification of
the country set up to preview films in different states.    There
are ample evidences to support the view, that what was considered
offensive or vulgar in a film from one region is considered as
natural and an authentic image in another region.    The control
and regulations imposed upon the Indian Press and printing is the
oldest and most pervasive to an extent that even a leaflet or
pamphlet must carry the name of the printer and its copies must
be sent to the local authorities.    There is no ethical or moral
ground for doing so expect that it must be controlled to minimize
its undesirable effects on the law and order situation.


                                                                      7
Cultural Roots of Perception

-    Ways   of resolving researcher's obligation dilemma       to
respondents : ethical absolutists and ethical relativists     and
differences in their positions (Denzin, 1970 : pp 333-34)

-    Social adjustments with technological changes in USA (Adams,
1967 : p 18)

The view of United States anthropologists in this period was
congruent with those in their own society.    To change a society
meant that any adjustments should be minimal. In the development
of the United States, technological changes forged ahead, and
the society made successive adjustments to these technological
innovations.   Under such conditions of technologicalprimacy,
social development was generally perceived as a matter of
adjustment   to the "realities" of the       situation.    Social
innovation not directly related to such adjustments was often
labeled as being "socialist", or "communist". "The notion of
"laissez fairs," an intellectual by product of the industrial
revolution, had by the first quarter of the twentieth century
become an ideology.

Another strategy of academic radicals is to cite repeatedly some
modest piece of evidence, or the work of a well-known person.
While ignoring the existence of a mass of contrary empirical
evidence.   Each such citation can then be cited in a later
article in another journal, thus accumulating what appears to be
a considerable support for the expectancy hypothesis.         Few
readers ever bother to check the original research cited in this
way. For example, one hypothesis claims that the reason boys in
elementary grades read less well than girls is that teachers
expect boys to read less well. A study by Michael Palardy
several decades ago is widely cited in the literature as proving
this claim, though an examination of the article itself reveals
that in the analysis of variance of reading scores in the subject
classrooms the main effect of sex differences does not exceed
chance.   A review within the past year of the evidence on
teacher-expectancy   effects, by Wendy Gollub and          sloan,
simply ignored the mass of contrary evidence from controlled
studies and reported a few ethnographic studies like Rist's as
conclusive.   The journal headed the article with the line:
"Evidence of teacher bias continue to accumulate."

-    Male dominance in society and research works (Miller 1980 :
p 78-79 and Margret Mead's work) ciation of some modest piece of
evidence or work of well known while ignoring mass of existing
contrary empirical evidence.

-    Research   ethics   in different    contexts   of   cultural
differences of professionals (Hamnett et al; 1984 : p 6)

-    Biases against Marxism in Indian research institutes (Joshi,
1986 : pp 155-56; (S. Gopal, 1978 : p 74)

-    Marxism in social science and its flows (Sayer,1984 : p 217)


                                                                    8
-     Affect of colonization on social science research, dominance
of western scientists & west oriented problems (Joshi, 1986: p
139).

-    National policy for social science (Ibid, p 147).

-    Effect   of   institution builders' personality     on    the
institutions' scientific spirits and independence (Ibid, p    158-
9).

-    There is a difference between being an academic and an
activist; however, academic study does not preclude advocacy. In
fact, often anything less represents an abdication of one's
responsibility as a social scientist (see in Berreman, 1968; and
Gaugh, 1968).    It should, however, be acknowledged that the
researcher functions as a public relations person or politician
in this arena rather than as a researcher.

-    Political role of managers/planners (Howe and Kaufman,   1982
: p 26).

-    Ethics and role conflicts of a social researcher's role as a
researcher, clinical and personal roles (Libson, 1984 : p 350)

-    Differences in ethical dimensions for lawyer and researcher
(Magel, 1982 : pp 68-69)

      The three roles overlap each other and social intervention
is effected by these roles. But the most important function of
social scientist as a social critic with a sense of purpose and
responsibilities.

-    Social scientists' three fold role : As analysts,observers
     and interventionist (Dube, 1982 : pp 5-6).

     The rewards of social sciences, and its fringe benefits, can
     be seizable if one keeps on the right side of the social
     science establishment, which in its turn has visible and
     invisible linkages with the political establishment.     The
     social scientists are loud in their protest when it comes to
     the question of commitment to those in power or to an
     ideology.   They must know that in a substantial measure
     their innocence is untenable. A great deal of Western
     social science is oriented towards maintenance of status
     quo; so is a large part of Third World social science.

     Many social scientists are positive in their affirmation
     that their commitment is to their science.    Such a claim
     assumes a degree of unity in the discipline which does not
     exist in reality.

     The question of commitment must lead us to a serious heart-
     searching.   Are we promoting, through the social sciences,
     our   individual and collective self-interest as social
     scientists?    Are we not,     for a variety of reasons,
     acquiescent towards the prevailing power and its ideology:


                                                                     9
     Are the assumptions of the social sciences

Power of Researcher over researched; defining respondents and
limits of their responses

-(a) Prof. K Mathur (in Personnel Communication) once raised the
issues of status of an officer who worked on lower level official
in discipline of Public Administration. By working on top
bureaucrats and powerful people, do researchers star reflecting
some of the power just like journalist report on moods of elite
vis-a-vis on the problems of underdogs.

-    Study   of   rich   people/superordinates/public   officials
(Galliher, 1980 : pp 298-302) - busy, difficult to study.

-    Research on powerful - impossible (Galliher, 1980: p 300)

-    Who should be held accountable (top                    or    lower
level) (ibid : p 300)

-    Do public officials lose private    rights    when    performing
public roles (Galliher, 1980 : p 300)

-    Is everybody (equally?) accountable to       social   scientist?
(Galliher, 1980 : p 300)

-    Status of social scientists vis-a-vis that of rich subjects
(Galliher, 1980 : p 302)

-    Powerful people so confident; self-righteous          that    they
usually talk freely (Galliher, 1980 : p 303)

-    Superordinates do not deserve same degree and type of
consideration as deprived and powerless individuals (galliher,
1980 : p 304)

-    Study on the political and ethical issues arising when
researchers from the one part of society, particularly the
dominant group attempts to study other groups, particularly
minority groups in the same society (Warwick, 1983 : p 316)

-    The subjects seen as victim and experimenter as       brutalised
with suspicion and rejection (Mead, 1963 : p 374)

-      Psychiatrist need not himself become tempted       to
understand a demented patient (Nagel 1961 in Kamaraju, 1972 :         p
3)

There is no warrant for the belief that the social scientist
cannot understand a mental state without experiencing         the
imputed psychological state in his own mind.       Nagel rightly
states   that   while understanding a     demented   patient,   a
psychiatrist need not himself become demented. Hayek has argued
that the social sciences deal with the relations between man and
man. They are concerned with the purposes or choices in human or
social actions. "The objects like a hammer or a barometer cannot
be referred to "objective facts...... and they cannot be defined


                                                                          10
in physical terms." Also physical objects like a hammer or a
barometer cannot be referred to "objective facts" but only to
what people think about them. "Careful logical analysis of these
concepts will show that they all express relationships between
several terms, of which one is the acting or thinking person, the
other some desired or imagined effect, and the third a thing in
the ordinary sense."11


-    Subjects demands in lieu of their cooperation| (Denzin, 1970
: pp 325-26)

-    Inequality in relationships of researchers          - researched
gestures of reciprocity only cannot help? (Zin                 )

-      Political researchers - barrier to his research        in
governmental setting and denial of government to accept his role
in decision making due to which losses to researcher's knowledge
and public's right to know about government working (Frankel, pp
64-67)

There is a more fundamental question, however. On what grounds
are we to assume that the poor and powerless have more innate
goodness than the powerful and the wealthy?   This assumption is,
almost as common among conservative social scientists as among
activists.   What empirical evidence do we have for this?      Is
goodness,   in this sense,     one of the benefits that       the
disadvantaged receive in exchange for the lack of power and
resources in all systems of distributive justice?

-    Blind following of god father figures in social research by
the new coming researchers. These god fathers "throw some crumbs
to their followers and keep most of choicest dishes          for
themselves" (Dube, 1982 : p 8)

-    Unequal treatment on the ethical grounds "to give the poor
the same degree of freedom of choice in decision making the more
affluent have always had"

-   The technical error of ignoring significant variables
    may lend to a moral error-the perception of those
    studied as less than fully human. Thus, those who blame
    victims for the effects of victimization, have been
    accused of racism, depersonalization, and the misuse of
    evolutionary theory to present certain groups as "less
    developed" (e.g., Willis 1969; Valentine 1968).    Appell
    (1980) describes how social scientists may the ethical
    discourse    to redefine the limits of their        moral
    communities and notes that when the researched are
    placed    outside the researches' moral      communities,
    observers are licensed to act in ways that would be
    otherwise    considered  unethical.   Lying,    spying,   and
    unexamined blame-placing ate justified, when those studied
    are    conceptualized   as   subhuman    9by     conventional
    sentimentalist) or inhuman (by unconventional).

    The   technical error of sentimentality leads   to    biased


                                                                        11
    ethnography, presenting a partial and distorted image of
    reality. The related moral error has a more serious result:
    useless ethnography, so biased that it cannor serve as a
    reliable guide to action.

-    Moral error in fieldwork i.e. to perceive    respondents    as
less than fully human (Cassell, 1981 : p 167)

-    Anthropological researches includes only poor and     deprived
masses for researchers self-gains.

-    Both researcher and respondents know about fundamental
contradictions inherent in field work.  So respondents may deny
his presence and create emotional, ethical and methodological
problem| (Bleek, 1979 : pp 200-201)

-    Three assumptions in field work with poor informants due to
economic inequality (Binsbergen, 1979 : p 206)

-    Effect of informant's perception of researchers' motives and
actions on data collection (Rabben, 1984 : p 81)

-     Generally field workers have little power over     informants
"Wax and Cassell 1979 in Wax and Cassell 1981; 225p)

-    Researchers' power may cause indifferent      informants    to
submit to be researched unwantedly (p 225)

-   Bases of asymmetry or parity of research relations (p 224)

-    Research modalities and their ethical problems i.e. being of
researcher more powerful to make people be studied or otherwise
(p 224)

-     "Use of informants like `white rats' of lab science" :      A
paradigm of research of human subjects (Wax and Cassell, 1981     :
pp 224-28)

-   Active involvement of social scientists with respondents :

         may diminish their scientific value

         bring some benefits to respondents

         bring some more quite valuable scientific insights

                    (Huizer, 1973 : p 6)

-    Research be reoriented towards the overall power     structure
(ibid, pp 7-8)

-   Human relations in management organization:

a) Human organization approach by Taylor (1920) -         management
research to get maximum job from workers without and      incentive
for it (pp 69-70)




                                                                       12
b)   Followers - leaders relationship of above kind (p 71)

c)    Orientation of management research towards    workers' role
in decision making (Miller, 1980 : pp 69-72)

     Because plausible scientific evidence of causation in
     the social sciencer has been difficult to establish, the
     causal flow of relationships between phenomena can often
     be interpreted as going either way, depending on the
     world    view the interpreter fancies.      For over   a
     generation, many of the dominant explanations for the
     state of thing in our important institutions were
     generated within a liberal framework and its assumptions
     about causation. Is the crime rate among those who have
     been to tough prisons higher than among those who have
     not?     Then prisons obviously teach people to       be
     criminals.    (But perhaps the reverse is true, and the
     worst criminals are more likely to end up in the tough
     prisons.)     Do satisfied workers have      bosses  who
     supervise loosely?     Then if we teach bosses not to
     supervise closely we can increase the number of happy
     workers,    the liberal explanation runs.       (Or,  is
     supervisory style a reaction to happy or unhappy work
     groups?)    Do children who don't get proper breakfasts
     have difficulty in learning as advocates of federal food
     programms insist?     (Or, are children with learning
     difficulties likely to be members of families who do not
     provide either pressures to learn in school, or good
     breakfasts?) Do children's positive views of themselves
     derive from positive evaluations by adults around them?
     (or, do adults feel positively about children with
     strong egos, hence high self-esteem?)

     The contrast in fundamental belief among these dual
     statements of causal hypotheses samples a familiar
     conflict between the confidence that we can change
     people by manipulating their social and small group
     environment, and the acceptance of limits to change
     limits imposed by individual capabilities as those
     inherent in the human animal.

     There is creditable evidence, to be sure, that intense
     control of environment over long periods of time can
     change people's behavior, though not, unfortunately, in
     the   direction   of making them     just,   good,   and
     cooperative. The beliefs of social activists about causation
      seem to depend instead on the softest of stimuli, the
      expectations of others: supervisors, teachers, work group.
      As the tools of social research and quantitative analysis
      grow   more sophisticated however, it has become        more
      difficult to support the soft cause against the hard
      reality.

     There never was very much empirical evidence for one of
     the links in this theory, the claim that          worker
     satisfaction resulted in higher productivity.    By the
     1960's a good deal of evidence had in fact accumulated


                                                                     13
   to    the    contrary;   either    "satisfaction"    and
   "productivity"   were independent or, as some       data
   indicated, productive workers felt satisfied because
   they had been productive. The more important question,
   however, is that of managerial style, because an entire
   generation of managers in industry and social services
   had been trained to believe that managerial interest in
   the   self-enhancement of the worker was far        more
   important in getting work done than the state of the
   labor market, pay, the calculus of self interest,
   managerial pressures for standards, or any of the other
   realities of the workplace.

   Aaron Lowin and James craig developed a most ingenious
   experimental test of the reverse hypothesis: that the
   productivity of subordinates influences the style of the
   manager. The findings neatly support the conclusion that
   the causal direction usually ignored, namely, that
   followers affect leaders, is at least as important as
   the human relations assumption.

     But new techniques of time-series analysis can easily
     handle the type of data collected by the Hawthorne
     researchers, and Richard Franke and James Kaul recently
     dug the measures out of dusty files in the Hawthorne
     plant and came up with answers sharply at variance with
     the original conclusions. During the period of the
     experiment, the Relay group increased their production
     from 50 units per worker per hour to nearly 72 units.
Franke and Kaul's equations account for 97 percent of that
increase 79 percent is due to managerial discipline and
additional 14 percent to economic depression; and scheduled
rest    times explain 4 percent, As they observe        with
understandable asperity in their report, "In the social
sciences-particularly where complex beliefs and processes
are    involved-there   seems to be     no   substitute  for
quantitative analysis".

Empirical social science does not play any favorites-nor can
we expect it to. The human relations in management school
was   fiercely attacked by keftist      abd   labor-oriented
sociologists who argued that workers would not or should not
be gullied by social skilled managers, and that only the
hard affect workers. It has turned out that conditions, and
power could affect workers. It has turned out that recent
social research, casting doubt on one of the cornerstone
researches supporting the human relations in management
position, is consistent with this critique.

   Another strategy of academic radicals is to         cite
   repeatedly some modest piece of evidence, or the work of
   a well-known person, while ignoring the existence of a
   mass of contrary empirical evidence. Each such citation
   can then be cited in a later article in another journal,
   thus accumulating what appears to be a considerable
   support for the expectancy hypothesis. Few readers ever
   bother to check the original research cited in this way.


                                                               14
    For example, one hypothesis claims that the reason boys
    in elementary grades read less well than girls is that
    teachers   expect boys to read less well. A study by
    Michael Palardy several decades ago is widely cited in
     the literature as proving this claim, though        an
     examination of the article itself reveals that in the
     analysis of variance of reading scores in the subject
     classrooms the main effect of sex differences does not
     exceed chance. A review within the past year of the
     evidence on evidence on teacher-expectancy effects, by
     Wendy Gollub and Ethics Sloan, simply ignored the mass
     of contrary evidence from controlled studies       and
     reported a few ethnographic studies like Tist's as
     conclusive.   The journal headed the article with the
     line:   "Evidence   of teacher    bias   continues  to
     accumulate".

    A different and a much more respectable strategy for
    academic    mythmaking involves doing    very  careful
    quantative analysis, finding a very small effect for
    expectancy hypothesis, then ignoring the magnitude of
    the effect.

    Attribution of a finding to an august or popular
    scientist may broaden the mythmaking process.      In a
    letter in Contemporary Sociology, Steven goldberg notes
    that about 90 percent of introductory texts in sociology
    begin their sections on sex roles by citing Margaret
    Mead's famous study of three primitive scientists.

-    A new trend among informants making the anthropologists
upset in their researches : Respondents labels and theories by
respondents (Troffer, 1979 : p 212)

-    Reciprocity between subordinates and super-ordinates           in
organization (Smith and Carroll, 1984 : p 99)

-    Indian social research : Researcher's alienation from have-
nots; use of English language and imposition of bureaucracy in
social sciences (Joshi, 1986 : p 143-44)


Ends - Means Controversy


-    Galliher (1980 : p 301) and justify the means

-    Debate between Galliher and Warwick (Galliher, 1980 : p 301)

-    Do the ends justify the means?   (Fetterman,    1983 :   p   217)
(Krishan Kumar, 1971 : pp 4-5)

-    Weber's `politics as a vocation' (1946) is a study of the
moral hazards of a political career.    It emphasizes the use of
morally dubious means in the attainment of "good ends".       The
parallel between the context of contemporary research and the
political environment that Weber discussed highlights this moral


                                                                         15
hazard for contract research.     Weber's term was an "ethic      of
responsibility" (1946 : p 120) - (Fetterman, 1983 : p 222)

-    Value conflicts   Vs.   ends   in policy analysis   (Cohen   and
Peris, 1982 : p 65)

    The ethics of policy research

    Let me conclude with a few comments on the ethical
    problems posed by KAP surveys. The core problem has to
    do   with    the   relationship  between   personal   or
    institutional mission ans the craft of research.    What
    standards    should apply to research     conducted   in
    sensitive areas of public policy, especially when the
    researchers themselves and their sponsors would like to
    see a certain pattern of results ererage? Warwick and
    Pettigrew (1982) suggest a number of ethical guidelines
    that apply to this and similar situations.          They
    suggest, above all, that social scientists        adhere
    strictly to the standards of their craft, whatever their
    oown and their sponsor's value convictions.    In areas
    where they are likely to be tempted to distort the
    research process or cut corners to come up with the
    desired results they should build in checks against
    their own bias. As one specific source of prevention
    they should agree from the outset that the          data
    collected will be open to secondary analysis by others,
    and take steps to make such analysis possible. And in
    making policy recommendations based on their research,
    investigators should consciously try to distinguish
    between the empirical and normative bases of their
    suggestions.

    When the full history of the KAP survey is written it is
    likely to emerge as a classical case in which the
    failure   to    seperate personal,   professional,   and
    political    agendas created serious threats ti      the
    integrity of social science. Perhaps its main lesson is
    that no one can serve two masters in social research,
    espicially when their demands are incompatible.

*********&********

-    No one can serve two masters in social research, especially
when their demands are incompatible (Bulmer and Warwick, 1983 : p
361)

-    Means oriented ethics (Howe and Kaufman,   1982 :   pp 17-18),
(Cooper, 1971 : p 122)

    THE END AND THE MEANS

    Julius Roth has argued that there is no clear line to be
    drawn between those methods which are covert and those
    which are overt. 'Is it moral,' he asks, 'if one gets a
    job in a factory to earn tuition and then takes
    advantage of the opportunity to carry out a sociological


                                                                        16
study, but immoral to deliberately plant oneself in the
factory for the express purpose of observing one's
fellow workers?' By what criteria, we are being asked
would we establish material gain to be a more laudable
motive than the opportunity for research enquiry? Such a
question might be asked, for instance, of Joan Emerson's
observations of gynaecological consultations conducted
by her in the profession of a nurse. Or again, I and
many sociologists spend available Saturday afternoons
observing professional football: as far as we are aware
we hope for skilled and creative performances, an
enjoyable match and possibly a victory for the favoured
side, and are much less motivated to attend matches by
the   opportunity   to observe crowed     behaviour   or
interaction between professionals. Invetiably, however,
there are moments when one's observation is guided by
sciological principles and I have even recorded notes
after a match. It would be absurd to announce that
there was a sociologist on the terraces making casual
observations and to explain his purpose and methods.
For those who pay their money at the           turnstile
sociological   observation is, unlike throwing      beer
bottles or running on to the pitch, an acceptable, and
unobtrusive activity. Similarly, pentecostals proclaim
unconditionally that 'All are welcome':       my covert
research was my reason for being among the pentecostals
and worship was the form which my behaviour took; while
for others worship was the reason for attendance but no
doubt there were moments, human nature being what it is,
when observation was the form of their behaviour.      I
find I cannot attend any religious service without also
behaving at least for some of the time as an observer:
and I am inclined to Roth's view that the distinction
between casual and purposeful observation is        both
arbitary and difficult to establish for the purpose of
ethics.

There remains the possibility that the end justifies the
means and the British Sociological Association allows
covert methods 'where it is not possible to use other
methods     to  obtain   essential   data'.    In    one
interpretation, this argument amounts to an arrogant
claim about the significance of research findings.
Another approach might begin to defend this concession
with    the supposition that no situation which       in
principle is open to observation? ought not also to be
observable in practice. This view takes various forms
in the literature: for example, there are contentions
that there is an inherent right to know, that knowledge
is superior to ignorance and that sociological knowledge
is a value of such an order that anything which impedes
its achievement is undesirable. At this point the
espousal of sociological knowledge




                                                           17
Methodological Blinkers

                          Right of Primacy


-     Right   of Primacy of Public    Officials     (Galliher,    1980:     p
298).

-    Public officials must realize that lack of privacy             arises
out of public roles (Galliher, 1980: 303).

-    Do public officials have the same            right   to   privacy     as
private citizen? (Galliher, 1980: 304).

-    Bennet (1967: 375) many of those who involve right of
privacy are those who have something to hide ..... Their secrets
impinge on the welfare of others and the moral imperative may
demand their exposure (in Galliher, 1980: 305).

-    Right to investigate vs.        duty to deceive or right to          lie
(Behrman, 1981: p 105).

-    Right to know and duty to disclose information (Ibid: p 97).

-    Privacy of respondents (Denzin, 1970: p 333), (Hurzer, 1973:
p 3-4); (Hekman, 1980: p 356); (Burgess, 1984: p 187).


                       Methodological Problems


-     Some of the most thorny problems in cross-cultural research
arise around the question of access to the field (Warwick, 1983:
320).

-    What standards should govern the researcher's access to the
informants? (Warwick, 1983: 324).

-    Critics of positivism in methodology and              philosophy      of
social sciences (Hekman, 1980: pp 341 & 354).

-    Social phenomenology and Alfred Schutz (Ibid, pp 343-5).

-    "Wittgenstein's rejection of exploration of `consciousness'
means that ordinary language analysis of social life cann't go
beyond the examination of meanings embodied in ordinary language"
(Ibid: p 355).

-    A way out of methodological limitations (Denzin, 1970: 320).

-    Comparison of research analysis techniques in present                and
past along with multivariate technique (Miller, 1980: p 71).

-    Researcher's dilemma of an efficient and true social science
research (Magel, 1982: p 74).




                                                                                18
-    Detachment of researches (Joshi, 1986: p 141)

     - specific features and general process

     - study    of    one   discipline   from       other    related
discipline.

-    Ethical   problems in methodology concerning      individual
morality and professional ethics (Homan ..... 86 ....)

-    Conceptual   control in narrowly focussed        and   broadely
focussed researches (Wax & Cassell, 1981: p 225).

-    Interviewing and biasness (Bulmer & Warwick, 1983: p 358).

-    Politically useful data collection and lowering of standards
by researchers (Ibid: p 350).

-    Interpretation of data and ethics ( Hartman & Hudblom, 1982:
p 348).

-    Selection of data with desired results only.

-    Over extension of researches to other fields (Sayer,      1984:
pp 216-7).

-    Generalization of cultural and political analysis       from    a
small sample data (Ibid: p 219).

-    Ethical problems in critical theory (Ibid: p 232-3).

-    Acceptance of a hypothesis by social scientists on the basis
of significant evidence (Richard Rudner and Krimerman, 1969: p
755 in Krishan Kumar, 1971: pp 11-12).

-    Decision Driven (Weiss, 1976) approach of policy analysis -
self-deceptive at best and manipulative at worst (Cohen & Paris,
1982: p 67).

-    Replicability of research (possible?) (Rabhen, 1984: p 81).

-    Feeling of researcher about research and role conflicts        or
conflicts of interests in research (Ibid.).

-    Ethical dilemma in circulation of research report among
respondents despite renew board's refusal (Jones, 1980: p 102).

-    Methodological dilemma in data collection (Fetlerman, 1983:
p 215); (Southrate & Randall: p 54 in Reason & Rowan eds.).

-    "New model of enquiry in social sciences research based on
self-study in action of scientists as well as subjects" (Tobert,
p 150 in Ibid).

-    Process for making ethical decision (Tgmchuk, 1982: p 167).

-    Decision criteria to evaluate what is morally right (Ibid       -


                                                                         19
p 170).

(a) Consent of researched

-        Consent of Researched (Galliher, 1980: 304) "


-    Informed consent in medical research (Freund, 1969: XI).


-    About experimental design and methodology (Ibid, X).


-    Principle        of voluntary consent (Bulmer ....),            (Abrahamson,

     1983: pp 42-4).


(b) Covert/Overt collection of data


-    Unauthorised        use     of data but for public use or            in     public

     interest (Galliher, 1980: 299).

     Not necessary,        ordinary method can suffice (Madev, Wiseman,

     Warwick in Galliher, 1980: 302).


-    Much of the information can indeed be obtained through quest

     methods - self critical number of Galliher (1980: 302).

-    Galliher 1980: 306 (Is there ever a justification for Social

     Scientists        deceiving        any research subject?)      - under           what

     conditions, where, ?

-    On     ethical     grounds     covert     methods   are     criticized            for

     violating        the principle of informed consent .....                  (Bulmer,

     1982: p 252).

-    "Covert     method        affect quality of data      in     iunknown           ways"

     (Bulmer, 1982: p 252).


-    "Apparently        closed     or     inaccessible milieure such            as     the

     mafia (Ianni & Ianni,              1972) or British Civil Service (Helco

     &     Wildovsky,     1974) may be successfully            studied"        (Bulmer,




                                                                                             20
    1982: 253).


-   William     Caudill      (1958:     XV) - provided a         rare    comparison

    between     the covert study and overt study of the same                    group

    (Bulmer, 1982: 252-3).


-   "Total honesty is characteristic of very few types of social

    relation,        relationship       (of.    Bok,    1978)    and     all    field

    researches some deception - can covert method be defended on

    this ground? (Balmer, 1982: 253).


-   Problem     of    going into a group for participant                observation

    (Redlich, 1973 in Bulmer: 255).


-   "An    outsider could be made into an insider,                   but never        the

    reverse" (Heilman, 1980: 101 in Balmer: 255).


-   Role   of    teacher      in     school     - to   study     a    community        by

    researcher (Burges,            1980) - a legitimate professional              role

    (Bulmer, 1982: 257).


-   The    over-insider's          research:    should    it be taken          like     a

    covert-outsider's research? (Bulmer, 1982: p 260).


-   Conditions for participant observation (..............)


-   Advantages       of    covert     methods    (Homan    .......       13-15....)

    (Bulmer .....         12....),     (A.......       11 .....), (Abrahamson,

    1983: p 39).


-   Drawbacks of covert methods 9Bulmer .....                   1, 3-6), (Denzin,

    1970: p 39).


-   "What should be done if an interviewer becomes aware that                          a


                                                                                            21
      crime     will        be     committed and reporting it              will     not     only

      violate     confidence              and   premises but       would     also     destroy

      research?" (Hartman & Hedblom, 1982: p 345).


-     Covert     method - detrimental to personality of researcher as

      sneaking tendency may continue (Homan .... 10 ....).


-     Covert      research               project     of      international        importance

      (Burgess, 1984: pp 185-8).


-     Misuse of data obtained by covert research (Burgess,                                p 187-

      8).


-     Anthropologist              as a participant           observer:     Advantages        and

      disadvantages (Bleek, 1979: p 201).


-     Covert     research           in     eyes of        Institutional     Review        Boards

      (Hessler & Galliher, 1983: p 36).


(c)   Deception/Manipulation in self identification and purpose or
       outcome of Research


-    Deception  - justified in exceptional cases like     Nazi
Germany, South Africa etc. (Galliher 17), (Freuman & Sherwood,
1970: p 142).


-     Disadvantages - Galliher

      - Betrayal of trust (Bulmer                    187)

      - Harm to subjects (Bulmer                   79)

      - Danger to peace (Burgess, 1984: p 187)

      - Harm to profession (Galliher                         35), (Lin, 1976: p 364).

      -Harm to scientific knowledge (Lin, 1976: p 364).


-     Deception        in        research devices and           methodology,        even     2-3




                                                                                                   22
    folds of deception upon deception (Kelman, 1967: p 1-2).


-   Some examples of deception (Ibid: p 4-6), (Abrahamson, 1983:

    p 42-43).


-   Why deception used? and its implications (Ibid, p 7-9).


-   Some   questions   regarding deception and   neutralization   of

    deception (Hartman and Heblom, 1982: p 343).


-   Deception   in Camelot Project and Hemphrey's work    (Burgess,

    1984: p 187), (Abrahamson, 1983: p 40-41).


-   How deception used - (Abrahamson, 1983: p 38-9).

-   Types of deception - (Reynolds, 1975 : II 17-26 pp)




                                                                       23
                               CHAPTER 3
      Role of Researcher and Choice of Research Problem/Paradigm

Sponsored Research

Sponsorship

-    To what extent sponsors be allowed to influence the design
and interpretation of social research? (Warwick,1983: p 324)

-    Single most frequent topic of discussions of cross-cultural
research ethics has been the relationships between foreign
scholars and local collaborators in the developing countries
(Adams, 1969; Porter,1975; Whyte,1969 in Warwick 1983: p325)

-    Much of the concern behind these discussions arose from the
allegations that well financed outside had employed local social
scientists as "hired hands" or otherwise treated them         in
demanding manner.

-    Tapp et al, 1974; Warwick, 1980; Kleymeyer and Bertrand,
1980, Recommend genuine collaboration in the conceptualization
and design of a cross cultural research project. (ibid)


-     The more difficult questions come up when, within a given
conceptual or methodological tradition, donors put pressure on
the researchers to move in certain directions (Warwick, 1983 : p
326).

-    Research   biased towards sponsors who can           distort        the
findings the ways he likes (Lin, 1976 : p 390).

-    Researchers obligations to sponsors to conduct research as a
service to sponsors (ibid p 389).

-    But obligations to       scientific   community   should     not     be
forgotten (ibid, p 367).

-    Private research firms get more contracts for research              due
to flexible nature of research (ibid, pp 389-90)

-    Loyality of researcher to sponsors increases with increase
in funds which inversely affect his duty to scientific community
and scientific principles (ibid, p 389).

-    Use of consultants by researcher to balance         the     biasness
towards sponsor (ibid, p 389).

-       Sponsorship and choice of researchers (Varravsky,       1976 :     p
23)

-    Use of scientific research depends upon interest of funding
agency and total outlay of funds (Huizer, 1973 : p 2)

-       Sponsor   - researchers dilemma of pluralism and politics         in


                                                                               24
research (pp 473-479, Fineman, 1981).

-    Direct government sponsorship hinders        neutral    scientific
social research (Burgess, 1984 : pp 186-87)

Research in one's own country vis-a-vis foreign countries

                      Research in Own Community


-     Zin's study all on this topic.

-    Accountability of Social Researcher : In minority community
of his own the social researcher has commitment to be accountable
to the people he studies. Gestures of reciprocity do not by
themselves    alter    the    unequal    nature    of    research
relationships. A research conducted by insiders also is not
sufficient to alter the inequality that has characterized the
past research.(Zinn, Maxine Baca)

-   Use of Minority community research made by a        researcher    of
the same community (ibid.)

-   A Corrective to past distortions in research study(ibid.)

-   Problem with Researcher in his own community(ibid.)

- Ethical    Issues    and   dilemmas   in   studying       one's    own
community(ibid.)




                                                                           25
                       Foreign Area Research


-    The main emphasis is on studies in a developing country that
involves    funding,    personnel,    conceptual   framework   or
methodologies from outside that country (Warwick, 1983: 315).

-    General consideration in conducting foreign      area   research
(Crawford & Lyons, 1967: p 7).

-    Third world scholars & western oriented research (Hamnett et
al, 1984: p 6).

Consultancy Research

Advocacy Research
Policy Analysis Research and Social Researcher

-    What standards should apply to analysis, interpretation and
dissemination of research findings particularly in the areas of
controversy or sensitive matters of public policy? (Warwick, p
324)

-    For obvious political reasons; researchers often try to
create the impression that policy implications are based entirely
on science rather than personal, social or political values
(Warwick, 1983 : p 329)

-    Warwick and Pettigren (1982) specifically suggest that the
values lying behind policy recommendations be stated honestly and
openly rather than hidden in language connoting and purely
scientific basis for the proposed actions (ibid).


-    The scientific costs of mission       politics   (KAP   survey)
(Bulmer and Warwick, 1982 : p 353)

-    Professional autonomy and participation of citizens, client
and community in policy formulation (Castellani, 1982 : pp 121-
22)

-    Not discussing the policy implications, concer of research
validity and efficient research dilemma and solutions thereof,
(Nagel, 1982 : pp 66-83)

-    Policy analysis and social science research (Chubin         and
Restivo, 1983 : p 73 in Knorr-Celins and Mulkey, eds.)

-    Analysis of ethical issues in sociology discipline and      its
research (Wax and Cassell 1981 : p 228).

-    Sponsor's obligation   in policy   formulation   (Freeman   and
Sherwood, 1970 : p 141).

-    Goal conflicts in formulation and implementation of specific


                                                                        26
policies and Weiss' (1977) `decision driven' model         of   policy
analysis (Cohen and Paris; 1982 : p 66-67)

-    Researcher responsible for long frawn policy effects and
other side effects of his policy research (Lin, 1976 : pp 386-89)

-    Professional   and   academic   considerations   in    sponsored
research (ibid, p 390)

-    Utilization and final reporting of sponsored policy research
(ibid).

-    Advocacy of policy by researcher (Fetterman, 1983 : p 353).

Discriminative Research vis-a-vis the researched/subjects/objects
etc.


Researcher's Responsibilities

-    Unlimited freedom for teacher (Academic Freedom,      1940-49 in
Galliher, 1980 : p 299)

-    Public accountability without the exercise of professional
direction lends itself to political coercions and harrasment
(Galliher, 1980 : p 306)

-    Researcher's   civic responsibility after     observing or
inadvertantly being involved in criminal behaviour? (Fetterman,
1983 : p 217; Lin, 1976 : pp 388-89; Wax and Cassell, 1981 : p
227; Ahrahmson, 1983 : p 47; Russell, 1983 : p 67)

-     "Serious ethical dilemmas emerge, however, when on's role
makes    one privy to confidential information that requires
exposure", (Fetterman, 1983 : p 220)

-    However, they would not be fulfilling their obligation if
they allowed the parent organization to control the distribution
of the report (Fetterman, 1983 : p 221)

-    Responsibilities of foreign social scientists to national
colleagues working on the same project? (Warwick, 1983 : p 324)

-    What responsibilities of social scientists concerning the
conceptualization, design and execution of a field study? (ibid.)



-    Like Haldane, many other `anthropologists' explain the role
of anthropologist and pointed out that we must fulfil our social
commitments

Morton Fried, (1967) supporting Lynd's view has said "Science has
no responsibility but scientists do....   To support the opinions
of many that scientists do have some social responsibility"

K.   Gough Aberle (1967) put a question - "Who is to evaluate      and


                                                                         27
suggest guidelines for human society, if not those who study it?"
(Tyagi and Masaldan, 1974 : p 34).

-    It should be duty of people, connected directly with the
masses for their upliftment, to use the findings of ours in the
way it should be most needful and better for the society as a
whole.   The physical anthropologists of India, atleast, at
present,   should   refrain themselves from getting      involved
"directly" to the `social commitments' (Tyagi and Masldon, p 39).

-    Researcher's ethical responsibility to present accurate and
complete information to the best of his ability and knowledge

(Lin, 1976 : p 363)

-    Protection of respondents and protection of collaborators in
report writing (Lin, 1976 : p 363).

-    Why responsibility of researchers towards respondents (ibid,
p 389), (Hartman, 1982 : p 341)

-    Responsibility for well being of respondents (ibid)

-    Responsibility   for the policies drawn in long run from    his
research (ibid)

-    Responsibility   of   whole of    profession   (not   single
researcher) for the research derived policies on people (ibid, p
386)

-    In advocating a policy responsibility of researcher          to
inform clientele about his stand before hand (ibid : p 391)

-    Professional responsibility of researcher is accompanied by
political   and   legalistic  pressures as    well   as   social
responsibility (ibid; p 389; Denzon, 1970 : p 332; Adams 1967 :
pp 16-17; Galliher p 57-59)

-    Responsibility to contribute to society's self-understanding
(Denzin, 1970 : p 333; Freeman and Sherwood, 1970 : p 141)

-    Government has responsibility to its citizens and to    itself
for a scientific research.

-    "Benevolent   intentions do not justify      a   paternalistic
tyranny", (Wax and Cassell, 1981 : p 227).

-    "Superordinates do not necessarily deserve the same degree
and type of consideration by researcher as the other more
powerful and deprived individuals do. (Galliher)

-    "Public accountability without exercise of professional
discretion and freedom leads itself to political coercion and
harassment" (Galliher)

-    Scientists role while going public (Kirsch, 1982 : p 263)




                                                                       28
-    Ways to resolve researchers obligations to respondents        :
Ethical absolutists and ethical relativitists (Denzin, 1970 :      p
333)


Unequal Treatment of Respondents by the Researcher


-    Biases in   social science research by    researcher   (Denzin,
1984 : p 335).

-    Unequal treatment of respondents by the researcher in racist
societies, minorities (economic and social) and as a sense of
social justice.


Creation of Demand/Articulation of Need or Problem


-    The Quolla and, indeed most of the `primitive' tribes of the
world, would certainly not have been any worse-off had they
notbeen shown civilized ways of life by outsiders.    The debate
(between Bolton and Banerji on the studying Indian Qualla tribe)
shows how cultural anthropologists follow the flags of the
conquerors (Banerji, 1984 in Bolton,1984 : p28)


Risk to Researched People in Research


-    Not by researcher but by what sponsors, legal agencies and
governmental officials may do with their data (Chambers, 1980 and
Trend, 1980) in Wax and Cassell, 1981 : 226).

-    Social research and ethical emphasis upon harm and     wronging
by research as compared to benefit (ibid : p 227)

-    Little   considerations   to   interest    and   distress    of
respondents (Huizer, 1973 : p 3)

-    Dehumanization due to failure of identification and     empathy
(Diamond, 1971 in ....                 )

-    Most controversial issue : "Warnting to know the effects of
a controversial or otherwise proposed policy Vs. not wanting to
harm people who otherwise would not be harmed if it were not for
experiment" (Nagel, 1982 : p 79)

-    Use of putting people at risk - to test hypothesis or       some
other facts in society (ibid, p 80)

-    Ethical judgements by weighing risks to informants      against
potential benefit of research Galliher

-    Researcher's obligation whether respondents be identified
and steps to avoid harming them? (Burgess, 1984 : p 188), Rabben,
1984 : p 81).


                                                                        29
-    How deep enquiry about illegal activities of informants       can

be made (Rabben, 1984 : p 81)


Social   Intervention by Researchers or Change in Social set-up by
                            Researcher


-    (Pelto 1970 : p 223) " The dilemma of the field            worker
but how much to interfere" (in Fetterman, 1983 : p 219)


-    James (1979 : p 198) has discussed "Advocacy on behalf of
social change is the final step in the use of ethnography. It is
also the only reasonable justification for probing the life
styles of these human beings" (in Fetterman, 1983 : p 221)

-    "Social scientists most important role as a social critic of
culture and its contemporary trends" Any social scientist must
dedicate himself to this.

-    (Dube, 1982 : p 10); (Bermant and Warwick,         1978 : p 378)
Researcher's  should  contribute  to   increase          respondent's
knowledge.

-    Interventionist policy in social swciences (Joshi, 1986 : pp
144-145) (Miller, 1980 : p 69), (Freeman and Sherwood, 1970 : p
142)

-    Intervention    with a specifically Indian style (Oomen     T.K.,
1986 : p 269)

-    Social intervention brings to the fore the question of
ethics (Doris, 1982 : p 200); (Berment and Warwick, 1978 : p 378)

-    Social intervention by anthropologists in      U.S.A.     (Adams,
1967 : pp 18-20); (Huizer, 1973 : p 3).

-    Different approaches of social intervention (Southgate        and
Randall,       : pp 54-55)


-    Participant observation leads to     participant    intervention
(Huizer, 1973 : p 6).


                     Sharing of Research Findings


-    Code of ethics explains: research must be shared with
clients and sponsors but dissemination of draft report was
problematic in this case because of rival informants (Fetlerman,
1983: p 220).

-    Communicating    the knowledge and dominance of class (Agrawal


                                                                         30
Forthcoming: p 14).


-    Ethics of teaching and communicating (Ibid), (Tymchuk, 1982:
p 174), (Duble, 1982: p 9-10).

-     Use of ideas irrespective of its origin (Madan,              1979: pp 1-
2).

-     Distortions created by positivism (Ibid: p 3).

-    Sharing the research findings with reasearched (Goode and
Hatt in Hartman and Hedblom, 1982: p 346); (Mead, 1969: p 364);
(Magel, 1982: p 75); (Jones, 1980: p 99).

-    Sharing     information    with     Institution     (sponsors)   (Jones,
1980: p 99).


Right to know:


"Social scientists and other citizens have a right to know about
the information that Hamphrey observed" (Burgess, 1984: p 188).



                        Dilemma of Researched:

                  Researchers-Informants Relationship


-    "Not all action are equally free to make informed choices
about research participation and therefore not all actions
require the same protection.    Presumably, those who are least
free require the most protection ..... Indeed to give such equal
warnings may help maintain unequal protection of human subjects."
(1980: 304),

-    Respondents' responsibility to cooperate the researchers              no
less   than   researchers' responsibility for     betterment               of
informants (Freund, 1969: IX).

-    Balance   between   interests of science and      thoughtful
treatment of informants (What?). (Kelman, 1967: p 1); (Max Elden,
1981: p 263 in Reason & Rowan eds.).

-    Inter-human relationship between researcher and researched
(Ibid: p 6), (Denzin, 1970: p 323), (Mead, 1969: p 361 in Wax &
Cassell 1981: p 225).

-    Relationship   when informant are quite                well   known   to
researcher already (Denzin, 1970: p 324).

-     Mutual   cooperation     between     researchers     and researched in

(a) hospitals, (Freud, 1969: p IX)


                                                                                 31
(b) Psychological research, (Kelman, 1967: p 6)

(c) Researcher and respondents (who are already well known
to the researcher and thus may affect the research finding to be
in their favour), (Denzin, 1970: p 324).

-    Consideration of social context within which subjects are
located.    Social context affect the relationship observers
establish with subjects (Ibid, p 323).

-    In   ethnographic   social research     relationship   between
researcher and researched is symmetrical,    Wax & Cassel (1981): p
226.

-    Orthodox conception   of   research    (Sayer,   1984:   p   232),
(Joshi, 1986: p 146).

-    Some   research traditions in social     science   research
depending upon their alienation to researched (in Reason & Rowan
eds - Rowan, 1981: p 93).




                                                                          32
                                           Use of Research


-       Y. Atal (


-       Are        the products of social science to be equally                     available

        to     the        very rich and to the very poor and to                   all   nations

        equally, including South Africa?


-       Do     some        rights of subjects conflict or have priority                      over

        other? (G 1980: 305).


-       "In the case of social science research, it may be that many

        people's rights to physical survival could depend in part on

        a     social scientists overriding another person's right as                            a

        research subject (1980: 305).


-       The         manner        in     which   research     findings      are     presented

        influence           how        information will be used        or    abused      --- as

        researcher           is        likely to be used as pawn by various              vested

        interests (Fetlerman, 1983: p 221).


-       Ivory        tower of social sciences as a pawn in the                     chess-game

        of vested interested and powers (Huiger, 1973: p 1).


Mill's        Proposition:              "There is no necessity for          working     social

scientists           to     allow the potential meaning of their work                   to     be

shaped        by     the     `accidents' of its settings,              or its use       to     be

determined           by     the purposes of other men.             It is      quite     within

their        powers to discuss its meaning and decide upon its uses                            as

matters        of their own policy,               1959:     177" (In     Fetlerman,      1983:

221).




                                                                                                    33
-   The   main ethical abuses seen with interpretation of                          social

    science       data      are      overinterpretation;            including         the

    simplification         of complex research           findings,        and     drawing

    policy      recommendations          whose     normative        and         empirical

    foundations are not clearly separated (Warwick: 328).


-   In social and natural sciences third world problems                           remains

    mostly ignored (Varsavsky, 1967: p 22).


-   Management           researches      on      workers'          self-enhancement

    irrespective of other aspects (Miller, 1980: p 70).


-   Use   of    KAP Survey to legitimize population                  programmes        in

    Third World countries (Bulmer and Warwick, 1983: p 350).


-   Distinction      between factual and evaluative propositions                       is

    oversimple and misleading (Nelson, 1978: p 30).


-   For   using     ethical discourse in social sciences                    boundaries

    are   redefined        to     legitimize     the     actions     of     researcher

    (Cassell, 1981: p 167).


-   Educational values of various researches (In Reason &                           Rowan

    ed. - Torbert, 1981: p 141).


-   Political Reward System in social sciences by Brandl (1978):

    The Cassaandra Effect (In Morell, 1982: p 209).


-   Political      context of research:           sociology's pressure groups

    affecting research (Denzin, 1970: p 326-7).

-   Usefulness      of     research based on           fulfilment     of        sponsors'

    and policy makers' interests (Lin, 1976: p 390).




                                                                                            34
                            Ethics in Publication of Research



        -    Unethical analysis of data to have insignificant results for
publication (Lin, 1976: pp 11-12).


       -    Unethical ways of Publication (Lin, 1976: pp 363-64):

            - deliberate distortion

            - doctoring or fudging of data

            - publishers unability to publish accurate                             and    complete
              information due to limited space.

            Remedy:     Ensure          access of resarchers to more               journals       and

            mass;     involving more scientists in editorial decision, etc.

            (Lin, p 364).


       -    Researcher       responsible for all the losses to informants due

            to his publication (Mead, 1969: p 364).


       -    "All      the    decisions           of   publications        should     rest        with

            researcher           as     he     is well aware of         consequences        of    his

            actions" (Denzin, 1970: p 337).


       -    "There is also need for avenues through which the individual

            scientists       can        communicate         the process used in          making     a

            decision" (Tymchuk, 1982: p 174).


       -    Ethical     control          in     publication by      exposing        the     methods

            employed        by        researcher      for     consent     and      approval        of

            respondents (Freund, 1969: XI).


       -    Misinterpretation                of collected data to present unscientific

            and wrong conclusions (Huizer, 1973: p 6).


                                                                                                        35
-   "Researcher should submit their studies to the community for

    review     and criticism before research starts and               after     its

    completion" Alversion, 1973 in (Jones, 1980: p 99).


-   Even     the decision to publish findings should be reviewed by

    the people who will be most affected (Talbert,                  1974: p 217;

    Jacob, 1974: p 212-3).


-   "Does     publication     of     a    research    make    it   difficult     to

    replicate        the research?       and were the respondent       aware     of

    sudy     of their corrupt behaviour by researcher and also that

    it all would be published?" (Rabben, 1984: p 81).


          Regulations to stop unethical research activities


-   Participation        in the art of moral decision making            may     not

    prevent     the     world from "breathing down our necks" or               from

    "ignoring        us" but it will ensure that we do not forget               our

    own     multiple     sets of     responsibilities        (Fetlerman,      1983:

    222).


-   Commentators have focussed on 4 main topics on the ethics of

    cross-cultural research:

    (a) Profession relations between research and peers

    (b) obligation to informants

    (c) Professional standard while conducting study

    (d) Standards for analysis, interpretation and dissemination
        of data (Warwick, 1983: 326).


-   5     specific     suggestions       made   for   cross-cultural       studies

    (Warwick, 1983: 326) as obligations to population studied.




                                                                                      36
-   4 professional standards in research (Warwick, p 327)

    - use of most powerful method of research

    - true representative samples

    - unbiased questions in questionnaire

    - avoid known sources of bias in casual attributes.


-   Dealing     with        problem of deception in social         psychological

    experiments (Kelman, 1967: pp 198-202).


-   History     of     policy development         for    restricting   unethical

    human experimentation from 1953 (Corstellani,                  1982:     p 111-

    9).


-   Ethics     of control and censorship and its interpretation                  by

    local administrators (Agrawal, forthcoming: p 9).


-   Make     the costs of unethical behaviour substantially                  higher

    than benefits (Magel, 1982: p 77).


-   Making     the committee (ethics) responsible with some                  powers

    to take proper actions (Long and Dorn, 1982: pp 82 & 85).


-   Ethical      questions         be   weighed     in    all   researches      and

    considered even in secondary data analysis.


-   Complete all possible steps before data collection to                     avoid

    deviation        from     original research design and legimitize            if

    any change thereafter (Hartman & Hedblom, 1982: p 347).


-   Extensive        evaluation of research sponsored by its               agencies

    to avoid potential damage to researched (Lin, 1976: 389).


-   Use of national data banks (Ibid, p 364).


                                                                                      37
-   Governmental regulations - "try to avoid abuses rather                       than

    promote morality" (Murray and Cassell, 1981: p 228).


-   Institutional          Review Boards (IRBs) face dilemmas created by

    Government, social scientists etc. (Ibid: p 226).


-   Evaluation        of    sponsored    research    by    review    panels       of

    scientists hired only for evaluation of researchers (Lin,                      p

    390).

-   Review Boards to evaluate risk and harms (Abrahamson,                     1983:

    p 45).


-   Government regulations for protecting human subjects.


-   Use     of     `Buffer Institutions' in research finding to               avoid

    intervention of sponsor (Burgess, 1984: p 189).


-   Use of public debates on deceptive prospects (Ibid: p 186).


-   Constant         self-evaluation       and     reflection       on    research

    experiences to understand moral dilemmas (Ibid: p 207).


-   Seven        factors    to   solve ethical dilemmas       in    research      by

    recognizing and balancing the interests (Tymchuk,                    1982:     pp

    165-7).


                 Code of Ethics in Various Social Sciences



-   Code of ethics and its use by planners and its effectiveness

    (Hawe and Kaufman, 1982: p 26-7).


-   American         Institute     of   Planners    Code     of     Professional




                                                                                        38
    responsibility,          common     code of ethics and conflict between

    public     interest and equity principles in planners                  code     of

    ethics 9Ibid, pp 12-13).


-   Use of code of ethics (                                     ).


-   "The     only     safe    way to avoid the violating         principles        of

    profvessional        ethics       is to refrain from doing       any     social

    research        altogether"       (Bronfenbrenner,       1952:    p    453     in

    Burgess,1984: p 207).


-   Sociology         Code    of   Ethics:     a   survey      regarding          use,

    applicability        and conflicts between professionals regarding

    its use (Long & Dorn, 1982: p 80-86).


-   Code     of ethics written to discourage             anthropologists          from

    trying to change cultures and societies (Adams, 1967: p 18).



-   A      historical        perspective      of   ethical      principles         in

    Anthropological Research (Adams, 1981: p 155-60).


-   ASA code of ethics - 4 principles (Abrahamson,                   1983:    p 47-

    8).

-   Emergence        of Journalistic code of Ethics for reporting                 and

    communicating the reports (Agrawal, forthcoming: p 17).


-   Health, Education & Welfare (H~EW) code of ethics to protect

    respondents in social research (Pool, 1980: p 63).

              Ethical Deviance in Profession & Politics


-   Fetterman (1983:          222) reviewed that this is not to            suggest

    that we must institute sanctions against ethical wrong doing




                                                                                         39
    for     "the     cost        of     emphasizing punishment as                 a        means    of

    regulation           and control of occupational deviance is that                               it

    suppresses           the     kind of a candid moral discourse                          which    is

    necessary            to      make     genuine        moral      maturity               possible"

    (Klockars, 1979: p 27).


-   The      politics           of    research         raises     problems            of      ethics

    particularly              when    use of power,           influence      and           authority

    causes harm to the persons or groups or serves the interests

    of    some      at the expenses of others.                     Ethical issue              become

    political when,              for example, infringements on the rights of

    individuals           or groups or even countries become a source                               of

    controversy or demands for regulation (Warwick, 1983: 316).


-   "Other things being equal, we would expect that in country A

    it would be politically more feasible to conduct a survey on

    attitude towards birth control than in country B, where that

    question         is        linked     to     the     divisive     issue           of      ethnic

    dominance." (Ibid).


-   Beals     (1969)           points out 'It appears that                 potentially             any

    study     of politicization political attitudes                          or        behaviour,

    political parties or factions,                       or governmental policies may

    be sensitive,              especially if social tensions are high ......

    whether        a study is judged to be sensitive often depends                                  on

    the     political relations of the investigator and in case                                     of


    foreign        investigators,              the     home     and host     countries             (In

    Warwick, 1983: 318-19).


-   Politics        of        access can become highly              complex           when     field




                                                                                                         40
    research     is        to be conducted on minority or ethnic                      groups.

    Access will be most difficult when the study deals with                               the

    groups     that        have     been oppressed or           exploited        by    larger

    society,     when        research        topics     are sensitive           within    the

    group,     when the political leadership of group is                          ambiguous

    or     divided and when the group's experience with the type of

    research in question has been negative (Warwick, 321).


-   The      politics         of      research        can      further       affect       the

    conceptualization of the problem to be studied the choice of

    methodology,           the specific design used for data                    collection,

    the     wording of questions,              the extent of quality control in

    the     field;     and        other     aspects     of     the   research         process

    (Warwick, 322).


-   The     expedient        answer may be research design                  allowing      the

    collection        of     a variety        of    data,      including        qualitative

    observations.            When     the     results        from such      research      are

    finally     in     it     may     be     very     difficult      for     critics       or

    supporters        to     say anything very definitive about what                      was

    produced by the programme under scrutiny (Warwick, 323).


-   Should     some        topic be avoided particularly                 when     they    are

    likely     to touch-off domestic or international                        controversy?

    (Warwick, 324).


-   Ethical     standards           within     organization in            publishing      and

    reviewing        research - dissensus about existence                       of    ethical

    stards;     no     rule        for communicating them;            and       hardly    any

    penalty for violation of rules                    (Vonglinov      &     Luke Novelli,

    19).


                                                                                                41
-   Government       regulations          discuss        avoidance        of     abuses          not

    promotion of morality (Wax & Cassell, 1981: p 228).


-   Ethics     discussed      only        in     crisis,     otherwise,              no     highly

    relevant insights as in philosophy of science etc.                                    (Hamnett

    et al, 1984: p 7).


-   Two     senses    of moral position:                anthropological              sense        and

    discriminatory       sense.           Moral reasoning focusses on                       either

    the     act itself or consequences of that act (Cohen &                                 Paris,

    1982: pp 68-70).


-   Ethical     relativism       as "working assumption"                   by        scientists

    (Nelson, 1978: p 28).


-   Moral      orientation       of       a     profession     is     necessarily                and

    entirely self-serving (Wax & Cassell, 1981: p 228).


-   Social     scientist express and affirm particular                           assumptions

    and taken for granted understanding of world in professional

    conduct and acceptance of ethics principles (Hamnett,                                       1981:

    p 7).


-   Organizational       ethics:          a stacked deck with              no        structured

    relationship        (Smith        &       Carrol,      1984:      p        95)        and     no

    responsibility       to    apply alternative behaviours instead                               of

    organization's       preferred             ways     (even if     former           ones       are

    superior);       this a pattern of powerful pressure needs to                                 be

    studied.


-   Regulations       enforcement             seen as kind of harassment and                      no




                                                                                                        42
    improvement in researcher's conduct (Wax & Cassell,     1981: p

    226).


-   Use of truth but little deviation for benefit of fellow     man

    (Agrawal, p 5).


-   Realism   is   distorted in Natyasastra to a level of   fantasy

    for happy ending (Agrawal, p 17).




                                                                      43